DRILLING

BASIC
TRAINING MANUAL
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© Union Oil of California, dba Unocal 2001 All rights reserved

Intro
Pressure Basics (The U-Tube) Kicks & Shut-in Drillers Method Gauge Questions Pressure Lag Time LOT & Well Design Shallow Hazards Equipment SBM

Special Problems

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Drilling Basic Table Of Contents

SECTION • • • • • • • • • • • • Introduction Pressure Basics U-Tube Boyles Law / Inversion ECD Surge / Swab Pressure Kicks Cause & Detection Shut-In Drills Drillers Method Kill Weight Mud Other Well Control Methods

SLIDE 2-11 12-27 28-35 36-43 44-45 46-50 51-59 60-62 63-66 67-103 104-105 106-109 • • • • • • • • • •

SECTION

SLIDE

Gauge Questions 110-139 Pressure Lag Time 140-169 Well Design / LOT’s 170-207 Shallow Hazards 208-230 Equipment 231-250 Synthetic Fluids 251-269 Special Problems 270-283 Formulas 284-285 Contact Info 286 Appendix – Glossary – Homework – Simulator Test Sheet – Instructor Evaluation Sheet 3

DRILLING TRAINING GROUP
Rick Dolan - (281) 287-7215 - richard.dolan@unocal.com

Benny Mason - (281) 287-7545 - bmason@unocal.com

George Grundt - (281) 287-7254 - ggrundt@unocal.com
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GOALS OF THE COURSE
• To increase our understanding ∗ Of the U-Tube ∗ Of the Driller’s Method ∗ Working together- Teamwork ∗ This is not designed as a Certification Course • To develop (Modify) our approach ∗ Dynamic ∗ Plan (think) ahead ∗ Think smart - Learn smart / Think out of the box don’t be a robot and blindly follow. • To comply with regulations ∗ Unocal’s ∗ Government

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TRAINING GROUNDRULES • Stay focused on the agenda • Everyone is responsible to participate • One conversation at a time • All ideas get equal consideration ∗ Respect differences ∗ There may not be “just” one answer • Be on time 6 .

Ideas brought up that we are not ready for.The more we work together the more we all learn.you will pass the test • Test .work as a team (by table) • FOR THE MONEY.Game show .win prizes • Homework .DO IT .written/simulator • Relax. 7 . • Parking Lot .they are yours • Notes .write in the book or paper • Problem solving .IMPORTANT DETAILS • Manuals .

Exactly @ 8 AM Daily End .OTHER IMPORTANT DETAILS Emergency Exits No Smoking Restrooms Mobile Phones/Beepers Daily Start .Approximately 4:30 PM Lunch Breaks 8 .

and high pressure (12. The potential for well control problems and blowouts is ever present. But well control problems can lead to a loss of something more valuable than money. 9 . Environmental problems that result from a well control event add to these costs. They can occur in big and small companies. Well control problems are not particular. development or workovers. HUMAN LIFE.000 psi) or low pressure (15 psi).WHY WE ARE HERE • The oil industry spends millions of dollars every year on well control problems. exploration. deep or shallow wells.

10 . to work as a team. and get back to basics.WHY WE ARE HERE The consequences of failure are severe. Most of these problems were created by a failure to use “BEST PRACTICES” such as: • Communications/Teamwork • Understanding • Alertness • Equipment We’re here to try to eliminate well control problems all together by reminding you to use “BEST PRACTICES”.

your assistant.” Assistant Don thinks he hears.and leaves the area right after you." He shrugs. 11 . Refer to attachment for the results. Turn the machine "on". "Don't turn it off.turn it off. "Don. you yell to Don. Receive an important call and have to leave work to go home.Communications You are the chief airplane washer at the company hangar and you: Hook high pressure hose up to the soap suds machine. As you depart for home.

Intro Pressure Basics (The U-Tube) Kicks & Shut-in Drillers Method Gauge Questions Pressure Lag Time LOT & Well Design Shallow Hazards Equipment SBM Special Problems 12 .

Well Control is still as simple as a playground teeter-totter. Hydrostatic Pressure. Well Control 0psi 0psi Hydrostatic = 5000 psi Hydrostatic = 5000 psi BHP = 5000 psi 13 . Gradients.Keep in mind this simple picture.With all the emphasis that we place on mathematics and calculations. Volumes and Force . As we continue learning how to calculate BHP.

Pressure The total force felt downward is 3 lbs but is this a pressure? 1 lb 1 lb 1 lb 1 3 2 0 lb 14 .

in. 1 3 2 0 lb 15 .Pressure The force felt downward is still 3 lbs but it is felt over a total surface area of 1 square inch. Is this pressure? 1 lb 1 lb 1 lb 1” 1” Force Area = 3 lbs = 3 psi 1 sq.

Pressure In our industry. For now lets talk about fluid at rest. Fluid at rest creates a pressure that we call Hydrostatic Pressure. We will describe most of these pressures in our Well Control class. hydro (Fluid) static (at rest) 1’ 1” 1” PSIhydrostatic = Fluid Weightppg x 0. when we are measuring pressure it is usually pressure created with a fluid.052 x Vertical Height of fluid Weight of 0 lb Fluid 16 .

5 gallons of fluid. If I now divide the 7.052? 1” 1” 1 ft. we find that a column of fluid 1in X 1in X 1ft tall contains 0.12” 12” What is 0. we section the base into square inches. 12” 12” X 12” = 144 in2 A one cubic foot container will hold 7. Because we are measuring our pressure in square inches.5 gallons by 144 square inches. 17 .052 gal.052 gallons of fluid. = 0.

52 psift 1 ft. the pressure increases by . So.052 gallon container with 10 ppg fluid. = 0.052gal/sq.052 = .052 gal.052 to find the hydrostatic pressure (psi) exerted by one foot of this fluid.Gradient If our fluid density is measured in ppg you can then multiply the fluid weight (ppg) by 0.052 x 1ft If we fill the 0. This is called the “pressure gradient” (G) of the fluid or the pressure change per foot (psi/ft). Gradientpsi/ft = Fluid Weightppg x 0./ft = Pressureft 10 x 0. in. This means that for every foot of mud in the well. Gradientpsi/ft x TVDft = Pressurehydrostatic 18 . what will be the pressure? 1” 1” 10ppg x 0.52 psi.

TVD vs MD Because fluid density is a function of gravitational force and gravity is a vertical component. with the weight of each block pushing vertically downward on those underneath it. the bottomhole hydrostatic pressure is the sum of all the vertical components. The sketch of a slant hole helps us see why this is true. that must be used in pressure calculations. From this. It shows that the mud column can be thought of as a stack of blocks. not its measured length. we see that it is the vertical height (or depth) of a mud column. 10’ 11’ 19 .

052 or EMW = Press.) G = P ÷ TVD Bottom Hole Pressure = Hydrostatic Pressure + Gauge 20 .) = Pressure (psi) ÷ Depth (ft.052 EMW = G ÷ 0.052) •Gradient (psi/ft. ÷ (TVD x 0.052 X TVD •Hydrostatic Pressure (psi) = Gradient (psi/ft) X Depth (ft.052 •Equivalent Mud Weight (ppg) = Gradient (psi/ft) ÷ 0.Pressure Equations •Hydrostatic Pressure (psi) = MW (ppg) X 0.) HP = G X TVD •Gradient (psi/ft) = Fluid Weight (ppg) X 0.052 G = MW X 0.052 X Depth (ft) HP = PPG X 0.

052 X TVDft Pressurepsi If you want to solve for MW or TVD. fill in the known information and the equation is written for you.052 X TVDft 21 .Equation Triangle Pressurepsi = MWppg X 0. MWppg X 0.

000 ft.052 X 11000 On your calculator you would key in: • 0. fill in the known information and the equation is written for you. Hole TVD is 11.Equation Triangle If you want to solve for MW or TVD.052 x11000 ft MWppg = 500 psi 500 572 MW TVDft ft ? ppg X 0. 1) SIDPP is 500 psi.052 x 11000 = 572 • 500 ÷ 572 = . How much MW increase is needed to kill the well? .87ppg 22 .87 _______ppg Pressure 500 psipsi MWppg = 0.

fill in the known information and the equation is written for you. 1) While pulling out of the hole.052 100 .052 = .5 psi/ft • 100 ÷ . If your overbalance is 100 psi.6 x 0.Equation Triangle If you want to solve for MW or TVD.052 X TVD ppg X 0.5 FT = ? ft MW 9. how far can the fluid level drop before you are underbalance? _______ft 200 Pressure 100psi psi FT = 100 psi 9.6ppg x 0.6 ppg fluid. you forgot to fill the hole. using 9.6ppg 0.052 On your calculator you would key in: • 9.5 = 200ft 23 .

9 ppg Abnormal Pressured formations > 8. If you make a hole in the bottom sponge nothing happens. If you make a hole in the bottom sponge: 24 .9 ppg 8.4 ppg > Normal Pressured formations < 8.FORMATION PRESSURES 8.4 ppg > Subnormal Pressured formations As the weight of the sponges increases. the fluid is squeezed out. If the bottom sponge is wrapped in plastic (sealed) then the fluid cannot escape and becomes pressurized by the weight of the sponges above.

000 = .052 = 8.500 psi at 8.052 = 10.000’ Formation pressure of 4.56 ÷ 0.000 = .500 ÷ 8.45 psi/ft .8 ppg B 4.500 ÷ 10.FORMATION PRESSURES Normal.000’ 4.7 ppg 10. Abnormal & Subnormal 8.000’ would be considered Abnormal pressure! P form atio n A =4 500 psi 25 .56 psi/ft .45 ÷ 0.

CHARGED SANDS COMMUNICATION TO SURFACE CAN BE HARMFUL TO YOUR WELL BEING! Poor cement practices can lead to communication outside the casing. 26 .

465 psi/ft = 1906 psi MW b = 8.477 psi/ft PB = 4000’ x .465 psi/ft = 1860 psi PA = 4100’ x .9 ppg MW a = 8.2 ppg 27 .Up Structure Locations-Normally Pressured Fields WELL A WELL B WELL C WELL D 3600’ 3900’ 4000’ 4100’ E AL H S “NORMAL” GRADIENT ALL ZONES D C S GA B GAS/ WATER CONTACT A ND SA E AL H S PD= PC= PB= 1860 psi G = 1860 / 3600ft = .9 ppg MW C = 9.9 ppg PC = PB= 1860 psi G = 1860 / 3900ft = .517 psi/ft MW D = 9.

we have a u-tube in effect.Tube While drilling a well.U. 28 . 10.000 ft The gauge should be Bottom Hole Pressure. The workstring and the annulus form our u-tube.

U.Tube If I started filling the glass tube with a fluid that weighed 9.6 ppg where would the fluid go and what would the gauge read? 10 ft 9.052 x 10ft = 5 29 .6ppg x 0.

6ppg x 0. If I then put another few gallons of a 12 ppg fluid in the tube what would happen and what would the gauge read? 10 ft 5 = 9.U.052 x 10ft 30 .Tube Two columns of fluid connected at the bottom that will balance each other in a static condition.

2 ppg 4.500 ft of 13.6 ppg 10.U.Tube Calculate Bottom Hole Pressure AIR Practice 1.000 ft of 10.2 ppg 6000 ft 6000 ft TVD 31 .

000 ft of 10 ppg 5.500 ft of 10 ppg 5.6 ppg 6000 ft 500 ft of 6 ppg 6000 ft TVD 32 .U.000 ft of 9.Tube Calculate Bottom Hole Pressure Practice 1.

5 ppg 6000 ft 6000 ft TVD 33 .U.Tube Calculate how far the slug has dropped.200 ft of 12 ppg 6.000 ft of 10. Practice 1.

000 ft of 12.5 ppg 6.000 ft of 10 ppg fluid 6000 ft BHP = 6000 ft TVD 34 . pressure will be created. 6.If there is no balance between the two columns of fluid and the fluid cannot escape.Tube Practice = Gauge Press. U.

Well Control Remember: 0psi 780psi Hydrostatic = 3900 psi Hydrostatic = 3120 psi BHP = 3900 psi 35 .

Uncontrolled Expansion 0’ 600-1200’ LONG 500’ 40’ LONG 1000’ 20’ LONG 1500’ 13.5’ LONG MUD 2000’ 10 LONG 36 .

GAS EXPANSION V2 = (P1 X V1) ÷ P2 P1 = 5000 psi V1 = 10 bbls Hydrostatic = (9. 2500 psi P2 = Where? 20bbls bbls V2 = ? 10 bbls gas New Hydrostatic (9.052) X 1000 = 500 psi New Hydrostatic = (9. ? bbls Gas Top of gas P2 = 500 Where? psi at 100 ft.6 X 0.052) X 10.052) X 100 = 50 psi P 2 = 500 Where? psi ? bbls Gas 2 ? bbls bbls Top of gas V2 2 = 100 at 1000 ft.6 X 0. ? bbls V2 = 1000 bbls 37 .6 X 0.052) X 5000 = 2500 psi ? bbls Gas Top of gas at 5000 ft.000 = 5000 psi New Hydrostatic = (9.6 X 0.

P2 = Hydrostatic + Gauge Pressure V2 is the new size of the kick at it’s new position in the well. P1 = BHP V1 is the size of kick V1 = Barrels P2 is the pressure of the gas at it’s new position in the well.Equation Triangle P1 x V1 = P2 X V2 P1 is the pressure that the gas is under. V2 = Barrels P1 x V1 P2 X V2 38 .

7 = P2 14.401 bbls On your calculator you would key in: • 5000 x 10 = (50.7 = 3.Equation Triangle P1 x V1 = P2 X V2 P1 = 5000 psi V1 = 10 bbls P2 = 14.7 psi V2 = ? 5000 P1 x X V110 5000 X 10 14.7 X ? V 2 39 .000) ÷ 14.

7 psi • V1 = 30 bbls • P2 = 12.000 = 7.4 ppg WBM • The well unloaded 30 bbls at Bottoms Up.057 bbl kick on Bottom Can you detect a kick this size? 40 6” Open Hole to TD@12.052 x 12.4 x 0.Volume At Surface • 12.000 .740 psi • V2 = 0. • P1 = 14.

052 X 9.6= 4930 psi 250 Gauge Press. + 4930 Hydrostatic 5180 psi Gas Press. 143 ft 41 .PRESSURE INVERSION 250 250 Gauge Press. + 2500 Hydrostatic to shoe 2750 psi at casing shoe Hydrostatic = (10000 – 143) X 0.

Hydrostatic = 5000 X 0.6 = 2430 psi 42 .052 X 9.052 X 9.PRESSURE INVERSION 2680 5180 psi at shoe .2500 Hydrostatic to shoe 2680 Gauge Press.6 = 2500 psi 5180 Gas Press. + 2430 Hydrostatic 7610 psi Bottom Hole 5180 143 ft Hydrostatic = (5000 – 143) X 0.

PRESSURE INVERSION 5180 143 ft 5180 Gas Press. + 2430 Hydrostatic at shoe 7610 psi at shoe 5180 Hydrostatic = (10000 – 143) X 0.6 = 4921 psi 5180 Gas Press. + 4921 Hydrostatic 10.052 X 9.101 psi Bottom Hole 43 .

315 ÷ 10.200 psi Circulating BHP = 5.052 = 5.000 X 0.ECD SPM = 100 2300 Hydrostatic = 10 X 10.000 ft 115 44 .200 + 115 Friction loss = 5.052 = 10.315 psi in surface lines = 150 psi Annular Open ECD = 5.22 ppg Mud Weight = 10 ppg 2150 0 Drillstring friction loss = 745 psi Friction loss at bit = 1290 psi Annular friction loss (AFL) = 115 psi 1405 TVD = 10.000 ÷ 0.

200 + 2.200 psi Mud Weight = 10 ppg 2300 SPM = 100 Circulating BHP = 5.000 ft 2035 45 .052 = 13.035 = 7.91 ppg Annular Closed Friction loss in surface lines = 150 psi 2150 0 Drillstring friction loss = 745 psi Friction loss at bit = 1290 psi Annular friction loss (AFL) = 115 psi 745 TVD = 10.ECD Reverse Circulate Hydrostatic = 10 X 10.000 X 0.235 psi ECD = 7.000 ÷ 0.052 = 5.235 ÷ 10.

000 X 10 X 0.100 psi 10.052 = 5.000 ft 46 .200 psi Formation Pressure = 5. 10 ppg Swab Pressure BHP = 10. Bottom hole pressure is equal to Hydrostatic Pressure.Swab Pressure In a static condition. As the pipe is pulled out of the hole. friction creates a swab pressure that is felt upward.

100 psi 10. In this example.050 psi Formation Pressure = 5. fluid in the formation can enter the well. the swab pressure created is 50 psi more than the overbalance.052) .000 ft 47 .150 psi = 5. 10 ppg Swab Pressure = 150 psi BHP = (10.000 X 10 X 0. This would let formation fluid into the well.Swab Pressure If the swab pressure is greater than the overbalance.

000 X 10 X 0. A flow check would not show any flow. BUT THERE IS A KICK IN THE WELL!! BHP = 10. the fluid that was swabbed in is still in the well. and the overbalance is returned. the friction is lost. This influx would have little or no migration and no noticeable expansion. 10 ppg Even though the overbalance is restored.052 = 5.000 ft 48 .200 psi Formation Pressure = 5.100 psi 10.Swab Pressure When the pipe movement is stopped.

000 ft .Factors that create swab pressure are: • Clearance 10 ppg Swab Pressure • Yield Point of mud • Pulling Speed of Pipe • Length of Drillstring 49 10.

Surge Pressure Surge Pressure is a downward force create by lowering the drillstring and creating friction as the mud is displaced from the hole. 10 ppg Factors that create surge pressure are: • Clearance • Yield Point of mud • Running Speed of Pipe • Length of Drillstring High surge pressure can cause the formations to fracture and lost circulation to occur.000 ft . This surge pressure increases BHP. Surge Pressure = 150 psi 50 10.

Intro Pressure Basics (The U-Tube) Kicks & Shut-in Drillers Method Gauge Questions Pressure Lag Time LOT & Well Design Shallow Hazards Equipment SBM Special Problems 51 .

JUST LIKE DRILLING • What are the trends • How do you recognize the trends • Teamwork • Think and react 52 .TRENDS IN KICK DECTECTION.

Kicks Cause THE MAIN CONDITION THAT ALLOWS A KICK TO OCCUR: THE PRESSURE IN THE WELL BORE BECOMES LESS THAN THE PRESSURE IN THE FORMATION 53 .

Use Pressure Hunting Techniques STUDY OFFSET WELLS! 54 . Measurement of fill-up volume when pulling drill string (and of displacement volume while running) TRIP TANK! 2. 3.Decreasing Occurrence 1. questioning attitude by Foreman. Good engineering/good well procedures and alert.proper well design.Understand the Geology. Drilling into an unexpected abnormal formation pressure. Failure to keep hole full of drilling fluid. Drilling into zones of known pressure with mud weight too low. ALERTNESS Careful engineering.

TRIP TANK! Measurement of fill-up volume when pulling drill string. ASAP! Measurement of fill-up volume when pulling drill string. not rate of loss is critical in well control. Lost Circulation (Fluid level.Decreasing Occurrence 4. Mud weight high enough to drill but not to trip. TRIP TANK! 55 . Careful engineering.Understand the Geology CASE OFF LOST CIRC. 6. Unloading mud by pulling balled drilling assembly.) 5. proper well design.

8% • WORKOVERS .GULF COAST STATISTICS FROM 1960 TO 1996 THERE WERE 1.24% 56 .22% • COMPLETIONS .206 KICKS REPORTED A BLOWOUT OCCURS FOR ABOUT EVERY 110 KICKS • EXPLORATION DRILLING .30% • DEVELOPMENT DRILLING .

0.3% • CIRCULATING .GULF COAST STATISTICS FROM 1960 TO 1996 DRILLING STATISTICS • TRIPPING OUT .35% • OUT OF THE HOLE .4% • TRIPPING IN .37% • DRILLING .5% 57 .

Increase in Flow-line discharge 2.Real time LWD response. Put well on Trip Tank to check small flows. Increase in pit volume 3. HOW TO CHECK IT OUT Stop pumps & check for flow Stop pumps & check for flow Stop pumps & check for flow Notes: Don’t assume that a small flow is not a kick. Drilling break. when drilling top of hole at high ROP CHECK FOR FLOW ON CONNECTIONS 58 .DETECTION OF KICKS WHILE DRILLING SIGN 1. Observe well long enough to be sure.

59 .Flow Checking If the well continues to flow after the pumps are off. the main three are: • Unbalanced U-Tube • Ballooning or Fracture Charging • There is a kick in the well ! However. it is recommended to SHUT THE WELL IN until it is determined the flow is not caused by underbalance. then: SHUT THE WELL IN There are several reasons which might cause the well to flow with the pumps turned off.

Start moving pipe if reasonable. CP for pipe Movement AHEAD OF TIME 60 . 4. above rotary table. 8.J. 5. Pull up and position T. 2. Decide on max. When well has been shut-in and readable pressures have been observed. Check for flow. 7. Close annular preventer (“Hydril”) AND Open HCR valve. NOTES: 1. Toolpusher and Drilling Foreman on floor. 6. Read/record SIDPP and SICP. 2. Shut down pump. 3. WHILE DRILLING 1.SHUT-IN PROCEDURE KEEP PATHS ON CHOKE MANIFOLD CLOSED In general. do NOT open well to verify entry or check its rate. the use of a float while drilling is recommended. Read/record gain in pit volume.

6. Close annular preventer (“Hydril”) AND Open HCR valve. 9. NOTES: 1. Install full-opening safety valve in open position. Set slips with T. 7. positioned above rotary table. Install inside BOP If needed in control procedure. 8. Put on Top Drive and open safety valve. Read/record gain in pit volume. Close safety valve. Start moving pipe if reasonable. Read/record gain in pit volume. do NOT open well to verify entry or check its rate.SHUT-IN PROCEDURE WHILE TRIPPING 1. 4. When well has been shut-in and readable pressures have been observed. Decide on max. 61 .J. 5. 2. CP for pipe movement AHEAD OF TIME 3. Toolpusher and Drilling Foreman on floor. 3. 2.

works with G&G on pore pressure and fracture gradient prediction. maintain and ensure all equipment working properly Drilling Engineer . Rig Crews . 62 . Also provides technical support to Drilling Foreman. Drilling Superintendent .Execute the plan as directed by the Foreman.Manages and directs all activities at the rig site.ROLES & RESPONSIBLITIES Drilling Foreman .Provides technical support and coordinates the activities by Foreman and Engineer.Designs well.

Gives you information that may be useful during a kill. 63 • • • • • Establishes Roles and Responsibilities of Crews. Keep kick detection in everyone’s mind. Gives you confidence if you actually are in a well control situation. Drills are not a competitive sporting event. A five-minute drill indicates that your crew is conducting these drills and hopefully improving. A 30-second drill indicates that you are not doing them properly.DRILLS • • DRILLS SHOULD BE CONDUCTED AT AN OPTIMUM TIME. Gives you practice with the actual equipment. .

KICK DRILL Pit Drill/Flow Drill Action Initiate Drill Lift flow sensor or Pit float to indicate “kick” Immediately record start time. Driller/Crew Time is stopped. pick up off bottom and stop pumps. Record this time in the Drilling Report. Conduct flow check. Driller to stop drilling. Responsible Party Unocal Foreman/Rig Manager Recognize “Kick” Driller/Logger Logger should notify Driller of indicator. Initiate Action Unocal Foreman/Rig Manager Notify drill crew that the well is “flowing” (Drill) Simulate Shut-in Move to BOP Panel. 64 .

Conduct flow check. Move to BOP panel. H2S drills are conducted the same as above.TRIP DRILL Pit Drill/Flow Drill Action Initiate Drill Lift flow sensor or Pit float to indicate “kick” Immediately record start time. Responsible Party Unocal Foreman/Rig Manager Recognize “Kick” Driller/Logger Logger should notify Driller of indicator. Record this time in the Drilling Report. Stab FOSV and close valve. 65 . Latch elevators or make-up top drive and remove slips. Initiate Action Unocal Foreman/Rig Manager Notify drill crew that the well is “flowing” (Drill) Simulate Shut-In Driller/Crew Position tool joint above rotary and set slips. however upon notification that the drill is in progress the crew will don breathing apparatus before taking any further action. Time is stopped. Driller to stop drilling. pick up off bottom and stop pumps.

CHOKE DRILL 1. make a definite change on the Casing gauge (50 -100 psi) by opening or closing the choke. This is PLT (Pressure Lag Time) 66 .up of the Driller’s Method holding this pressure constant. Trap a small amount of pressure against the choke. After moving to the Drillpipe Pressure gauge and allowing the pressures in the well to stabilize. 2. Record the time required to see this pressure change reflect on the Drillpipe gauge. 3. Before drilling out each casing shoe. Practice proper start.

Intro Pressure Basics (The U-Tube) Kicks & Shut-in Drillers Method Gauge Questions Pressure Lag Time LOT & Well Design Shallow Hazards Equipment SBM Special Problems 67 .

68 .300 500 DP 300 CP 500 CLOSE OPEN Well is shut in and pressures allowed to stabilize.000 ft. BHP 5. Kill the well using the Drillers Method.500 TVD = 10. Shut-in Drillpipe pressure + DP Hydrostatic = Bottom Hole Pressure.

200 psi BHP = 5.052 = 5.200 + 300 = 5. BHP 5.000 ft.500 69 .300 500 DP 300 CP 500 CLOSE OPEN Mud weight = 10ppg 10.000 X 10 X 0.500 psi TVD = 10.

000 ft.300 psi on DP TVD = 10. KRP @40 spm = 1.000psi ICP = 1000 + 300 = 1.500 70 .300 500 DP 300 CP 500 CLOSE OPEN From your last “choke drill” we know. BHP 5.

the Drillpipe Pressure should be held constant to keep BHP constant. If the Casing Pressure is held constant when starting. BHP 5.500 71 .1300 500 DP 1300 CP 500 CLOSE OPEN Casing Pressure is held constant as pumps are brought up to speed by opening the choke. then BHP is held constant. Once pumps are up to speed.

BHP 5. To keep BHP constant.1300 550 DP 1300 CP 550 CLOSE OPEN As the bubble begins to expand it pushes mud out of the hole causing a loss of hydrostatic. Drillpipe pressure must be kept constant.500 72 .

1300 650 DP 1300 CP 650 CLOSE OPEN BHP 5.500 73 .

1300 625 DP 1300 CP 625 CLOSE OPEN BHP 5.500 74 .

1300 600 DP 1300 CP 600 CLOSE OPEN BHP 5.500 75 .

500 76 .1300 550 DP 1300 CP 550 CLOSE OPEN BHP 5.

500 77 .1300 700 DP 1300 CP 700 CLOSE OPEN BHP 5.

500 78 .1300 1000 DP 1300 CP 1000 CLOSE OPEN BHP 5.

500 79 .1300 1750 DP 1300 CP 1750 CLOSE OPEN BHP 5.

1300 1000 DP 1300 CP 1000 CLOSE OPEN BHP 5.500 80 .

1300 400 DP 1300 CP 400 CLOSE OPEN BHP 5.500 81 .

500 82 .1300 300 DP 1300 CP 350 CLOSE OPEN Once the influx is circulated out. casing pressure should be held constant while the pumps are brought down and the well shutin. BHP 5.

BHP 5.500 83 . Once you are confident that the annulus is clean line up the pumps on Kill Weight Fluid.300 300 DP 300 CP 300 CLOSE OPEN Compare the Drillpipe and Casing pressure gauges and confirm that they are equal. If Casing pressure is greater than Drillpipe pressure then you may not have all the influx out of the well.

1300 300 DP 1300 CP 300 CLOSE OPEN Hold Casing pressure constant as you bring the pumps up to 40 spm. BHP 5.500 84 . Continue to hold Casing pressure constant as you displace the drillstring. Drillpipe pressure should drop as hydrostatic in the drillpipe increases.

500 85 .1250 300 DP 1250 CP 300 CLOSE OPEN BHP 5.

500 86 .1200 300 DP 1200 CP 300 CLOSE OPEN BHP 5.

1150 300 DP 1150 CP 300 CLOSE OPEN BHP 5.500 87 .

500 88 .1100 300 DP 1100 CP 300 CLOSE OPEN BHP 5.

BHP 5. Casing pressure should drop as Kill Weight Fluid displaces the annulus.500 89 . Continue circulating holding Drillpipe pressure constant at FCP.1060 300 DP 1060 CP 300 CLOSE OPEN Once the Drillpipe is full of Kill Weight Fluid the hydrostatic will remain constant.

1060 300 DP 1060 CP 300 CLOSE OPEN BHP 5.500 90 .

500 91 .1060 250 DP 1060 CP 250 CLOSE OPEN BHP 5.

1060 200 DP 1060 CP 200 CLOSE OPEN BHP 5.500 92 .

1060 150 DP 1060 CP 150 CLOSE OPEN BHP 5.500 93 .

1060 100 DP 1060 CP 100 CLOSE OPEN BHP 5.500 94 .

550 95 .1110 50 DP 1110 CP 50 CLOSE OPEN BHP = HP + CP= 5.550psi BHP 5.500 + 50 = 5.

shut the well in. Open the choke and check for flow.0 0 DP 0 CP 0 CLOSE OPEN After confirming that Kill Weight Fluid is back to surface. Drillpipe and Casing pressure should read 0 psi.500 96 . BHP 5. When opening the Annular beware of gas trapped under the element.

DRILLERS METHOD FIRST STEP ( Remove Influx) > Monitor shut-in well while preparing to start circulating using original weight fluid. THIS SPEED IS TO BE HELD CONSTANT. 97 . > Hold Casing Pressure constant a few more minutes until DP pressure stabilizes. If all influx is out of well the pressure should be almost the same. > Hold Casing Pressure constant while bringing pump up to kill rate speed. When pump speed is down to the point that the pump is barely running: -Shut pump off (first) -Finish closing choke > Read Pressures. > Hold Casing Pressure constant while bringing pump speed down. Record Drillpipe & Casing pressures. > Read DP Pressure and hold this pressure constant until the kick is circulated out of the hole.

> Read pressures. 98 . THIS SPEED IS TO BE HELD CONSTANT. > Open preventers if well is dead.DRILLERS METHOD SECOND STEP (Change Fluid Weight) > Calculate kill weight and increase fluid weight to that value. > Hold Casing Pressure constant until drill string volume has been pumped. > Hold Casing Pressure constant while bringing pump up to kill rate speed. > Check for flow through choke line. > Read DP Pressure and hold this pressure constant until fluid returns are at kill weight. > Shut down pump and shut in well. Should be zero.

BHP = HYD + GAUGE 800 1000 Choke Position Open Closed • If the kick was larger in size would DP and CP change? If the kick was salt water or gas would DP and CP change? If a gas bubble began to migrate.6 ppg • • 10. how would you control bottom hole press? If the hole size was smaller would it change DP and CP? • 9.000 ft Formation Pressure= 6000 psi 99 .

BHP = HYD + GAUGE 1500 1100 Choke Position Pumps are constant at 40 spm.6 ppg What happens to hydrostatic in the DP? If the DP gauge is kept constant. what happens to BHP? If the CP gauge is kept constant. what happens to BHP? 10.000 ft Formation Pressure= 6000 psi 100 . what happens to hydrostatic pressure in the annulus? 9. Open Closed As the bubble expands.

what is happening to the hydrostatic in the annulus? If CP is held constant what happens to BHP? If DP pressure is held constant what happens to BHP? 10.000 ft Formation Pressure= 6000 psi 101 .BHP = HYD + GAUGE 1300 800 Choke Position Pump strokes are constant at 40 spm Open Closed As KWF is being pumped.6 ppg If the annulus is clean. what is happening to the hydrostatic pressure in the DP? 9.

what is happening to the hydrostatic in the DP? 9.700 780 BHP = HYD + GAUGE Choke Position Pump strokes are constant at 40 spm Open Closed As KWF is pumped up the annulus. what happens to BHP? If you hold CP constant.000 ft Formation Pressure= 6000 psi 102 .6 ppg As KWF is pumped up the annulus. what happens to BHP? 10. what is happening to the hydrostatic in the annulus? If you hold DP constant.

000 ft. the compressibility of the oil will increase the lag time. before the choke adjustments were reflected on the drillpipe gauge. are recommended. 103 TD @ 23. With SBM/OBM.1600 1500 1000 Pressure Lag Time A closing/opening adjustment on the choke would take 23 seconds to travel down the annulus and 23 seconds to travel up the drillpipe before reflecting on the drillpipe gauge with water base mud. On one documented well. prior to drilling out the casing shoe. with casing set at 14.000’ it took 3-4 min. To get an estimate of what the lag time can be. . choke drills.

052 ÷ TVD =5276 ÷ 0.68 KMW 12.CALCULATION OF KILL WEIGHT Given: DEPTH (TVD) ORIGINAL MUD WEIGHT SHUT-IN DP PRESSURE BHP = 8000’ = 11 PPG = 700 PSI = SIDPP + Hydrostatic = 700 + (11 X 0. 6 ppg or 12.052 ÷ 8000 = 12.052 X 8000) = 700 + 4576 = 5276 psi = BHP ÷ 0.7 ppg ? 104 .

7 under .0 SICP (psi) 515 550 610 700 980 EMW @ Shoe (ppg) 13.2 11.4 under .5 12.3 13.6 13. 8.3 11.5 16.1 under .1 .USE OF SAFETY FACTOR IN CALCULATION OF KILL WEIGHT MUD 0 SICP GIVEN: TD= 9000’ 9.4 1.2 .5 “ Safety Factor (ppg) 0 .625” 9 5/8” casing shoe @ 3000’ 8 1/2” open hole 3. KWM used (ppg) 11.1 Original SIDPP = 500 psi Shoe tested to Leak-off @ 14 ppg EMW Assume pump is shut off when drill pipe is filled with kill mud.3 over 105 .000 ft.3 Over/under LOT (ppg) .5 over 2.000 ft.1 11.9 14. 5” drill pipe 10 ppg original mud weight Kill Mud Original Mud 9.

CIRCULATION BBLS PUMPED 600 800 1000 1200 106 . PSI 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 200 400 10 bbl KICK BEGIN 2nd. = 10. 19. = 9.6 ppg 1200 HOLE SIZE = 12-1/4” MUD WT.CASING PRESSURE CURVES WELL DEPTH = 8000’ DRILL PIPE = 5”.5# KILL WT.6 ppg 40 bbl KICK 20 bbl KICK CASING PRESSURE.

5# 1000 GAS AT SURFACE CASING PRESSURE.6 ppg KILL WEIGHT = 10.CASING PRESSURE CURVES WELL DEPTH = 8000’ HOLE SIZE = 12-1/4” DRILL PIPE = 5”. PSI 800 KILL WEIGHT MUD AT BIT 600 400 200 0 107 MUD WEIGHT = 9.6 ppg KICK VOLUME = 20 bbls DRILLER'S METHOD WAIT & WEIGHT METHOD WITH NO MIX TIME WITH 2000' MIGRATION . 19.

DEVIATED WELL PRESSURE DROP CURVES 60° HOLE WITH KICK-OFF AT 1/3 TMD 1300 DRILL PIPE PRESSURE 1200 1100 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 0 1000 2000 Conventional Drill Pipe Schedule Am ou nt of Ov erb a la nc e Correct Drill Pipe Schedule STROKES 108 .

Wait & Weight Method B. Bottom Kill D. Top Kill C. Bullhead These Methods Are NOT Preferred 109 . Volumetric (does not kill the well) F.OTHER WELL CONTROL METHODS UNOCAL PREFERRED METHOD A. Lubricate & Bleed E. Driller’s Method OTHER ACCEPTABLE METHODS A.

Intro Pressure Basics (The U-Tube) Kicks & Shut-in Drillers Method Gauge Questions Pressure Lag Time LOT & Well Design Shallow Hazards Equipment SBM Special Problems 110 .

120. @ 9.P. Strokes To Shoe = 1.6 ppg.6 ppg = 1.100 psi 111 .WELL INFORMATION • • • • • • TVD = 10.S. Water Base Mud • • • • • Strokes To Bit = 1.390. Influx is Gas.550.A. Total Strokes = 7. Circulating Rate = 50 spm.570. Shoe TVD = 7500 ft. Bottoms Up Strokes = 5. Fluid Weight = 9. M.000 ft.

DRILLPIPE 2000 CASING 2000 1000 500 0 3000 1000 800 0 3000 SPM 3/4 7/8 Pit Gain 10 bbls. these are the stabilized pressures that you read. 5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8 0 0 TOTAL STROKES OPEN CLOSED 112 .At initial shut-in.

500 psi each ± 0 pit gain. The same B. D. what will the gauges and the pit volume be when you get finished with the first step of the Driller’s Method? A. 1000 DRILLPIPE 2000 CASING 2000 500 0 3000 1000 800 0 3000 SPM 3/4 7/8 Pit Gain 10 bbls. 5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8 0 0 TOTAL STROKES OPEN CLOSED 113 . 500 psi each ± 10 bbl pit gain. E.Before you get started. DP -500/CP-800 ± 0 pit gain. C. 800 psi each ± 0 pit gain.

9. E. C.6 PPG. 10. what mud weight should be used? A. 1000 DRILLPIPE 2000 CASING 2000 500 0 3000 1000 800 0 3000 SPM 3/4 7/8 Pit Gain 10 bbls. 8. D.6 PPG B.6 PPG.0 PPG.0 PPG. 10.Before you get started. 9. 5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8 0 0 TOTAL STROKES OPEN CLOSED 114 .

Open choke C. Which of the following courses of action would you take? A. Begin monitoring DP gauge F. Continue holding CP constant B. Shut the well in 1000 DRILLPIPE 2000 CASING 2000 1500 0 3000 1000 800 0 3000 SPM 3/4 7/8 5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8 Pit Gain 10 bbls. Choke size OK E. Close Choke D. 50 150 TOTAL STROKES OPEN CLOSED 115 .The pumps are brought up to Kill Rate Speed and this is what you see.

Which of the following courses of action would you take? A.You’ve been circulating for a few minutes and everything seems to be ok. 50 300 TOTAL STROKES OPEN CLOSED 116 . Choke size OK E. Increase stroke rate F. Decrease stroke rate B. Open choke C. Shut the well in 1000 DRILLPIPE 2000 CASING 2000 1500 0 3000 1000 800 0 3000 SPM 3/4 7/8 5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8 Pit Gain 11 bbls. Close Choke D.

Increase stroke rate F. Shut the well in 1000 DRILLPIPE 2000 CASING 2000 1800 0 3000 1000 800 0 3000 SPM 3/4 7/8 5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8 Pit Gain 11 bbls. Choke size OK E. 50 500 TOTAL STROKES OPEN CLOSED 117 . Close Choke D. Open choke C. Decrease stroke rate B.Casing pressure decreased slightly so you pinched the choke in and this is what you see. Which of the following courses of action would you take? A.

Close Choke D. Decrease stroke rate B. Shut the well in 1000 DRILLPIPE 2000 CASING 2000 1500 0 3000 1000 750 0 3000 SPM 3/4 7/8 5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8 Pit Gain 11 bbls. Open choke C.Drillpipe pressure was a little to high so you corrected the problem and this is what you see. 45 750 TOTAL STROKES OPEN CLOSED 118 . Which of the following courses of action would you take? A. Choke size OK E. Increase stroke rate F.

Shut the well in 1000 DRILLPIPE 2000 CASING 2000 1500 0 3000 1000 950 0 3000 SPM 3/4 7/8 5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8 Pit Gain 12 bbls. Close Choke D. Increase stroke rate F. Open choke C. Choke size OK E. Decrease stroke rate B.You finally get things back to where you like and this is what you see. Which of the following courses of action would you take? A. 50 950 TOTAL STROKES OPEN CLOSED 119 .

Choke size OK E. Shut the well in 1000 DRILLPIPE 2000 CASING 2000 1500 0 3000 1000 1000 0 3000 SPM 3/4 7/8 5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8 Pit Gain 12 bbls. Decrease stroke rate B. Open choke C. Which of the following courses of action would you take? A. 50 1200 TOTAL STROKES OPEN CLOSED 120 .The Casing pressure is getting close to your posted MASP. Increase stroke rate F. Close Choke D.

Choke size OK E. Close Choke D.It’s decision time. earn your pay. Decrease stroke rate B. 50 1600 TOTAL STROKES OPEN CLOSED 121 . Open choke C. Shut the well in 1000 DRILLPIPE 2000 CASING 2000 1500 0 3000 1000 1150 0 3000 SPM 3/4 7/8 5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8 Pit Gain 12 bbls. Increase stroke rate F. Which of the following courses of action would you take? A.

Which of the following courses of action would you take? A. Open choke C. Choke size OK E. The driller has gone for a smoke and the AD is on the floor. Shut the well in 0 0 5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8 1000 DRILLPIPE 2000 CASING 2000 1500 3000 1000 1250 3000 SPM 3/4 7/8 Pit Gain 17 bbls. Increase stroke rate F. Decrease stroke rate B.It’s starting to get boring now. Close Choke D. 54 3500 TOTAL STROKES OPEN CLOSED 122 . you see this. Before you let him take over.

Pit volume goes down and casing gauge goes up. Pit volume goes up and casing gauge goes down. Pit volume goes down and casing gauge goes down. What will happen to the casing gauge and to the pit volume as the gas is circulated out? A.You hear gas passing through the choke. Pit volume goes up and casing gauge goes up. Nothing E. Pit volume goes down and casing gauge goes up. F. B. D. CASING 2000 DRILLPIPE 2000 1000 1500 0 3000 1000 1250 0 3000 SPM 3/4 7/8 5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8 50 4500 TOTAL STROKES OPEN CLOSED Pit Gain 27 bbls. 123 . C.

Which of the following courses of action would you take? A. 50 4500 TOTAL STROKES OPEN CLOSED 124 . Choke size OK E. Decrease stroke rate B. Close Choke D. Open choke C. Shut the well in 1000 DRILLPIPE 2000 CASING 2000 1500 0 3000 1000 200 0 3000 SPM 3/4 7/8 5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8 Pit Gain 27 bbls.You hear gas passing through the choke and the Casing gauge begins too drop. Increase stroke rate F.

Line up on KW Mud C. Continue to circulate D. Call town E. Shut the well in 1000 DRILLPIPE 2000 CASING 2000 550 0 3000 1000 700 0 3000 SPM 3/4 7/8 5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8 Pit Gain 6 bbls. Open choke and flow check B. 0 5550 TOTAL STROKES OPEN CLOSED 125 . Increase Kill Weight Mud F. Which of the following courses of action would you take? A.You got behind the kick and played “choke handle tennis” but finally got the gas out and the well shut-in.

Increase stroke rate F. Shut the well in 1000 DRILLPIPE 2000 CASING 2000 1500 0 3000 1000 550 0 3000 SPM 3/4 7/8 5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8 Pit Gain 4 bbls. Open choke C. Decrease stroke rate B. Close Choke D. Choke size OK E. Which of the following courses of action would you take? A.You elected to circulate longer and this is what you see. 50 6550 TOTAL STROKES OPEN CLOSED 126 .

50 6600 TOTAL STROKES OPEN CLOSED 127 . DP pressure is constant D. Chock is almost all the way open. Pit volume gain is less. How do you determine it is time to shut it in? A. B. We have circulated more than a bottoms up. 1000 DRILLPIPE 2000 CASING 2000 1500 0 3000 1000 500 0 3000 SPM 3/4 7/8 5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8 Pit Gain 4 bbls.You have circulated longer. E. CP is close to the initial shut in DP pressure. C.

Close Choke D. Open choke C. How do shut down properly? A. Hold CP constant E. 50 6600 TOTAL STROKES OPEN CLOSED 128 . Increase stroke rate 1000 DRILLPIPE 2000 CASING 2000 1500 0 3000 1000 500 0 3000 SPM 3/4 7/8 5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8 Pit Gain 4 bbls.You have circulated long enough and decided to shut the well in. Continue to hold DP constant B.

6 PPG. What is the calculated Kill Weight Mud that should be pumped? A. 10. E. 1000 DRILLPIPE 2000 CASING 2000 500 0 3000 1000 500 0 3000 SPM 3/4 7/8 5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8 Pit Gain 2 bbls. 8. F.You got the well shut-in. 9. D. 10.6 PPG B.0 PPG.6 PPG. 0 9000 TOTAL STROKES OPEN CLOSED 129 . 11. C.0 PPG. 9.0 PPG.

Open choke C. Close Choke D. Shut the well in 1000 DRILLPIPE 2000 CASING 2000 1500 0 3000 1000 500 0 3000 SPM 3/4 7/8 5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8 Pit Gain 2 bbls. Which of the following courses of action would you take? A.You bring the pumps back up to Kill Rate Speed. Choke size OK E. Decrease stroke rate B. Increase stroke rate F. pumping Kill Weight Fluid. 50 50 TOTAL STROKES OPEN CLOSED 130 .

50 50 TOTAL STROKES OPEN CLOSED 131 . 1700 psi 1000 DRILLPIPE 2000 CASING 2000 1500 0 3000 1000 500 0 3000 SPM 3/4 7/8 5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8 Pit Gain 2 bbls. 1200 psi F.Everything is going well. 1600psi D. 1400 psi C. 1000 psi E. You are on the correct gauge and up to kill rate speed. What will the approximate Drillpipe pressure be when kill weight mud reaches the bit? A. 1500 psi B.

Open choke C. Choke size OK E. Decrease stroke rate B. 50 200 TOTAL STROKES OPEN CLOSED 132 . Which of the following courses of action should you take? A.The Drillpipe pressure began to drop so you closed the choke slightly. Shut the well in 1000 DRILLPIPE 2000 CASING 2000 1500 0 3000 1000 600 0 3000 SPM 3/4 7/8 5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8 Pit Gain 2 bbls. Close Choke D. Increase stroke rate F.

Increase stroke rate F. Close Choke D. 50 250 TOTAL STROKES OPEN CLOSED 133 .The night cook said that you were wrong and made some adjustments. Decrease stroke rate B. This is what you see. Which of the following courses of action would you take? A. Shut the well in 1000 DRILLPIPE 2000 CASING 2000 1200 0 3000 1000 500 0 3000 SPM 3/4 7/8 5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8 Pit Gain 2 bbls. Choke size OK E. Open choke C.

50 1400 TOTAL STROKES OPEN CLOSED 134 . or is it? Which of the following courses of action would you take? A.Everything seems to be going well. Open choke C. Choke size OK E. Close Choke D. Increase stroke rate F. Decrease stroke rate B. Shut the well in 1000 DRILLPIPE 2000 CASING 2000 1150 0 3000 1000 500 0 3000 SPM 3/4 7/8 5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8 Pit Gain 2 bbls.

You know that the Drillpipe is full with KW Mud. CP=0. B. CP=500. and Pit Gain same. DP=500. CP=500. CP=0. and Pit Gain = 10 bbls. CP and Pit Gain be? A. E. DP=0. and Pit Gain same. DP=500. DP=1050. what would your DP. D. CP=500. and Pit Gain = 10 bbls. and Pit Gain same. 1000 DRILLPIPE 2000 CASING 2000 1050 0 3000 1000 500 0 3000 SPM 3/4 7/8 5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8 Pit Gain 2 bbls. F. 50 1600 TOTAL STROKES OPEN CLOSED 135 . CP=500. C. DP=0. DP=0. If you shut down right now. and Pit Gain same.

What do you do now? Which of the following courses of action would you take? A. Hold DP pressure constant D. Increase Mud weight E. Shut the well in 0 0 5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8 DRILLPIPE 2000 CASING 2000 1000 1050 3000 1000 500 3000 SPM 3/4 7/8 Pit Gain 2 bbls. Increase stroke rate F. 50 1600 TOTAL STROKES OPEN CLOSED 136 .You know that the Drillpipe is full with KW Mud. Continue holding Casing pressure constant B. Shut-in C.

50 3500 TOTAL STROKES OPEN CLOSED 137 . Decrease stroke rate B. Which of the following courses of action would you take? A. Open choke C. Close Choke D.You made your choice and continued to circulate. This is what you see. Shut the well in 1000 DRILLPIPE 2000 CASING 2000 1050 0 3000 1000 450 0 3000 SPM 3/4 7/8 5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8 Pit Gain 2 bbls. Choke size OK E. Increase stroke rate F.

BHP increased C. 80 4000 TOTAL STROKES OPEN CLOSED 138 .Everything is going so well that you decide to speed things up. What happened to BHP? A. You have the driller bring the pumps up and you keep Drillpipe pressure constant. BHP did not change 1000 DRILLPIPE 2000 CASING 2000 1050 0 3000 1000 150 0 3000 SPM 3/4 7/8 5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8 Pit Gain 2 bbls. BHP decreased B.

The Mud Engineer notified you that KW mud has been coming back for some time. Flow check at the choke 1000 DRILLPIPE 2000 CASING 2000 0 0 3000 1000 0 0 3000 SPM 3/4 7/8 5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8 Pit Gain 2 bbls. You shut-in and observe the gauges. Close rams D. Open annular C. Which of the following courses of action would you take? A. Perform LOT at new MW B. 0 8500 TOTAL STROKES OPEN CLOSED 139 .

Intro Pressure Basics (The U-Tube) Kicks & Shut-in Drillers Method Gauge Questions Pressure Lag Time LOT & Well Design Shallow Hazards Equipment SBM Special Problems 140 .

Pressure Lag Time Measured During Choke Drill at Casing Shoe Before Drilling Ahead 141 .

142 .Pressure Lag Time A change in choke size will create a change in Bottom Hole Pressure (BHP). Incorrect choke adjustments will lead to incorrect BHP which can allow further influx and/or broken u-tube.

This led to using a rule of thumb that pressure changes traveled at 1 second per One Thousand feet of measured depth on each side of the U-Tube. 143 .Problem in Well Control Historically Well Control schools taught with the approach that most wells were drilled using a water based mud.

000 ft 144 .12.

000 ft 145 .0 sec 12.

000 ft 12 sec 146 .0 sec 12.

000 ft 12 sec 147 .24 sec 0 sec 12.

148 .000’ and 3-4 min.Problem in Well Control Recent wells drilled in the GOM.000’./21. If the “Rule of Thumb” no longer applies then we need to start measuring the PLT. with both surface and subsea stacks have seen Pressure Lag Times (PLT) of 18 sec/7.

D. > More mud volume 149 .Reasons for Measuring PLT Mud Type º Compressibility of Synthetic Fluid Well Geometry º Deeper Wells º Larger O.

150 . Because the PLT from a choke manipulation to the Drillpipe Pressure Gauge is the longest.Understanding PLT In the Drillers Method of Well Control. BHP is held constant by manipulating the choke using the proper gauge at surface. it becomes the most difficult to control.

Drills As discussed on Day 1. “Choke Drills” will establish the PLT on your well and allow each choke operator the practice necessary. 151 . proper drills are necessary for proper execution.

Record the time required to see this pressure change reflect on the Drillpipe gauge. Practice proper start. Trap a small amount of pressure against the choke. After moving to the Drillpipe Pressure gauge and allowing the pressures in the well to stabilize.How do we measure PLT 1. 2. 152 . Before drilling out each casing shoe. make a definite change on the Casing gauge (50 -100 psi) by opening or closing the choke. 3. This is PLT.up of the Driller’s Method holding this pressure constant.

Step 1 DRILLPIPE 2000 CASING 2000 Trap some pressure in the well. 1000 300 0 3000 1000 300 0 3000 SPM 3/4 7/8 5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8 0 0 TOTAL STROKES OPEN CLOSED 153 .

Step 2 DRILLPIPE 2000 CASING 2000 1000 1000 0 3000 1000 300 0 3000 Bring the pumps to Kill Rate Speed holding Casing Pressure Constant by opening the choke. After circulation has stabilized. SPM 3/4 7/8 5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8 50 500 TOTAL STROKES OPEN CLOSED 154 . continue pumping holding Drillpipe pressure at 1000 psi.

Step 3 DRILLPIPE 2000 CASING 2000 1000 1000 1100 0 3000 1000 400 0 3000 Make a 100 psi choke adjustment and record the time it takes to reflect on the Drillpipe Gauge. At 50 spm this would take 2 min. SPM 5/8 1/2 3/8 3/4 1/4 7/8 1/8 50 550 650 TOTAL STROKES OPEN CLOSED 155 . It took 100 strokes for the Pressure change to reflect on the DP gauge. This is your PLT.

50 500 TOTAL STROKES OPEN CLOSED 156 .If you did not conduct a choke drill ! DRILLPIPE 2000 CASING 2000 1st Step Drillers Method 1000 1000 0 3000 1000 300 0 3000 SPM 3/4 7/8 5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8 You are at Kill Rate Speed and Drillpipe Pressure is correct.

Close choke slightly monitoring Drillpipe Pressure B. 157 1000 900 0 3000 1000 300 0 3000 SPM 3/4 7/8 5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8 50 1000 TOTAL STROKES OPEN CLOSED . Scream “I’m Confused” and tell me to do it myself. Do Nothing! Allow the well to balance. D. Close choke slightly monitoring Casing Pressure C.The Drillpipe pressure has dropped and I said to keep it at 1000 psi! CASING 2000 DRILLPIPE 2000 What do you do? A.

DRILLPIPE 2000 CASING 2000 1000 900 0 3000 1000 300 2300 0 3000 SPM 3/4 7/8 5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8 PLT Got You! 50 1150 TOTAL STROKES OPEN CLOSED 158 .

TRY AGAIN !! 159 .

NOT HERE !!

160

DRILLPIPE
2000

CASING
2000

1000

900
0

3000

1000

400
0

3000

After closing the choke and watching CP rise by 100 psi you wait,

SPM

3/4 7/8

5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8

and wait and wait and wait…..
161

50 1000
TOTAL STROKES

OPEN

CLOSED

DRILLPIPE
2000

CASING
2000

1000

900
0

3000

1000

400
0

3000

But the DP gauge is still not at the 1000 psi mark. Do you wait some more… do you pinch in the choke… or is it time to shut the well in?

SPM

3/4 7/8

5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8

50 1025
TOTAL STROKES

OPEN

CLOSED

162

DRILLPIPE
2000

CASING
2000

1000

900
0

3000

1000

400
0

Are you being patient or did you fall asleep?
3000

Surely you have done something by now…. What kind of lag time did you have when you did the choke drill… Oh! No choke drill……………..

SPM

3/4 7/8

5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8

50 1050
TOTAL STROKES

OPEN

CLOSED

163

DRILLPIPE
2000

CASING
2000

Okay, paints dry.
1000

900
0

3000

1000

400
0

3000

I feel sorry for the guys still waiting…. Anybody here play golf? I wonder if I’m underbalanced...

SPM

3/4 7/8

5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8

50 1075
TOTAL STROKES

OPEN

CLOSED

164

DRILLPIPE 2000 CASING 2000 1000 900 0 3000 1000 400 0 3000 There is no way it should take this long… Is that a watch or a sundial on your wrist…. SPM 3/4 7/8 5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8 50 1100 TOTAL STROKES OPEN CLOSED Do you have any idea how much this rig costs per minute! 165 .

DRILLPIPE 2000 CASING 2000 Waiting for your relief is not considered a Well Control Method. Tap the gauge. It’s been more than ten minutes… I think you blew it…. 166 1000 900 0 3000 1000 400 0 3000 SPM 3/4 7/8 5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8 50 1125 TOTAL STROKES OPEN CLOSED ... Maybe it moved and you missed it…. Will it be like this on the simulator ….

Congratulations on your patience. Can you do this for real! DRILLPIPE 2000 CASING 2000 1000 1000 0 3000 1000 400 300 0 3000 SPM 3/4 7/8 5/8 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8 50 1150 TOTAL STROKES OPEN CLOSED 167 . That was three minutes.

Development of Best Practice With 95% of our wells using synthetic mud and the geometry of our wells. In order for us to assist you. we are seeing a dramatic affect on our choke handling response during a Driller’s Method Kill. we need the recorded information from these choke drills so that we may develop some “Best Practices” for handling PLT. we recommend conducting “choke drills” before drilling out the shoe at each casing string. 168 . To get a better understanding of the PLT.

Questions or Comments? 169 .

Intro Pressure Basics (The U-Tube) Kicks & Shut-in Drillers Method Gauge Questions Pressure Lag Time LOT & Well Design Shallow Hazards Equipment SBM Special Problems 170 .

WELL DESIGN and WELL CONTROL 171 .LEAK-OFF TESTING.

O.) and Well Design in a Well Control course. 172 . That thinking is incorrect. The three are very similar or interrelated. they are “not related”.Why do we talk about Leak-Off Testing (L.T.

All three use the following: •The U-Tube •Pressure •Boyles Law (P1V1 = P2V2) •Pore Pressure (formation pressure) •Fracture Gradients (how strong is the formation) 173 .

gives you the actual fracture gradient.’S . 174 .T. WELL DESIGN AND WELL CONTROL RELATED We start drilling using a well design with theoretical values for pore pressure and fracture gradients.O.HOW ARE L. which defines the Maximum Mud Weight that can be used to drill the next hole section.O. The L.T.

I. or F.WHY DO A L. From a well control point of view it verifies what value our pop-off valve is set at.I. a L.T.O. cement.T. should be performed to verify that the casing. After each casing string is cemented in place.O. 175 . OR F.T. and formations below the casing shoe can withstand the predicted wellbore pressures required to get to the next casing shoe.T.

Close the annular and fracture the exposed formation with your mud.O. A L.O.T.WHAT IS A L. (Leak-Off Test) is performed by drilling below the shoe 10’ to 50’ of new formation. We can now calculate the Frac Gradient and EMW 176 .T. (Equivalent Mud Weight).

Total Pressure at the shoe = Hydrostatic + Surface Press. Fracture Pressure is the Total Pressure that causes the rock to break and split apart.

FRAC PRESS

Once the pressure is removed the overburden will force the rock to close and it regains it’s integrity until the Fracture Press is re-applied.
177

WHAT IS A F.I.T.
A F.I.T. (Formation Integrity Test) is performed by drilling below the shoe 10’ to 50’ of new formation. Close the annular and pressure up to a predetermined pressure with your mud. If the formation can withstand the applied pressure, the test is called good. We can now calculate the EMW (Equivalent Mud Weight). A F.I.T. is similar to pressure testing the cement lines or the BOP.

178

LOT VS. FIT
LOT • Exploration Well • Development well on a new platform. • Development well in an old field that has not been drilled in lately.
179

FIT • Development well with several other wells in the field. • Cannot perform a LOT

LOT GUIDELINES
The adoption of a standard leak-off test procedure that specifies the following is recommended. 1. Drilling fluid in the wellbore that is of a type and in condition that will freely transmit pressure. 2. Constant injection rates of 1 to 2 barrels per minute. 3. Observation of a stabilized injection pressure for a minimum of 4 minutes. 4. Reading of the surface pressure to be used in the fracture gradient calculation on the casing gauge as per previous procedure. 5.Use of a casing gauge of appropriate range for which accuracy is maintained by scheduled calibrations. (It is recommended that a recording gauge with an accuracy of 180 +/- 2% or better be used).

LEAK OFF TEST
4000 3500 Drill Pipe Casing

P 3000 R E S 2500 S U 2000 R E 1500 P S I 1000 500
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 BBL PUMPED 10

2090 psi in 10 sec shut in

Pump Stopped

0 0 2 4 6

8

10

12

14

16

18

TIME (MIN)

181

LOT Data DATA INPUT: Well Name (max 8 characters) Date: WELL Data: Rotary Table: Water Depth: Casing Size: Casing Shoe Depth: Casing Shoe Vertical Depth: LOT Data: M ud Weight: 10 sec.0 BPM 182 . 1998 106 ft above MSL 240 ft 7 inch 10441 ft MD 8232 ft TVD 11.3 ppg 2090 psi 1. Casing Pressure: Pump Rate: Trat A-06 19 Nov.

0 183 .0 2513.0 2159.0 178.0 4.0 13.0 10.0 14.0 1341.0 2127.0 3.0 3198.0 2352.0 6.0 3.0 TIME Minutes 0.0 1889.0 2094.0 17.0 2719.0 2159.0 2276.0 14.0 5.0 2719.0 12.0 0.0 6.0 2820.0 16.0 2207.0 7.0 9.0 PRESSURES (PSI) Drillpipe Casing 0.0 12.0 14.0 13.0 2268.0 1945.0 1929.0 2050.0 14.0 11.0 942.2 (10 sec shut-in) 15.0 600.0 7.0 1804.0 1929.0 10.0 1.0 1901.0 2.0 14.0 1901.0 After Stop Pumping 14.0 14.0 2252.0 4.0 8.0 1.0 262.0 1418.0 2252.0 5.0 3335.0 669.VOLUME BBLS 0.0 2239.0 2090.0 1011.0 11.0 8.0 2127.0 9.0 1929.0 2.

KICK TOLERANCE AND BOYLES LAW 184 .

INTENSITY (Pressure .000’ TVD and we want to drill to 25. VOLUME (BBLS) 2.500’ TVD.Question: What is our kick tolerance with the shoe at 19.“Kick Tolerance” has 2 components 1.Intensity is normally expressed in PPG (Relative to mud weight) 185 . Need to Know .

2) Fluid is WBM . • Mathematical verification is done using Boyle’s Law.No gas goes into solution. Boyle’s Law: P1V1=P2V2 • Assumptions 1) Kick is 100% gas.• Determine kick tolerance by “picking” a number and then mathematically verifying that the number “picked “ will work or not. 186 .

2 ppg EMW MW = 13.013 192 ft of gas = 32.6 ppg + . kick size and/or intensity would have to be adjusted and the calculations checked again. If the Fracture Pressure is exceeded.527 .649 Fracture Pressure at shoe = 14.13.829 psi .634 = 649 psi Pressure at the shoe = 649 + 13.527 psi 25 bbl kick at BHP of 18.1 psi/ft = 19 brought to the shoe.4.364 = 14.4 ppg) = 14.308 ft of 13.524 psi BHP = 18.(13.8 ppg = 4.4 bbl when 192 x 0. 14.634 psi Gauge Pressure = 18. psi hydrostatic 6.19 .829 .829 psi 187 .8 ppg Hydrostatic to shoe = 13.2 ppg + .013 psi I have not exceeded the Fracture Pressure so the well design would be valid.the casing point.

052 X 14.500’ TVD 19. & 0.829 PSI V1 = Volume (size) of the kick (Arbitrary # based on the size of the kick that can be detected) V1 = 25 BBLS The “kick tolerance” that we want to check is 25 BBL.000’ TVD 13. 188 .P1 = 25.4 PPG With TD = Shoe = MW = 25.8 PPG } * * If any of these change the kick tolerance changes.500’ X 0.2 PPG = 18.

FOR THIS EXAMPLE: • Predicted max pore pressure (at 25.8 + 0.6 PPG EMW • Mud overbalance (for this example it is 0.2 PPG EMW 189 .6 + 0.500’ TVD) = 13.2 PPG) = 13.8 PPG • Kick Intensity (Arbitrary number relative to mud weight) = 13.4 = 14.2 = 13.P1 V1 = P2 V2 P1 = Bottom hole pressure (Pressure of the kick) Bottom hole pressure = predicted maximum pore pressure + mud overbalance + kick tolerance.

524 PSI V2 = The size of the kick when it gets to the shoe this is unknown.7 PPG EMW (Predicted) = 14. P2 = Fracture pressure of the shoe = 14. We solve for it.7 PPG X 19.052 P2 = 14. The “Weak Link” is defined by the fracture pressure (AKA Leak Off Test Pressure) of the shoe. 190 .000’ X 0.P2 = Weak Link By design the “Weak Link” is the shoe.

P2 = Hydrostatic + Gauge Pressure V2 is the new size of the kick at it’s new position in the well. P1 = BHP V1 is the size of kick V1 = Barrels P2 is the pressure of the gas at it’s new position in the well.Equation Triangle P1 x V1 = P2 X V2 P1 is the pressure that the gas is under. V2 = Barrels P1 x V1 P2 X V2 191 .

524 = P2 14.Equation Triangle P1 x V1 = P2 X V2 P1 = 18.829 X 25 = 32.829 x 25 = (470.725) ÷ 14.829 psi V1 = 25 bbls P2 = 14.4 bbls 14.524 On your calculator you would key in: • 18.524 X ? V 2 192 .524 psi V2 = ? 18.829 X P1 x V 1 25 18.

500’ will have expanded to 32. 193 .000’.P1 V1 = P2 V2 V2 = P1 V1 V2 = (18.524 psi V2 = 32.829 psi X 25 bbl) ÷ 14.4 bbls The 25 BBL kick taken at 25.4 BBL when it is at the shoe at 19.

1687 bpf = 192’ 194 .4 bbls ÷ 0.Annulus capacity is 0.1687 bpf 32.• The maximum pressure that the shoe will see is when the top of the gas bubble (kick) is at the shoe. • What height does the 32.4 Bbl occupy in 14 3/4” hole X 6 5/8” DP . • If the pressure on the shoe exceeds the fracture pressure then our kick tolerance is too high and must be re-designed. • Now that we have the volume of the kick we need to determine the pressure on the shoe.

500’/ 18371’ BML }c .829 .000’/ 11.634 + 19 + 4527 = 18180 psi BHP = HP + Gauge Pressure or Casing Gauge = BHP . 7129’ Sea bed 19.052 = 13. .HP = 18.500’ .8 PPG X 0.18180 = 649 psi 195 Water .DPP CP HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE (HP) A) 19.1 psi/ft = 19 psi C) 25.000 X 13.871’ BML } }B 25.19.000’ = 6308’ A 6308’ X 13.8 X 0.052 = 4527 psi TOTAL HP = A + B + C = 13.634 psi B) 192’ X 0.192’ .

P@shoe = Gauge Press + Hydrostatic@shoe = 649 + 13.634 = 14.283 psi Frac Pressure at shoe = 14.524 psi 14.524 Therefore our design is valid and our “Kick Tolerance” is greater than 25 BBL and 0.283 < 14. 196 .4 PPG so we would be able to tolerate this kick in our design.

• Rock Fracture Gradient is normally reported as PSI/FT 197 .FRACTURE PRESSURE LEAK OFF TEST (SHOE TEST) AND ROCK FRACTURE GRADIENT • Both Leak off and rock fracture gradient are derived from the fracture pressure. • Leak off pressure is normally reported as PPG EMW.

95 psi/ft 198 .871 X FG) 19.524 .524 psi A) What is the Leak-off Pressure? =14.524 psi ÷ 19.RKB MSL 92’ Air 7037’ Water Fracture pressure at 19.764 psi/ft 0.7 PPG Mudline B) What is the rock fracture gradient (FG)? 11.3146) ÷ 11871 = 0.447) + (11871 X FG) 14.524 = (7037’ X 0.000’ TVD = 14.052 = 14. = HYD Press water + HYD Press rock 14.871’ Rock Fracture Press.764 psi/ft ÷ 0.524 = 3146 + (11.871’ BML FG = (14.000’/ 11.000’ = 0.

(Design) * This is an indirect means to compare geology in different areas. It also provides a sound method to compare actual and theoretical (predicted) leak off pressures . • Rock fracture gradient is most important to the engineers. (Execution) * This number is a direct indication of what maximum mud weight you can use in this hole section.• Leak-off pressure is most important to the foreman and drill crews.answers rock competency question. 199 .

RKB 92’ Air MSL 7037’ Water Mudline

11,871’

Rock

19,000’

Shoe

Frac. Press. = 14,524 psi

LOT Press. = 14,524 psi 19,000’ = .764 psi/ft = .764psi/ft = 14.7 00.052 Rock Frac Grad. = 14,524 - 7037 X .447 = 11,379 psi 11,379 psi ÷ 11,871’ = 0.95 psi/ft 200

RKB 92’ Air MSL 7037’ Water Mudline

RKB 82’ Air MSL 2600’ Water Mudline

11,871’

Rock

16,316’

Rock

19,000’

Shoe

19,000’

Shoe

Frac. Press. = 14,524 psi

Frac. Press. = 14,524 psi

LOT Press. = 14,524 psi 19,000’ = .764 psi/ft = .764psi/ft = 14.7 00.052 Rock Frac Grad. = 14,524 - 7037 X .447 = 11,379 psi 11,379 psi ÷ 11,871’ = 0.95 psi/ft

LOT Press. = 14,524 psi 19,000’ = .764 psi/ft = .764psi/ft = 14.7 00.052 Rock Frac Grad. = 14,524 - 2600 X .447 = 13, 362 psi 13,362 psi ÷ 16,316’ = 0.82 psi/ft 201

RKB 92’ Air MSL 7037’ Water Mudline

RKB 82’ Air MSL 2600’ Water Mudline

RKB 82’ Air MSL 2600’ Water Mudline

11,871’

Rock

16,316’

Rock

16,316’

Rock

19,000’

Shoe

19,000’

Shoe

19,000’

Shoe

Frac. Press. = 14,524 psi

Frac. Press. = 14,524 psi

Frac. Press. = 16,697 psi

LOT Press. = 14,524 psi 19,000’ = .764 psi/ft = .764psi/ft = 14.7 00.052 Rock Frac Grad. = 14,524 - 7037 X .447 = 11,379 psi 11,379 psi ÷ 11,871’ = 0.95 psi/ft

LOT Press. = 14,524 psi 19,000’ = .764 psi/ft = .764psi/ft = 14.7 00.052 Rock Frac Grad. = 14,524 - 2600 X .447 = 13, 362 psi 13,362 psi ÷ 16,316’ = 0.82 psi/ft

LOT Press. = 16,697 psi 19,000’ = .879 psi/ft = .879psi/ft = 16.9 00.052 Rock Frac Grad. = 16,697 - 2600 X .447 = 15,534 psi 15,534 psi ÷ 16,316’ = 0.95 psi/ft 202

RKB 92’ Air MSL 7037’ Water Mudline

RKB 82’ Air MSL 2600’ Water Mudline

RKB 82’ Air MSL 2600’ Water Mudline

RKB 84’ Air MSL 2600’ Water Mudline 11,871’ Rock Shoe

11,871’

Rock

16,316’

Rock

16,316’

Rock 14,555’

19,000’

Shoe

19,000’

Shoe

19,000’

Shoe Frac. Press. = 12,440 psi

Frac. Press. = 14,524 psi

Frac. Press. = 14,524 psi

Frac. Press. = 16,697 psi LOT Press. = 12,420 psi

LOT Press. = 14,524 psi 19,000’ = .764 psi/ft = .764psi/ft = 14.7 00.052 Rock Frac Grad. = 14,524 - 7037 X .447 = 11,379 psi 11,379 psi ÷ 11,871’ = 0.95 psi/ft

LOT Press. = 14,524 psi 19,000’ = .764 psi/ft = .764psi/ft = 14.7 00.052 Rock Frac Grad. = 14,524 - 2600 X .447 = 13, 362 psi 13,362 psi ÷ 16,316’ = 0.82 psi/ft

LOT Press. = 16,697 psi 19,000’ = .879 psi/ft = .879psi/ft = 16.9 00.052 Rock Frac Grad. = 16,697 - 2600 X .447 = 15,534 psi 15,534 psi ÷ 16,316’ = 0.95 psi/ft

14,555’ = .854 psi/ft = .854psi/ft = 16.4 00.052 Rock Frac Grad. = 12,440 - 2600 X .447 = 11,278 psi 13,362 psi ÷ 11,871’ = 0.95 psi/ft 203

SHALLOW LEAK-OFF TEST DRIVES THE WELL DESIGN

204

77 .18 .92 .71 205 .92 1.93 1.93 1.83 .46 1.94 .94 . STATISTICS WELL NAME FRAC LOCATION DEPTH WELL GRAD WELL NAME LOCATION FRAC DEPTH WELL GRAD BS 52#1 GOM A-19 Cal 16-2CT Midland A-17 Cal Sibual 2-2 Indo YC-2 Indo 220 Midland Yakin YC-5HZ Indo 201 Midland 186 393 396 397 403 414 420 421 424 1.02 1.94 1.02 .05 1.00 Attaka#32 Indo Sakon #1 Thai VE 66 #3 GOM BA #28 Alaska EHI 302 A-13 GOM A-20 Cal VE 328 #2 La A-19 Cal Kham Palai #1Thai BA #28 Alaska B-KL-1X Vietnam #1-9 Michigan 448 495 562 582 679 681 681 755 774 802 814 869 1.LEAK-OFF TESTS BELOW IS A VERY SMALL SAMPLING OF OUR MANY THOUSANDS OFL.08 .O.00 .89 1.T.18 1.81 .

LOCATION OF SECOND CASING SHOE (THE KEY TO SHALLOW WELL CONTROL) FIRST CEMENTED SHOE INCREASING EXPOSURE • • MORE TIME MORE POSSIBILITY OF ENCOUNTERING GAS SECOND CEMENTED SHOE DECREASING RESISTANCE TO FRACTURE (PSI) 206 .

RECOMMENDED DESIGN / OPERATIONS APPROACH 1. 3. Shut in on all kicks at all depths. Locate casing shoes in more competent formations. 207 .T. Use squeezing to guarantee validity of L. 4.’s  Value of fracture pressure  Location of fracture 6. Design well to shut-in. 2. Measure fracture gradients. 5.O. Cement casing.

Intro Pressure Basics (The U-Tube) Kicks & Shut-in Drillers Method Gauge Questions Pressure Lag Time LOT & Well Design Shallow Hazards Equipment SBM Special Problems 208 .

or structure at risk.Shallow Hazards Definition – any phenomenon.The hazard may be natural or man made. which puts a wellbore. location. located from mudline to the depth riserless drilling is ended. 209 .

gas and sediment flows (SWF) 210 .Shallow Hazard Examples     Pipelines and man made structures Unstable Seafloor: faults. and channels Gas vents and mud volcanoes Hydrates (“Primary and Secondary”) Chemosynthetic Communities  Subsurface water. slumps.

211 .Gas Hydrates Gas Hydrates are ice-like crystalline solids (minerals) in which hydrocarbon and nonhydrocarbon gases are held within rigid cages of water molecules.

Hydrate Formation Form at high pressures and low temperatures 40 degrees F and 780 psia Commonly found in water depths of 1200’ 6000’ (deeper sites not well sampled) Usually associated with some type of gas vent  Modeling has indicated hydrates may exist as deep as 3000’ BML on GOM slope* 212 * Sloan 1998 .

(Associated with SWFs not primary hydrates) 213 .Hydrate Hazards     Unstable sea floor if hydrates are melted Chemosynthetic Communities / Hardgrounds Unstable wellbore associated with primary hydrates “Secondary” Hydrate accumulation on subsea equipment.

Indonesia Hydrate X-Section Hydrates 214 .Kutai Basin.

Indonesia (Near Seno Field) 215 .Subsurface Hydrates GR RES WD : 5312’ 5635’ Hydrates Interval -5987’ Nakula #1. Kutai Basin.

Indonesia        Water depths > 3000’.Hydrate Characteristics Kutai Basin. Mudline temp ~ 40o F Encountered between 0 .600’ BML Seismic character high amplitude events Log character high resistivity zones Increase in ROP Flows noted while reaming with seawater Borehole swelling (could not get casing down) 216 .

Hydrate Drilling SOP Indonesia*
  

Initial drilling riserless with Seawater Displace with 9.8ppg WBM and pull out of hole If tight spots noted across from Hydrates begin back reaming with 9.8ppg WBM. If back reaming becomes problematic switch to seawater and re-ream the hole to bottom. Displace with 9.8ppg WBM mud and spot 18ppg floating mud cap across hydrate zone to ML.
217

* Glen Olivera Drilling Superintendent Unocal Indonesia

Shallow Water Flows (SWF)

Any flow of water and/or gas into the wellbore, in flow paths around the annulus or to the seafloor. SWFs have been reported in water depths of 500 7,000 feet and observed between the mudline and 4000’ below mudline (BML). Typically problems arise between 950 and 2000 feet BML.

218

Overpressure Mechanisms

219 From paper by Pelletier 1999 SWF Forum

Overpressure Mechanisms
• Remember the sponges and • Charged formation

220

Problems Associated with SWFs
    

Uncontrolled Water Flows Sediment washout (cement integrity) Sediment Compaction Casing Collapse and Buckling Formation of seafloor craters, mounds and cracks

221

) .ERWE-19 WELL-SEC Water Depth = 198’ SSD Prog.@-902’ SSD of top gas sand Final Depth-923’ SSD 222 Two-way time ms.@-732’ SSD of top gas sand Prog. SS. Depth (Ft.

223 .

Unocal Deepwater Shallow Hazard Assessment Integrated Team Work     Geology Geophysics Drilling Petrophysics 224 .

Geomechanics      Overburden Assessment Fracture Gradient Prediction Pore Pressure Prediction Offset and Regional Mud and LOT data Real Time analysis with PWD and ROV 225 .

BEST PRACTICES . Multi-discipline cross functional team involved Third party analysis of hazards is not enough Pick locations with shallow hazards in mind – Depth – Thickness – Geologic setting – Presence/absence of sandstone – Presence/absence of a pressure seal – Presence/absence of hydrocarbons 226 .PART 1     Site Assessments to start early in prospect life.

PART 2  Wherever possible move locations to avoid potential hazards If hazard can not be avoided. 227    .BEST PRACTICES . Utilize “UCL Riserless Drilling Procedure” to minimize probability of a flow occurring. mitigate risk – map interval & specific horizons – radial seismic panels – pressure prediction – revise well design Set 36” casing deep enough to allow control of shallow hazards with weighted mud.

 Pump out of hole with “good quality” kill weight mud  Run 20” casing as per “UCL Riserless Drilling Procedure”  Use Cementing Best practices – Foam cement – Centralized casing 228 .PART 3  If flow occurs kill well immediately – Problems worsen with time – Assess situation before resuming drilling operations  Riserless drilling “stops” when a 10 PPG leak-off can be reasonably expected.BEST PRACTICES .

CONCLUSIONS  Unocal has made significant improvement with regards to shallow hazard identification Shallow Hazard identification requires considerable time & focused effort Unocal’s well design and well execution capabilities have enabled us to drill potential shallow hazards with a high degree of success Fully integrated multi-disciplined team approach to shallow hazard identification is paying off    229 .

First Hole Section.Riser or Riserless? 230 .

Intro Pressure Basics (The U-Tube) Kicks & Shut-in Drillers Method Gauge Questions Pressure Lag Time LOT & Well Design Shallow Hazards Equipment SBM Special Problems 231 .

1983 2500’ • Diverted • 2 .1985 • Diverted 4000’ 3565’ • 1 .10” lines • Diverter Failed • Fire • Breached 1225’ 2265’ $150 Million (Operated by Marathon)232 .1987 • Diverted •2 .SHALLOW GAS KICKS 1980-1989 CERVEZA .1981 456’ • Diverter Failed • Fire 5 Fatalities Multiple Injuries 766’ STEELHEAD .8” lines • Diverter Failed • Fire • No Breach $35 Million 420’ GRAYLING .4” line • Diverter Failed • No Fire • Breached $40 Million ATTAKA J1 .

1997 509’ 915’ • Evacuated Rig • Flow stopped on its own No Injuries Minimal Cost • Diverter system failed • Fire • Breached •$10+ Million (Operated by Oxy) 233 2755’ .1998 • Gas in water 500’ • Moved rig off location • Flow stopped on its own No Injuries Minimal Cost 460’ • Evacuated Rig • Flow stopped on its own No Injuries Minimal Cost B-TXT-2X .2000 Attaka 38 .SHALLOW GAS KICKS 1990 .2000 • Gas in water Molavia Bazar .1998 • Gas in water Attaka 38a .

but their use should be limited to improving the conditions during which evacuation takes place. NO RELIABLE MEANS EXISTS TO ELIMINATE THIS PROBLEM! Use of a diverter does not lead to control of a well.DIVERTERS Gas/Sand mixtures flowing through diverter lines have been measured to erode through steel at the rate of 8” per hour. These devices may be required where no better alternative exists for handling flow from shallow holes. In short --- DIVERT AND DESERT ! 234 .

Checklist: Well Control Equipment Check temperature rating for elastomers. If shear rams are installed. shear all grades of drill pipe in use. bop stack. wellhead. choke manifold.Well Control Equipment One of the critical aspects in planning a well is the theoretical maximum surface pressure to be used in designing the casing. 235 . testing. particularly in variable bore rams. in fact. and other equipment. gas buster. ensure that the shear rams can.

BOP CONSIDERATIONS ANNULAR PIPE RAMS BLIND RAMS TO KILL LINE PIPE RAMS TO CHOKE LINE WELLHEAD 236 .

Well Control Equipment Accumulators ‑ Should have sufficient volume to close and hold closed all preventers and maintain accumulator pressure above minimum system pressure. 237 .

the bladder is pre-charged to 1000 psi with Nitrogen.USEABLE FLUID To provide energy. it must be pumped into the bottle 1000 10 gal N2 238 . To provide closing fluid.

000) ÷ 1200 = P2 1200 X ? V 2 239 .7 gal of fluid On your calculator you would key in: 1000 x 10 = (10.3 gal of Nitrogen 1200 10 .8.3 = 1.Equation Triangle P1 x V1 = P2 X V2 P1 = 1000 psi V1 = 10 gal P2 = 1200 psi V2 = ? 1000 P1 x X V110 1000 X 10 = 8.

USEABLE FLUID It takes 1.3 gal N2 1.7 gallons of fluid to compress the Nitrogen to the Minimum System Pressure of 1200 psi. 1000 1200 10 gal N2 8.7 gal Fluid 240 .

3 gal of Nitrogen 3000 10 .000) ÷ 3000 = P2 3000 X ? V 2 241 .3 = 6.Equation Triangle P1 x V1 = P2 X V2 P1 = 1000 psi V1 = 10 gal P2 = 3000 psi V2 = ? 1000 P1 x X V110 1000 X 10 = 3.3.7 gal of fluid On your calculator you would key in: 1000 x 10 = (10.

7 gal Fluid 242 .6 = 5 gallons/bottle) • 1.3 gal N2 3.7 .7 gallons of fluid to compress the Nitrogen to 3000 psi. (6.7 gal Fluid 6.USEABLE FLUID To get useable fluid. I must continue to pump fluid until I reach the Operating Pressure of 3000 psi. 1200 3000 8.3 gal N2 Useable Fluid The volume of fluid it takes to change the pressure from Minimum System Pressure to Operating Pressure is the useable Fluid per bottle. It takes a total of 6.1.

to close 7 gal. Of useable fluid required 59 gal. To open Total gallons to close = 39 gallons 39 gal. X 2 = 118 gal. X 1. To close 7 gal. To close 3000 psi Atmospheric Pressure 6 gal.8 or 12 bottles 243 . To close 1 gal. Of total stored fluid 118 ÷ 10 = 11.5 safety factor = 59 gal.Accumulator Volume 18 gal.

244 .Well Control Equipment High Pressure Flexible Hoses  Confirm that flexible hoses are acceptable for exposure to unusual fluids which may be encountered or used and meet acceptable temperature ranges.

245 .Well Control Equipment Bleed Off Valve & Line  The bleed off valve and line allow flow directly from the choke manifold to the overboard line or burner boom to protect the mud/gas separator from being overloaded.

Periodic checks should be conducted to check the thickness of piping and manifolds. should be designed to withstand the low temperatures resulting from gas expansion during well control procedures.Low Temperature Problems All equipment. 246 . Critical guidelines on choke manifold acceptance and maintenance is important. which may be exposed to wellbore fluid downstream of the choke.

Thoroughly inspect the separator structural integrity and internal condition.Well Control Equipment Mud/Gas Separator  Pressure gauge on the separator body should be installed to ensure that the separator is operating within its rated capacity and no gas is being allowed to "blow through" to the mud processing areas. 247 .

Diameter & Internal design controls separation efficiency NO VALVES! D Drain Line With Valve • Height of “U” tube (D) & distance from bottom of separator to top of “U” tube (d) controls fluid level in separator and keeps gas from going to flowline 248 .GAS BUSTER Vent Line GAS NO VALVES! Pressure Gauge Impingement Plate Siphon Breaker • Diameter & length of vent line controls amount of pressure in separator Inspection Cover Baffle Plates From Choke d To Mud Degasser • Height.

249 . The collapse rating of the drill string should be checked against collapse load during a well control operation.Well Control Equipment Additional Considerations  The compatibility of elastomers with drilling. The most severe load is frequently found at the closed pipe rams. & testing fluids should be checked. completion.

000 psi vs.BOP TESTING RECOMMENDED FIELD TESTS: Ram Preventers Annular Preventers Low 200-300 psi “ High WP or CSG. Bumping the pressure up to get a seal and then bleeding off to get the test is dangerous. How many 5. Burst 70% WP Ram and Annular preventers are “Wellbore Assisted. 300 psi kicks do we take? 250 . This is why low pressure tests are sometimes harder to achieve.” This means that pressure from the well helps to energise the elements and seal off the well.

Intro Pressure Basics (The U-Tube) Kicks & Shut-in Drillers Method Gauge Questions Pressure Lag Time LOT & Well Design Shallow Hazards Equipment SBM Special Problems 251 .

solubility. Ballooning. 252 .SBM OBM Gas Kicks: migration.

Myths about Synthetic and Oil Base Muds Gas kicks do not migrate. 253 . Gas kicks come out of solution slowly. Gas kicks come out of solution all at once. Gas kicks do not cause volume change.

Gas come out of solution at rates depending on temperature. Gas enters the wellbore at full volume. 254 . pressure and concentration. Gas in solution may have one half the volume as does gaseous gas.Facts about Synthetic Base and Oil Base Muds Gas migrates in SBM / OBM until it goes into solution.

Solubility vol/vol 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 -1000 0 200 400 600 Pressure West North 255 .

Boyle’s Law • P1 x V1 = Constant • P1 x V1 = Constant = P2 x V2 Known information Any point in the well 256 .

720 psi 257 .000 = 5.860 psi V2 = P1 x V1 ÷ P2 = ? 20 bbl 5.Boyle’s Law (continued) 11.000’ 10 bbl 10.000’ 11 x 00.052 x 10.0ppg MW P2 = ? 2.

592 16.608 Pressure / Temperature Effect on Density This table shows laboratory results on a 17 ppg mineral-oil based mud.000 3.890 16.310 16.000 15.000 6.392 16.149 15. 258 .760 16.389 17.000 9.000 9.000 200 350 Measured Density ( lbm/gal) 17.589 16.000 9.492 17.000 15.000 0 3.000 6.905 17.000 17.275 17.000 12.469 16.000 12.Temperature (° F) 78 Pressure (psig) 0 3.000 12.122 16.000 6.145 17.000 15.033 17.

good pit discipline and alert Drillers and Mud Loggers. gas cannot enter the wellbore without causing some changes in fluid volume . working PVT’s and flow shows. However. • • The perception that gas kicks totally “hide” in OBM / SBM is false.Kick Detection • Kick detection is more difficult when oil/synthetic base drilling fluid is used over a water base drilling fluid because gas is soluble in the OBM/SBM. it is concluded that an increase in flow and/or pit gain is the most reliable indicator of a kick during drilling in either OBM/SBM or WBM. Therefore. The gain is there but our ability to measure that gain depends on accurate. 259 .

7 psi • V1 = 30 bbls • P2 = 12.000 .4 ppg SBM • The well unloaded 30 bbls at Bottoms Up. • P1 = 14.4 x 0.03 bbl Kick on Bottom (50% solubility) Can you detect this size kick? 260 6” Open Hole to TD@12.057 bbl kick on Bottom (no solubility) • V2 = .740 psi • V2 = .000 = 7.Volume At Surface • 12.052 x 12.

• • This cycle is repeated till all of the gas has become free gas. As some of the gas breaks out it lowers the GOR of the remaining influx. again lowering the GOR in the remaining influx. Bubble Point • The higher the GOR the deeper in the well the gas begins to break out.• The gas oil ratio (GOR) is a measure of the amount of gas that is mixed with a given volume of oil. 261 . The remaining influx is then circulated further up the hole until it reaches the new “bubble point” at which time some of the gas breaks out.

This can result in mud being pushed above the bushings. 262 .Bubble Point • If the well is circulated with the BOP’s open. the gas is able to come out of solution quickly. • If the well is being circulated through the choke. the backpressure helps keep the gas in solution and protects the rig and it’s crews.

or that it is possible that you have taken a gas influx. 263 .Bubble Point • At any time that you suspect that you have taken a gas influx. circulated across the choke. circulate the well with the last 2000+ ft.

As temperature increases. 264 . gas solubility decreases. as the amount of brine or water and emulsifiers increase then the solubility of the gas in the mud system decreases.General Trends With Gas Solubility The OBM/SBM composition has a dramatic effect on gas solubility. As pressure increases gas solubility increases. Assuming that gas is insoluble in water. As the gas specific gravity increases gas solubility decreases. the solubility of the gas decreases. As the amount of solids increase.

Ballooning / Micro Fracturing 265 .

bble 90 Feb. 80 bbl.. min. 112 bbl. 14. Breathing Change Pit Vol. 15. 14. 142 bbl.Breathing 150 130 Feb. Breathing 110 Feb. 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 266 . No breathing 70 50 30 10 1 -10 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Time.Connection Flow Monitor .

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 267 . well flowing.. start of interval. 100 bbls. bble 70 50 30 10 1 -10 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Time.. No breathing Change Pit Vol. 140 + bbls 110 Point of infelction 90 Jan.Connection Flow Monitor .Flowing 150 130 Jan. 10. min. 12.

268 .

Intro Pressure Basics (The U-Tube) Kicks & Shut-in Drillers Method Gauge Questions Pressure Lag Time LOT & Well Design Shallow Hazards Equipment SBM Special Problems 269 .

GAS INFLUX / MIGRATION AFTER CEMENTING Gas may enter well after cementing due to temporary reduction in annulus pressure as cement begins to set. • Use a well designed spacer/wash ahead of the cement to assist in mud removal. resulting in a kick. • Maintain turbulent flow while cementing. No technique to date has been 100% successful in eliminating this problem 270 Remain Alert! . To reduce the likelihood of this problem. the following cementing practices have been shown to be helpful: • Fast Transition Time. Observe the well after cementing and be ready to shut well in if annular flow occurs.Right set cement • Condition mud well before cementing. • Move the casing while cementing. • Centralize the casing in the wellbore.

ABANDONING A “DEAD” WELL Air Air Heavy Fluid Oil Water Producing Zone 271 .

Remain ALERT at ALL times Use the trip tank when ever possible Keep good pit Discipline 272 .ABANDONING A “DEAD” WELL There are very few “DEAD” wells.

Slight losses can be dealt with during the regular Drillers Method. 273 .BROKEN U-TUBES This requires a high rate of losses.

BOP.RECOGNIZING BROKEN U-TUBES • A sudden break back in surface pressures • Fluctuations in casing pressure • Fluctuations in drillpipe pressure • Numerous choke changes • Loss of communication between drillpipe & annulus • Drillpipe pressure decreasing or on vacuum • Sudden vibration in drillpipe. and/or tree 274 .

• Must fix from the top down.REPAIRING BROKEN U-TUBES • Analyze and think • Try slowing down first . 275 . • Temporarily shut off bottom.ECD’s may be to high.

Instead of analyzing the well to define the real problem. assumptions are made and one of the following solutions is begun. If this doesn’t work you try something else. 276 .COMMON CONTROL METHODS Most of the attempts to control an Underground Blowout (complete losses) are hit or miss.

or more commonly just to provide a subsurface closure while surface equipment is changed or pipe is run in the well. gunk or cement to the loss zone in an attempt to regain conventional control. • A Dynamic kill using frictional pressure loss and fluid density to increase wellbore pressure opposite the producing zone. • A “sandwich kill” that bullheads kill fluid from both above and below the loss zone. 277 . • Bullheading kill fluids into the loss and/or producing zones.COMMON CONTROL METHODS • Pumping LCM. • A Bottom Kill (weighted slug below the loss zone to overbalance the producing zone). • A barite pill or cement plug to bridge and isolate the producing zone from the loss zone. • A bridge plug set to isolate the producing zone from the loss zone.

analyzing and changing the operation if your plan is not progressing as 278 predicted. that allow you to monitor your progress and/or success • An agreed upon basis for stopping the operation.COMMON CONTROL METHODS To improve your chance of success with the previous methods. • Knowledge of the location. and flow characteristics of the producing and loss zones and the flow path • Definition of a kill approach and a sequence of steps that will achieve the ultimate objective • Confirmed information on fluid properties. usually pressures. materials and instrumentation to implement the strategy • Checkpoints. . densities. placement and rates necessary • Access to the necessary people. pressure. equipment. volumes. formulate a strategy that includes.

MECHANICAL COMPLICATIONS = HAPPENS FIRST = HAPPENS AFTER TIME LAG COMPLICATION PLUGGED JET PLUGGED CHOKE WASHED CHOKE LOSING CIRCULATION HOLE IN WORKSTRING HOLE PACKED OFF DP GAUGE CP GAUGE NO CHANGE WILL FOLLOW CP WITH SMALLER SWINGS ERRATIC FLUCTUATING NO CHANGE 279 .

INTACT U-TUBE DRILLERS METHOD CLEAR INFLUX KWF TO BIT KWF TO SURFACE DP GAUGE KEEP CONSTANT DECREASING CP GAUGE SLOWLY INCREASING KEEP CONSTANT SLOWLY DECREASING PIT CHOKE GAIN DIRECTION INCREASING MOSTLY THEN BACK OPENING TO ORIGINAL CONSTANT NO CHANGE CONSTANT MOSTLY OPENING KEEP CONSTANT 280 .

WELL CONTROL LOG TIME DP PSI CASING PSI CHOKE SIZE STROKES PIT GAIN COMMENTS 281 .

282 .ORGANIZING & DIRECTING IN WELL CONTROL Value of Rig Crew Drills . • Make assignments for circulating-out kick the last step in shut-in drills. • Gets everyone familiar with the equipment on the rig and get more comfortable with the procedures. • Causes drilling foreman to plan ahead of time how he will organize and direct.TEAMWORK • Keeps possibility of kick control in minds of crew and supervisors (like school).

particularly). • When is that point? Driller’s Method: Bringing pumps up & down. 283 . W & W Method: Bringing pumps up & down. • Hopefully not running the choke. changing gauges. until KWM to bit. • Will depend on competence of contractor people (toolpusher and driller. but should be observing choke operations until a certain point.ORGANIZING & DIRECTING IN WELL CONTROL Foreman Should Be At Critical Spot While Kick Is Being Circulated Out • Needs to be free to move around as much as possible.

052 5 Gradientpsi/ft = Pressurepsi ÷ TVDft 6 MWppg = Gradientpsi/ ft ÷ .4 8 Annular Capacitybbl/ft = (Hole diameter2 .052 ÷ TVDft 3 TVDft = Pressurepsi ÷ .052 x TVDft 2 MWppg = Pressurepsi ÷ .052 ÷ MWppg 4 Gradientpsi/ft = MWppg x .4 9 Fluid Column Heightft = Volumebbls ÷ Capacitybbl/ft 284 .Pipe Diameter2) ÷ 1029.052 7 Capacitybbl/ft = Hole Diameter2 ÷ 1029.Formulas 1 Phydrostatic = MWppg x .

052 ÷ TVDft) + MWppg 5 Volume of Slugbbls = Mud Weight.Mud Weightppg Slug Weightppg = Mud Weightppg + Mud Weight.ppg x Dry Pipe Lengthft x Pipe Capacitybbl/ft Slug Volumebbls Pit Gain from Slugbbls = Volume of Slugbbls x Slug Weightppg .ppg x Dry Pipe Lengthft x Pipe Capacitybbl/ft Slug Weightppg .00036 Triplex Pump Outputbbl/stk = .Mud Weightppg Mud Weightppg Depth Slug Fallsft = Pit Gain from Slugbbls ÷ Pipe Capacitybbl/ft Pump Pressure Correction: For Mud Weight ChangeNew Pump Pressurepsi = Original Pressurepsi x (New Mud Weightppg ÷ Old Mud Weightppg) 285 6 7 8 9 .Formulas 1 2 3 4 Displacementbbl/ft = Pipe Weightlbs x .000243 x Liner Diameterin2 x Stroke Lengthin x Efficiency% Total Pump Strokes = Volumebbls ÷ Pump Outputbbl/stk Kill Weight Mudppg = (SIDPPpsi ÷ .

com George Grundt: grundt@unocal.Contact Information Rick Dolan: richard.com 286 .com Benny Mason: bmason@unocal.dolan@unocal.

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