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SEXTANT SIGHTING MEASUREMENTS
FROM ON BOARD THE GEMINI XI1 SPACECRAFT

by Donald W. Smith and Bedford A. Lampkin
Ames Research Cefzzter Moffett Field Cal$

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NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE A D M I N I S T R A T I O N

WASHINGTON, D. C.

DECEMBER 1968

TECH LIBRARY

KAFB, " I

Illll1l0131709 lllllllllllllI lI l
NASA T N D-4952

SEXTANT SIGHTING MEASUREMENTS FROM

ON BOARD THE GEMINI XI1 SPACECRAFT

By Donald W. Smith and Bedford A. Lampkin

Ames Research Center
Moffett F i e l d , Calif.

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION
For sole by t h e Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific ond Technical Information Springfield, Virginia 22151 CFSTI price $3.00

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SEXTANT SIGHTING MEASUREMENTS FROM
ON BOARD THE G E M I N I X I 1 SPACECRAFT

By Donald W . Smith and Bedford A . Lampkin Ames Research Center
SW R Y

The c a p a b i l i t y of a s p a c e c r a f t n a v i g a t o r t o make i n - f l i g h t n a v i g a t i o n measurements from on board t h e s p a c e c r a f t u s i n g a hand-held s e x t a n t h a s been s t u d i e d e x t e n s i v e l y . Tests conducted on board t h e o r b i t i n g Gemini X I 1 space­ c r a f t were designed t o determine t h e e f f e c t o f t h e a c t u a l s p a c e - f l i g h t envi­ ronment on n a v i g a t o r performance. The r e s u l t s show t h a t : (1) hand-held s e x t a n t measurement performance i s e x c e l l e n t p r o v i d i n g a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n of measurement e r r o r l e s s t h a n 10 a r c seconds; ( 2 ) s p a c e c r a f t r o t a t i o n a l motion and t h e a c t u a l s p a c e c r a f t environment had l i t t l e e f f e c t on t h e n a v i ­ g a t o r performance; and ( 3 ) window-induced measurement e r r o r s i n t h e Gemini X I 1 s p a c e c r a f t were small and p r e d i c t a b l e . The o p t i c a l hand-held s e x t a n t appears t o have a p p l i c a t i o n t o on-board n a v i g a t i o n f o r f u t u r e manned space f l i g h t s .
INTRODUCTION

Earth-based e l e c t r o n i c t r a c k i n g systems have been used f o r e a r t h o r b i t a l n a v i g a t i o n of t h e manned Gemini s p a c e c r a f t and f o r t r a n s l u n a r and i n t e r ­ p l a n e t a r y n a v i g a t i o n of v a r i o u s unmanned s p a c e c r a f t . I t i s planned t o u s e t h e s e t r a c k i n g systems as an element i n t h e primary n a v i g a t i o n system f o r t h e manned Apollo s p a c e c r a f t . I n t h e manned v e h i c l e s , t h e s e systems p r o v i d e a c c u r a t e n a v i g a t i o n measurements and r e l i e v e t h e crew workload a t c r i t i c a l time p e r i o d s i n t h e m i s s i o n . S t u d i e s of circumlunar n a v i g a t i o n ( r e f s . 1 and 2) and i n t e r p l a n e t a r y n a v i g a t i o n ( r e f s . 3 and 4 ) have i n d i c a t e d t h a t p r e c i s e a n g u l a r measurements ( s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n of measurement e r r o r I 10 a r c s e c ) made w i t h an o p t i c a l device such as a s e x t a n t o r t h e o d o l i t e can b e s u i t a b l y p r o c e s s e d i n a com­ p u t e r mechanized n a v i g a t i o n system t o p r o v i d e s a t i s f a c t o r y midcourse naviga­ t i o n . Early i n the space-flight e r a , similar s t u d i e s l e d technical planners t o c o n s i d e r on-board systems f o r primary n a v i g a t i o n . A s i m p l i f i e d h i g h l y r e l i a b l e on-board n a v i g a t i o n system f o r manned o r b i t a l , l u n a r , and i n t e r ­ planetary space f l i g h t is d e s i r a b l e :
1. To p r o v i d e a backup c a p a b i l i t y s u i t a b l e f o r s a f e e a r t h r e t u r n

from a v a r i e t y o f m i s s i o n phases
2. To p r o v i d e a b l u n d e r check f o r primary system e r r o r s

S i g h t i n g p r e c i s i o n has a l s o been s t u d i e d i n s i m u l a t o r s ( r e f s . I t was designed t o measure a c c u r a t e l y t h e a n g l e between v a r i o u s types of c e l e s t i a l t a r g e t s . The problem o f s i g h t i n g p r e c i s i o n i s b e i n g s t u d i e d i n a c t u a l s p a c e f l i g h t by t h e A i r Force ( r e f . On-board n a v i g a t i o n o f a i r c r a f t and s h i p s h a s evolved i n t o a system t h a t depends t o a l a r g e e x t e n t on t h e u s e o f a p p r o p r i a t e t a b l e s and c h a r t s .s i g h t (LOS) s e x t a n t shown i n f i g u r e 1 was used i n t h e TO02 experiment. 2 . To e v a l u a t e t h e a s t r o n a u t ' s a b i l i t y t o make a c c u r a t e s p a c e n a v i g a t i o n measurements u s i n g a s i m p l e i n s t r u m e n t i n an a u t h e n t i c s p a c e environment 2 . 5) and N A S A ( r e f . b o t h i n s i m u l a t o r s and u s i n g a c t u a l c e l e s t i a l t a r g e t s from ground o b s e r v a t o r i e s . These s i m p l i f i e d systems are c a p a b l e o f p r o v i d i n g a p o s i t i o n d e t e r m i n a t i o n w i t h i n a mile . The TO02 experiment r e s u l t s a r e compared w i t h b a s e l i n e d a t a o b t a i n e d i n a ground-based s i m u l a t i o n and w i t h o t h e r f l i g h t d a t a . 6 ) .v i s o r down 3 . 7.f l i g h t experiment was t o make n a v i g a t i o n measurements through t h e window o f t h e s t a b i l i z e d Gemini space­ c r a f t w i t h a hand-held s e x t a n t : 1.3. and a s i m p l e computational form t o e s t a b l i s h v e h i c l e p o s i t i o n on t h e e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e .f l y i n g a i r c r a f t ( r e f . The r e s u l t s of t h e l i m i t e d s p a c e f l i g h t and more comprehensive s i m u l a t o r and a i r c r a f t experiments i n d i c a t e d t h a t a hand-held s e x t a n t could b e used as a major element of a s p a c e c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n system. t h e n a v i g a t i o n of s p a c e c r a f t t h a t t r a v e l a t h i g h speeds o v e r l a r g e d i s t a n c e s where t h e consequences o f small n a v i g a t i o n e r r o r s would b e g r e a t l y magnified r e q u i r e s systems based on new s t a n d a r d s o f p r e c i s i o n i n b o t h s i g h t i n g and c a l c u l a t i o n . However.o f . 8. a c l o c k . a s e x t a n t . To v a l i d a t e ground-based s i m u l a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s by compar­ i s o n of t h e i n . To examine t h e o p e r a t i o n a l f e a s i b i l i t y of t h e measurement t e c h n i q u e b o t h w i t h p r e s s u r e s u i t helmet o f f and p r e s s u r e s u i t helmet on . and 9) and i n h i g h . To i n s p i r e t h e crew's confidence i n t h e performance of t h e primary n a v i g a t i o n and guidance system. 1 0 ) . EQUIPMENT S ex t a n t Des c r ip t i on The two l i n e . To e v a l u a t e o p e r a t i o n a l problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e space­ c r a f t environment 4 . and t h e p o t e n t i a l of t h e hand-held s e x t a n t f o r implementation o f on-board n a v i g a t i o n systems f o r i n t e r p l a n e t a r y f l i g h t i s examined. The g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e of Ames' TO02 i n .f l i g h t d a t a w i t h b a s e l i n e d a t a o b t a i n e d by t h e s p a c e c r a f t p i l o t .

Event timer sWitch timer system connector Filter prim ary Figure 1.. 3 .Hand-held space sextant used in T002 experiment.

5 v o l t s f o r i l l u m i n a t i n g b o t h t h e d a t a readout and t h e reticle. Reticle i l l u m i n a t i o n i s provided t o e n a b l e t h e o p e r a t o r t o see t h e r e t i c l e a g a i n s t a dark background. The measured a n g l e between t h e f i x e d and s c a n n i n g LOS i s i n d i c a t e d on t h e c o u n t e r i n d e g r e e s . by observ­ i n g t h e f o c a l p l a n e through t h e e y e p i e c e and a d j u s t i n g t h e scanning f i e l d s o f view can superimpose t h e s e l e c t e d t a r g e t s i n t h e f i x e d and s c a n n i n g f i e l d s o f view. The o p e r a t o r . The r e t i c l e a l s o d e f i n e d t h e area o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t f i e l d of view i n which measurements were t o b e made t o minimize measurement e r r o r s . w h i l e t h e long eye r e l i e f eyepiece a l l o w s t h e s e x t a n t t o b e used w i t h t h e p r e s s u r e s u i t helmet on and t h e helmet v i s o r down.The view through t h e f i x e d LOS f i e l d o f t h e s e x t a n t i s imaged i n i t s f o c a l p l a n e through a p l a t e b e a m s p l i t t e r .001" o r 3 . f which p r o v i d e t a r g e t o p t i c a l motions o f 1 d e g r e e and 5 degrees p e r r e v o l u ­ t i o n o f t h e knobs. o p e r a t o r i n keeping t h e t a r g e t s a l i n e d i n t h e measurement p l a n e of t h e i n s t r u m e n t w h i l e making t h e s i g h t i n g s . I -I . 50% reflection A n engraved r e t i c l e i s l o c a t e d a t t h e p r i n c i p a l focus o f t h e t e l e ­ scope o b j e c t i v e l e n s . provides 2 . The a n g u l a r r o t a t i o n of t h e s c a n n i n g m i r r o r i s c o n t r o l l e d by t h e two-speed scanning c o n t r o l knobs. long eye r e l i e f .----. handp a t t e r n was designed t o assist t h e held sextant. 4 . The r e t i c l e Figure 2. c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e s e x t a n t . t h e l e a s t count b e i n g 0. and t h e o t h e r . and t h u s e s t a b l i s h t h e a n g u l a r s e p a r a t i o n of t h e t a r g e t s . 2 ) .Schematic diagram o f o p t i c s . one p r o v i d i n g normal eye r e l i e f . The view through t h e s c a n n i n g LOS f i e l d i s r e f l e c t e d from an a r t i c u l a t e d scan­ n i n g m i r r o r .- The s e x t a n t i s equipped w i t h two removable e y e p i e c e s .-. o b j e c t i v e l e n s .c e l l r e c h a r g e a b l e nickel-cadmium b a t t e r y . i t i s t h e n combined w i t h t h e f i x e d LOS f i e l d i n t h e b e a m s p l i t ­ t e r and imaged ( i n t h e f o c a l p l a n e ) by t h e same o b j e c t i v e l e n s and e r e c t ­ i n g system. 6 arc seconds.. Data r e a d o u t i s accomplished by d i r e c t r e a d i n g o f a mechanical c o u n t e r l o c a t e d below t h e i n s t r u m e n t e y e p i e c e . and prism-mirror e r e c t i n g system ( f i g . The normal eye r e l i e f eyepiece i s used when t h e s e x t a n t can b e b r o u g h t d i r e c t l y t o t h e eye f o r viewing. A d u a l .

. . . . . .. 8x . .. . . 5 . . . . . The g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e s e x t a n t are as f o l l o w s : Size .. . . . . . . . . . 76" A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e i n s t r u m e n t . .. .. ... . 6 l b 4 oz 6 l b 0 oz Weight Normal eye r e l i e f eyepiece Long eye r e l i e f e y e p i e c e Magnification Normal e y e p i e c e . . . . .c o r r e l a t e d signal on t h e on-board p u l s e code modulation (PCM) d a t a r e c o r d e r t a p e f o r u s e i n t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s . .... .. .. . ... . . . . .. ... .. .. .. . . Erect Range . Depression of t h e event t i m e r b u t t o n p u t a t i m e . .... . 7 x 7-1/4 x 6-1/16 i n . . 7" E x i t pupi 1 Normal eye r e l i e f e y e p i e c e Long eye r e l i e f e y e p i e c e . . .. . ... 18 mm 60 mm Diopter adj u s tment Normal eye r e l i e f e y e p i e c e Long eye r e l i e f e y e p i e c e . . . Two f i l t e r s of d i f f e r e n t d e n s i t y are provided i n each LOS t o reduce t h e amount of l i g h t t r a n s m i t t e d through them. . . ... . . . . . .. . .... . . .... ... -3 t o +3 Resolution ... . t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e f l i g h t r a t i n g program. . .. .... . . The event timer s w i t c h was connected t o t h e Gemini XI1 space­ c r a f t t e l e m e t r y r e c o r d e r through t h e s p a c e c r a f t u t i l i t y cord. .. . . . . .. . . . .. .. .. .3 t o +S . Eye r e l i e f Normal eye r e l i e f e y e p i e c e Long eye r e l i e f e y e p i e c e . ......4. . . .6~ . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. ..An event t i m e r b u t t o n and s w i t c h are l o c a t e d on t h e r i g h t s i d e o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t . . .. . .. .... and r e s u l t s o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l v e r i f i c a t i o n program a r e p r e s e n t e d i n r e f e r e n c e 11.. . 7 s e c of a r c Image . . . . ... ... . . . .. . . . . . . . .. Long eye r e l i e f e y e p i e c e F i e l d of view . .. . . .. . . .. ... .. 4 .. . . ... .. . . The purpose o f t h e f i l t e r s i s t o p e r m i t viewing o f images o f widely v a r y i n g b r i g h t n e s s . .. .. .. . .. . . . .7 mm mm . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . ... . . . .

EG 25100-1. I 4 I I -10 0 2 I 3 Indicated sextant a n g l e .The f l i g h t s e x t a n t (GFAE No.*.. s e r i a l sextant angle ( f i g . deg Figure 4 . . The i n s p e c t i o n r e v e a l e d no change i n t h e p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n of t h e i n s t r u m e n t . deg o b t a i n t h e a c t u a l measured s e x t a n t a n g l e .605'. b u t only i n t h e r e s t r i c t e d ranges of i n d i c a t e d sex­ t a n t a n g l e s . 6.5". 4 ) .525' and 18.P r e f l i g h t c a l i b r a t i o n o f hand-held algebraically t o the indicated space s e x t a n t (GFAE No. 0" lo 3" ­ I I I 01 -10 L I 1 7 I 1 8 0 I 1 9 1 0 0 .5" t o 19.1 . t h e approximate measured a n g l e s of t h e s i g h t i n g s performed on t h e Gemini X I 1 f l i g h t . s e r i a l no. $ 0 1 0 20 30 40 Indicated sextant angle. from 0 t o 3'.1 .5' t o 34. The s e x t a n t c a l i b r a t i o n e r r o r . 0 . 4) was c a l i b r a t e d p r i o r t o t h e f l i g h t of t h e Gemini X I 1 u s i n g t h e Acceptance T e s t and O p t i c a l C a l i b r a t i o n Procedure (KTS 41580 00 001) o f r e f e r e n c e 1 2 . The range of t h e t h r e e i n s t r u m e n t e r r o r s measured a t each i n d i c a t e d s e x t a n t angle during t h e c a l i b r a t i o n &Ah C was always less t h a n 6 a r c seconds. . The s e x t a n t was c a l i b r a t e d u s i n g t h e procedure of reference 1 2 .I 0 no. t h e s e x t a n t was v i s u a l l y i n s p e c t e d and c a l i b r a t e d t o determine whether exposure t o t h e space and s p a c e c r a f t environment had any d e l e ­ t e r i o u s e f f e c t s on t h e s e x t a n t o r i t s performance. P o s t f l i g h t .. E C Y i s t h e average o f t h e e r r o r s o b t a i n e d a t each d i sCrete i n d i c a t e d s e x t a n t angle v reading (every l o from -60 to +700) Note: Curve values to be added to sextant reading i n t h r e e consecutive c a l i b r a t i o n s . s e r i a l no. 3). . Two s p e c i a l p o s t ­ f l i g h t c a l i b r a t i o n s were made f o r i n d i c a t e d s e x t a n t a n g l e s of 7. . A c a l i ­ b r a t i o n f o r t h e range from 31.P o s t f l i g h t c a l i b r a t i o n of hand-held s p a c e s e x t a n t (GFAE No. FR/\Ih ~ LQAk$ ~~~~~~~ + 0 YU". p.. t h e s e x t a n t readout counter. E G 2 5 1 0 0 .S e x t a n t C a l i b r a t i on P r e f l i g h t . 5 " . Post f I i g h i ca Iibra t ion Special postflight calibration for actuol Gemini X U measured angles 0 ---IO Preflight calibration from Fig 3 Preflight calibration. and 16. 6 .5" t o 9 . e..-20­ 0" t h e s e x t a n t was c a r e f u l l y a l i n e d on an o p t i c a l bench t o i n d i c a t e 0 " on C I I I I 2 -40-10 To 5o o . t h e i n s t r u m e n t e r r o r i s added Figure 3 .A f t e r t h e Gemini X I 1 f l i g h t . Figure 4 compares t h e p os t f 1i gh t c a l i b r a t i on d a t a with t h e p r e f l i g h t d a t a of f i g u r e 3 and w i t h t h e c a l i b r a t i o n made i n t h e range o f s e x t a n t a n g l e s from 0' t o 3". e. 4 ) .v-v" F o r an a c t u a l t r u e t a r g e t a n g l e of 2 . E G 2 5 1 0 0 .5" was a l s o made t o check a s i m i ­ l a r p r e f l i g h t c a l i b r a t i o n . i n which s i g h t i n g measurements were made dur­ i n g t h e Gemini X I 1 f l i g h t .

Event Timing System The i n t e g r a l e v e n t t i m e r s w i t c h ( f i g . which s e r i o u s l y r e s t r i c t e d t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d and recorded i n t h e p i l o t s l o g and. t h a t t h e exposure t o t h e s p a c e . made i t impossible t o o b t a i n q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s u l t s . T h i s system proved a c c u r a t e w i t h i n about k 0 . 9 .f l i g h t environment had l i t t l e o r no e f f e c t on t h e performance o f the sextant. During t h e o r b i t a l f l i g h t phase. To p r e v e n t d a t a l o s s i n t h i s experiment.2 sec. I t seems r e a s o n a b l e t o conclude. A c t u a t i o n of t h e s w i t c h i n i t i a t e d a t i m e . a backup t i m i n g system was devised i n which t h e command p i l o t manually logged t h e time o f s e x t a n t s i g h t i n g . i n t h i s c a s e . t h e c a l i b r a ­ t i o n s meet t h e a c c e p t a n c e t e s t requirements f o r o p e r a t i o n a l u s e of t h e s e x t a n t ( r e f . The d a t a were s t o r e d on t h e t a p e and t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e ground v i a t e l e m e t r y equipment a t a f u t u r e time. t h e i n s t r u m e n t was stowed above t h e back of t h e command p i l o t ' s s e a t where i t was r e s t r a i n e d from moving by means of Velcro pads. T h i s container r e s t r a i n e d t h e s e x t a n t during t h e s e high a c c e l e r a t i o n f l i g h t regimes and a l s o p r o t e c t e d t h e i n s t r u m e n t from damage due t o b o t h t h e s u s t a i n e d a c c e l e r a t i o n and v i b r a t i o n l o a d s . 5 ) .c o r r e l a t e d e l e c t r i c a l s i g n a l t o an on-board PCM t a p e r e c o r d e r . 7 . 1 8 ) : t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e maximum and minimum e r r o r a t any d a t a p o i n t ( i n d i c a t e d s e x t a n t a n g l e ) s h a l l n o t exceed 6 a r c s e c . time c o r r e l a t i o n d a t a were l o s t as t h e r e s u l t of an equipment f a i l u r e . T h i s e v e n t t i m i n g system was c a p a b l e of p r o v i d i n g t h e time of each s e x t a n t s i g h t i n g w i t h an e r r o r less t h a n 20. I t t h e n became a v a i l a b l e f o r r e d u c t i o n of t h e s i g h t i n g d a t a . t h e s e x t a n t was stowed between t h e p i l o t s i n a s p e c i a l c o n t a i n e r shown i n f i g u r e 5 . t h e r e f o r e . it may b e s e e n t h a t t h e p o s t f l i g h t and p r e f l i g h t s e x t a n t c a l i b r a t i o n e r r o r s d i f f e r g e n e r a l l y by about 5 arc sec w i t h a few as l a r g e as 10 arc sec. Sext a n t S t o wag e During t h e launch and e n t r y phase of t h e Gemini XI1 m i s s i o n . In a p r e v i o u s experiment on Gemini IV ( r e f . 1 2 . 1) was a c t u a t e d by t h e p i l o t when h e a t t a i n e d t a r g e t s u p e r p o s i t i o n i n t h e s e x t a n t f i e l d of view. p a r a . Except f o r t h e f e w l a r g e r e r r o r s . which h e r e a d from a s p a c e c r a f t e l a p s e d time c l o c k on an o r a l "MARK" command from t h e p i l o t . 6 s e c based on t h e e v e n t times s u c c e s s f u l l y t e l e m e t e r e d from t h e primary system d u r i n g t h e f l i g h t .From examination o f f i g u r e 4 . appendix 11.

. .. . \.' .. . . . Figure S. c=J '.Sto\yage of sextan t on board Gemini XI I spacecraft. . ' .. . .. 8 . .1------- I . .. .. . : .

was t r a i n e d f o r t h e TO02 experiment i n t h e Gemini cab o f t h e Docking S i m u l a t o r a t NASA's Manned S p a c e c r a f t Center ( f i g . Subsequently. 2 M i c r o p t i c T h e o d o l i t e w i t h a 0 . 10 con­ s e c u t i v e measurements of t h e a n g l e between t h e s e l e c t e d s i g h t i n g t a r g e t s were made from which t h e mean and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s of t h e measurement e r r o r s were computed. 7 ) . Two s i m u l a t e d s t a r t a r g e t s were i n s t a l l e d i n t h e s i m u l a t o r room. The s t a r t a r g e t s consisted of 12-in. Measurements were made i n 5 s i g h t i n g s e s s i o n s d i s t r i b u t e d over a p e r i o d o f 2 d a y s . S e x t a n t measurements were made i n 25 s i g h t i n g s e s s i o n s d i s t r i b u t e d o v e r a p e r i o d of 2 days. t h e p i l o t performed 15 c o n s e c u t i v e measurements of t h e a n g l e between t h e s i m u l a t e d s t a r s . P r e f 1i gh t Bas e 1i n e Experiments Accurate r e f e r e n c e b a s e l i n e d a t a were r e q u i r e d f o r e v a l u a t i n g t h e e f f e c t of t h e s p a c e . v i s o r down ( l o n g eye r e l i e f e y e p i e c e ) . B a s e l i n e d a t a were a l s o o b t a i n e d a t t h e Ames ground s i g h t i n g s t a t i o n u s i n g r e a l s t a r s . t h e Gemini X I 1 p i l o t made 5 c o n s e c u t i v e measurements of t h e a n g l e o b t a i n e d when viewing t h e same s i m u l a t e d s t a r through b o t h s e x t a n t L O S to e s t a b l i s h an i n s t r u m e n t . S e x t a n t measure­ ments were r e p e a t e d i n 15 s i g h t i n g s e s s i o n s d i s t r i b u t e d o v e r a p e r i o d of 4 days. Measurements were made w i t h t h e helmet o f f (normal eye r e l i e f e y e p i e c e ) and helmet on. Using t h e hand-held sex­ t a n t . 7 ) .f l i g h t environment on t h e p i l o t ' s a b i l i t y t o make a c c u r a t e s e x t a n t measurements. Cab motion appeared t o have no e f f e c t on s i g h t i n g performance.o p e r a t o r measured zero b i a s . parabolic mirrors t h a t projected collimated l i g h t toward t h e s i g h t i n g s t a t i o n s i m u l a t i n g a s t a r magnitude o f about 2 . The two s i m u l a t e d stars used i n t h e i n i t i a l t r a i n ­ i n g were employed i n o b t a i n i n g t h e b a s e l i n e d a t a . A l l b a s e l i n e d a t a were o b t a i n e d a t Ames Research Center p r i m a r i l y i n t h e A m e s Midcourse Navigation and Guidance S i m u l a t o r ( r e f . 6 ) . The b a s i c components of t h e s i m u l a t o r are a v i s u a l scene (moons t a r f i e l d ) and a movable cab (manned s p a c e v e h i c l e ) . The cab was s t a t i c f o r t h e m a j o r i t y of t h e s i g h t i n g s e s s i o n s . 1 a r c s e c r e a d o u t and an e r r o r o f l e s s t h a n 1 arc s e c . The Gemini X I 1 p i l o t . The measured s e x t a n t angles were r e a d o f f o f t h e s e x t a n t c o u n t e r and r e c o r d e d .EXPERIMENTAL M E T H O D S AND PROCEDURES P r e f l i g h t Training T r a i n i n g i s a c r i t i c a l f a c t o r i n developing t h e a b i l i t y of a s p a c e c r a f t n a v i g a t o r t o make a c c u r a t e n a v i g a t i o n measurements ( r e f . 9 . A z e r o b i a s c o r r e c t i o n was o b t a i n e d by having t h e p i l o t t a k e 10 c o n s e c u t i v e measure­ ments when s i g h t i n g on one s t a r with b o t h s e x t a n t LOS. Using t h e hand-held s e x t a n t i n t h e darkened Docking S i m u l a t o r . The t r u e a n g l e s between t h e s i m u l a t o r s i g h t i n g t a r g e t s were measured u s i n g a H i l g e r Watts No. Major Edwin A l d r i n .

..-----~ a f-' Figure 6.MSC docking simulator used in preliminary astronaut training.

25 s e c . l O o p e r s e c ) . n o t i n g t h e time i n t h e exper­ iment log along w i t h t h e measured a n g l e r e a d from t h e s e x t a n t by t h e p i l o t . t h e backup time "MARK" procedure provided adequate redundant d a t a .h a n d window ( f i g . and ( 3 ) t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 11 . A f t e r t h e s p a c e c r a f t was s t a b i l i z e d . The s e x t a n t was t a k e n from i t s stowed l o c a t i o n between t h e p i l o t and t h e command p i l o t . The s p a c e c r a f t commander t h e n e s t a b l i s h e d t h e s p a c e c r a f t o r i e n t a t i o n with r e s p e c t t o t h e s e l e c t e d s t a r t a r g e t s s o t h a t t h e p i l o t could s e e them through t h e r i g h t .The s e x t a n t e v e n t t i m i n g system was used t o mark t h e t i m e o f s e x t a n t n e l e c t r o n i c clock synchronized t o t h e measurement on a d i g i t a l r e c o r d e r . Timing e r r o r was less t h a n +0'.f l i g h t procedures were c a r e f u l l y formulated by t h e experimenters and t h e f l i g h t crew i n t h e Gemini Mission S i m u l a t o r a t t h e Manned S p a c e c r a f t and Kennedy Space C e n t e r s . A n o r a l time !'MARK" was c a l l e d o u t by t h e p i l o t . During each s i g h t i n g s e s s i o n . The p i l o t t h e n superimposed t h e t a r g e t images and marked t h e time of s u p e r p o s i t i o n by d e p r e s s i n g t h e s e x t a n t event timer b u t t o n . These procedures were f r e q u e n t l y p r a c t i c e d by t h e crew u s i n g t h e v i s u a l scene of t h e Mission S i m u l a t o r . The methods f o r a c q u i r i n g t h e t a r g e t . This p o i n t was used by t h e experimenter i n c o r r e c t i n g t h e d a t a f o r window-induced errors. The procedure w a s w e l l executed by t h e crew and although some of t h e t e l e m e t e r e d time d a t a were l o s t . and a c q u i r e d t h e t a r g e t s i n b o t h LOS. t h e command p i l o t determined and noted on a diagram c o n t a i n e d i n h i s l o g . t a k i n g d a t a . and t h e s p a c e c r a f t commander r e a d h i s s p a c e c r a f t c l o c k . The s p a c e c r a f t was s t a b i ­ l i z e d t o t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n w i t h i n about _+2" i n p i t c h and yaw and + l o o i n r o l l with very low r e s i d u a l a t t i t u d e r a t e s ( l e s s t h a n O . Data Reduction The s i g h t i n g performance of t h e p i l o t was e v a l u a t e d u s i n g t h r e e c r i t e r i a : (1) s i g h t i n g measurement e r r o r . and l o c a t i n g s e x t a n t LOS on t h e window were s i m p l i f i e d t o a s s u r e a maximum p r o b a b i l i t y o f experiment s u c c e s s . I n .F l i g h t Experiment I n . This procedure was r e p e a t e d f o r a t l e a s t 13 c o n s e c u t i v e measurements of t h e a n g l e between t h e t a r g e t p a i r and 5 times f o r a s i n g l e s t a r ( t h e same s t a r i n each LOS) t o p r o v i d e an i n d i c a t i o n of t h e measured z e r o b i a s o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t . A n a t i o n a l t i m e s t a n d a r d t r a n s m i t t e d over r a d i o s t a t i o n WWV was used as t h e time r e f e r e n c e . s e t t h e r e t i c l e i l l u m i n a t i o n t o a comfortable l e v e l . t h e p o i n t on t h e window t h a t would b e i n t e r ­ cepted by t h e e x t e n s i o n of t h e lower l e f t c o r n e r of t h e s e x t a n t c a s e .o p e r a t o r combination. 7 ) . ( 2 ) t h e mean o r a r i t h m e t i c average of a group o f s i g h t i n g measurement e r r o r s . t h e p i l o t brought t h e s e x t a n t t o t h e window as shown i n f i g u r e 7 . measuring t i m e of t a r g e t s s u p e r p o s i t i o n .

.. ./" /' ~ Figure 7....- ~ N ------..-.Sextan t sighting experiment on Gemini XII spacecraft.. ~ ----- -~ ~ .. .. ~ _..-.- .- _....

Mean s i g h t i n g measurement e r r o r .t h e group of s i g h t i n g measurement e r r o r s about t h e i r mean v a l u e . .'T'mean - ('Z)mean (4) m e an = mean s i g h t i n g measurement e r r o r 13 . 13) n l . .The s e x t a n t s i g h t i n g measurement e r r o r v a l u e s E ( i n a r c s e c ) were computed as f o l l o w s : E = (eM . 3) = t r u e t a r g e t angle = c e l e s t i a l t a r g e t a n g l e (computed) = window-induced measurement e r r o r (determined b o t h eT = es + EW + ER (3) es E e x p e r i m e n t a l l y and a n a l y t i c a l l y ) E = e r r o r due t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e o f t h e index o f r e f r a c t i o n o f t h e l i g h t t r a n s m i t t i n g media w i t h i n (n2) and o u t s i d e ( n l ) of t h e s p a c e c r a f t = sin-'(Z sinal)-al ( r e f .( e Z mean = s i g h t i n g measurement e r r o r (1) (2) eM = 0 R + = measured t a r g e t a n g l e OR = s e x t a n t readout counter reading E~ = s e x t a n t c a l i b r a t i o n e r r o r (from f i g .eT) .The mean s e x t a n t s i g h t i n g measurement e r r o r values E ( i n arc s e c ) were computed as f o l l o w s : mean Emean E = ('M . The compu­ t a t i o n of t h e v a l u e s of t h e s e c r i t e r i a was accomplished u s i n g t h e e q u a t i o n s and c o r r e c t i o n s e x p l a i n e d below. S i g h t i n g measurement e r r o r . n 2 = index of r e f r a c t i o n a1 = a n g l e between t h e i n c i d e n t l i g h t r a y from t h e s t a r and t h e window normal ('Z'mean = mean measured z e r o b i a s = t h e measured z e r o b i a s o r t h e measured a n g l e when ez t h e same s t a r i s viewed i n each LOS The mean measured z e r o b i a s i s used t o c o r r e c t t h e measurement d a t a f o r p o s s i ­ b l e mechanical changes i n t h e s e x t a n t due t o environmental changes as well as p o s s i b l e changes i n t h e p i l o t ' s v i s i o n .

crE.Deformation o f t h e s u r f a c e s o f t h e window panes o f t h e Gemini s p a c e c r a f t (due t o manufacture.Standard d e v i a t i o n o_f s i g h t i n g measurement e r r o r . 1966 TL ATG = Gemini e l a p s e d time from Window-induced measurement e r r o r . . . TEST CONDITIONS The TO02 experiment was s u c c e s s f u l l y completed on o r b i t s 4 0 . 14 . Analysis has i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s u n c e r t a i n t y i n p o s i t i o n could r e s u l t i n a maximum uncer­ t a i n t y i n t h e s e x t a n t measurement e r r o r of about + 2 t o 3 a r c s e c . 48.The s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f t h e s i g h t i n g measurement e r r o r . p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s r e p o r t was computed using equation (5). _- Greenwich mean t i m e (GMT) o f s i g h t i n g measurement.o f . I t was e s t i m a t e d by t h e s p a c e c r a f t crew t h a t t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e s e x t a n t LOS through t h e window could b e determined t o about + 1 / 2 i n c h . The s p a c e c r a f t p o s i t i o n ( l a t i t u d e . The i n t e r s e c t i o n p o i n t s were used i n an experimental l a b o r a t o r y s e t u p and an a n a l y t i c a l program t o determine t h e average s e x t a n t LOS l o c a t i o n s f o r each s e x t a n t s i g h t i n g p e r i o d and t h e a n g l e s and p l a n e s of i n c i d e n c e o f each LOS w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e window a x i s system. 54..The GMT o f each s i g h t i n g measurement was computed as f o l l o w s : GMT = TL + ATG TL = Gemini XI1 launch t i m e = 20 h r 46 min 3 3 . and 56 of t h e Gemini XI1 f l i g h t . and p r e s s u r e and temperature environment i n f l i g h t ) causes d e v i a t i o n s i n t h e s e x t a n t LOS r e s u l t i n g i n e r r o r s i n t h e measured s e x t a n t a n g l e s . L i n e . l o n g i t u d e . 1 1 ) . 4 1 9 sec GMT November 11. and a l t i t u d e ) as a f u n c t i o n o f t i m e (GMT) f o r each o r b i t i s given i n table I.s i g h t d e v i a t i o n s determined both e x p e r i m e n t a l l y and a n a l y t i c a l l y have been used i n t h i s r e p o r t t o c o r r e c t t h e measured d a t a . An important f a c t o r i n c o r r e c t i n g t h e e x p e r i ­ mental d a t a was t h e p o i n t on t h e window a t which each s e x t a n t LOS i n t e r ­ s e c t e d t h e window s u r f a c e ( s e e p . 55.

B e t e l g e u s e and B e l l a t r i x were t h e measurement t a r g e t s f o r t h e s i g h t i n g p e r i o d s 54 and 55. this is the Only sighting Figure 8. r e s p e c t i v e l y . These a n g l e s were computed from t h e known v a l u e s of r i g h t a s c e n s i o n and d e c l i n a t i o n o f each t a r g e t . and 17 of '43 s i g h t i n g p e r i o d 1 ( o r b i t 4 0 ) . h e donned t h e p r e s s u r e s u i t h e l m e t . i n s e r t e d t h e long eye r e l i e f e y e p i e c e i n t h e s e x t a n t .0°/min.Sighting Targets The s t a r s Betelgeuse and R i g e l were t h e measurement t a r g e t s d u r i n g t h e s i g h t i n g p e r i o d s on o r b i t s 40. 16.. During o r b i t 56. Although t h e s t a r / s t a r t a r g e t c o n f i g u r a t i o n used i s an i d e a l i z e d non-navigation t y p e t a r g e t p a i r . t h e y are c o r r e c t e d f o r annual a b e r r a t i o n and have been shown t o b e l e s s t h a n 1 a r c s e c i n e r r o r . t h e s p a c e c r a f t was completely dark except f o r a shaded r e d u t i l i t y l i g h t p e r m i t t i n g t h e command p i l o t t o w r i t e down t h e d a t a and r e a d h i s e l a p s e d time c l o c k . Vehicle A t t i t u d e Rates The v e h i c l e a t t i t u d e s measured w i t h r e s p e c t t o a s t a b l e p l a t f o r m were used t o compute t h e v e h i c l e a t t i t u d e r a t e s . a sub­ s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n of t h e experiment o b j e c t i v e s were s t i l l m e t . p e r i o d d u r i n g which t h e s t a b l e 15 . hr min a s h o r t a g e of s p a c e c r a f t e l e c t r i c a l power. S u i t Conf i g u r a t i on The p i l o t wore a s t a n d a r d Gemini t y p e p r e s s u r e s u i t w i t h gloves and helmet o f f d u r i n g a l l s i g h t i n g p e r i o d s except t h e l a s t . which was t u r n e d on only as r e q u i r e d . The c e l e s t i a l a n g l e BS between Betelgeuse and R i g e l and Betelgeuse and B e l l a t r i x were 18°36'17" and 7°31'47''. and 56.Typical vehicle attitudes during sextant sighting period number 1 (Orbit 4 0 ) . F i g u r e 8 i s a t y p i c a l time h i s t o r y o f t h e variation of the vehicle a t t i t u d e s f o r t h e Gemini e l a p s e d time c o r r e ­ sponding t o t h e s i g h t i n g measurements mber numbers 14. P r i o r t o t h e s i g h t i n g p e r i o d 8856342t h e p l a t f o r m was a l i n e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e l o c a l v e r t i c a l and t h e space­ 8452338 c r a f t o r b i t p l a n e and was t o r q u e d i n t h e o r b i t p l a n e ( p i t c h ) a t a r a t e of about 4. and performed t h e measurement sequence. b u t t h e moon was a t h i n c r e s c e n t t h a t was a v a i l a b l e as a s i g h t i n g f o r only a s h o r t t i m e a f t e r s p a c e c r a f t s u n s e t . t h e o r b i t a l r a t e a t about 150 m i l e s a l t i t u d e . 48. 1 5 . Spacecraft I n t e r i o r Lighting During t h e s i g h t i n g p e r i o d . Due t o Gemini elapsed time. The s e x t a n t r e a d o u t c o u n t e r was i l l u m i n a t e d w i t h a r e d l i g h t . Measurements between t h e moon limb and a s t a r were a l s o planned f o r t h i s f l i g h t .

P r e f l i g h t b a s e l i n e d a t a . were o b t a i n e d from an e x c e p t i o n a l l y t a l e n t e d o p e r a t o r who used an 8-power s e x t a n t . . and i n f l i g h t d a t a o b t a i n e d d u r i n g t h e Gemini X I 1 f l i g h t . I t can b e s e e n from figure 8 t h a t t h e s p a c e c r a f t i s well s t a b i l i z e d i n p i t c h and yaw w i t h maximum rates of 2" and 4"/min. Standard deviolion B a s e l i n e Data . There was l i t t l e e f f e c t of a t t i t u d e r a t e on s e x t a n t measurement performance a t r a t e s of l . I n a d d i t i o n . 8 ) . S " / s e c ( r e f . The s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f t h e measurement e r r o r from i t s mean v a l u e was used as t h e measure of t h e p i l o t ' s p r o f i c i e n c y . t h e r e f o r e . o v e r t h a t used i n r e f e r e n c e 7 . The TO02 t r a i n i n g d a t a .about t h e i r mean v a l u e ( t h e shaded b a r s ) and t h e mean s i g h t i n g 16 . s t a r / s t a r t a r g e t s . a t t h e s e rates o f less t h a n 0 . d e i i a t i o n of t h e s i g h t i n g measurement error. t h e command p i l o t a s s u r e d t h e experimenters t h a t i t was typical o f a l l t h e s i g h t i n g p e r i o d s .p l a t f o r m r e f e r e n c e was a v a i l a b l e f o r measurement o f v e h i c l e rates and a t t i t u d e s .0 t o 8. b a s e l i n e d a t a f o r comparison w i t h f l i g h t r e s u l t s . However. h e s n a v i g a t i o n s i m u l a t o r and ground s i g h t i n g s t a t i o n .0. however. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The r e s u l t s o f t h e TO02 experiment c o n s i s t o f l e a r n i n g curve d a t a o b t a i n e d d u r i n g t h e i n i t i a l p e r i o d of t r a i n i n g w i t h t h e s e x t a n t . r e s p e c t i v e l y . I n i t i a l Training The Gemini X I 1 p i l o t was t r a i n e d as d e s c r i b e d p r e v i o u s l y . The s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n v a r i e d from a maximum of about k 1 3 arc s e c e a r l y i n t h e t r a i n i n g p e r i o d t o a minimum o f about k4 arc s e c toward t h e end. t h e s e x t a n t used i n o b t a i n i n g t h e TO02 t r a i n i n g d a t a i s a v a s t l y improved i n s t r u m e n t o p t i c a l l y and mechanically. l o / s e c . performance s h o u l d n o t b e a f f e c t e d . The t r a i n i n g d a t a o f r e f e r e n c e 7 f o r a l a r g e group of s u b j e c t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e range o f s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f s i g h t i n g measurements a t t h e end of a 2-week p e r i o d was about 14 a r c sec. The lower s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n f o r t h e TO02 t r a i n i n g d a t a compared with t h a t o f r e f e r e n c e 7 may a l s o b e due p a r t i a l l y Helmet on /visor down Helmet off t o t h e i n c r e a s e i n m a g n i f i c a t i o n from 3. TO02 -experiment. w h i l e t h e r o l l r a t e d u r i n g t h e s e s i g h t i n g measurements was about c o n s t a n t a t SO/min.S t a r / S t a r T a r g e t s S e x t a n t measurements were made with t h e helmet o f f (normal eye F i g u r e 9 .

F l i g h t Data The Gemini X I 1 i n . b o t h i n t h e s i m u l a t o r and from t h e ground o b s e r v a t o r y u s i n g a c t u a l s t a r s . -26 0 r e s p e c t i v e l y . The s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n of measurement e r r o r s f o r t h e s e measurements was 8 arc s e c .I n . S i m i l a r measurements w i t h t h e helmet on and v i s o r down. t h e measurements Sighting period were made w i t h t h e helmet o f f . less t h a n 4 arc s e c f o r t h e helmet o f f c o n f i g u r a t i o n . for the helmet on c o n f i g u r a t i o n d a t a ( o r b i t 56) i s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h b o t h t h e 17 . t h e measurements were made with t h e helmet on. The s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s o f t h e s i g h t i n g measurement e r r o r s o b t a i n e d w i t h t h e helmet o f f .4 and . The s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n of t h e s i g h t i n g measurement e r r o r s and t h e mean s i g h t i n g measurement e r r o r are summarized i n f i g u r e 10 where t h e s i g h t i n g measurement e r r o r i s a g a i n p l o t t e d as t h e a b s c i s s a . The l a r g e mean s i g h t i n g measurement e r r o r .f l i g h t s i g h t i n g measurement d a t a 3 and 4 . The mean s i g h t i n g measurement e r r o r s a r e small.2 a r c s e c .2 and 0 a r c s e c . r e s p e c t i v e l y . a l s o a g r e e w e l l . Gemini XI1 s p a c e c r a f t .h a n d window. and w i t h t h e long eye r e l i e f e y e p i e c e i n s t a l l e d i n t h e s e x ­ t a n t .measurement e r r o r ( t h e o f f s e t l i n e ) f o r a l l s i g h t i n g p e r i o d s . were star/star targets.f l i g h t s e x t a n t measurements were. The measurement d a t a a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t a b l e 11. During t h e f i f t h s i g h t i n g p e r i o d . I- I I The s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f t h e measurements f o r a l l s i g h t i n g c o n d i t i o n s i s below 9 arc sec. Gemini X I 1 I n . b o t h i n t h e s i m u l a t o r and from t h e o b s e r v a t o r y .2 a r c s e c . r e s p e c t i v e l y . The 5 standard deviation f o r these sighting -2 p e r i o d s was l e s s t h a n +9 a r c s e c . ranging from 1 t o 5 arc s e c . made from w i t h i n t h e s t a b i l i z e d s p a c e c r a f t w h i l e t h e p i l o t was looking through t h e r i g h t . which was of good o p t i c a l q u a l i t y . v i s o r down. a g r e e i n g w e l l w i t h t h e b a s e l i n e d a t a . orcsec bias errors f o r sighting p eriods _ Figure 10. as noted p r e v i o u s l y . a g r e e w e l l w i t h v a l u e s o f +5 and +4 arc sec. The average mean s i g h t i n g measurement e r r o r f o r a l l f o u r p e r i o d s was .. orcsec Measurement error. having s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s o f +7 and +8 a r c s e c . B e l l a t r i x were used as t a r g e t s . The measurement b i a s e r r o r s f o r t h e f i r s t two s i g h t i n g p e r i o d s i n 9 9 I which Betelgeuse and R i g e l were used as t a r g e t s were . r e s p e c t i v e l y . and t h e average s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n -4 f o r a l l f o u r s i g h t i n g p e r i o d s was 7 0 a r c s e c . w h i l e t h e mean s i g h t i n g measurement e r r o r was -11 a r c s e c . i n which Betelgeuse and TO02 experiment. The mean s i g h t i n g measurement e r r o r s o f t h e i n .f l i g h t d a t a are g e n e r a l l y s m a l l . The f i g u r e a l s o summarizes b a s e l i n e d a t a o b t a i n e d a t a ground s i g h t i n g s t a t i o n u s i n g real s t a r s . t h e s i g h t i n g measurement e r r o r i s p l o t t e d as t h e a b s c i s s a . . F o r t h e f i r s t f o u r Helmet off Helmet on /visor down s i g h t i n g p e r i o d s . The s i g h t i n g measurement e r r o r i s c o r r e c t e d f o r annual a b e r r a t i o n and atmospheric r e f r a c t i o n . which a l s o a g r e e s w e l l w i t h t h e b a s e l i n e d a t a . whereas t h e measurement Measurement error.

H e a l s o s t a t e d t h a t a c q u i s i ­ t i o n of t h e s t a r p a t t e r n s f o r t h e experiment was marginal w i t h t h e r e s t r i c t e d f i e l d of view of t h e window. t h e p i l o t i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e weight of t h e s e x t a n t caused f a t i g u e . The magnitudes o f t h e s e e r r o r components f o r t h i s s e t o f d a t a were c a r e f u l l y s c r u t i n i z e d i n a n e f f o r t t o e x p l a i n t h e i n c o n s i s t e n c y . 18 . i n g e n e r a l . During t r a i n i n g .deviation Inf light Comparison o f B a s e l i n e and F l i g h t Data The p i l o t ' s performance as i n d i ­ c a t e d by t h e b a s e l i n e d a t a was v i r t u ­ a l l y t h e same as t h a t i n t h e s p a c e . �mean comprises many components as i n d i c a t e d i n e q u a t i o n s (1) t o ( 4 ) . TO02 experiment. may t h e r e f o r e b e open t o question. Star /Star Star / Lunar I i m b errory Standard . and f o r instrument c a l i b r a t i o n . f o r measured zero b i a s . which had b o t h a l a r g e mean v a l u e and a l a r g e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n .b a s e d o b s e r v a t o r i e s i n e v a l u a t i n g space n a v i g a t i o n measurement t e c h n i q u e s .t r a n s m i t t i n g media w i t h i n and o u t s i d e t h e s p a c e c r a f t .p r e f l i g h t b a s e l i n e d a t a and t h e o t h e r i n . I n .f l i g h t environment as s e e n i n f i g u r e 11. arcsec 0 Measurement error. This l a r g e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e mean z e r o b i a s measurement e r r o r (0z)mean i s n o t w e l l known and t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e l a r g e mean s i g h t i n g measurement e r r o r . S u b j e c t i v e Comments The p i l o t s t a t e d t h a t .. E m e m .f l i g h t and b a s e l i n e d a t a . helmet o f f .f l i g h t d a t a . f o r e r r o r s due t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e of t h e i n d e x o f refrac­ t i o n of t h e l i g h t . t h u s i n d i c a t i n g t h e u s e f u l n e s s of s i m u l a t o r s and e a r t h .. arcsec Figure 11. A l l t h e e r r o r components seemed r e a s o n a b l e except t h e mean z e r o b i a s measurement e r r o r (0z)mean ( t a b l e 1 1 1 ) . t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e TO02 s e x t a n t i n z e r o g w a s much s i m p l e r and easier t o manage than had been a n t i c i p a t e d from h i s p r e f l i g h t t r a i n i n g and s i m u l a t i o n .f l i g h t d a t a t o s u p p o r t t h i s performance await future flights.Comparison o f i n . +5rcr5* Baseline I I 1 0 Measurement error. The mean s i g h t i n g measurement e r r o r . A l a r g e r window i n t h e s p a c e c r a f t and easier access t o it would probably s i m p l i f y a c q u i s i t i o n of t h e s t a r p a t t e r n s . Figure 11 shows t h a t n a v i g a t i o n t y p e measurements ( s t a r / l u n a ? limb) were made w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f +6 a r c sec i n t h e s i m u l a t o r . b u t t h i s was a l l e v i a t e d i n t h e w e i g h t l e s s environment of a c t u a l space f l i g h t . The mean s i g h t i n g e r r o r s p r e s e n t e d h e r e a r e c o r r e c t e d f o r window-induced measurement e r r o r s .

e a r t h o r b i t ) can b e made u s i n g a hand-held s e x t a n t . P r e l i m i n a r y s t u d i e s a t Ames have i n d i c a t e d t h a t w i t h only a simple c o l l i m a t e d r e t i c l e on t h e s p a c e c r a f t window i t i s p o s s i b l e t o h o l d t h e s p a c e c r a f t a t t i t u d e manually w i t h s u f f i c i e n t accuracy t o perform a v e l o c i t y c o r r e c t i o n . rendezvous. The a n g l e between s t a r s can b e measured w i t h a hand-held s e x t a n t . 5 ) on Gemini V I 1 and t h e N A S A rendezvous n a v i g a t i o n experiment on Gemini V I ( r e f . A s i m p l i f i e d on-board backup system i s s t i l l d e s i r a b l e . R e s u l t s of b o t h t h e D . The s e x t a n t w i t h a l i g h t e d r e t i c l e could a l s o perform f u n c t i o n s 2 and 3 i f i t were mounted on a b r a c k e t a t t h e s p a c e c r a f t window and b o r e s i g h t e d w i t h t h e s p a c e c r a f t a x e s .b a s e d r a d a r t r a c k i n g measurements. midcourse.f l i g h t experiment ( r e f . (2) t o p r o v i d e a r e f e r e n c e f o r h o l d i n g s p a c e c r a f t a t t i t u d e d u r i n g a v e l o c i t y c o r r e c t i o n . Such a mount i n t h e Gemini X I 1 s p a c e c r a f t appeared t o perform s a t i s f a c t o r i l y d u r i n g rendezvous. g . and (3) p o s s i b l y t o p r o v i d e a r e f e r e n c e f o r a l i n i n g an i n e r t i a l measurement u n i t t o measure t h e AV a p p l i e d . The s e x t a n t w i t h 8-power m a g n i f i c a t i o n s h o u l d improve t h i s performance.f l i g h t ( e . The s e x t a n t obviously i s designed t o measure a n g l e s w i t h good accuracy.f l i g h t s p a c e c r a f t experi­ ments p r e s e n t e d . . I t i s recognized t h a t t h e s e x t a n t s used i n t h e s e t e s t s a r e experimental i n s t r u m e n t s manufactured t o prove t h e d e s i g n concept. i t may b e concluded t h a t : 1. A l i n i n g an i n e r t i a l measurement u n i t by t h i s t e c h n i q u e h a s n o t been s t u d i e d .9 autonomous o r b i t n a v i g a t i o n i n . T h e r e f o r e . Design changes may b e n e c e s s a r y t o p r o v i d e an i n s t r u m e n t compatible w i t h t h e o p e r a t i o n a l system requirements. This experiment h a s shown t h a t s a t i s f a c t o r y n a v i g a t i o n measurements f o r s e v e r a l phases of s p a c e . The t o t a l measurement e r r o r ( a s t r o n a u t + s e x t a n t + s p a c e c r a f t window) had a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n of l e s s t h a n 510 a r c sec and an average mean s i g h t i n g measurement e r r o r of only 2 a r c sec. i n which t h e hand-held s e x t a n t could b e a key element.Space Navigation Using a Hand-Held S e x t a n t For t h e Apollo l u n a r mission t h e primary s p a c e c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n system w i l l u t i l i z e e a r t h . i t appears t h a t t h e hand-held s e x t a n t could b e used t o implement an autonomous on-board n a v i g a t i o n system. CONCLUSIONS From an i n s p e c t i o n of t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e i n . 19 I . 6) i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e hand-held s e x t a n t i s s u i t a b l e f o r navigation i n these f l i g h t phases. however. The minimum f u n c t i o n s o f backup system hardware are: (1) t o make a n g u l a r n a v i g a t i o n measurements.

4 . 1968 125-17-02. J . . S e x t a n t measurements o f t h e a n g l e between stars w i t h t h e helmet on. 111. E . B . v i s o r down. Luigi S . v o l . Luigi S . Tracking and On-Board Observation Data. .f l i g h t e x p e r i e n c e h a s demonstrated t h e p o t e n t i a l o f t h e hand-held s e x t a n t f o r u s e i n midcourse n a v i g a t i o n (NASA TO02 experiment). USAF. 94035. S t a n l e y F . McLean. 1967. N A S A TN D-3875. Ames Research Center N a t i o n a l Aeronautics and Space A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Moffett F i e l d . S p a c e c r a f t and Rockets. . o r b i t naviga­ t i o n ( A i r Force D-9 experiment). Gemini I V and V I 1 F l i g h t s ) . : Optimal F i l t e r i n g and Linear P r e d i c t i o n Applied t o a Midcourse Navigation System f o r t h e Circumlunar Mission. I t appears t h a t a t least f o r t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h i s experiment. N A S A TN D-1208. R . David: Midcourse Navigation Using S t a t i s t i c a l F i l t e r Theory. : Analysis of Gemini 7-Star S i g h t i n g s U t i l i z i n g a Space S e x t a n t i n Gemini 6 . i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f s i g h t i n g measurement e r r o r s was less t h a n k10 a r c sec. . Schmidt. S e p t 1966. H . Leonard A . C i c o l a n i . : A p p l i c a t i o n of S t a t i s t i c a l F i l t e r Theory t o t h e I n t e r p l a n e t a r y Navigation and Guidance Problem. 3. J a y V . I n . 20 . and C i c o l a n i . C a p t a i n . 1962. 1965. N 5. and Kipping.2. 4 .f l i g h t d a t a and t h e p r e f l i g h t b a s e l i n e d a t a o b t a i n e d i n t h e s i m u l a t o r and from ground o b s e r v a t o r i e s were almost i d e n t i c a l . and V a l l e r i e . and McGee. S i l v a . s i m u l a t o r s and ground o b s e r v a t o r i e s can b e u s e f u l i n e v a l u a t i n g s p a c e n a v i g a t i o n measurement techniques. Robert M . Eugene M . and Smith. John S . 20. no. USAF: The A i r Force Space Naviga­ t i o n Experiment on Gemini (DOD/NASA Gemini Experiment D-9. 3 .10-00-21 REFERENCES 1. Captain. P r i c e . . . J o r r i s . : I n t e r p l a n e t a r y Midcourse Guidance Using Radar A S A TN D-3623. C a l i f . George P . 4 . John D . . . and rendezvous n a v i g a t i o n (NASA rendezvous experiment on Gemini VI). . N A S A TN D-2697. T . A Manual T h e o d o l i t e . C h r i s t e n s e n . Murtagh. 1966. Aug. USAF. The TO02 i n . and Symbolic Computer Control. T e r r y R . . Technical Report AFAL-TR-66-289. . C. Callas. 5 . 2 . White. C a p t a i n . E . 1967. 6 .

S e x t a n t S i g h t i n g Performance f o r Space N a v i g a t i o n 8.7 . 1968. : N a v i g a t o r Performance Using a Hand-Held S e x t a n t t o Measure t h e Angle Between a Moving F l a s h i n g L i g h t and a S i m u l a t e d S t a r . v o l .: A Hand-Held S e x t a n t Q u a l i f i e d "Environmental Q u a l i f i c a t i o n and Acceptance T e s t Report. 1968. 9 . Lampkin. Lampkin. no. I n s t . 1 2 . Bedford A . 1966. 21 . N a v i g a t i o n . Richard A . Anon. The E f f e c t s 13. and Davis. : I n v e s t i g a t i o n of a Manual S e x t a n t . Bedford A . : f o r Space N a v i g a t i o n Using t h e NASA CV-990 Research A i r c r a f t . Thomas M . : Using S i m u l a t e d and Real C e l e s t i a l T a r g e t s . . Kollsman I n s t r u m e n t C o r p o r a t i o n . Walsh. Lampkin. 1965. . EG25100. N a v i g a t o r Performance S t u d i e s 10. 12. and Smith. 11. NASA TN D-4585. and Smith. Robert J . . : for Space F l i g h t . Donald W . NASA TN D-2844. Donald W . GFAE NO. Michael B . Winter 1965-66. and Randle. . NASA TN D-4449." Hand-Held Space S e x t a n t . 4 . : o f a Gemini Left-Hand Window on Experiments R e q u i r i n g Accuracy i n S i g h t i n g o r R e s o l u t i o n . Bedford A . Bedford A . . 1968. NASA TN D-4174. N a v i g a t i o n : J . Acken. David N . Warner. CR-73073. NASA TN D-3669. Lampkin.S i g h t i n g Task i n t h e Ames Midcourse N a v i g a t i o n and Guidance S i m u l a t o r .

63s 28.12N 2. deg Greenwich mean time.98s 28.01E 1 2 :03: 25 14 12 :05: 12: 07: 20 140.02s 21.57E 54.83s 46.OOE 178.73s 26.OOE 128.30s 24.34E 13.83W 43.68s 19.38s 27.90s 24.SPACECRAFT ORBITAL POSITION O r b i t 40.80W 50. O O E 165. 1 143. hr:min:sec Latitude.73s 26. O O E 174 .10 142.48s 27.85 146.73s 29.87 148.92 146.48E 30.82s 28.00W 136.63 140.lOW 28.33s 15.OOE 114.OOW 160. deg Longitude.50 i 1 2 : 17: 11 12:19:09 1 2 : 2 1 : 18 12 :23 : 10 12:25:15 0 0 : 19 :30 00:21:30 00 :23:30 00: 25 :30 00 :27:30 0 0 : 29 :30 00 :31: 30 00 :33:30 00 :35 : 30 1 2 : 27: 2 1 12:29:14 12: 31: 10 12 :33: 11 .26 148.29W 20 I19W 11.78E 38. .59 140.42 142.31 149.52 151. n mi 140. deg Longitude. 1966 A 1t i t u d e above an oblate earth. O O E 157 .N N TABLE 1 .97E 22.08s 28. deli A 1 t i tude above an oblate earth.78s 71.01 152. November 15.82 149.84 144.91 152 .83s 8.60W 36. November 1 4 .81 140. OOE 108 .29W 05. OOW 169 .85s 101.58W 57.93 143.12s 21.70s 22.00E 121.92s 23.81s 19.65s 12.92 141.43 142. 1966 ~~ ~ ~ O r b i t 48.22W 64.44 150.21s 24.67s 18.12 142.84 144.57s 13.OOW 4.83 145.38s 26.51 I 12:Ol: 16 2. OOW 152 .91 141.58s 9.70 150. hr:min:sec 00 :03 :30 00 :05 :30 L a t i tude.84W 03.03 147.68s 27.87 147.00E 149 .92 00 :07: 30 00 :09 :30 00:11:30 00 : 13: 30 0 0 : 15 :30 00 : 17 :30 1 2 :09 :23 12 :11:23 1 2 : 13:18 1 2 :15 :09 .25 151.61 140.47s 25.OOW 144.02s 28.30s 16.03s 5.85s 28. n mi 140.98 Greenwich mean time.39 152.51 151. OOE 135 OOE 142.

84 145.61E 160 .70s 19.48W 12:29:30 12 : 31 :30 1 2 :33 :30 11:01: 30 11:03:30 11 :05:30 w N 12 : 35 :30 11 :07:30 .71E 145.ll 146.02W 124.95W 150.25 143.29E 137. 1966 A 1 t i tude A 1 ti tude Greenwich mean time.41 151.46 143.74 147.98s 28.90 144.46s 125.68 140.32~ 109.19 145 .73W 133 33W ~ 140.52 149.65 148.95s 16.02s 22. deg above an oblate earth.40 150.67s 7.17s 26. Latitude.87s 25.24s 14.33s 28. 1966 L - Continued Orbit 55.29 144.46s 25.79s 18.58 142.45E 161.31W 141.40W 139.14E 130.85s 13.73 141.74E 170. November 15.V 95.12 141.80s 20.74 142.08s 23. h r :min :s ec deg Longitude.80 151.08 150.03 143.68E 176.45s 19.70E 175.87E 172.48E 152. November 15.85s 28.48 140.78W 140.67s 16. deg Longitude.32s 7.08s 26.94 147.81 148.83s 22. .06 141.TABLE 1 .O 1E 167.28E 131.33 150.98 152.05W 167.43 12:OS :30 12 : 07:30 10:39:30 10:41:30 10:43: 30 10:45:30 10:47:30 10 :49 :30 10:51:30 10:53:30 10 :55:30 10:57:30 10 :59: 30 12 :09: 30 12:11:30 12 : 13 :30 12:15:30 12 : 17: 30 12:19:30 12:21:30 12:2 3 : 30 12 : 25 : 30 12 :27: 30 125.82s 23.91s 14.09s 21.46s 28.89E 109.63 149.83s 27.88E 138.13 150.60E 145.88s 28.33 140.48W 163.54s 29.17s 10. n mi deg 10:31:30 10:33:30 10:35:30 10:37:30 3.50E 116.SPACECRAFT ORBITAL POSITION Orbit 54.65s 27.77 151.23E 123.60 140.51s 11.79 146.68s 25.70W 158.24E 178.40 140-67 141. hr:min:sec Latitude.43E 153.03 146.18W 117.72s 24. n mi G r e enwi ch mean time.53W 147.53s 102. above oblatean earth.52 12 :01:30 12:03:30 3.47s 28.481.761V 102.01s 28.47s 17.92W 155.56W 132.

22s 12.32 151.84W 154.01 147.24 146. n mi 140.46 140.98E 115.15W 13:57:30 13:59 :30 14:Ol:30 14:03:30 14:05 : 30 14:07:30 22.12E 93..73 142.07 150.13 P TABLE I.97s 26.38 150.61s 29.62s 80.34s 23.28 144.80s 27.51E 87. November 15. hr :min:sec 13:31:30 13:33:30 13:35 :30 13:37:30 13:39 :30 13:41: 30 13:43:30 13:45:30 13 :47:30 13:49 :30 13:51:30 13:53:30 13:55 : 30 ' Latitude.32E 173.33W 147.89 4.39s 16.14 147.64 149.81E 107.53E 148.17 145.12 141. deg deg A1titude above an oblate earth.598 28.SPACECRAFT ORBITAL POSITION - Concluded Orbit 56.12W 140.39 140.01s 27.76W 169.01s 28.86s 11. Longitude.85 148.79s .66 141.31 140.38s 21.71 151.02s 7.58s 15.57s 24. 1966 Greenwich mean time .88E 177.65W 161.05E 156.61s 18.21s 19.17E 131.87E 100.68E 165.42E 123.43 143.22E 139.91s 26.

5 63:38:46.5 63:40:21.609 63:37:13.606 18. GEMINI XI1 Orbit 40 Sighting t a r g e t s : Primary L O S .003 18.Betelgeuse Scanning LOS .Betelgeuse Scanning LOS . TO02 EXPERIMENT. O 18.0 75:23:29.Rigel Zero b i a s measurement .0 18.IN-FLIGHT SEXTANT SIGHTING DATA.999 00.0 75 :41:11 .001 63: 28 : 22 . O 18.0 18. 5 6 .611 63:30:31. 18.O 18.0 75:22:35.0 .604 I 76.9 I ! .605 18.605 18.606 18.0 63:43:53.606 Void 63: 39 : 36.0 .0 18.604 18.604 63: 32 :53 .608 18.604 18.605 18. O 18.604 18.5 75:40:29.605 18.O 99.0 63:22:53.TABLE 11.995 00. I I I i bias 3 4 -.605 18.604 18.0 I I ' 16 17 18 19 20 75:39:00.608 18.606 18.609 18.608 63:34:27.005 00.0 75:39:33.5 18..5 00.606 63 :31 :38.611 63 :41: 15 . I 75:21:45.Aldebaran Orbit 48 Sighting t a r g e t s : Primary LOS .Rigel Aldebaran Zero b i a s measurement - bias 3 4 5 6 7 8 stars 1 3 18 20 63:21:33.000 63:22:09.605 63:42:07.5 18.608 18.5 99.0 75:28:44.604 63: 35: 26 .605 63:44:51.

Betelgeuse Scanning LOS .O 86:15:56.O 87 :37: 27 .003 07.26 85:50:06.002 00.529 07..529 07. TO02 EXPERIMENT.O 86:07:51. OF I r b i t 54 .532 07.5 86: 14:35 .000 00.0 85:53:15.ighting targets : Primary LOS .IN-FLIGHT SEXTANT SIGHTING DATA.O 87: 35 :50.0 86:09:31.001 00.528 07.29 Measurement Helmet o f f Sextant readout angle.5 85: 51 :06 .531 OF 71.5 86:03:51.5 87: 36 :30 .0 86:17:50.529 07.531 07.0 86:13:23.0 86:11:02.5 86:08:53.528 07.O 87: 20: 53.O 87: 33: 14 .3 Zero bias 1 2 3 4 5 ­ 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Gemini e 1apsed time h r :min: s e c 87:19:23.531 07.0 86:05:57.TABLE 11.528 07.529 07. GEMINI XI1 .0 86:17:03.5 86:02:05. psi 5.0 86:18:53.536 07.528 07.000 99.0 86:04:56.O 87 :38 :54 .O 87: 35 :02 .5 87: 20: 24 .529 Cabin temp.531 07.529 07.O 87:23:15.Aldebaran hit c o n f i g u r a t i o n : Gemini elansed I time hr:min:sec 1 2 !ero 3 iias 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Two 1 stars 3 14 15 Helmet o f f Sextant readout angle.529 07.3 87: 28: 29.5 70.529 07.529 07.B e l l a t r i x Zero b i a s measurement . Cabi n pres sure.005 07.0 Cabin pres sure.529 07.5 86: 06: 56 .0 87:32: 24 ..529 07.5 87: 29 : 28 ..530 07. deg 00.O 87 :30 : 13.6 rwo stars .5 87:27:16.5 85:52:31.528 07.529 07.5 87: 2 2 : 28 .530 07.B e l l a t r i x Zero b i a s measurement .005 00.Continued O r b i t 55 Sighting targets: Primary LOS .5 87:31:35. psi 5.Betelgeuse Scanning LOS .529 07.Aldebaran Suit configuration: Cabin temp.O 85 :5 1: 49.530 07.5 87 :25 :49 .531 07.528 07.995 00.O 87:38:06 .002 00.O 87 :33:45 . deg 00.002 00.532 07.

605 88:Sg:Ol.1 18.610 89:05:27.611 89:04:57.610 89:06:09.5 18. time angle .Rigel Zero bias measurement .O 18.995 88:51:59.604 88:59:32.0 18.26 1 2 Zero bias 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Two 12 stars 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 70.0 18.Concluded Orbit 56 Sighting targets: Primary LOS .1 00.607 89:OO:lO.IN-FLIGHT SEXTANT SIGHTING DATA.607 89:00:48.0 18.007 88:Sl:lS.609 Cabin pres­ sure.6 .1 18.0 00..0 70.S 99.0 00.607 89:06:43.610 89:03:10.003 88:58:03.605 88:58:28. Visor down Measure­ ment Gemini Sextant elapsed readout Cabin temp.0 18.607 89:01:33.609 89 :07:44. GEMINI XI1 .Aldebaran Suit configuration: Helmet on.608 89:02:19.0 18. TO02 EXPERIMENT.0 18.009 88:50:29.3 18.O 18.TABLE 11.607 89:04:05.Betelgeuse Scanning LOS .5 18.003 88:49:30.5 18. "F hr :min: sec deg 88:48:53.5 00.0 18. . psi 5.

8 j -4.6 0 1 -0.5 3 i 1 5 5 i I bias Standard d e v i a t i o n Mean Standard d e v i a t i o n I t13.8 k4.4 I Two star +1.8 I . �W Sextant calibration error..0 i Zero bias 48 Mean Standard d e v i a t i o n Mean Standard d e v i a t i o n Mean Standard d e v i a t i o n Mean Standard d e v i a t i o n Mean Standard d e v i a t i o n +o .8 29.1 k7.6 -9.8 k6.7 -4 -1.7 -1.4 j -2.8 -9.5 i N Two star b Zero ias I ! 56 i ? N N VI a '1 I Standard M e an deviation + k19 3.4 +6.4 +5.6 I 0 -4 [ m e an ' arc sec E I 24.N co TABLE 111. Lc ' a r c sec r Corrected m e an measurement error I i 40 1 I Zero bias M ean Standard d e v i a t i o n +2.2 I -1.5 rr I I 0 +4 -4. 3 7 +9.4 i I -7.0 -5 .7 Two star M ean Standard d e v i a t i o n +7.5 -9.5 +4 -1.S U M M A R Y OF SIGHTING MEASUREMENT DATA Mean v a l u e and standard deviation of measurement error arc s e c I Window induced measurement error.o 218.1 +5.6 I i ' -10.

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