State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission

2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report details Weather Modification, Inc. (WMI) activities during the 2012 NDCMP field operations. This was the 52nd consecutive summer season of the NDCMP project. Operations were conducted by WMI in this, the final season of a three-year contract with the North Dakota Atmospheric Resource Board (NDARB). WMI provided eight specially modified aircraft, seeding equipment, pilots, aircraft maintenance, aircraft data systems, aircraft tracking and telemetry, intern copilot training, and communications equipment in the state radars. The aircraft mix was the same as 2010-11, with a high-performance, turbine powered aircraft (Piper Cheyenne II) serving as the Williston cloud-top seeding aircraft. The Minot cloud-top seeding aircraft was a “hybrid” along with one of the Bowman aircraft, meaning that those aircraft (Cessna 340A’s) are primarily base seeders, but with the capability and equipment to conduct top seeding. The other five aircraft (Piper Seneca II) on the project continued to be base seeding only.
Figure 1 (left). N9798C, Seed 5 conducts a routine maintenance flight near Watford City, ND on a sunny August evening. Picture by WMI pilot Greg Snodgrass.

District I included Bowman County, and, Conner, Hume, Carroll, Cash, Sheets, Mineral Springs, and Cedar Creek Townships of southern Slope County. Two aircraft were based in Bowman, one capable of conducting cloud-top seeding if needed (a C340A “hybrid”), and the other a base-seeding Seneca II. District II operated in McKenzie, Mountrail, Ward and Williams Counties. One cloud-base aircraft each was based in Stanley and Kenmare, and two cloud-base aircraft were based in Watford City. A “hybrid” C340A aircraft was based in Minot, and the cloud-top aircraft was based in Williston. Operations were conducted on a 24-hour per day, 7-day per week basis. The project period ran from June 1 through August 31. A summary of project data shows that the eight project aircraft flew a total of 639.85 hours (District I 131.23 hours, District II 508.62), dispensing 139.85 kilograms of silver iodide and 4,767.2 lbs. of dry ice pellets.

Page 2

State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission

2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report

The weather for the 2012 NDCMP was characterized mostly by upper level ridges setting up over the project areas being broken down by shortwaves. The summer started out very active as several shortwaves moved through both districts. District II operated on a nearly daily basis in June, while operations in District I were conducted every few days (near normal). Flight hours for the 2012 season were above average due to the active early summer weather pattern. July was still a fairly active month, while operations in August declined significantly, especially for District II. Even with an active start to the 2012 season, precipitation amounts for the summer (June—August) were below average. This is partially due to having many thunderstorms with higher cloud bases than average, which caused less of the precipitation to actually make it to the surface. Moderate drought conditions existed in District I for most of the summer, while slight drought conditions existed in District II during the latter part of the summer. Rain enhancement continued through the end of project due to dry conditions, even though harvest started in mid—August. Overall, it was a typical summer leaning more towards the dry side.

Page 3

State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission

2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report

TABLE OF CONTENTS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ............................................................................................................................ 2 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
5.1 5.2

INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................................... 8 ECONOMIC IMPACT....................................................................................................................11 2012 AIRCRAFT CONTRACTOR ....................................................................................................12 PROJECT DESIGN ........................................................................................................................13 OPERATIONAL AREAS .................................................................................................................13
WMI AIRCRAFT BASE LOCATIONS ...............................................................................................................13 NDARB WEATHER RADAR SITES..................................................................................................................15

6.0 7.0
7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4

DAILY OPERATIONS ....................................................................................................................16 METEOROLOGICAL SYNOPSIS .....................................................................................................17
JUNE 2012 .................................................................................................................................................17 JULY 2012 ..................................................................................................................................................19 AUGUST 2012 ............................................................................................................................................20 WEATHER SEASON IN SUMMARY ...............................................................................................................22

8.0
8.1 8.2

AIRCRAFT ...................................................................................................................................22
AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE ..........................................................................................................................24 WMI AIRCRAFT TELEMETRY SYSTEM - AIRLINK ............................................................................................25

9.0
9.1

SEEDING EQUIPMENT.................................................................................................................26
SEEDING EQUIPMENT PERFORMANCE .......................................................................................................27

10.0 11.0 12.0
12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6

WEATHER RADAR SYSTEM ..........................................................................................................28 PROJECT RECORD KEEPING.........................................................................................................30 WMI AND NDARB PROJECT PERSONNEL .....................................................................................31
GROUND SCHOOL......................................................................................................................................31 PILOTS.......................................................................................................................................................32 COPILOT INTERNSHIP.................................................................................................................................32 NDARB METEOROLOGY STAFF ...................................................................................................................33 NDARB ADMINISTRATION..........................................................................................................................37 WEATHER MODIFICATION INC. ADMINISTRATION......................................................................................38

13.0
13.1

PUBLIC RELATIONS .....................................................................................................................40
SAMA CONFERENCE...................................................................................................................................40

Page 4

State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission

2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report

14.0

AWARDS.....................................................................................................................................40

WILBUR E. BREWER PROFESSIONALISM AWARD .....................................................................................................40 OUTSTANDING INTERN AWARD..............................................................................................................................40

15.0 16.0

POLCAST (POLARIMETRIC CLOUD ANALYSIS AND SEEDING TEST) IV............................................41 CONTRACTOR’S SUMMARY ........................................................................................................43

APPENDIX ITEMS....................................................................................................................................44
APPENDIX A ...........................................................................................................................................................44 APPENDIX B ...........................................................................................................................................................44

Page 5

.......................... The 200lb............. N234K (Seed 7) after a late afternoon mission in Williston.22 Figure 15 (left)......................... Photo by WMI pilot Phil Kost......................................................... ND...... normal for June.........20 Figure 12............................. .....State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 (left).......................... while precipitation for District I was slightly to well below normal....................................... Visible is its rugged casing and secure mounting... 2012 NDCMP Operational Target Areas.................18 Figure 9..................................... ............ SPC severe hail reports for June showing District II with significant hail reports....................................... fuel was not available at this location..................... precipitation was below normal for most of North Dakota....................... Fargo ND......................................................27 Figure 21........ Photo courtesy of NDARB.............................................25 Figure 17 (left)..23 Figure 16 (left)........................................... Precipitation for District II was well below normal.......................... Graphic provided by NDARB..... N340FR (Seed 9) ready on the ramp in Minot................ ND on a sunny August evening....................... picture by WMI Pilot James Kovac............ The hopper is sealed to hold cabin pressurization and augers dry ice pellets down through the aircraft belly. Weather Modification........................................... ...... ...... to fairly well below............................. Seed 5 conducts a routine maintenance flight near Watford City................................. Picture provided by WMI........................... ND................................................21 Figure 13....................... WMI aircraft datalogger...........................................19 Figure 11.........................................18 Figure 10...........13 Figure 5 (left)................ SPC severe hail reports for August showing one significant hail report in District II. A lit WMI Lohse silver iodide generator burns as S8 base seeds..... The two aircraft based here (Seed 5 and Seed 6) routinely fueled in Williston or Stanley prior to returning to Watford City after each mission.............26 Figure 19 (left)............. and District I with no significant reports............................. Photo courtesy of NDARB................. .......... NDARB personnel.......................................................... Precipitation in both districts was slightly below. ND for its next mission.................................. and Fargo Jet Center headquarters......... Due to construction during the 2012 NDMCP project period.........................................................................................................17 Figure 8.....15 Figure 7........................ Cessna 340A..............26 Figure 18 (right)............ picture by NDARB Meteorologist Amanda Wertz.28 Page 6 ........ while precipitation in portions of District II was well above normal....... Photo by WMI Pilot Peter Van Duzer.14 Figure 6 (right). 2 Figure 2 (left)........................ Inc............... to well below........... 8 Figure 3................ normal for July............................................................12 Figure 4 (left).21 Figure 14 (right)...... Picture by WMI pilot Greg Snodgrass.................. N39655 (Seed 4) returns to base after a mission during sunset............. located on Hector Int’l Airport.. Cheyenne II............................... Bowman weather radar tower.................................................................... installed in the rear of a seeding aircraft. WMI 102-count ejectable flare racks mounted to the belly of a top seeding aircraft....... ......... WMI burn-in-place flare rack with 75g silver iodide flares.................. LED lights on its front panel indicate operational status...... N9798C................. SPC severe hail reports for July showing significant hail reports for both districts.............................. Throughout the summer................................. District I precipitation was slightly.................................... This hopper was designed and installed in 2010. (Mark Schneider shown) assess the runway situation in Watford City................. Fields of barley lay in wait for a looming hail storm in the distance.................................... capacity dry ice hopper installed in N234K.26 Figure 20.......................................................

.. Image courtesy of NDARB........ N98585.......................... The iPads were encased in a protective cover and also included several other applications such as ForeFlight (designed specifically for aviation navigation) and additional weather/radar information........................ ..................... 2012 for Seed 2................... Darin Langerud (NDARB). picture by NDARB Meteorologist Leandro Ribeiro..................................30 Figure 25............................................................. shown on the ramp in Fargo.................... hygroscopic flare rack and flares. Stanley weather radar atop the operations building........................... POLCAST4 participants pose in front of UND’s dual polarimetric radar................... Photo by Jane Ahlness................42 Page 7 ............................................... Picture courtesy of NDARB......... Paul Kucera (NCAR)................. and the FSSP and AIMMS-20 3D wind probes on the left wing............................... ND....................... ND as it awaits a POLCAST4 mission......... Picture courtesy of WMI.... Tony Grainger (UND)....................... describes how the Lohse wing-tip generator works during ground school in Bismarck....... June 14.... ND......42 Figure 28........................ .................41 . and UND students Mariusz Starzec................ Phondie Simelane..................... Pictured are (left to right) Jeff Tilley and Dave Delene (UND)........31 Figure 26... Jody Fischer............ ..................................29 Figure 23 (left)............ Hans Ahlness...............40 Figure 27...................... ...........30 Figure 24 (right)......... discusses the NDARB pilot internship and what it’s like to be a cloud seeding pilot with a potential candidate at the 2012 SAMA Conference in Grand Forks....................State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report Figure 22...................... An NDARB iPad shown on the PARS live acquisition screen................................... WMI Vice President of Operations.......................... Timm Uhlmann and Nicole Bart............... WMI Chief Pilot............... WMI C340 aircraft............... ................................. Photo by UND graduate student Travis Toth.......................... Visible are the window inlets for the CCNC..

State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report 1. A third district. there were as many as 17 counties in North Dakota participating in the cloud seeding program. Rain enhancement operations provided added economic benefits to those counties which had an Authority. in the central area of what is now District I.425 square miles (or. starting one year later and remaining active in various counties every year since. or by voluntary funding. One promising new technology was the emerging science of weather modification. Fields of barley lay in wait for a looming hail storm in the distance. and Griggs Counties. This area has had an active program in some form each year since. including Benson.7 million acres) – nearly 15% of the state’s area. started operations in 1974 and was active through the 1981 season. Page 8 . This led to the search for ways to manage these conditions. The number has decreased due to various factors over the years. Inc. pooled resources to finance their local programs. with the exception of 1990 when District I did not participate in cloud seeding operations due to budget constraints. In 1965 and 1969 legislation was passed enabling counties and townships to levy two mills for funding of cloud seeding projects. In 1961 the founders of Weather Modification. The source of funds was this 2 mill levy. by township elections under NDCC Chapter 58-03-07. The North Dakota Legislature established the North Dakota Weather Modification Board (later renamed the Atmospheric Resource Board) and the Office of the Director in the 1975 legislative session. which could consequently improve the average North Dakotan’s way of life. performed by farmers using ground based generators. and currently there are 6 active counties in target areas that cover 10. these challenges have contributed to reduced crop yields and farm incomes. The history of District II is very similar. In the mid 1970’s. or associations of counties. almost 6. This year marked the 54th consecutive season of some form of seeding in Ward County. The first cloud seeding activities of record in North Dakota occurred in 1951.0 INTRODUCTION North Dakota farmers have historically faced above-average crop losses due to hail and drought. Before the 1976 operational year counties. Picture provided by WMI. Nelson. The State Legislature further provided an appropriation for the remainder of the biennium to implement the 1976 operational program on a cost sharing basis. The Program was primarily implemented by emphasizing hail reduction. began using aircraft for a program to suppress hail in a target area of 540 square miles. Figure 2 (left).

ND Monte Hininger Henry Bodmer* John Bollingberg David Hagert Vacant Tom Tupa Bobb Brewer** 2012 NDCMP EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS Larry Taborsky Steven Weber Todd Sando. ND Kenmare. The recently concluded 2012 program was the 38th consecutive season under the Board's direction. 2012 NDCMP BOARD MEMBERS (*Denotes Chair.E. although some federal funds supported UND-trained co-pilots and evaluation data underwritten by the Bureau of Reclamation. the five participating County Weather Modification Boards. Counting ARB staff. ND Bowman. ND State Water Commission Page 9 . **Vice Chair) DISTRICT 1 DISTRICT 2 DISTRICT 3 DISTRICT 4 DISTRICT 5 DISTRICT 6 DISTRICT 7 Williston. there were over 100 people directly associated with some facet of the 2012 NDCMP. This does not include the local vendors and technicians employed by the ARB and WMI during the season. Each member represents a geographic district and serves a four year term. ND Bremen. ND Bismarck. The North Dakota Atmospheric Resource Board is comprised of seven members appointed by the Governor of North Dakota. These matched county funds were used specifically for field operational costs. ND Aeronautics Commission Environmental Scientist. Weather modification authorities within the districts establish possible candidates through nomination. ND Department of Health State Engineer. P. ARB Board of Directors. ND Emerado. and applicable WMI and FJC staff. State funds were also used for maintaining the Office of the Director and for research and evaluation. Ex-officio members also serve on the board. Director. The 1976 operational program included 50% state matching funds equaling the county appropriations in support of the project in their area.State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report The cloud seeding projects before the creation of the NDWMB had been paid for by voluntary contributions and county appropriations. Slope County Severe Weather Management Association members.

State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report 2012 COUNTY AUTHORITY MEMBERS (*Denotes Chair) BOWMAN Wayne Mrnak* Robert Andrews Bobb Brewer Dean Pearson Wade Schaaf Bowman Bowman Bowman Bowman Bowman WARD Pat Murphy* Jerome Behm Henry Bodmer Chuck Tompkins Gail Yuly Berthold Burlington Kenmare Minot Minot MCKENZIE Orville Hellandsaas* Rodney Cross Eldean Flynn Gary Levang Lynn Swenson Watford City Alexander Cartwright Keene New Town WILLIAMS Jim Seidel* John Hovde Jeff Knox Cory Paryzek Ervin Opsal Williston Epping Ray Williston Alamo MOUNTRAIL Mark Nesheim* Roger Christinson Jim Goettle Tim Johnson James (JC) Moen Palermo Plaza Donnybrook Stanley Plaza SLOPE Severe Weather Management Association Robb Narum* Ryan Brooks Dan Powell Wayne Wegner Bowman Bowman Bowman Bowman Page 10 .

the study combined crop insurance data. or $12 .5 million.16 to $8. If the NDCMP were expanded to a statewide program.us/4dlink9/4dcgi/GetSubContentR ecord/PB-390 Page 11 .7 million in direct benefits to agriculture production. production statistics. This shows the huge benefit that the NDCMP provides. An update of a 1998 analysis. A copy of the complete report and other NDCMP program evaluations are available on the North Dakota State Water Commission website at: http://www. Adding secondary economic activity into the mix. Rain enhancement was figured at two levels. Compared to the cost of the project.4 million to $134.2 million – enormous potential impacts. Using the harvested acreage of the top eight crops plus alfalfa. the gross economic benefits just to the District 1 and District 2 counties could be $37. When direct and secondary economic activities are combined the increased gross business volume statewide was estimated to range between $293. the study considered the value of hail suppression and enhanced rainfall during the growing season. In the NDCMP seeded counties. the direct economic value of cloud seeding was estimated to range from $5. the study estimated that the direct benefits would range from $95.1 million to $60.8 million and $414.state.19.41 per planted acre. a report prepared for the NDARB estimated the NDCMP’s impact on the state’s economy. which the ARB estimates could be run for about $3 million per year.State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report 2.nd. those figures would give a benefit-to-cost ratio of 16 to 1 up to 26 to 1.swc.0 ECONOMIC IMPACT In February 2009.5 million. and combined with hail reduction estimates to derive the results. a 5% and a 10% increase (covering the range of results from long-term evaluations of the NDCMP). and NDCMP results to estimate the added value of the project for both the actual target areas and the benefits if the project was statewide.

WMI has pioneered safe and effective techniques for cloud seeding. Figure 3. The synergy realized from several multi-faceted operating companies highlights a strong aviation enterprise that continues to grow. WMI facilities in Fargo have more than doubled in size and employees with FJC number more than 135 personnel worldwide. and our personnel are proud to be a part of the North Dakota Cloud Modification Project. Weather Modification. Weather Modification. Inc. skills. professional operations now and into the future. is a global atmospheric sciences company committed to continued advances in the field of weather modification.0 2012 AIRCRAFT CONTRACTOR Weather Modification. seeding and research equipment. as part of a three-year contract with the NDARB provided the services described herein.State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report 3. ND in 1993 and a sibling company. personnel. is dedicated to providing the NDARB with reliable. and the anti-hail program begun at that time was the genesis for the current NDCMP. Fargo Jet Center. Inc. FJC adds a wide range of aviation services including a charter flight department. Since 1994. (FJC) was incorporated in 1994. seven days a week. and Fargo Jet Center headquarters. aircraft rental and a flight school. With over 51 years of successful operations. Page 12 . WMI relocated to Fargo. aircraft refueling services. Weather Modification. Today. avionics shop. radars. an FAA approved aircraft maintenance and overhaul facility. The operating companies frequently share resources. talents. These advances have made it possible to conduct operations 24 hours per day. located on Hector Int’l Airport. Fargo ND. North Dakota. Inc. Inc. and company expertise in the areas of cloud physics research and atmospheric sampling for various governmental agencies and private entities around the globe. These techniques – many formulated in North Dakota operations – have allowed WMI to provide aircraft. Inc. WMI was originally formed in 1961 in Bowman. and equipment – each contributes to the success of the other. WMI has grown exponentially. This year marks the 52nd summer season WMI has contributed to the program.

0 PROJECT DESIGN The design of the 2012 North Dakota Cloud Modification Project was based on techniques developed and refined over years of operational programs. the project design is one in which any cloud that meets the criteria for increasing rainfall or decreasing hail is seeded (within the limits of equipment and personnel) rather than clouds being chosen on a random basis for seeding.1 WMI AIRCRAFT BASE LOCATIONS Aircraft bases are determined by the ARB in cooperation with the county weather modification authorities and WMI. In summary. as well as Conner. Cash. and is bound to become more of a deciding factor in the future as western North Dakota’s oil boom continues to crowd out other activities. N39655 (Seed 4) returns to base after a mission during sunset. runway length. District I included Bowman County. and achieving certain development objectives for improved operations”. fuel availability. and Ward Counties.0 OPERATIONAL AREAS North Dakota weather modification activities were conducted in two operational target areas. development and operational program for the purposes of decreasing hail damage. Mineral Springs. Photo by WMI pilot Phil Kost. were used in conjunction with seeding criteria evolved by compatible research programs and the comprehensive North Dakota Cloud Modification Project Operations Manual. increasing seasonal rainfall. Sheets. Page 13 . Figure 4 (left). As set forth by the NDARB. and Cedar Creek Townships in Slope County this year. the project design is a “non-randomized. Airports are chosen using location. Hume. 5. March 1993. In theory any project member can initiate seeding operations. The top-seeding aircraft need to have access to instrument approaches to fully utilize their capabilities. Carroll. District II encompassed Williams. and facilities as factors. latest revision May 2010.State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report 4. 5. Housing availability for the crews is also important. but in practice the ARB radar meteorologists usually direct when and where the WMI pilots operate. McKenzie. or Districts. These techniques. Mountrail. many developed here in North Dakota.

Stanley (Seneca II. A Cessna 340A (US FAA registration number N812V) and a Piper Seneca II (N33144) were based in Bowman. NDARB personnel. fuel was not available at this location. Figure 5 (left).State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report The oil boom has not only made housing difficult. N121WA). making it unusable for refueling. The two aircraft based here (Seed 5 and Seed 6) routinely fueled in Williston or Stanley prior to returning to Watford City after each mission. Seeds 5 and 6 often replaced chemical while refueling at other project bases. and Minot (C340A. but has also made the availability of aircraft bases difficult. the two aircraft still had to be located there as the man-camp housing in Watford City was all that was available in the region. N234K). Photo courtesy of NDARB. although it wasn’t needed and no aircraft replacements were made during the 2012 season. While Watford City still had a chemical shed onsite. Additionally. (Mark Schneider shown) assess the runway situation in Watford City. Watford City’s airport ramp was under construction throughout the entire 2012 season. ND for District I operations. Page 14 . N39655). Watford City (Seneca II’s N9798C and N13AG). ND. Williston (Cheyenne II. airport improvements are on the horizon for many of the other current aircraft bases. District II aircraft were based at Kenmare (Seneca II. And while the airport wasn’t really suitable as a base for this reason during the summer. Due to construction during the 2012 NDMCP project period. N340FR). WMI also had a spare C340A aircraft available in Fargo.

The ARB owns the structure that houses the radar at Stanley. were employed on the project. Graphic provided by NDARB. The structure at Stanley was constructed prior to the 1998 field season. These radars are surplus and upgraded National Weather Service units. purchased and moved to the project sites. Page 15 . A vendor through a separate ARB contract maintained and calibrated the radars. and is donated use of the structure that houses the radar in Bowman from Bowman County. both owned by the ARB. One unit each is located at the Bowman and Stanley airports.2 NDARB WEATHER RADAR SITES Two Enterprise Electronics Corporation WSR-74C 5-cm weather radars.State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report 5. Figure 6 (right). 2012 NDCMP Operational Target Areas.

0 DAILY OPERATIONS The 2012 season of the North Dakota Cloud Modification Project became active for District I at 11:00 am local time and 12 o’clock noon local time for District II on June 1. Specialized project forecasts were prepared each morning by ARB staff in Bismarck and were based on National Weather Service data. Radar meteorologists and pilots all kept an eye out for significant weather activity. During operations. The project ended for both districts at 11:59 pm local time on August 31 2012. and other factors. WMI supplied multi-channel VHF (Very High Frequency) aviation-band communications base station radios to be used at each radar field office for communications with the seeding aircraft. seeding aircraft to communicate with the radar meteorologists. WMI also supplied antennae and low-loss cabling at each site for good reception. and power supplies for the radios that ensured adequate transmitting power. In the event of significant changes. aircraft working far from the radar at low altitudes will normally relay through a nearer. WMI is experimenting with remote VHF radio repeater units to enhance low-level communications in District II.State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report 6. CDT and then briefed each pilot on expected activities. cloud structures. updates were furnished to the radar meteorologists by phone and/or on the website. Sometimes with input from the aircraft crews. The meteorologists in the field offices received the forecast by approximately 12:00 noon. The NDARB maintains the appropriate FCC radio station licenses for the radar sites. the UND Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF) model. VHF communications have become far more reliable than in years past. but the vendor was unable to provide a working system this season. or higher. with the pilots making the final determinations based upon storm inflow. the ARB meteorologists launched aircraft for seeding missions. With the advent of better radios in both the aircraft and ground stations. Page 16 . however. WMI is still committed to further communication improvements in the future. Cloud candidates for seeding were usually chosen by the radar meteorologists. flight safety. regional synoptic observations and satellite information.

and NE McKenzie Co. In late June. while operations in District II were conducted nearly every day during the start of the summer (June—mid July) and then decreased significantly by August. District II continued to receive substantial precipitation. no SPC (the NOAA National Weather Service’s Storm Prediction Center) significant hail reports were recorded for District I during the month of June although there were local reports of dime-sized hail in District I. and an upper trough that parked itself over the Pacific NW sent a series of shortwaves through both districts. 7. An upper level ridge parked itself over the Central United States during the first part of June with shortwaves riding along the N portion of the ridge affecting both districts.. Due to a dry. resulting in precipitation chances for both districts.1 JUNE 2012 The month of June was drier than normal in District I. The drier conditions led to an early harvest in both districts. By mid-June. but precipitation in portions of District II was above average (E Williams Co. Page 17 . while District I received slightly below normal precipitation in mid-June. the ridge started to break down and an upper level trough moved into the area (just N of District II). precipitation was below normal for most of North Dakota. crops were planted on-time this year as opposed to the 2011 season.). mild winter.0 METEOROLOGICAL SYNOPSIS The 2012 North Dakota Cloud Modification Project experienced near normal precipitation during the month of June to below normal precipitation by August. The severity of the storms that moved through District II in June was greater than the storms that moved through District I. rain enhancement began at the start of project on June 1st and continued all the way through the last day of project on August 31st because of the drier conditions. Operations in District I were conducted fairly regularly in the beginning of the summer (June—mid July) and waned by August. Also..State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report 7. W Mountrail Co. Throughout the summer. upper level ridging set up again over W North Dakota. Figure 7. with neither district requesting an extension for the 2012 season.

District I precipitation was slightly. normal for June. Page 18 .State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report Figure 8. and District I with no significant reports. SPC severe hail reports for June showing District II with significant hail reports. to well below. while precipitation in portions of District II was well above normal. Figure 9.

The pattern of upper level ridging setting up and being broken down by shortwaves continued into mid-July. This resulted in operations being conducted regularly as showers and thunderstorms accompanying the shortwaves moved through both districts. normal for July.State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report 7. Figure 10. Operations conducted throughout July for both rain enhancement and hail suppression were fairly regular.2 JULY 2012 July started out with an active weather pattern. Another series of shortwaves moved through both districts during the first part of July. due to rainfall amounts from several storms being less than predicted. neither district had large areas of above normal precipitation. A few supercells moved through both districts by late July (a couple in District II and one in District I). However. which led to SPC significant hail reports for both districts. Precipitation in both districts was slightly below. Page 19 . to fairly well below.

stable conditions. with an upper level low moving into the N portion of District II. so storms that developed had difficulty producing hail threats like they did in June and July (mostly for District II). with a few storms here and there. Throughout August. By the end of August.State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report Figure 11. the upper level ridging with shortwaves eroding the ridge pattern set up again. Page 20 . Also. but instability was less established. 7. Precipitation amounts in August were well below normal for District II and slightly to well below normal for District I.3 AUGUST 2012 The last month of the NDCMP started out fairly normal and then took a significant downturn in operations. persisted as a drier airmass was in place over both districts. SPC severe hail reports for July showing significant hail reports for both districts. The beginning of August started out relatively active. District II flew mostly on rain enhancement missions with a few hail suppression missions here and there. and District I flew on at least one hail suppression mission every week. except for the last week of project. only one significant hail report was recorded by SPC for District II in August. This brought a few chances of showers and thunderstorms into both project areas. By midAugust.

while precipitation for District I was slightly to well below normal. Figure 13.State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report Figure 12. SPC severe hail reports for August showing one significant hail report in District II. Precipitation for District II was well below normal. Page 21 .

All of the seeding aircraft are owned and were modified by WMI. Canada. Figure 14 (right). but rain enhancement missions were fairly regular throughout the summer. Overall. Flight hours were above average for both districts due to the active months of June and July. Mali. Page 22 . and multiple US states. the twin-engine aircraft provide an extra measure of safety in bad weather. twin 310-horsepower engine aircraft with pressurized cabins. As in recent seasons. especially in District I. The WMI Cheyenne II has twin 620 hp turboprop engines with a pressurized cabin. Hail suppression missions dwindled in August. Greece. twin-engine aircraft. WMI’s Piper PA34-200T Seneca II aircraft are turbocharged. while WMI’s Cessna 340's are turbocharged. since cloud bases were higher on average than previous years. and the number of thunderstorms decreased significantly by August. WMI has operated these types of aircraft on projects in Argentina. Photo by WMI Pilot Peter Van Duzer. Although. rain enhancement was a bit difficult. twin 200horsepower engine light aircraft. Indonesia. in-cloud. WMI operated five Piper Seneca II (PA34-200T) aircraft for cloud-base seeding.0 AIRCRAFT For cloud-seeding flight operations WMI uses only well-equipped. Saudi Arabia. Australia. especially compared to the 2011 season. A Piper Cheyenne II aircraft was used for cloud-top seeding. and nighttime operations. 8. single-engine aircraft).4 WEATHER SEASON IN SUMMARY The weather for the 2012 NDCMP was near normal. the 2012 NDCMP was near normal with above average flight hours due to an active beginning leading into a quiet end. and precipitation rarely made it to the surface. India. Besides North Dakota. eight seeding aircraft were specified by the 2012 contract. They have proven well capable of absorbing the stresses ordinarily encountered while seeding clouds. Mexico.State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report 7. Thunderstorms were more prevalent during June and July in both project areas. and two Cessna 340A aircraft that were capable of both base and top seeding. though it was also equipped with wing flare racks for cloud-base work if needed. Cessna 340A. In addition to their high performance characteristics (compared to lower-powered. ND for its next mission. UAE. Turkey. N340FR (Seed 9) ready on the ramp in Minot.

Photo courtesy of NDARB. ND. Figure 15 (left).State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report Aircraft must be flown and maintained in accordance with Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) rules and regulations. filled their burners and flare racks. Cheyenne II. May 29th (N13AG. and N121WA). N812V. VHF voice and data radios for the Bowman and Stanley radars were delivered in 2010 and remained in place through the contract. among other things. The turboprop Cheyenne II (Figure 15) must be operated under a progressive inspection program. This provides the pilots with valuable training and hands-on experience with seeding equipment and their particular aircraft. and has mandatory 100-hr inspections. All aircraft must also be inspected and maintained according to approved schedules. Prior to the 2012 season all WMI project aircraft underwent renewed annual inspections (as required by the FAA) and had the appropriate WMI seeding equipment mounted to conform to the project contract requirements. WMI’s specially modified cloud seeding aircraft. N9798C. all aircraft furnished for the project were equipped and certified for instrument flight rules (IFR) with GPS navigation equipment. All of WMI’s seeding aircraft are equipped and certified for flight in icing conditions should the need arise. when fitted with seeding equipment. All of the WMI pilots mixed solution. and conducted test flights by sometime on June 1. and were thereafter ready for missions. The project aircraft were delivered to their sites on May 28th (N340FR). N33144. Project pilots assisted WMI and FJC mechanics in Fargo to prepare the aircraft. In addition to normal aircraft and seeding systems. must be operated in RESTRICTED category – meaning that their operations are limited to the special purpose operations for which the equipment installations are certified by the FAA. and are bound by extra rules which prohibit these aircraft from carrying passengers who are not part of the project. All seeding generators were flight tested with acetone before delivery to ensure proper operation. the Seneca’s and C340’s used on this project must all have a yearly “annual” inspection and certain required maintenance checks at each 50 and 100 hours of operation. and May 30th (N234K and N39655). N234K (Seed 7) after a late afternoon mission in Williston. Page 23 .

mean that WMI must either fly a mechanic and parts to the broken project aircraft or ferry it to Fargo for more extensive work when possible. alternator. N39655 S4 on 6/26-27 for engine and turbo work. Hans Ahlness. These factors. and five of the project airplanes made trips to Fargo – N9798C S5 on 6/7 for a bad magneto and gyro instrument repair. which often limits our options.1 AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE All pre-season and major aircraft and seeding equipment maintenance was performed at the WMI / Fargo Jet Center facilities in Fargo. N812V S1 on 6/14 for a broken landing gear strut (fixed that same day). or personnel. Also. Each PIC also called WMI Project Field Representative Peter Van Duzer (Minot Seed 9 PIC) on Sunday of each week to provide the status of their airplane and to provide the airplane’s total flight time for maintenance tracking. Williston. Van Duzer used e-mail and phone to keep Mr. WMI has a large fleet of aircraft. Unfortunately. seeding equipment. ND. Mr. although of course the weather doesn’t always cooperate. N39655 S4 on 6/20-21 for a 50hr. The other required 50 and 100 hr inspections were performed by shops in Bowman. Mr. WMI Vice President . Ahlness made several trips from Fargo to perform repairs to various aircraft during the summer as well. and a spare C340A (N37356) was available for use this summer. and Minot. N234K S7 on 6/25-26 for the required 100hr inspection. Ahlness updated on any problems with aircraft. The Pilot-In-Command (PIC) of each aircraft was instructed to call immediately if any unscheduled maintenance was required. combined with the 24/7 nature of WMI’s commitments for the ARB. Smaller items were taken care of by local maintenance shops in western ND when possible. these small shops are not often open after hours or on weekends. WMI always tries to perform maintenance when there is no weather threat. Page 24 . Inspection Authorization) tracked and supervised the required maintenance and support for the aircraft during the summer. Although not required by the contract. sometimes combining maintenance events with times he was filling in as Roving PIC. Ahlness made several trips during the summer to perform required maintenance on project aircraft while in the field. weak engine. many of the local shops that WMI has relied on over the years have lost capable mechanics or are maintaining smaller parts inventories as business has declined for them. WMI tries to keep this option to help avoid down time and penalties when major problems or maintenance issues arise. N812V S1 on 6/22 to finish up details on the landing gear.Operations (FAA Airframe & Powerplant mechanic.State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report 8. Bismarck. despite all the above mechanical mayhem only two missions were missed due to maintenance issues this summer.

and the firing systems from the BIP and belly mounted ejectable flare racks. Files are created on the aircraft computer’s hard drive that can then be transferred to a USB drive for later analysis. longitude. Page 25 . The event tracking capability allows the radar meteorologists to determine which thunderstorm complexes were seeded and the number of flares used.State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report 8. and sent to the ARB at the end of the season. AirLink is able to provide. altitude. silver iodide generators. A telemetry radio in each aircraft transmits the ADAS information to the AirLink computer in the radar. Each aircraft was equipped with a WMI “datalogger” system that is composed of a computer with WMI’s ADAS (Aircraft Data Acquisition System) software. groundspeed) during the entire flight at a data rate of once per second. files can also be created on the ground computers in the radars to enable playback of flight tracks for post-mission analysis.AIRLINK The NDARB contracted with WMI to provide the project radars with the ability to track each seeding aircraft’s position. and atmospheric microphysical information (if the aircraft is equipped with probes). altitude and seeding events. in real-time. a display of the seeding aircraft flight paths generated from aircraft GPS data. The data was downloaded from each aircraft on a regular basis. The datalogger systems were designed and are specially built by WMI in Fargo. This information is then sent to the TITAN computer to generate the aircraft tracks on the TITAN display. LED lights on its front panel indicate operational status. installed in the rear of a seeding aircraft. Figure 16 (left). The computer also notes the time and location of seeding events. checked by WMI. seeding status. All project aircraft were equipped with a datalogger as part of the telemetry systems that provided position and altitude information as well as seeding events. The WMI ADAS system logs the GPS position of the aircraft (latitude. If chosen by the radar operator. AirLink displays position information. WMI aircraft datalogger. The NDARB was provided with the AirLink computer software to replay the flight track data for post-flight analysis. The computer receives inputs from the aircraft’s GPS receiver.2 WMI AIRCRAFT TELEMETRY SYSTEM . Visible is its rugged casing and secure mounting. all transmitted via radio modem from each seeding aircraft to a receiver in the radar.

Page 26 . capacity dry ice hopper installed in N234K. Each PIC received operation and maintenance training on the seeding equipment. each capable of carrying 12-16 burn-in-place flares. calibrated to a flow rate of 3. The Cheyenne II aircraft was outfitted with the following equipment: • 2 Wing-mounted flare racks. 204 flare capacity total. with a 7-gallon usable capacity. calibrated to a flow rate of 3.0 gallons per hour at 120 mph airspeed. • 2 Wing-mounted flare racks. WMI also maintains an inventory of spare parts for the airplanes used on the project to avoid downtime waiting for parts. • 2 Belly-mounted ejectable flare racks. each capable of carrying 12 burn-in-place flares.State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report 9. WMI maintains an extensive inventory of seeding equipment spares that was restocked as needed during the project. Figure 19 (left). Figure 17 (left). The hopper is sealed to hold cabin pressurization and augers dry ice pellets down through the aircraft belly. The 200lb. WMI burn-in-place flare rack with 75g silver iodide flares. Figure 18 (right). • 3 Belly-mounted ejectable flare racks. and operates a wide variety of seeding equipment. capable of holding 200 lbs.0 gallons per hour at 120 mph airspeed. WMI 102-count ejectable flare racks mounted to the belly of a top seeding aircraft. each capable of carrying 16 burn-in-place flares. with a 7-gallon usable capacity. Each Cessna 340 aircraft was outfitted with the following equipment: • 2 WMI-Lohse ram-air pressurized liquid-fueled AgI generators. 306 flare capacity total. • 2 Wing-mounted flare racks. Each Seneca II aircraft was outfitted with the following equipment: • 2 WMI-Lohse ram-air pressurized liquid-fueled AgI generators. • 1 Dry ice dispenser.0 SEEDING EQUIPMENT WMI designs. manufactures. This hopper was designed and installed in 2010.

00 hours of flight time during the entire summer that a seeding generator was inoperative when required. A lit WMI Lohse silver iodide generator burns as S8 base seeds.” The “generator failure rate” for the 2012 season was 2. paradichloro-benzene. and sodium perchlorate. This amounted to 5. This solution’s mixture contains silver iodide. ammonium iodide. see chart below).45% (lower than the 5-year average. Chemical formulations have evolved with research and experience. and now incorporate ingredients that make the formulas faster acting . picture by WMI Pilot James Kovac. The ARB provided secure storage for the seeding materials at each site.1 SEEDING EQUIPMENT PERFORMANCE WMI’s contract with the ARB states: “Generator performance shall be calculated by dividing the total time the generators were inoperative by the total aircraft seeding time. These included dry ice pellets. The seeding solution was mixed at each field site by the flight crews. all dissolved in acetone. and a silver iodide solution.better for hail suppression. All of the seeding materials used during the project were supplied by the ARB. Figure 20. The resulting figure will represent the percentage of time Project aircraft were operating at less than desired capability. silver iodide flares (both ejectable and burn-in-place).State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report 9. Page 27 .

custom target overlays. Page 28 . and the NDARB provided each radar site with these software/hardware systems. The history of storm motions (yellow circles) and forecast storm motions (red circles) are also displayed. (3. since it does not display aircraft and their position. (2. providing meteorologists in the field with velocity data to forecast rapid storm development from outflow boundaries and avoid directing aircraft into areas of turbulence from microbursts. A zoom function allows the radar operator to zoom-in on interesting features. the TITAN system is the main software used when running operations. IRIS is a great tool to use to determine if a storm is increasing or decreasing in intensity. IRIS also has tools available to do cross sections on the most recently completed scan data (cannot do cross sections on real-time display data). and real-time aircraft flight track/seeding event superimposition. located at the Bowman and Stanley airports. constructed of aluminum and installed within a 12 ft. It is also possible to create a “composite PPI” display. The antenna pedestal is the elevation-over-azimuth type. While IRIS is useful. storm time-height profile and reflectivity distribution. The dish is parabolic. The Interactive Radar Information System (IRIS. Analysis. which protects the radar from wind.0 WEATHER RADAR SYSTEM The NDARB operates two five-centimeter EEC WSR-74C radars. which plots the strongest radar reflectivity at any altitude in a PPI (radar display) format. Figure 21. and hail damage and allows it to operate continuously. vertical storm cross section. The TITAN system provides 16 levels of contoured color radar reflectivity data.4m) in diameter. at an adequate height to provide the best possible radar coverage for the target areas. The TITAN software runs on a LINUX operating system. Along with displaying the reflectivity detected at each elevation angle in real-time. zooming capabilities. a Sigmet/Vaisala product) and the Thunderstorm Identification. The Doppler upgrade also improved the sensitivity of the radars.7 m) diameter fiberglass radome. and Nowcasting (TITAN) system developed by scientists from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). IRIS is very useful for meteorologists in that it provides the real-time display of the radar data. as well as keeping these systems in Bismarck for remote data analysis. which aids in the response time for rain enhancement missions. precipitation. Both radars were upgraded to Doppler in 2009. Tracking. instant playback. which allow the radar technician or anyone at the NDARB to monitor the radars remotely and fix any software problems. A CAPPI display can be selected for various altitudes starting at 2 kilometers above the surface and stepping up in 1 kilometer increments. on the display. storm history.State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report 10. 8 ft. IRIS is not as useful when directing aircraft. and it is a good backup tool for cross sections if the TITAN machine is inoperable. The antenna assembly is positioned on a steel tower at the Bowman Airport. Bowman weather radar tower. such as hail cores. picture by NDARB Meteorologist Amanda Wertz. and atop the radar building in Stanley. The data collected by the radar are analyzed through an IRIS/TITAN system. Another upgrade that is useful for both radar sites is the remote access capabilities. Each radar consists of an antenna pedestal and a dish. allowing them to detect early echoes. and the TITAN system displays constant altitude plan position indicator (CAPPI).

Stanley weather radar atop the operations building. The radar maps are automatically sent to the ARB website every 6 minutes (or when a scan has been completed) to provide access to recently recorded data. Aircraft flight tracks can be superimposed upon the TITAN display. while the Stanley radar is only used during the project season. The time period required to complete a volume scan varies dependent upon the RPM setting of the radar. Superimposed flight tracks aid the radar meteorologists in directing the cloud seeding aircraft to the most suitable seeding candidates. The links (accessible from the ND State Water Commission website. The Bowman radar operates yearround. Radar maps and flight track data are saved automatically in approximately 6-minute increments. www. The weather radar data is recorded onto hard-drive disks for storage and playback at a later time.nd.gov/arb) can be viewed using any PC with an internet server. Unlike conventional radar Range Height Indicators (RHI). the vertical cross section option permits cross sections to be made along any two points on a PPI display and not just along the azimuth from the radar. The large volume of graphical data being recorded and stored is the reason for the necessity of upgrading to a specialized computer. and the storms can be replayed for future analysis. Continuing upgrades have expanded the software’s capabilities to meet specific project requirements. and the field offices and project aircraft have the equipment to do so.State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report The vertical cross section capability enables a radar operator to produce a two dimensional slice through a thunderstorm. WMI often uses TITAN on its projects throughout the world as well and originally supplied the ARB with the software and necessary hardware. Page 29 . picture by NDARB Meteorologist Leandro Ribeiro. Figure 22.swc. and show current radar maps displaying reflectivity data and aircraft flight tracks. An electronic overlay generated by a computer file displays the project target area as well as county boundaries and prominent cities and geographical features.

Other key benefits of the new iPads include an increased battery life. have started using the iPad to eliminate the need for bulky paper charts. the Apple iPad. whereas the previous PDA Bluetooth modem was routinely slow. Image courtesy of NDARB. and to monitor seeding chemicals and flares at NDCMP field sites.0 PROJECT RECORD KEEPING Due to discontinued hardware and software. Figure 23 (left).7 inches.State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report 11. ARBSync and ChemInv. the iPad features PARS software and is able to track position and altitude data. Picture courtesy of WMI. Page 30 . Two additional programs. or PARS. The iPads were encased in a protective cover and also included several other applications such as ForeFlight (designed specifically for aviation navigation) and additional weather/radar information. The new iPad allows for speedy uploads via Wi-Fi. ARB staff worked with NDSWC IT technician Paul Moen to develop the new system. diagonally) made it a functional choice for the cockpit. Kudos to Paul Moen for his work on the iPad! Figure 24 (right). Furthermore. Today the PDA is obsolete and its replacements. Several aviation companies including WMI. An NDARB iPad shown on the PARS live acquisition screen. with seeding areas depicted as entered by the flight crew. are included on the iPad to execute data uploads to the ARB database. The previous system (initialized in 2004) featured a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) with software called “Palm Aircraft Recordkeeping System”. June 14. although not for this project. The decision to move forward with the implementation of a new record keeping device. it’s large touch screen (9. was made in early 2012. The iPad receives this data from its built-in GPS. 2012 for Seed 2. and a screen with high resolution. like the Apple iPhone and iPad have taken over the digital market. a built in camera for seeding pictures. This data is used to create the flight form as well as accurate maps. the need to upgrade the NDCMP record keeping system became clearly evident after the 2011 season. The iPad 32G was selected due to its diverse platform and operating system. Like the PDA.

helped write the equipment manuals. written by Mr. It is invaluable to have experienced personnel in the field during the season to resolve these problems. Numerous questions typically surface during the project as problems arise and remedies are explored. opportunity recognition. ND.1 GROUND SCHOOL The 2012 North Dakota Cloud Modification Project Ground School was conducted in Bismarck. Ahlness with contributions from other WMI project pilots. Atmospheric Resource Board and WMI personnel conducted the ground school. The WMI Pilot Information Manual. safety procedures. cloud physics. supplementing the NDCMP Operations Manual. Figure 25. Mr. iPad training. Various aspects of the program were discussed such as responsibilities of all personnel. ND on May 22-24. Picture courtesy of NDARB.0 WMI AND NDARB PROJECT PERSONNEL 12. Page 31 . and selected examples that could serve as lessons from previous projects that might help to improve efficiency of the 2012 program. Hans Ahlness. Ahlness worked with pilots and meteorologists alike and provided insights into seeding systems and seeding strategy. project documentation. Hans Ahlness provided support for WMI field personnel during the season. Ahlness handled weather and aircraft questions. and all project personnel were given copies of the NDCMP Operations Manual and Radar Applications Manual as appropriate prior to the season start. is used by WMI project pilots as a training and reference aid. ARB Director Darin Langerud and ARB Chief Meteorologist Mark Schneider were always available for advice and answers whenever their radar meteorologists needed guidance.State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report 12. and provided additional training for field personnel during the project. describes how the Lohse wing-tip generator works during ground school in Bismarck. WMI Vice President of Operations. Mr. use of seeding chemicals. which was held at the ND State Water Commission building.

State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report 12. and in Bowman covering Seed 2 on August 21-23. and all relief (Hans Ahlness. The intern pilots are paid an hourly wage and are required to maintain a timesheet of their project activities. the WMI PIC flying the Cheyenne II in Williston. and Stanley to cover Seed 4 on July 27-29 and again on August 23-26. He then flew for an airline for several years before returning to WMI to fly in Saudi Arabia in 2008-2010. Chad Gravesen) and replacement (Todd Janvosky) pilots. this summer’s internship was open to previous class participants. Janovsky was an intern in Kenmare way back in 1997. had previous experience cloud seeding as either PIC or SIC on the NDCMP or another weather modification project. Roving PIC. and David Edmonds . Hans Ahlness. The pilot internship program is funded by the ARB. Due to a shortage of students in Poellot’s Spring 2012 class. The Pilot Internship Program was initially begun in 1974 by the Bureau of Reclamation. Tim Chervenka. left the project for other employment on August 3. and a PIC in Bowman in 1998 and 1999. Also. and August 29 flying Seed 7. These flights provided quality assurance to standardize the WMI procedures for each pilot.became 1st year interns. Nick Roadman.2 PILOTS Each pilot was checked out in his or her designated aircraft before the beginning of the project. a 2011 NDCMP intern. Ahlness filled in as PIC after Chervenka left and then checked out Janovsky on the Cheyenne aircraft and seeding systems in Williston on August 7-8. and Peter Van Duzer.Trent Tell. 12. All of the pilots were involved in the preseason maintenance and flight testing of airplanes and seeding equipment. was in Williston June 13-17. Page 32 . and were interviewed and selected from the class for their internship by Mike Poellot. returned to school before the end of August. James Kovac (Kenmare Seed 8 pilot) travelled to Watford City covering Seed 6 on July 13-14. August 4-8. Kelli Schroeder oversaw the intern program for the ARB. Janovsky was able to cover most of August as he was between deployments for a civilian contractor flying Dash 8’s in Afghanistan. Most of the interns. The pilots were also instructed on the airspeeds and power settings used during a seeding mission.3 COPILOT INTERNSHIP The co-pilots completed the Advanced Weather Modification course at the University of North Dakota. The interns each rotated through Williston to gain additional experience in the top seeding aircraft. WMI replaced him with Todd Janovsky starting August 7. except Roadman and Edmonds. Chair of Atmospheric Sciences at UND and Kelli Schroeder of the ARB. One of the instructors flew with each pilot to ensure that they were familiar with the airplane systems and the operation of the seeding equipment. Andrew Pfalzer. During the times Kovac was away from Kenmare. WMI training pilots were Hans Ahlness. During the summer. some of the WMI pilots requested personal time off. the program has provided training and experience for 325 pilots. A memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the ARB and the University of North Dakota has been in place since 1975. returned for a second season and three 2010 students . Five of the eight initial PIC’s. At the completion of the 2012 program. Chad Gravesen (a WMI NDCMP pilot in 2011 and flying as an aerial applicator this summer) filled in there to cover Seed 8. Jody Fischer.

This allows the interns to log flight time in the aircraft used on the project. Each intern also spent approximately two weeks rotating through each of the other site locations during the project. making the experience far more worthwhile for them. were completed on May 16th and 24th this year. The NDCMP Meteorology Internship Program began in 1996 and to date has provided hands-on radar. The flights.4 NDARB METEOROLOGY STAFF All radar and intern meteorologists were employed by the NDARB.000 feet. Two meteorology interns were chosen to spend the season as assistant meteorologists in both Districts I (Caleb Steele) and II (Matt Leszak). Jody Fischer. for a nominal charge. each season’s copilot interns with flight instruction and signoffs for High Altitude and High Performance training to give them the proper FAA certifications to act as pilots in the WMI aircraft used on the NDCMP. operations and forecasting experience for 41 meteorology undergraduates. These certifications are not normally earned during flight training at UND. 12. Ground instruction and two instructional flights in a WMI King Air C90A were provided by WMI Chief Pilot. and one intern (Robert Spinetti) was selected to assist with forecasting from the Bismarck office. Page 33 . which involve several takeoffs and landings as well as flight operations at 25.State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report WMI provides.

Drake Brands INTERN. Nicholi Lanier SEED 2 – PIC.State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report DISTRICT I (Bowman) – FLIGHT CREW SEED 1 – PIC. ND) – METEOROLOGY TEAM METEOROLOGIST. Caleb Steele Page 34 . Lauren Peterson INTERN. Chad Wilson DISTRICT I (Bowman. Amanda Wertz INTERN.

David Edmonds INTERN. Nick Roadman INTERN. Lucas Hitz INTERN. Greg Snodgrass SEED 6 – PIC. Kyle Schanus METEOROLOGIST. Phil Kost SEED 5 – PIC. Watford City) – FLIGHT CREW SEED 4 – PIC. Leandro Ribeiro INTERN.State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report DISTRICT II (Stanley. Trent Tell DISTRICT II (Stanley) – METEOROLOGY TEAM METEOROLOGIST. Matt Leszak Page 35 .

Peter Van Duzer SEED 7 . Cameron Kostelecky INTERN. James Kovac SEED 9 – PIC. Andrew Pfalzer DISTRICT I & II – ROVING PILOT INTERN & FORECASTER (Bismarck) ROVING INTERN. Minot) – FLIGHT CREW SEED 7 – PIC. Tim Chervenka SEED 8 – PIC. Robert Spinetti Page 36 . Logan Newsom FORECASTER. Todd Janovsky INTERN.PIC. Kenmare.State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report DISTRICT II (Williston.

and the pilot intern program. trains and oversees the intern forecaster as well as performing office duties including record keeping. Daniel Brothers. Chief Meteorologist Mark Schneider manages the radar and intern meteorologists. Darin Langerud CHIEF METEOROLOGIST. Paul Moen BUSINESS MGR. Ms.State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report 12.5 NDARB ADMINISTRATION Director Darin Langerud oversees the NDCMP operations for the ARB. Meteorologist. Langerud and Mr.. Moen was also the architect behind the new iPad aircraft data recording software. Kelli Schroeder Page 37 . ND State Water Commission IT technician Paul Moen handled issues with the TITAN software and hardware systems in both radars. contracts. iPads. Mr. and Mr. Kelli Schroeder handles the program funding. WMI installed and maintained the datalogger computers and electronics in the aircraft. Dan Brothers IT TECHNICIAN. Brothers is a WMA Certified Operator. and record quality control. NDARB – (Bismarck) ADMINISTRATION DIRECTOR. the ARB rain gauge network. Schneider are Weather Modification Association (WMA) Certified Weather Modification Managers. including AirLink. Mr. Mark Schneider METEOROLOGIST.

President of WMI and Bruce Boe. Vice President – Operations of WMI was the Primary Project Manager for the 2012 NDCMP. Mr. this was his third season on the North Dakota Cloud Modification Project. Boe assumed his present position at WMI in 2001. Vice President of WMI was Assistant Project Manager to aid in the fulfillment of contract obligations. Ahlness and Mr. Peter Van Duzer. He also assisted with pre-season seeding equipment maintenance and project pilot flight training. Patrick Sweeney. operational and research pilot. Ahlness needed to travel outside the state. with duties including radar operator. Sweeney are Weather Modification Association Certified Weather Modification Operators. Ahlness. Mr. Both Mr. and has been a shareholder since 1979. and manager. James Sweeney began working at WMI in 1992. Ahlness has worked in the weather modification field since 1977. served as the Field Representative for WMI during the season. and Mr. District II Project Pilot. and did the vast majority of the work on this report. Erin Fischer. WMI Director of Meteorology served as Co-Project Managers in case Mr.6 WEATHER MODIFICATION INC. overseeing aircraft operations and aircraft and equipment maintenance. Page 38 . Van Duzer has worked on WMI programs since 2011. Prior to coming to WMI he served as Director of the ARB for 12 years.State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report 12. Sweeney has handled radar technician. He has worked at WMI full time since 1985. Boe is a WMA Certified Manager. and he then provided summaries to Mr. checked project data. ADMINISTRATION Hans Ahlness. All North Dakota WMI field personnel reported problems and equipment status to him. He also served as the POLCAST IV research aircraft pilot. and providing relief pilot and mechanic duties. James Sweeney. and management duties at WMI since 1975. mechanic. Hans Ahlness of WMI was also responsible for hiring and training the project pilots. compiled billing info. pilot. Mr. with assistance from Alexandra Ahlness.

State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report WMI – (Fargo) ADMINISTRATION VP OPERATIONS. Alex Ahlness Page 39 . Erin Fischer CHIEF PILOT. Jody Fischer PROJECT ASSISTANT. Hans Ahlness TECHNICAL WRITER.

His initiative to begin forecast verifications helped the ARB staff immensely. Prospective and current students were able to interact with NDARB representatives Kelli Schroeder and Darin Langerud. attended on behalf of WMI. BREWER PROFESSIONALISM AWARD Named in honor of one of the founders of WMI and longtime NDCMP advocate. ND on April 20th. Congratulations for a job well done Kyle and Matt! Page 40 . discusses the NDARB pilot internship and what it’s like to be a cloud seeding pilot with a potential candidate at the 2012 SAMA Conference in Grand Forks. This award is given to the intern who had the greatest positive impact on the project and its daily operations. WMI administration. with his wife Erin Fischer.0 AWARDS NDARB recognizes field personnel professionalism and dedication to the project with the presentation of the following project awards.0 PUBLIC RELATIONS 13. Figure 26. ND. Nominations are taken from project personnel. 14. OUTSTANDING INTERN AWARD A desire to learn and further their education attracts interns to the NDCMP. this award was presented to District II Radar Meteorologist Kyle Schanus. a great new pilot internship brochure was distributed at this year’s conference. assuring that District II was well-protected this season. and ARB staff the last week of project and are carefully considered. WMI Chief Pilot.1 SAMA CONFERENCE To increase internship awareness. and he displayed motivation and enthusiasm for project operations. WMI Chief Pilot and NDCMP veteran Jody Fischer. Matt Leszak was the 2012 recipient. WILBUR E. The conference features a variety of speakers from all facets of the professional aviation industry and is held annually. Matt was extremely reliable. Jody Fischer. WMI and the NDARB participated in the Spring 2012 Student Aviation Management Association (SAMA) Conference and Career Fair in Grand Forks.State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report 13. Thanks to the ARB. Kyle exuded excellent decision-making and leadership skills throughout the project.

the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). Timm Uhlmann and Nicole Bart. Pictured are (left to right) Jeff Tilley and Dave Delene (UND). Specifically. This summer. Paul Kucera (NCAR). Page 41 . Tony Grainger (UND).  Characterize how aerosols and CCN concentration change between the surface and cloud base. Weather Modification. Phase IV was conducted from June 27 through August 3 2012. Phondie Simelane. (WMI).  Characterize hygroscopic seeding effects stratified by aerosol and CCN concentrations. and 2010. POLCAST4 participants pose in front of UND’s dual polarimetric radar. Sponsored by the North Dakota Atmospheric Resource Board. Figure 27. The 2012 project focused on a continuation of sampling with the University of North Dakota (UND) polarimetric Doppler weather radar and in situ sampling to address the overall project’s objective: To better understand the effects of hygroscopic cloud seeding at cloud base on convective clouds in North Dakota. and Ice Crystal Engineering (ICE). Photo by UND graduate student Travis Toth. it includes participants from the University of North Dakota Atmospheric Science’s Department (UND). 2008. The POLCAST IV experiment is a continuation of the original field program that was conducted in the summers of 2006.0 POLCAST (Polarimetric Cloud Analysis and Seeding Test) IV The Polarimetric Cloud Analysis and Seeding Test (POLCAST) is an atmospheric research project designed to help determine if hygroscopic cloud seeding (warm cloud seeding) could help increase rainfall and reduce damaging hail from summer thunderstorms. Darin Langerud (NDARB). POLCAST IV worked to:  Determine identifiable signatures of hygroscopic seeding in polarimetric observables or derived fields. and UND students Mariusz Starzec. Inc.State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report 15.

N98585. WMI also provided VHF radio equipment for the radar. the aircraft then carried a Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (PCASP). ND as it awaits a POLCAST4 mission. and a tracking receiver to allow the aircraft’s flight track to be displayed on the UND radar screen. Figure 28. that instrumentation was eventually approved and installed on the aircraft July 16.19 hours were conducted. with in-flight scientist Dr. Although installation of the under-wing research probes was held up by FAA approval delays. and a Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe (FSSP). Dave Delene and grad students from UND. Photo by Jane Ahlness. Besides the hygroscopic flare racks. Operations were directed by NCAR scientist Dr. Visible are the window inlets for the CCNC. and the FSSP and AIMMS-20 3D wind probes on the left wing. 72 hygroscopic flares (40 of which were donated to the project by Ice Crystal Engineering of Kindred. an AIMMS-20 wind-sensing probe. hygroscopic flare rack and flares. Page 42 . with 17 experimental cases. . WMI C340 aircraft. Postproject analysis continues at this time. ND) were burned during the 9 seeded cases. and temperature and dewpoint probes. shown on the ramp in Fargo. During 2012 operations a total of 12 flights over 23. two different Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter units. All of these instruments were linked to a SEA Model 300 data acquisition system and displayed in the aircraft cabin. Paul Kucera from the UND radar in Grand Forks. WMI C340A aircraft N98585 was specially equipped with instrumentation for gathering in situ measurements and flown out of WMI’s facilities in Fargo by Hans Ahlness.State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report The POLCAST project area covers a 62-mile (100 km) semi-circle area from Grand Forks on the west side of the Red River.

but obviously something needs to happen at UND to spur increased participation in the program. the leadership of a few experienced pilots made the difference and operations were handled normally. WMI fielded a fairly green crew of pilots this summer. and living and operating expenses in general are greatly increased. The oil boom in western ND has strained all infrastructure and resources. even though it was a testing period for all involved. Page 43 . but the process of finding lodging for short-term employees each year always seems to come down to the last minute. One of the biggest challenges in future seasons will continue to be housing for project personnel. The results of the recent NDSU study have reinforced the need for this program. The upgraded.State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report 16. Hopefully we’ll be able to continue with some of these now-familiar faces next season. It is always a challenge to hold on to personnel each year when the jobs are seasonal in nature. and the benefits that can be accrued from its continuation. Housing costs are way up.0 CONTRACTOR’S SUMMARY The summer of 2012 has come and gone. iPad-based PARS recordkeeping system worked well this summer. as well as the completion of another installment of the POLCAST research effort. The speed at which Paul Moen could make changes to the software to address issues as they were discovered was astounding. The number of potential pilot interns seems to be dropping each year as well. ARB personnel and Board contacts have been extremely helpful in locating housing in the past few years. With the addition of some previous applicants a full crew was crafted. some of the accommodations that we’ve found haven’t been the most desirable. and will certainly do so for several more years. WMI would like to congratulate the Atmospheric Resource Board on another successful project. including a better display of the target area boundaries on the iPad map display. there may be times in the future that WMI is not able to place crews in the desired locations. and this summer was a particularly critical situation. However. Some improvements can yet be made. Although we’ve successfully managed so far. due to the wholesale depletion of our past-years crew. but overall the system proved to be very user-friendly. And truthfully.

N9798C.State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report APPENDIX ITEMS APPENDIX A AIRCRAFT ACTIVITY TABLES (Note all flight times are recorded in hundredth of hours. N121WA. Turbo-Prop (N234K) “Hybrid” Cloud Top Aircraft (N340FR) APPENDIX B AIRCRAFT SPECIFICATIONS Piper Seneca II Cessna 340A Piper Cheyenne II Page 44 . Zulu time) District I District I District II District II District II “Hybrid” Cloud Top Aircraft (N812V) Cloud Base Aircraft (N812V. N13AG. N340FR) Cloud Top Aircraft. N33144) Cloud Base Aircraft (N39655.

00 0 0 3.52 13.00 0.27 1.56 4.00 0.00 13.20 Page 45 .52 11.46 2.27 1.61 5.85 9.46 1.24 1.11 1.28 TOTALS 1.80 13.520 grams TOTAL FLIGHT HOURS CONTRACTED: FLIGHT HOURS FLOWN TO DATE: FLIGHT HOURS REMAINING: 25.43 1.09 10.80 13.00 13.83 9.State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report APPENDIX A District I – Cloud Top Aircraft 2012 DISTRICT I FLIGHT SUMMARY CLOUD .05 1.TOP DATE HAIL RAIN RECON OTHER DAILY TOTAL RUNNING MAINTENANCE GENERATORS TOTAL (Contractor ONE TWO Expense) (hours burned) 0.33 2.80 13.43 1.46 1.80 340 200 400 40 400 400 1740 0.83 1.00 0.00 2.80 GENERATORS ONE TWO (grams burned) FLARES (grams) 06/03/12 06/12/12 06/13/12 06/17/12 06/19/12 06/20/12 07/02/12 07/11/12 07/17/12 08/22/12 0.11 1.00 0.74 7.83 1.00 0.80 11.05 1.29 3.28 0.13 2.13 2.00 0.00 2.24 1.520 TOTAL AgI RELEASED BY C-340 AIRCRAFT: 3.80 13.64 0.80 13.

13 1.79 1.53 25.26 0.65 4.21 21.Cessna ONE TWO (grams burned) GENERATORS .51 1.37 2.57 7.52 1.29 1.Seneca ONE TWO (hours burned) GENERATORS .93 82.51 0.64 1.31 1.84 1.30 57.09 0.30 1.82 78.11 0.96 3.01 0.07 1.53 3.23 0.52 35.57 1.66 0.28 4.92 538.25 2.64 0.07 2.04 0.12 2.14 10.09 0.96 53.84 95.55 971.63 2.00 1187.38 102.07 1.53 1.07 1.95 2.04 66 103 227 402 490 386 1.74 0.89 51.25 58 275 503 75 225 905 229 736 225 75 150 225 0.26 31.15 0.84 4.07 0.58 0.94 2.42 2.82 34.98 1.45 1.97 0.08 1.29 1.30 3.46 1.20 836.18 0.70 1.592 699 418 326 273 418 300 84 150 1200 40 Page 46 .48 0.43 0.30 4.64 374.96 1.State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report APPENDIX A District I – Cloud Base Aircraft 2012 DISTRICT I FLIGHT SUMMARY CLOUD .43 0.09 43.07 0.50 0.98 77.91 14.82 67.83 38.65 0.59 3.25 0.62 0.65 520.74 1.03 26.58 9.40 0.40 0.20 0.56 17.67 1.59 1.31 3.66 0.15 514.59 0.88 11.55 0.95 2.68 865.20 2.80 50.95 0.34 4.57 0.81 0.30 0.52 4.42 0.30 5.46 23.00 2.00 2.61 0.26 5.11 3.60 3.56 0.18 0.68 1.33 1.92 101.62 46.04 1.25 1.00 2.35 0.33 52.80 17.32 94.03 1.42 62.26 5.09 1.78 0.10 0.24 3.83 1.18 89.20 70.14 12.45 1.20 0.34 6.65 4.48 0.95 3.16 9.08 3.40 345.70 140.34 4.56 2.09 1.89 117.05 90.31 2.80 0.65 149.81 30.31 2.21 0.77 1.47 0.74 2.00 2.Cessna (Contractor ONE TWO (hours burned) Expense) 2.52 10.63 1.12 5.04 1.48 90.23 0.40 5.86 2 94 346 GENERATORS .55 1.96 2.Seneca ONE TWO (grams burned) FLARES (grams) 06/01/12 06/02/12 06/03/12 06/04/12 06/05/12 06/06/12 06/07/12 06/10/12 06/12/12 06/13/12 06/14/12 06/15/12 06/16/12 06/19/12 06/20/12 06/22/12 06/26/12 06/29/12 06/30/12 07/01/12 07/03/12 07/05/12 07/10/12 07/11/12 07/12/12 07/14/12 07/16/12 07/17/12 07/18/12 07/22/12 07/23/12 07/24/12 07/25/12 07/29/12 07/31/12 08/01/12 08/02/12 08/03/12 2.00 187.82 49.84 1.80 2.53 2.71 0.04 0.25 2.88 86.30 3.07 0.82 249 0.64 58 792 257 375 0.03 1.82 31.42 76.70 1.22 0.08 5.64 0.55 468.20 391.19 0.BASE DATE HAIL RAIN RECON OTHER (---------all flight times in hundredths of hours----------) DAILY TOTAL RUNNING TOTAL MAINTENANCEGENERATORS .65 2.00 1.95 637.85 0.24 0.00 0.

43 0.90 1193.132 grams 115.43 105.14 0.67 111.51 1.258 1.74 3.29 26.43 117.43 -2.40 0.62 0.State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report 08/07/12 08/13/12 08/14/12 08/22/12 08/24/12 TOTALS 2.44 1.23 110.13 17.00 117.02 0.65 12.28 1.967 3.43 117.92 9.26 27.00 5.81 111.85 666.065 10.43 927 9.14 4.00 117.530 6.17 16.91 2.14 2.65 2.49 82.450 TOTAL AgI RELEASED BY BASE AIRCRAFT: TOTAL FLIGHT HOURS CONTRACTED: FLIGHT HOURS FLOWN TO DATE: FLIGHT HOURS REMAINING : Page 47 .78 5.81 117.78 5.16 261 868 450 2.67 1.44 1.04 5.93 6.

73 346.51 203.20 11.19 0.73 2.55 0.04 1.090 1.50 240.79 97.641 728 884 24 1.55 1.52 10.93 10.16 0.24 3.07 8.04 2.66 2.97 0.99 17.455 3.01 79.07 2.48 1.31 3.26 0.78 161 559 0.00 14.59 5.75 6.65 3.11 DAILY TOTAL RUNNING TOTAL MAINTENANCEGENERATORS .39 4.71 184.80 259.78 2.36 0.97 203.037 2.49 0.81 0.56 310 647 113 14 525 75 150 75 75 825 1350 600 0.78 2.21 2.75 9.54 290.06 2.25 252.91 10.00 2.47 7.59 12.00 22.21 1.State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report APPENDIX A District II – Cloud Base Aircraft 2012 DISTRICT II FLIGHT SUMMARY CLOUD .42 1.00 8.00 2.71 272.18 0.59 1.41 112.90 0.65 5.45 3.22 117.80 2.22 125.11 2.12 2.49 7.26 336.78 15.27 4.62 14.76 11.24 2.98 8.74 42 111 295 2.60 0.43 306.44 0.988 1.52 0.166 699 1200 1425 1725 1500 1500 2100 1.54 3.Senecas FLARES ONE TWO ONE TWO (hours burned) (grams burned) (grams) 0.62 2.25 1.62 157.80 2.12 4.96 1147 0.52 4.83 2.95 0.98 0.02 7.98 236.01 81.17 0.95 128.910 2.70 3.74 2.018 3.47 0.09 157.71 8 161 1.41 1.118 1.07 0.82 0.557 44 1.011 2.95 0.60 1.23 318.48 8.51 43.11 6.64 1.44 1.BASE DATE HAIL RAIN RECON OTHER (---------all flight times in hundredths of hours----------) 1.491 1.17 9.48 12.74 5.37 801 0.93 12.97 145.79 0.77 2.87 1433 1983 386 1094 0.63 318.03 0.42 0.05 14.70 3.20 1.73 4.31 2.30 0.72 0.68 2.85 14.16 4.97 225.08 107 16 06/01/12 06/02/12 06/03/12 06/04/12 06/05/12 06/06/12 06/07/12 06/08/12 06/09/12 06/13/12 06/14/12 06/15/12 06/16/12 06/17/12 06/18/12 06/19/12 06/20/12 06/21/12 06/22/12 06/23/12 06/24/12 06/26/12 06/27/12 06/28/12 06/30/12 07/02/12 07/03/12 07/04/12 07/08/12 07/09/12 07/10/12 07/11/12 07/12/12 07/15/12 07/16/12 07/17/12 07/18/12 07/19/12 07/20/12 07/21/12 07/22/12 07/24/12 07/25/12 2.68 0.15 14.45 153.97 1.78 3.04 0.84 2.20 0.894 651 913 1.09 157.84 2.92 4.998 796 285 150 900 3225 2250 225 300 GENERATORS .80 17.20 0.85 32.943 2.33 10.50 2.58 1.81 2.32 5.35 3.93 3.62 9.Cessna (Contractor ONE TWO (hours burned) Expense) 2.07 9.45 0.56 1.86 0.00 0.89 2.66 175.50 36.26 1.71 2.53 0.73 3.54 2.Cessna ONE TWO (grams burned) GENERATORS .96 1.90 1.78 15.19 286.39 0.81 5.06 134.06 3.44 5.57 250.39 114 600 0.01 10.06 123 562 1129 480 0.86 1.49 6.80 19.48 2.17 3.56 1.45 0.77 4.66 1.Senecas GENERATORS .69 4.52 25.91 12.91 1.88 1.21 0.38 8.38 292.31 7.43 18.990 197 2.48 1.98 7.09 159.13 5.96 0.81 1.82 1.57 3.43 0.20 3.60 5.05 8.75 8.77 0.22 0.47 0.65 35 965 Page 48 .43 345.46 282.67 324.59 11.01 145 2 0.57 16.58 5.138 852 1.70 7.93 1.64 1.57 1.21 0.90 258.46 0.

76 35.51 386.10 0.56 0.74 364.14 1.08 369.51 6.00 0.27 1.29 1.00 0.617 675 75 1.11 0.60 0.05 0.54 1.36 149 11.813 675 30.13 385.00 386.00 0.51 346.91 361.49 Page 49 .State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report 07/26/12 07/27/12 07/28/12 07/29/12 08/01/12 08/06/12 08/07/12 08/08/12 08/09/12 08/10/12 08/11/12 08/13/12 08/18/12 08/21/12 08/24/12 08/29/12 TOTALS 11.25 1.10 0.517 grams 425.79 38.34 1.19 0.51 38.90 3.49 197 6.18 366.43 357.34 0.00 11.48 3.40 386.48 114.00 386.90 3.67 977 4.146 22.51 109 2.19 1.20 362.48 2.51 20.74 362.54 0.51 386.08 364.51 314 1.37 0.05 13.42 1.10 1.63 0.00 1.00 1.00 16.36 1.54 1.83 1.08 365.43 346.911 15.111 46.79 3.11 20.13 369.40 831 0.81 0.30 291.74 362.17 0.13 369.200 TOTAL AgI RELEASED BY BASE AIRCRAFT: TOTAL FLIGHT HOURS CONTRACTED: FLIGHT HOURS FLOWN TO DATE: FLIGHT HOURS REMAINING : 83.13 0.

00 3.61 22.00 980 480 1420 200 225 100 340 1100 1480 3950 450 1340 800 1080 40 1620 1620 680 440 700 3.31 3.38 31.78 2.42 51.64 90.81 34.44 1.00 45.767.20 2800 2720 FLARES (grams) 05/31/12 06/01/12 06/03/12 06/06/12 06/07/12 06/09/12 06/12/12 06/13/12 06/14/12 06/15/12 06/17/12 06/18/12 06/19/12 06/20/12 06/23/12 06/24/12 06/26/12 06/27/12 06/30/12 07/02/12 07/03/12 07/04/12 07/07/12 07/08/12 07/09/12 07/11/12 07/15/12 07/18/12 07/19/12 07/21/12 07/22/12 07/25/12 07/26/12 07/28/12 08/01/12 08/02/12 08/07/12 08/11/12 08/19/12 08/22/12 08/24/12 1.92 46.63 1.00 8.16 107.61 3.31 3.50 0.60 197.40 151.60 160.21 2.37 3.00 1.59 3.39 2.31 90.27 1.40 3.44 85.16 107.78 2.60 148.84 Page 50 .19 1.16 107.TOP (TURBO-PROP ONLY) DATE HAIL RAIN RECON OTHER DAILY RUNNING MAINTENANCEDRY ICE TOTAL TOTAL (Contractor Expense) (pounds) 0.72 80.23 49.40 146.84 55.16 107.91 99.60 187.04 1.91 97.00 0.21 1.80 102.80 1.19 2.31 42.01 5.89 3.99 7.86 2.16 37.39 70.20 144.89 3.51 1.00 37.23 81.67 2.00 1.26 TOTALS 82.40 152.53 2.63 1.17 59.20 24.43 0.565 TOTAL AgI RELEASED BY PA-31 AIRCRAFT: TOTAL DRY ICE USED ON PROJECT: TOTAL FLIGHT HOURS CONTRACTED: FLIGHT HOURS FLOWN TO DATE: FLIGHT HOURS REMAINING: 24.41 97.94 4.51 1.80 1.16 1.00 1.62 8.04 21.60 7.60 28.01 32.70 94.60 198.80 354.42 3.39 1.State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report APPENDIX A District II – Cloud Top Aircraft.19 1.43 6.60 37.40 67.00 0.43 6.80 1.80 123.11 2.41 96.20 72.61 3.00 313.65 88.11 2.33 4.19 2.53 2.76 2.88 64.00 1.50 25.77 169.52 69.27 1.14 76.00 0.01 7.55 40.69 37.16 107.26 0.80 163.50 1.00 107.88 2.90 107.80 0.00 175.22 19.565 grams 4.67 0.16 107.16 0.68 2. Turbo-Prop 2012 DISTRICT II FLIGHT SUMMARY CLOUD .60 158.68 2.19 2.88 2.00 0.33 4.00 293.767.00 119.21 2.21 4.41 66.20 200.80 105.63 16.00 200.20 pounds 145.67 3.40 110.21 2.40 144.86 2.59 3.00 0.99 1.58 3.60 124.10 2.42 3.10 2.97 96.00 107.69 3.04 1.54 4.99 1.99 7.39 2.31 93.94 2.31 90.39 1.60 93.80 57.21 60.76 2.67 3.21 4.57 4.44 0.

00 0 0 2.00 0.40 2.59 1.00 0.37 0.00 0.00 0.05 TOTALS 3.95 14.95 14.95 14.95 14.95 14.00 14.40 2.00 0.95 14.00 0.95 14.05 Page 51 .00 0.State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report APPENDIX A District II – Cloud Top Aircraft.95 14.59 1.95 14.46 10.00 0.00 0.95 14.00 0.00 0.59 3.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.86 12.18 4.95 GENERATORS ONE TWO (grams burned) FLARES (grams) 120 60 200 780 200 760 06/23/12 06/24/12 07/09/12 07/19/12 07/28/12 08/18/12 2.95 14.04 2.TOP (CESSNA) DATE HAIL RAIN RECON OTHER DAILY TOTAL RUNNING MAINTENANCE GENERATORS TOTAL (Contractor ONE TWO Expense) (hours burned) 2. Cessna 2012 DISTRICT II FLIGHT SUMMARY CLOUD .95 0.95 14.95 14.95 14.77 8.69 2.00 2.00 0.95 14.69 2.95 14.95 14.58 11.120 TOTAL AgI RELEASED BY C-340 AIRCRAFT: TOTAL FLIGHT HOURS CONTRACTED: FLIGHT HOURS FLOWN TO DATE: FLIGHT HOURS REMAINING: 2.00 0.95 14.00 0.95 14.00 0.00 0.00 14.120 grams 50.90 14.95 35.18 4.95 14.00 0.95 14.04 2.00 0.05 0.00 0.95 14.

570 lbs maximum gross weight 3.200 feet per minute all engine rate of climb 190 feet per minute single engine rate of climb 1. 200HP engines Portable supplemental oxygen system 200 hp per engine at sea level 215 hp at 12.200 lbs typical empty weight 1. wingspan Page 52 .030 feet for takeoff over 50-ft obstruction 750 feet for takeoff ground roll 950 feet landing ground roll 28 ft. 11 in.000 feet single engine service ceiling 1. length 9 ft. height 38 ft.370 lbs typical useful load Turbocharged. 07 in. 11 in.State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report APPENDIX B Piper Seneca II 4.000 ft 225 mph max cruise speed 185 mph recommended cruise speed 70 mph stall in landing configuration 93-123 gallons usable fuel capacity 25.000 feet all engine service ceiling 14.

800 feet all engine service ceiling 15.790 lbs typical useful load Pressurized cabin Turbocharged. 01 in.615 feet for takeoff ground roll 1. length 12 ft.State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report APPENDIX B Cessna 340A 6.290 lbs maximum gross weight 4.175 feet for takeoff over 50-ft obstruction 1.500 lbs typical empty weight 1. height 38 ft. 04 in.650 feet per minute all engine rate of climb 315 feet per minute single engine rate of climb 2. wingspan Page 53 . 07 in.850 feet land over 50-ft obstruction 770 feet landing ground roll 34 ft. intercooled 310HP engines 281 mph max cruise speed 263 mph recommended cruise speed 75 mph stall in landing configuration 183-203 gallons usable fuel capacity 29.800 feet single engine service ceiling 1.

982 lbs typical useful load 620HP per engine 283 kts max cruise speed 269 kts recommended cruise speed 382 gallons usable fuel capacity 31.State of North Dakota • Atmospheric Resource Board • State Water Commission 2012 NDCMP Final Operations Report APPENDIX B Piper Cheyenne II Full de-icing capabilities Turboprop twin engine PT6A-28 engines 9.430 feet landing ground roll 34 ft.600 feet all engine service ceiling 14. height 42 ft. wingspan Page 54 . 08 in. 08 in.980 feet for takeoff over 50-ft obstruction 1.000 lbs gross weight 5.710 feet per minute all engine rate of climb 660 feet per minute single engine rate of climb 1.480 feet land over 50-ft obstruction 1.410 feet for takeoff ground roll 2. 09 in.018 lbs typical empty weight 3.600 feet single engine service ceiling 2. length 12 ft.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful