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Certificate Acknowledgement Introduction Electrochemical Mechanism(rusting) Method of preventing of Corrosion Aim of the project Material required Procedure Observation table Result Conclusion Bibliography

This is to certify that WAZAHAT ALI Student of class XII , LORD MAHAVIRA SCHOOL has completed the project titled TO STUDY THE EFFECTOF


During the academic year (2012-2013) toward partial fulfillment of credit for the CHEMISTRY. Practical evaluation of AISSCE-2013. And submitted satisfactory report, as compiled in the following pages under my supervision.

Teachers Signature.....

It would be my pleasure to express my sincere thanks to My Chemistry Teacher Mrs. SANGEETA SHARMA in providing a helping hand in this project. Her unflagging patience, creativity and immense knowledge that she shared with me have proved highly beneficial to me and have made my Project File both possible and successful.

I would also like to thanks our principal Mrs. SUNAINA and all my friends who were directly or indirectly involved in this project.


Metals and alloys undergo rusting and corrosion.The process by which some Metals when exposed to atmospheric conditions i.e.,moist air, carbon dioxide form undesirable compounds on the surface is known as Corrosion. The compounds formed are usually oxides. Rusting is also a type of corrosion but the term is restricted to iron or products made from it. Iron is easily prone to rusting making its surface rough. Chemically, rust is a hydrated ferric oxide Fe2O3.nH2O. Rusting may be explained by an electrochemical mechanism.

Electro chemical Mechanism(rusting)

In the presence of moist air containing dissolved oxygen or carbon dioxide, the commercial iron behaves as if composed of small electrical cells.At anode of cell, iron passes in to solution as ferrous ions. Fe Fe2+ +2e

The electrons from the above reaction move towards the cathode and form hydroxyl ions H2O + (O) + 2e 2OH Under the influence of dissolved oxygen the ferrous ions and hydroxyl ions interact from rust, i.e., hydrated ferric oxide. 2Fe2+ +H2O +(O) 2Fe3+ + 2OH

2Fe3+ + 6OH Fe2O3.3H2O (rust) or 2Fe(OH)3 If supply of oxygen is limited the Corrosion product may be black Anhydrous magnetite, Fe3O4 .

Method of preventiNG of CorrosioN

Some of the methods used to prevent corrosion are discussed here : 1.Barrier Protection. In this method, a barrier film is introduced between iron surface and atmospheric air.The film is obtained by painting , varnishing etc. 2.Galvanization. The metallic iron isn covered by a layer of more active metal such as zinc.The active metal loses electrons in preference to iron Zn Zn2+ + 2e Thus, protecting iron from rusting and Corrosion.

Aim of the project

The goal of the project is to investigate effect of metal coupling on the rate of rusting of iron.

Material required
Beakers-15 Iron sheets of size-6 Aluminium rods of size-6 Brass rods of size-6 Zinc sheets of size-6 Measuring cylinders Chemical Balance Weight box CHEMICALS: Hydrochloric acid Sodium hydroxide.

(i) Mix 9 ml. of conc. HCl with 241 ml. of water to form 250 ml. of solution.

(ii) Take this solution in seven different beakers.

(iii) Mark each beaker serially from 1 to 7.

(iv) Take the weights of three iron sheets, three aluminium rods, three brass rods and three zinc sheets.

(v) Now keep iron sheets, aluminium rods, zinc sheets and brass rod in separate beakers.

(vi) Then take iron + brass, iron + aluminium, iron + zinc, aluminium + zinc and brass + zinc and keep them in different beakers.

(vii) Allow the reactions to occur for 24 hours.

(viii) Note the maximum and minimum temperatures.

(ix) Now at the end of reaction take out the metals and keep them in sun for sometime so that they get dried up quickly

(x) Take the weights of each specimen and note the difference.

(xi) Similarly repeat 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 and 8 steps in a basic solution.

Observation table
S.No. Specimen (with acid) Brass 1.
Initial Weight Final Weight (in gm) (in gm) 8 5

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Iron Zinc Aluminium Iron+Aluminium Brass+Zinc Iron+Zinc

Specimen (with bases) Brass

8 8 8 15 15 15

6 6.50 7.10 12.30 13.00 14.10

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Initial Weight Final Weight (in gm) (in gm) 8 5.80

Iron Zinc Aluminium Iron+Aluminium Brass+Zinc Iron+Zinc

8 8 8 15 15 15

6.20 7.10 7.60 12.90 13.60 14.40

1. The rate of corrosion observed in acidic medium or the mass consumed during the corrosion is in the decreasing order from brass to aluminum. Brass has the highest corrosion rate while aluminium has the least corrosion rate. Brass > Iron > Zinc > Aluminium.

2. When coupling of these metals was done each couple showed some difference in their corrosion with respect to each metal kept alone. Iron + Aluminium couple has the highest rate of corrosion while iron +Zinc couple has the lowest rate of corrosion. Rate of corrosion of each couple is in the order of Iron + Aluminium > Brass + Zinc> Iron + Zinc.

3. Rate of corrosion in basic medium is in the decreasing order from Brass to Aluminium.The order of rate of corrosion is as below: Brass > Zinc >Iron > Aluminium.

4. When these metals were coupled the rate of corrosion was in the decreasing order from Brass+ Aluminium > Brass + Zinc > Iron + Aluminium.

5. Temperature and time of reaction were constant i.e., temperature was 21 C and time of reaction was 24 hours.

Corrosion is a serious problem of some metals like iron, zinc, aluminium and alloys like brass which are commonly used in day to day life. Apart from reducing the life of articles made up of these metals or alloys the chemical substances formed out of corrosion have serious public health problems. Replacement of machines or their parts and many other articles in industrial and public dealing lead to huge expenditure.

Hence, how to reduce or avoid corrosion of articles made up of metals or alloys has been a major subject of study in the field of chemistry and electro-chemistry.

The study of the rate of corrosion of different metals or alloys showed gradual decrease in their masses in acidic medium. The decrease is in the order of brass,iron, zinc, aluminium. The present experiments are in full agreement with the well known electrochemical reaction. Some of the typical reactions as occur with iron are illustrated. (a) The reactions at respective electrodes are: At cathode: Fe . Fe2+ + 2e. in acid the equilibrium is HCl H+ + Cl. At anode: The water which is in equilibrium H2O H+ + OH.

Here the Fe2+ cation will readily take Cl and form FeCl3. While H+ of acid wil lbe reacting with another H+ of water and will form H2 gas. While OH. anion will also react with some of the iron and will form Fe(OH)3 which is observed in the form of rust. (b) The e.m.f of these metals are in the order of Al:Zn:Fe . The values are e.m.f Al Al3++3eZn Zn2++2eFe Fe2++ 2e1.66V 0.76V 0.44V

Brass which is an alloy of zinc and copper has the e.m.f. 0.42V during the forward reaction or oxidation reaction. While in backward reaction the e.m.f. value is .0.42. This is because during oxidation reaction the e.m.f values of zinc and copper are .0.76 and

+ 0.34, respectively. That is why the value differs. (c) In acid there are replaceable H+ ions which react with metals and H2 gas is evolved. This is because all the metals are highly electronegative in nature. When these two come in contact they react very easily and form stable compounds. Thus the rate of corrosion is very high.The rate of corrosion in basic medium is very less as compared to acidic medium. This is shown because of following factors: (i) Ex: sodium hydroxide .NaOH which is in equilibrium with Na+ and OH. ions. NaOH . Na+ + OH- When NaOH comes in contact with water the two ions immediately dissociate. The hydrates Na+ ions will take the H+ ion.The electropositive characters here will be the main factor in the slow rate of corrosion.Na being more electropositive than the metal mentioned above, most of OH-

ions will be taken by Na+ when compared to the other metals i.e., the rate of corrosion is slow with Na+ \ Fe2+ || OH\OHWhile H+ + electron = H H + H = H2 gas. (ii) The availability of e- is very less for the conversion of H+ to H2 gas state. That is why there will not be replaceable H ion. If there is no replaceable H+ ion then the corrosion will be possible. Hence the rate of corrosion is very slow.

For our project we have taken help from following sources. 1) Comprehensive (Practical Chemistry XII) 2) Internet-, 3) NCERT Chemistry Textbooks 4) PRADEEP chemistry textbooks for 11th and 12th