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# Purpose: For exothermic processes heat is given off by the system, and is then transferred to the systems surroundings.

In an endothermic process, heat is given to a system from its surroundings. Water in a calorimeter was used to serve as the surroundings in which the exothermic reactions transferred heat to. By measuring the change in temperature of the water before and after the reaction occurred, the heat given off by the system from the reaction was measured. The relationship between change in temperature and the amount of heat evolved was calculated using the equation q=mCsT. When the amount of heat transferred was known, the heat flow (q) could be measured for the mass of the liquid in the calorimeter. This experiment was conducted to find the heat of reaction for the different reactions. This experiment resulted in the understanding of the relationship between chemical reactions and heat between a: strong acid and strong base, weak acid and strong base, and an oxidation/reduction reaction. This experiment allowed for comparison of calculations found and literature values as well as allowed the caparison to determine experimental technique correctness. Procedure CHE 133 Experiment 1, General Chemistry II Lab, Winter Quarter 2012-2013, DePaul University, (https://www.d2l.depaul.edu (January 13, 2013). Data and Results: This experiment was formulated to discover the variances between the heats of reaction for different reaction types. Measuring the mass, volume, temperature, and time of each calorimeter reaction, the heat of reaction was eventually calculated. The relationship between time and temperature was observed through a recording of the change in temperature throughout a three minute span of time. The results after graphing Figure 1, were used to determine the final and initial values of the temperature of the water bath. The final temperature of the water bath is also the final temperature of the copper ingot.

## Figure 1: The Heat of Reaction for Water and Copper

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Temperature (C)

25 24 23 22 21 20 0:00 0:15 0:30 0:45 1:00 1:15 1:30 1:45 2:00 2:15 2:30 2:45 3:00 Time (seconds)

Table 1 presents an illustration of the data collected during the calorimeter experiment to help determine the calorimeter constant. The calculation to find the calorimeter constant is calculated using the mass of water (g), temperature change during the experiment (C), and the volume of water (mL). Table 1: The Determination of the Calorimeter Constant Data Volume of H2O (mL) Mass of H2O (g) Tbath(initial) (C) Tbath(final) (C) & TCu(final) (C) Mass of Cu ingot (g) TCu(initial) (C) 100.0 mL 99.72 g 22.1 C 25.4 C 56.77 g 100.0 C

In order to determine the heat of reaction for our three different types of reactions, it was necessary to find the constant of the Calorimeter. This could be evaluated by the heat balance of the water and copper reaction. The heat lost by the copper is gained by the water in this situation. This allows for the equation of the sum of the heat terms to be set equal to zero. qCu+qwater+qcal=0 Substituting in the correct formula for the terms into the equation, q=mCT, the equation could be solved for the specific heat of the calorimeter, and then solved by replacing the variables with the corresponding values. 0 = mCu(Cs)CuTCu+[mwater(Cs)water+Ccal][Tbath(final)-Tbath(initial)] Ccal= -[mCu(Cs)CuTCu)/Tbath]-mwater(Cs)water Ccal= - [56.7689g(0.385J/gC)(25.4C-100C)]/ (25.4C-22.1C) -[(99.7200g)(4.184J/gC)] Ccal= +77.0 J/gC After the specific heat of the calorimeter was determined, the heats of reaction could be found using the data collected for the three different types of reactions. However, for the three reactions the given value for the calorimeter constant, 34.0 J/C was used to eliminate some variation. The acid/base and redox reactions data was collected in a similar process to the water and copper reaction data. The temperature change was recorded and then plotted to understand the initial and final temperature of the reactions. Figure 2 presents the relationship between time and temperature during the reaction of the strong acid HCl and the strong base NaOH. The final and initial temperatures could then be determined from the plotting. The initial temperature was recorded to be 20.9C final temperature was found to be 24.7C.

## Figure 2: The Heat of Neutralization of HCl and NaOH

26 25

Temperature (C)

24 23 22 21 20 19 18 0:00 0:10 0:20 0:30 0:40 0:50 1:00 1:15 1:30 1:45 2:00 2:15 2:30 Time (seconds)

The data collected was used to find the initial temperature of the HCl and NaOH reaction to be 20.9C. The final temperature based on the plotting of the temperature versus time graph was found to be 24.7C. This was then used to solve for the heat of reaction. Beginning the calculations, it was assumed that the calorimeter was not losing heat to its surroundings. Therefore, the isolated system would have the sum of the heat gained or lost in the reaction equal to zero. qrxn+qsoln+qcal=0 To solve for the heat of the reaction, we would change the equation to make it the product of the equation. qrxn=-(qsoln+qcal) To go further with the equation, it was necessary to detail the heats into the formula, q=mCT. The formula for heat is mass multiplied by the specific heat capacity multiplied by change in temperature. The mass of each solution needed to be calculated for each reaction. The density was given in the lab manual for each reaction, and the density was then multiplied by the volume of each solution in the experiment. For this experiment, each reaction contained a volume of 100mL of solution. msoln = Vsoln msoln = (100mL)(1.04g/mL) msoln = 104.0 g qrxn= [msoln(Cs)solnT]+[mcal(Cs)calT] qrxn = -[(100mL1.04g/mL)(3.90J/gC)(24.3C-20.9C)]+ (34.0J/C)(24.3C-20.9C) qrxn = -1700.00

The heat of reaction could be determined for each of the reactions. Once calculated, the heat of reaction was used to calculate the enthalpy change for each solution. The heat of reaction was divided by the moles of product produced and then multiplied by the ration of moles of product by moles of reaction. Hrxn=

The moles of product in a reaction was found by finding the limiting reactant of each reaction usingthe molarity of the solutions. NaOH: (50.0mL1L/1000mL)(0.5mol/L) = 0.025 mol product HCl: (50.0mL1mL/1000mL)(0.5mol/L) = 0.025 mol product Hrxn=(1700.00J/C)/(mol product produced in reaction)(mol product)/(mol reaction) Hrxn=(1700.00J/C)/()()/()

Next, the same experiment and calculations were repeated using CH3OOH as the weak acid and NaOH as the strong base. The same relationship was plotted in Figure 3 to understand the coorelation and the change in temperature.

## Figure 3: The Heat of Neutralization of CH3OOH and NaOH

25 Temperature (C) 24 23 22 21 20 19 0:00 0:10 0:20 0:30 0:40 0:50 1:00 1:15 1:30 1:45 2:00 2:15 2:30 Time (seconds)

The redox reaction experiments temperature in relation to time was also plotted. This allowed for further calculations for this reaction. Figure 4 illustrates this coorelation.

## Figure 4: The Heat of Neutralization of Fe3+ and Sn2+

25.5 25 24.5 24 23.5 23 22.5 22 21.5 21 20.5 20 0:00 0:10 0:20 0:30 0:40 0:50 1:00 1:15 1:30 1:45 2:00 2:15 2:30 Time (seconds)

After each reactions enthalpy and heat of reaction was calculated, the data could be then placed into Table 2. The data presents the information for each reaction duting the experiment, inluding the calculation results. Table 2: The Heats of Reaction Data Reaction H+(aq)+OH-(aq)H2O(l) CH3COOH(aq)+OH(aq)CH3COOH(aq)+H2O(l) 2Fe3+(aq)+Sn2+(aq)Sn4+(aq)+2Fe2+(aq) Vsoln (mL) 100 100 100 msoln (g) 104 104 100 Ti (C) 20.9 20.9 21.9 Tf (C) 24.7 24.3 24.7 qrxn (kJ) moles product Hrxn (kJ/mol)

Temperature (C)