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**2011,23(2):247-257
**

DOI: 10.1016/S1001-6058(10)60110-2

ELECTROHYDRODYNAMIC DISPERSION OF DEFORMABLE AEROSOLS IN THE PRESENCE OF AN ELECTRIC FIELD AND CHEMICAL REACTION USING TAYLOR DISPERSION MODEL*

RUDRAIAH N., DEVARAJU N. UGC-CAS in Fluid Mechanics, Department of Mathematics, Bangalore University, Bangalore – 560 001, India National Research Institute for Applied Mathematics (NRIAM), Bangalore – 560 070, India, E-mail: rudraiahn@hotmail.com NG Chiu-On Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China (Received December 3, 2010, Revised January 16, 2011)

Abstract: Under the effects of electric field and chemical reaction, the problem of dispersion of aerosols in a poorly conducting fluid in a channel is solved analytically using the mixture theory together with a regular perturbation technique. It is shown that the aerosols are dispersed relative to a plane moving with the mean speed of atmospheric fluid as well as the mean speed of agglomeration of aerosol with a relative diffusion coefficient, called the Taylor dispersion coefficient. This coefficient is numerically computed and the results reveal that it increases with an increase in the electric number, but decreases with increasing porous parameter. The physical explanations for the phenomena are given in this article. Key words: dispersion, aerosols, electrohydrodynamics, mixture theory

Introduction This article deals with the effects of electric field and chemical reaction on the dispersion of deformable aerosols in a poorly conducting atmospheric fluid flowing in a channel bounded by porous layers using Taylor’s model[1]. Electric fields are used extensively in different industrial problems, particularly in those concerned with chemical, electrical, electronic and drug industries for various separation processes. Waterman[2] reviewed the process of using electric fields to improve coalescence and found these techniques to be quite effective in the removal of water from oil. Williams and Bailey[3] examined coalescence of poorly conducting drops in the presence of an elec* Project supported by the Department of Science of Technology of India (Grant No. SR/S4-AS-237/2004-05), the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China, (Grant Nos. HKU 715609E, HKU 715510E). Biography: RUDRAIAH N. (1932-), Male, Ph. D., Professor Corresponding author: NG Chiu-On, E-mail: cong@hku.hk

trical field both theoretically and experimentally. Schmidt[4] performed experiments with different aerosols and observed that the application of an electric field had the effect of reducing sedimentation time. A detailed calculation of the aerosol particles and size distribution suggested that this phenomenon of reduction of sedimentation time is due to the electric field enhancing aerosol particle coalescence. Studies of predicting the collision frequencies of settling mechanisms have been carried out in the past. Also, the deposition of nano-particles under different conditions was investigated in the recent numerical studies by Sun et al.[5], Gan et al.[6], Yin and Lin[7], and Liu and Lin[8]. Wang et al.[9] used a trajectory analysis for estimating the aggregation rates and found that the electric fields can enhance the gravitational settling of charged particles. Usually, when the Earth’s local weather is fine, the electric field is about 180 Vm-1 – 280 Vm-1 depending on the concentration of aerosols (see Jayaratne and Verma[10]). When the aerosols are in continuous deformation with relative motion resulting in particles colliding and coalescing to form larger

the velocity for atmospheric fluid u f and for aerosols u s are numerically computed and the results are represented graphically and important conclusions are given in Section 3. Mathematical formulation We consider a two-dimensional geometry as shown in Fig. G the pressure gradient. K the linear drag coefficient that is the Darcy resistance offered by solid to fluid. Then the required momentum equations are given by ρβ ¨ § ∂qβ ¨ ∂t © i + qβ j ∂ qiβ ∂x j · ∂p ¸ = −φ β +ª ¬ X p ( μ − μa ) + ¸ x ∂ i ¹ μ a + μe ] ∂ 2 qiβ B K qis − qif + ρe Et ∂x j ∂x j ( ) (1) These equations. s . J . who showed that the charges induced on the closest sides of the neighboring particles are of opposite sign. Analytical solutions of coupled partial differential equations are derived in Section 2 using a regular perturbation technique with a perturbation parameter ε . aerosol) and. are assumed to satisfy the general equation involving the relative velocity between aerosol and atmospheric fluid. μ f = μa + μe the effective viscosity (also called the Brinkman viscosity) of poorly conducting atmospheric turbulent fluid. These particles experience an attractive force which can eventually lead to the particles colliding causing agglomeration or coalescence. the required basic equations. directly injected into the atmosphere. deformable aerosols and settling of large particles on primary as well as secondary admixture using the Reynolds averaging procedure supplemented with gradient diffusion model. the difference in number concentration of aerosols causes variation in electrical conductivity σ . To achieve the objectives of this article. It consists of flow through a symmetrical channel extended to infinity on both directions of the x-axis. relevant boundary conditions and the dimensionless form are given in Section 1 on mathematical formulation of this article “space”. to derive the required basic equations. as explained by Rudraiah and Devaraju[11]. we use the mechanism of mixture of aerosols and atmospheric turbulent fluid taking into account the combined effect of electric field.1. μe the eddy viscosity. according to Ohm’s law. The primary pollutants. due to embedded electrodes of different potentials at the boundaries. The total electric field Et = Eind + Ea produces not only a current density. but also an electric force ρe Et . In addition. The study of it is the main objective of this article because of its importance in many applications discussed above. f . 1. we assume fully developed unidirectional flow as in Taylor[1] so that there is no x-dependence in any of the physical quantities except the pressure.e. The unidirectional flow is represented with velocities q1s = u s as the x-component of aerosol velocity and q1f = u f the x-component of atmospheric fluid velocity. The aerosol medium is assumed to be homogeneous. the fluid phase (i. Therefore.248 particles where an electric field induces a dipole in uncharged aerosol particles. These dispersion coefficients. represents solid phase (i. For an infinite channel. following Rudraiah and Devaraju[11]. there may be an applied electric field. which releases the charges forming distribution of charge density ρε . The applied pressure gradient ∂p / ∂x = G (t ) produces an axially directed flow.. Ea . That is. . electric potential and concentration of aerosols. The motion of atmospheric fluid is usually turbulent due to large length scales which result in large Reynolds number. μ the Lamé constant. The Taylor dispersion coefficients for atmospheric fluid and also for aerosols are determined in this section. for the mixture of aerosol and atmospheric turbulent fluid with the assumptions stated above becomes ρs ∂u s ∂ 2u s = μs − φ s G − K ( u s − u f ) + ρe Ex ∂t ∂y 2 ∂u f ∂ 2u f = μf − φ f G + K ( u s − u f ) + ρe Ex ∂t ∂y 2 (2) ρf (3) where the superscript. Eind .e. which is computed using Maxwell’s equations.. μ s = μ + μe is one of the turbulent Lamé constants. The channel is filled with poorly conducting fluid saturated porous media regarded as a mixture of aerosol and atmospheric fluid bounded by permeable layers with embedded electrodes of different potentials at y = 0 and y = h . The dispersion of aerosols and other Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) in the presence of electric field in atmospheric turbulent fluid has not been given much attention in the literature. incompressible and isotropic in the presence of the body force. These charges produce an induced electric field. mixture theory has been used to derive the basic equations for an ordinary fluid in the absence of electric field through assuming the mixture of aerosol and atmospheric fluid as deformable porous media. known as concentration electric field. atmospheric poorly conducting fluid). In the literature[11-14].

simplifying and for simplicity neglecting the asterisks.(4) into Eqs. R4 = f 2 . h h G0 t0 h G0 E ρe G Φ ∗ . Φ∗ = . ρe Ex . we get ∂ 2Φ 1 ∂Φ ∂σ + =0 ∂η 2 σ ∂η ∂η (15) The boundary conditions are the Saffman slip conditions of the form[15] .1 Physical configuration ∂H i = J i + ρe qi ∂x j (11) Solenoidal property of magnetic field: ∂H i =0 ∂xi (12) Substituting Eq. We make these equations dimensionless using du s du f = ±α1σ p u s .249 ϕ s the aerosol volume fraction and ϕ f the fluid volume fraction. and α1 and α 2 are the slip parameters. ρe∗ = . us = 2 s us . V and t0 are the characteristic length. we get ∂u s ∂ 2u s = R1 − R1φ s G − R2 ( u s − R3u f ) + We ρe Ex 2 ∂t ∂η ∂u f ∂ 2u f = R4 − R4φ s G + R2 λ ( u s − R3u f ) + We ρe Ex ∂t ∂η 2 (5) These equations have to be supplemented with the equation of continuity of charges ∂ρe ∂ ( ρe qi ) ∂J i + + =0 ∂t ∂xi ∂xi (13) (6) where Ri ( i = 1 to 4) are dimensionless parameters defined by and using Ohm’s law for a poorly conducting media ( σ 1 ) and neglecting convection current ρe qi compared to conduction current. J i = σ Ei . To find the electric force. R3 = s . u f = 2 u f .(13) becomes R1 = μ f t0 μ μ s t0 Kt . pressure gradient. using Eqs. ν s = ss f ρ ρ (4) where h . = ±α 2σ p u f at η = 0 . electric potential and time respectively and the asterisks ( ∗ ) denote the dimensionless quantities. and due to the absence of applied magnetic field. t = . is ε ijk ∂Ei ∂Φ = 0 Ei = − ∂x j ∂xi (10) Ampere’s law: ε ijk Fig. s 2 μf ρ h ρ ρ h (7) λ= ε 0V 2 ε 0V 2 νf W . dη dη and 1 for t > 0 .(9) and (10). and taking σ = σ (η ) . Ex = x . 2 V /h ε 0V /h V G0 where σ p = h / k is the porous parameter. = = e 2 2 νs ρ s h2 ( u s ) ρ f h2 ( u f ) ∂ρe ∂E § ∂qi · ∂σ = 0¸ + σ i + Ei = 0 ¨' ∂t ∂xi ∂xi © ∂xi ¹ (14) Furthermore.(2) and (3). we denote Di = ε 0 Ei . respectively (8) η= μf ∗ ∗ μ y ∗ t . G0 . while using the assumption σ 1 . Eq. R2 = s0 . From these. first we have to find the electric field Ex and then the charge density ρe using Maxwell’s equations given by Gauss’s law: ∂Ei ρe = (9) ∂xi ε 0 G∗ = νf = μf μ . Faraday’s law: By neglecting induced magnetic field because σ 1 .

t ).(22) and (20) into Eqs. the viscosity of atmospheric fluid. is where i = 0. dη dη and 1 for t > 0 .(18). perturbation on it is negligible and hence σ depends on the basic concentration Cb . we avoid this process and use a regular perturbation technique choosing ε = R2 R3 ( = K μ s t0 /( ρ s μ f ) ) to be small as a perturbation parameter. 1. G0 } e − nt (23) The solution of Eq. the resulting PDE becomes higher order and cumbersome and the required boundary conditions have to be extrapolated. G (t )} = {uif ( y ). then C .. in the form Cb = (C1 − C0 )η + C0 . This assumption K μ s / ρ s μ f / t0 is valid in our study of quasi-steady flow obtained following Taylor[1]. using the boundary condition given in Eq. and use Cb the basic concentration obtained by solving d 2 Cb / dη 2 = 0 satisfying Cb = C0 given by at η = 0 and C = C1 at 2. u s = u0 + ε u1s + .(17). ΔC = C1 − C0 .. t ).(5) and (6) and assuming the normal mode solutions of the form {u f i ( y. we get Ex = − d 2 u0f λ R s We −αη + b02 u0f = φ f − 2 u0 e − 2 dη R4 R4 (25) ∂Φ ∂ 2Φ x α 2 e−αη = −1 and ρe = − 2 = 0 −α 1− e ∂η ∂x (20) uf d 2 u1s 2 s u1 = − 0 − a0 2 R1 dη d 2 u1f λ f λ R2 s + b02 u1f = u0 − u1 2 dη R4 R4 (26) If C is the concentration of aerosols in the atmosphere. = ±α1σ p uis .(2) and (3). where t0 is very large and μ f . duis duif = ±α 2σ p uif at η = 0 . we look for solutions of Eqs. respectively (28) .. and diffuses in the atmospheric turbulent fluid of unidirectional flow given by Eqs.(5) and (6) in the form s u f = u0f + ε u1f + . η = 1 . is small. . Make σ dimensionless using σ 0 . Electrohydrodynamic dispersion of aerosols The required basic equations and the corresponding boundary conditions are given by Eqs.(8). uis ( y.(16).. Then σ is σ = 1 + αη ≈ eαη (since α 1 ) (17) (22) where α = α h ΔC . in the next section. we get s d 2 u0 W 2 s − a0 u0 = φ s − e e −αη 2 dη R1 Φ = x− x0 (1 − e −αη 1 − e −α ) (24) (19) Substituting Eq. Therefore. Making Φ dimensionless using V . In this technique. satisfies the equation § ∂ 2C ∂ 2C · ∂C ∂C + uβ = De ¨ 2 + 2 ¸ − k1C ∂t ∂x ∂y ¹ © ∂x (27) (21) 2 = ( R2 − n) / R1 and b02 = n / R4 . Although it is possible to decouple these equations using a suitable operator.. Eq. the boundary conditions are Φ = x − x0 at η = 1 Φ = x at η = 0 (16a) (16b) Since σ 1 .(5) to (16). with the first-order chemical reaction.1. These equations are coupled linear Partial Differential Equations (PDE). which become We study the electrohydrodynamic dispersion of aerosols by the atmospheric fluid and vice versa using Taylor’s model. . The bounwhere a0 dary conditions are the Saffman slip conditions[14] as given in Eq. . using Eq. becomes d 2Φ dΦ +α =0 2 dη dη (18) Substituting Eqs.(15).(19) into Ex and ρe . and on simplifying them.250 with the boundary conditions due to potentials Φ = Vx / h at y = 0 and Φ = V ( x − x0 ) / h at y = h due to embedded electrodes as shown in Fig. uis ( y )..

..1 Advection by atmospheric fluid In this case. we assume.(19) takes the form ∂C ∂C ∂ 2C + uβ = De 2 − k1C ∂t ∂x ∂y (35) u = Δ11 cos b0η + Δ12 sin b0η + Δ13 cosh a0η + f 0 Δ14 sinh a0η + Δ15 e −αη + Δ16 (30) u1s = ( Δ17 + Δ18η ) sinh a0η + ( Δ19 + Δ 20η ) cosh η + Δ 21 sin b0η + Δ 22 cos b0η + Δ 23 e −αη + Δ 24 (31) u1f = ( Δ 25 + Δ 26η ) cos b0η + ( Δ 27 + Δ 28η ) sin b0η + In this article. t∗ = .. ξ = .(29) to (32). The solutions of Eqs.. the solid phase of aerosol. the longitudinal diffusion is much less than the transverse diffusion.(4) and u f = ³ u f dη = F 0 1 sinh a0η + a15 sin b0η + a16 cos b0η + a17 e−αη + a18 º ¼ (33) u = u + εu = ª ¬( b11 + b12η ) cos b0η + ( b13 + b14η )< f f 0 f 1 (38) sin b0η + ( b15 + b16η ) cosh a0η + ( b17 + b18η )< sinh a0η + b19 e −αη + b20 º ¼ is the average fluid velocity. These are discussed as follows... we get ... following Taylor[1]..... we get s u s = u0 + ε u1s = ª ¬( a11 + a12η ) cosh a0η + ( a13 + a14η )< where c0 is the initial slug. b20 are given in the appendix. which implies ∂ 2 C / ∂x 2 ∂ 2 C / ∂y 2 . In other words. and the other for the advection of atmospheric fluid by agglomeration. Δ3 j ( j = 0. where (34) §b +b §b +b b · b · F = ¨ 11 12 − 14 sinh a0 − ¨ 13 14 − 12 < 2 ¸ 2 ¸ a0 ¹ a0 © a0 © a0 ¹ §b +b b · cosh a0 + ¨ 15 16 − 18 ¸ sin b0 − b02 ¹ © b0 § b17 + b18 b16 · §b b b − 2 ¸ cos b0 + ¨ 12 − 13 + 16 + ¨ 2 2 b0 ¹ © b0 © a0 a0 b0 b17 a0 · ¸ + b19 ¹ (39) where the coefficients a1 j (i = 1.251 Similarly we can get equations for i > 1 . satisfying the condition given by Eq. L is the characteristic length along this flow direction. η = . are s u0 = c1 cosh a0η + c2 sinh a0η − 2 R1 (α 2 − a0 ) We e −αη − φs 2 a0 (29) effect of longitudinal advection and transverse diffusion is to disperse the aerosol longitudinally relative to a frame moving at the mean speed of flow by a mechanism which obeys the same law as an ordinary one-dimensional diffusion relative to fluid at rest. Eq.. 9) . using Eqs.. Δ 2 j ( j = 0.... uf∗ = L U C0 t0 h (37) where the coefficients. 9) . Then Eq. one is for the advection of aerosols by the atmospheric fluid.. Δ1 j ( j = 1. we consider two situations. but we restrict only to i = 0 and 1..(35) takes the form ∂C ∂C ∂ 2C +uf = De 2 − k1C ∂t ∂x ∂y (36) ( Δ 29 + Δ30η ) cosh a0η + ( Δ31 + Δ32η ) sinh a0η + Δ 33 e−αη + Δ 34 (32) Making this equation dimensionless using the scales C∗ = C t y x−u ft uf . U = h 2 G0 / μ f is the characteristic velocity and all other scales are the same as those defined in Eq. 8) and b1 j (i = 1. Thus the combined and for simplicity neglecting the asterisks.(28). are given in the appendix of this article. 9) . by denoting β = f . advection generates a small amount of aerosol across a section of the flow which moves with the mean speed. we assume that though there is a small longitudinal gradient of C along the flow..(24) to (27). From Eq.(22). Furthermore. To find the concentration distribution. 4) . this small transport and the small longitudinal concentration gradient must be proportional to one another. 2.

c2 and e1i (i = 1.. and b1 j (i = 1. is C = ( c1 cosh β1η + c2 sinh β1η + D1 )( e11 + e12η )< cosh a0η + ( e13 + e14η ) sinh a0η − ( e15 + e16η )< and w f is given in Eq. dispersed with the dispersion coefficient D f given by Eq. using Eqs. This is computed for different values of . using Eqs.. after using Eqs.(48).(42). performing the integration and simplifying the result. ∂C = 0 at η = 1 ∂η (43) called the Taylor diffusion coefficient for the mixture of deformable agglomeration and atmospheric fluid... 7) are constants and are given in the appendix. 0 we assume that the variation of C with y is small compared to the longitudinal direction and if Cm is the mean concentration over a section. Equation (47). 9) are constants given in the appendix.. we get This equation represents the longitudinal dispersion of deformable agglomeration in the atmospheric fluid. Following Taylor[1].. This is integrated using Eqs. The fact that no material is lost in the process is expressed by the continuity equation for Cm namely 1 ∂Cm ∂M =− ∂ξ L ∂t (50) cos b0η − ( e17 + e18η ) sin b0η + f0 β12 (44) where c1 . then ∂C / ∂ξ is indistinguishable from ∂Cm / ∂ξ so that Eq. we assume the partial equilibrium at any cross-section of the layer and obtain concentration as a function of y by approximating Eq. takes the form ∂Cm ∂ 2 Cm = Df ∂t ∂ξ 2 (51) (45) Hence.(44) and (45).252 1 ∂C w ∂C D ∂ C − k1C + = t0 ∂t L ∂ξ h 2 ∂η 2 f 2 (40) M= N1f h 2 ∂C +1 LDe ∂ξ 1 (46) where w = u − u = ( b11 + b12η ) cosh a0η + ( b13 + b14η )< f f f where N1f = ³ D1−1 ( C − 1) w f dη .(36) in the form ∂ 2C − β12 C = D1 w f 2 ∂η (42) This shows that Cm will be dispersed relative to plane moving with the mean velocity u f exactly as though it is being diffused by a process which obeys the same law as molecular diffusion but with a relative diffusion coefficient D f = − N1f hu f = N f Pe f De (48) where D1 = (h 2 / DL)(∂C / ∂ξ ) and β12 = h 2 k / De is the reaction rate parameter.(41).(49) and (50). Following Taylor[1].(44) and (41).(46) can be written as M= N1f h 2 ∂Cm +1 LDe ∂ξ (47) sinh a0η + ( b15 + b16η ) cos b0η + ( b17 + b18η )< sin b0η − f 0 (41) where f 0 = F − b19 .. The volumetric rate at which the aerosol is transported across a section of a layer of unit breadth is M = ³ Cw f dη 0 1 where the time derivative pertains to a point at which ξ is fixed.(41) and (43). Pe f = hu f / D1 is the Peclet number and 1 § C −1· f N f = − N1f = − ³ ¨ ¸ w dη 0 D © 1 ¹ (49) The solution of Eq.. For compatibility with the atmospheric layer we solve this equation for permeable to concentration given by C = 1 at η = 0 .

(35). the results are depicted graphically and are discussed in the next section. Using these approximations and following the analysis of Taylor we obtained the solutions analytically. cyclones are efficient only at high gas flow rates and for larger particles. The dispersion of deformable agglomeration in quasi-steady flow is discussed in Section 2. Reynolds number Re . Peclet number Pe and reaction rate parameter β1 . and D s is computed for different values of the electric number We . From these figures we find that u f increases with We .2 Velocity profile for atmospheric fluid for different values of electric number We Fig. Figures 2 and 3 represent the effect of electric number on the velocity profiles of atmospheric fluid and aerosols. The results are represented graphically. A standard design cyclone.2 Advection by agglomeration of aerosol We also note that the advection of atmospheric fluid by agglomeration can also be discussed through the similar analysis in Section 2.3 Velocity profiles of aerosols for different values of electric number We 3. are still objects of intensive research because of their wide range of applications.(22) with ε = K μ s t0 / ( ρ s μ f ) 1 . Figure 4 represents the effect of porous parameter on the dispersion of aerosols in an atmospheric poorly Fig. with a tangential inlet in which an electric field is generated in the space between an external wall and the central outlet channel is considered. and the results are depicted graphically and are discussed in Section 3. Design of optimized pollution control devices becomes increasingly important towards achieving that goal. because electric field induces a small scale turbulence but decreases with an increase in σ p because the permeability dampens the velocity profile.(48) for advection by atmospheric fluid ( β = f ) and by Eq. we get D s = Pe s N s where Pe s = hu s / Dm and 1 § C −1· s N s = −³ ¨ ¸ w dη 0 © D1 ¹ (52) (53) As in Eq.1 by substituting β = s in Eq. Cyclones. On the other hand. Following the same procedure as explained in Subsection 2. The equations governing the flow for atmospheric fluid. in particular for small particles of poorly conducting materials. Peclet number Pe and the reaction rate parameter β1 . In the case of smaller aerosol particulates an increase in the collection efficiency of particles in the turbulent flow is necessary.(5) and (6). The dispersion of large size deformable aerosols mixed with a poorly conducting atmospheric fluid is discussed in this article analytically using Taylor’s model valid asymptotically for large time with the objective of understanding the effect of electric field on the dispersion of atmospheric aerosols because of its importance in the applications mentioned above.(49). Using these solutions the dispersion coefficient D β is determined as given by Eq. 2. poorly conducting fluid and for deformable agglomeration obtained under the assumption of fully developed flow are the coupled partial differential Eqs.253 the electric number We . this is integrated using ws and C − 1 . An application of an externally applied electric field in a turbulent flow assisting the inertial removal effect should result in increased cleaning effectiveness. Results and discussions One of the necessary tasks associated with . Fibrous filters are effective in the removal of submicrometer aerosol particles but their application is limited to low concentrations of aerosol dust in air. These equations are solved analytically using the regular perturbation technique given by Eq. very common devices though.(52) for advection by agglomeration ( β = s ) . industrialization is to achieve progress in the removal of solid or liquid particles from gases discharged to the environment. Reynolds number Re . This assumption is valid in our study of quasi-steady flow as considered in Rudraiah and Ng[16].1.

5 Dispersion coefficient D s versus deformation parameter for different Re Pe = 150 .7 Dispersion coefficient D f versus deformation parameter for different Pe conducting fluid for different values of the Reynolds number Re and it shows that the dispersion Fig. Figures 5 and 6 show the effect of deformation parameter on the dispersion coefficient D s for different values of the Reynolds number and this figure shows that the D s decreases for small values of R1 up to 0.5 and Fig. Fig.5×1024 for β1 = 40 .5 and also decreases with an increase in Pe up to R1 = 0. Figure 8 shows that the D f increases with an increase in We for Fig.4 Dispersion coefficient D f versus porous parameter for different Re D f remains uniform for R1 > 0. D s decreases with an 21 increase in Pe up to 100 and tends to 10 at R1 = 1 and for Pe > 100 it increases.5 .254 coefficient D f decreases with an increase in porous parameter because of its dampening effect but increases with an increase in the Reynolds number. However.7 it tends to unity. Figure 7 shows that D f decreases with an increase in R1 up to 0. Fig. It also reveals that increase in Re slightly increases for the values of R1 up to 0. Figure 6 shows that D s decreases with an increase in R1 and for R1 > 0. Similarly.8 Dispersion coefficient D f versus electric number We Fig.2 and for higher values from 0.6 Dispersion coefficient D s versus deformation parameter for different Pe Fig.25 it remains uniform.9 shows that D f increases with an increase in reaction rate parameter β1 for We = 50 and Re = 103 and reaches the maximum value 4.9 Dispersion coefficient D f versus reaction rate parameter .5 and then remain uniform with respect to increase in R1 and Pe .

.. IEEE. 2006.. Journal of Hydrodynamics. 1986. 41(1): 79-90. Effects of the reaction rate and the large size deformable aerosols on dispersion in atmospheric flow regarded as the turbulent fluid saturated porous media[J]. A. Math.. Particle size distribution in a planar jet flow undergoing shear-induced coagulation and breakage[J]. 2007. c1 = α1σ R1 (α − a 2 We (α − α1σ ) 2 0 ) + ϕs a 2 0 + Δα1σ a0 < ªW (α σ − α ) δ α σδϕ s « e 12 − 1 2 + 2 a0 « ¬ R1 (α − a0 ) We e−α α1σ (α1σ − α ) 2 R1 (α 2 − a0 ) [4] [5] + α12σ 2ϕ s º 2 a0 ». Journal of Hydrodynamics.. and ALDIS G. A. K.. et al. » ¼ [6] ªW (α σ − α ) δ α σδϕ s c2 = 1 « e 1 2 − 1 2 + 2 Δ « R1 (α − a0 a0 ) ¬ We e−α α1σ (α1σ − α ) 2 R1 (α 2 − a0 ) [7] + α12σ 2ϕ s º 2 a0 ». Soc. J. Proc. GAN Fu-jun. M. 1965. Numerical simulation on the deposition of nanoparticles under laminar conditions[J]. ZENG S. Acknowledgement This work was supported by the University of Hong Kong through the Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research (Grant No. 20(1): 1-9. Engg. J. 18(9): 1129-1148. USA: University of Texas. RUDRAIAH N. BAILEY A. BARRY S. PARKER K. Phys. Experimental study of electrocoalescence in a unit reactor[D].. Environmental aerosols and their effect on the Earth’s local fairweather electric field[J]. SCHMIDT J. J. BOWEN R. 2010. Atmos. WILLIAMS T. i. This dispersion coefficient is numerically computed and the results reveal that the electric field and chemical reaction enhances the transport (dispersion) of aerosols. J. 14(3): 187-199. 19(6): 533-541. IEEE Trans. 22(3): 536-541. in Appl. Porous Media. I. Appendix 2 Δ = ( a0 + α12σ 2 ) sinh a0 + 2a0α1σ cosh a0 . 200911159024). VERMA T. Appl. Math. LIN Jian-zhong. Meteorol. Particle aggregation due to combined gravitational and electrophoretic motion[J]. LIN Jian-zhong and BAO Fu-bing. YIN Zhao-qin. called Taylor dispersion coefficient. DEVARAJU N. 22(4): 445-455. Colloid Interface Sci. Ser. 50(2): 93-101. Master Thesis. 42(5): 633-648. 86(3-4): 275-280. References [1] [2] [3] TAYLOR G. KENYON D. E. JAYARATNE E.. Stud. it is found that the transport of aerosols decreases with an increase in the porous parameter. LIN Jian-zhong and YU Ming-zhou. Dispersion of soluble matter in solvent flowing slowly through a tube[J]. H. 2011.. Bio. (ZAMP).255 [9] 4. Phys. RUDRAIAH N. Therefore. Lond. Ind. O. LIN Jian-zhong. Conclusion In this article we have investigated the effect of electric field and the first-order chemical reaction on the dispersion of aerosols in a channel bounded by porous layers using Taylor’s model. SAFFMAN P. Int. and LOEWENBERG M. LIU Song. 18(6): 676-680. On the boundary condition at surface of a porous medium[J]. Austin. 1953. 219(1137): 186-203. Bull. Dispersion in porous media with and without reaction: A review[J]. Also. . 1991. SUN Lei.e. B. J. Analytical solutions for velocities and concentration distributions are obtained using a regular perturbation technique. NG C. Matrix formulation of electromagnetic scattering[J]. Numerical simulation of the formation of nano-particles in an impinging twinjet[J]. the electric field removes efficiently the solid or liquid particles from gases discharged to the environment.. Math. 1979. Mathematical model of water flux through aortic tissue[J].. [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] WANG H. 2008. 1980. G. Porous Media. J. 2004. WATERMAN P. Journal of Hydrodynamics. It is shown that the aerosols are dispersed relative to a plane moving with the mean speed of atmospheric fluid as well as the mean speed of agglomeration of aerosol with a relative diffusion coefficient.. Changes in the size distribution of a water-in-oil emulsion due to electricfield induced coalescence[J]. J. 53(8): 805-812. Appl. 10(3): 219-248. » ¼ [8] c3 = l2 + (α σ 2 2 b0 ( l1 − l2 ) (α 2σ cos b0 − b0 sin b0 ) 2 − b02 ) sin b0 + 2b0α 2σ cos b0 . Numerical simulation of nanoparticle coagulation in a Poiseuille flow via a moment method[J]. I. δ = a0 sinh a0 + α1σ cosh a0 .. Fluid flow over a thin deformable porous layer[J]. 2007. C. R. 1997. Sci. G. Proc. Incompressible porous-media models by use of the theory of mixtures[J]. S. Roy. the results throw a light on aerosol removal mechanisms. 2000. 1971. Journal of Hydrodynamics. 187(1): 213-220.

¾ 2 2 R1 R4 (α 2 − a0 ) (α 2 + b02 ) ° ¿ α 2σλ R2 c1 cosh a0 2 R4 ( a0 + b02 ) + α 2σλ R2 c2 sinh a0 2 R4 ( a0 + b02 ) − Δ11 = l2 + (α σ 2 2 2 b0 ( l1 − l2 ) (α 2σ cos b0 − b0 sin b0 ) 2 − b02 ) sin b0 + 2b0α 2σ cos b0 . « − 2 2 2 α 2 + b02 « R1 R4 (α 2 − a0 ) R4 » ¬ ¼ R4 ( a0 b0 ) ª −λ R2 1 º We » Δ15 = « − . . Δ 23 = « − 2 2 2 2 2 « R R α 2 − a2 R4 (α − a0 ) » α + b0 0 ) ¬ 1 4( ¼ 2 R1 R4 (α 2 − a0 )(α 02 − b02 ) Weα e −α ( λ R2 − R1 ) < α 2σδ ( l6 − l5 ) § λ R2ϕ s ϕf · . 2 2 R4 » α 2 + b02 « + R R b α ( ) 1 4 0 ¬ ¼ Δ16 = λ R2ϕ s 2 2 R4 a0 b0 + ϕf b02 . s º ασ e−α We ª λ R2 1 » − α 2σλ R2ϕ . Δ 25 = l6 − Δ 24 = − ¨ + 4 2 2 2 ¸ α 2σδ + b0 © R4 a0 b0 a0 b0 ¹ . 2 R1 ( a0 + b02 ) − l1 = λ R2 c1a0 sinh a0 2 0 ) + λ R2 c2 a0 cosh a0 R4 ( a + b 2 0 2 0 α1σλ R2 ( c1 sinh a0 + c2 cosh a0 ) + 2 2a0 R1 R4 ( a0 + b02 ) ) − f º α e−α We ª λ R2 1 » − α 2σϕ + « − 2 2 R4 » b02 (α 2 + b02 ) « ¬ R1 R4 (α − a0 ) ¼ 2 2 º½ Weα1σ e−α ª ¬λ R2 − R1 (α − a0 ) ¼ ° . 1 ° b ( c sin b0 − c4 cos b0 ) l4 = ® 0 3 − 2 2 Δ° R a + b ( ) 1 0 0 ¯ Δ 22 = c3 .256 c4 = ( c3 − l3 ) α 2σ b0 R4 ( a + b 2 0 α1σ ( c3 cos b0 + c4 sin b0 ) . R1 R4 (α − a 2 ( λ R2 + R1 )We 2 2 0 ) (α 2 +b 2 0 ) + λ R2ϕ s 4 2 R4 a0 b0 . f ª º λ R2 1 » − ϕ + λ R2σ c1 − « − 2 2 2 2 R4 » b0 R4 ( a0 + b02 ) « ¬ R1 R4 (α − a0 ) ¼ s º We ª λ R2 1 » − λ R2ϕ . λR c · § 1 l3 = ¨ c4 b0 + 2 2 ¸ − 2 2 2 a R 0 4 ¹ α1σ R1 ( a0 + b0 ) © 2 α1σ R1 R4 (α 2 − a0 )(α 2 + b02 ) Δ17 = ( l4 − l3 ) α 2σ ( a0 sinh a0 + α1σ cosh a0 ) (a 2 0 + α12σ 2 ) sinh a0 + 2a0α1σ cosh a0 . Δ19 = l3 + a0 α1σ c4 Δ17 . Δ 20 = 2a0 R1 R4 ( a + b 2 0 2 R1 ( a0 + b02 ) λ R2 c2 2 0 . . λ R2 ª ¬( c1a0 + c2 ) cosh a0 + ( c1 + c2 a0 ) sinh a0 º ¼ 2 2a0 R1 R4 ( a0 + b02 ) + ª º λ R2 1 » We . αWe ( λ R2 + R1 ) − 2 + b02 ) R1 ( a0 c3 − Δ18 = 2a0 R1 R4 ( a + b 2 0 λ R2 c1 2 0 ) ) . « − 2 2 2 R4 » R4 ( a0 + b02 ) (α 2 + b02 ) « ¬ R1 R4 (α − a0 ) ¼ Δ12 = (α σ 2 2 b0 ( l1 − l2 ) (α 2σ cos b0 − b0 sin b0 ) − b02 ) sin b0 + 2b0α 2σ cos b0 l2 = α 2σ R4 ( a + b 2 0 −λ R2 c2 a0 2 0 ) − α 2σ ( a + b 2 0 αWe 2 0 ) < Δ13 = R4 ( a + b 2 0 −λ R2 c1 2 0 ) . Δ14 = 2 R4 ( a0 + b02 ) −λ R2 c2 . Δ 21 = 2 R1 ( a0 + b02 ) .

b13 = Δ12 + εΔ 27 . 2b0 α 2σδ + b0 a11 = c1 + εΔ19 . Δ34 = − λ8 b02 . a12 = εΔ 26 . Δ 28 = 1 . b14 = εΔ 28 . b11 = Δ11 + εΔ 25 . 32 2 ¸ a0 + b02 ¹ . a18 = −ϕ s + εΔ 24 . a + b0 ( a0 + b0 ) » « © a0 + b0 ¹ ¬ 0 ¼ + εΔ 23 . a17 = −We 2 R1 (α 2 − a0 ) ª λ § λ · 2a λ º Δ 29 = − « 2 3 2 − 2 0 6 2 » . 2 a0 § 2a0 λ5 λ Δ31 = − ¨ 2 4 2 − 2 ¨ a0 + b0 ( a02 + b02 ) © Δ33 = − · ¸ . b17 = Δ14 + εΔ31 . Δ30 = − ¨ 2 5 2 ¸ . Δ 27 = α 2σ ( l6 − l5 ) λ . Δ = − λ6 . b18 = εΔ 32 .257 Δ 26 = − λ2 2b0 . b20 = Δ16 + εΔ 34 λ7 α 2 + b02 . b15 = Δ13 + εΔ 29 . b16 = εΔ30 . b19 = Δ15 + εΔ33 . a14 = εΔ18 . a13 = c2 + εΔ17 . b12 = εΔ 26 . a15 = εΔ 21 . a16 = εΔ 22 .

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