LTE Release 12 and Beyond

2. As outlined by Nokia Siemens Networks in its Beyond 4G vision.4 2. The next step in LTE evolution has already been made. Finally. Introduction Living up to what LTE promised.5 Technology enablers coming with Release 12 Small cell enhancements New Carrier Type Macro cell enhancements Machine-Type Communications Further enhancements 2 3 3 4 4 5 6 6 7 3. LTE Release 12 and beyond will provide the initial enablers of meeting these challenging demands as well as a smooth way into the Beyond 4G era. Further Reading 1. The continuing demand for ever more capacity is driven largely by video usage. Introduction 2. a typical user will consume 1 Gbyte of data per day. operators need to secure their share of the mobile broadband market by improving their operational efficiency and network robustness. another issue is end users’ continually rising expectations of throughput and service .2 2.by 2020. extending their spectrum and by protecting their investment.1. 10x Performance 10x Spectrum 10x 1000x capacity Base stations 2 LTE Release 12 and Beyond . commercial LTE deployments have shown that LTE networks can deliver peak data rates of up to 100 Mbps and average data rates of tens of Mbps as well as latencies below 20 milliseconds.3 2.000 fold increase in network capacity requires increases in all dimensions: As the media-intense lifestyle is set to penetrate all social environments.1 2. Summary 4. developing new business opportunities. with LTE-Advanced pushing peak data rates beyond 1 Gbps and enhancing multi-band and multi-antenna operation that is compatible with existing deployments. a 1.

for example. macro cell enhancements. capacity and coverage will be improved with small cell enhancements. letting the macro layer manage the mobility while offloading high data traffic to the small cells. and Cost. Capacity Small cell enhancements Macro cell enhancements New Carrier Type 1000x capacity increase Coverage 1 GB per day per user everywhere Coordination Machine-Type Communications SON.k. The Four Cs). the Enablers. Coordination (between cells). advanced user equipment (UE) receivers and evolved Coordinated Multipoint (CoMP) techniques. new spectrum footprint and new business will be opened up by optimizing the system for Machine-Type Communications. Improvements in these areas are based on using several technology enablers: small cell enhancements. new spectrum footprint Figure 1: The Focus (a. as well as by. as well as through SelfOrganizing Networks for small cell deployments.  Technology enablers coming with Release 12 Release 12 enhancements focus on the four areas of Capacity. Release 12 enhancements help small cell deployments in two main areas . Public safety Efficiency and robustness Cost New business. the Benefits LTE Release 12 and Beyond 3 . New Carrier Type (NCT) and Machine-Type Communications (MTC).1  Small cell enhancements The increasing traffic load will require more cells and more capacity to cope with the expected throughput. that is.a.2. These enablers are described in this paper. flexibility in deployment and ways to reduce interference in heterogeneous networks (HetNets). LTE-WLAN integration and macro cell enhancements. NCT helps achieve the required changes in the physical layer and initially provides base station energy savings. based on inter-site Carrier Aggregation. using LTE for public safety. Customer experience. Small cell enhancements are also known as enhanced local access. Coverage. Finally. 2. WLAN integration. This situation will be improved by separating the user plane and control plane functions in the Radio Access Network (RAN) architecture. Improvements in capacity and a more robust network performance are achieved by 3D Beamforming/MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output).reducing mobility signaling in high density cells and improving user data rates by using macro cells and small cells together. The high number of small cells will increase signaling traffic in the core network as users move frequently from one small cell to another.

The concept optimizes performance by combining the benefits of macro cell coverage and small cell capacity. The base station power savings and inter-cell interference savings are becoming more important as the number of small base stations increases considerably. tight coordination with small cells. Inter-site carrier aggregation is one of Nokia Siemens Networks’ innovations in the small cell area. Base stations such as the Nokia Siemens Networks’ Flexi Multiradio 10 Base Station establish high capacity macro cells with the potential to double the spectral efficiency of existing LTE macro networks. in a stand-alone NCT solution. The target is to support LTE and LTE-Advanced technology in the 700-2600 MHz bands. future networks need to continue to evolve both in macro and small cells. for example in the 3. Macro cell enhancements are attractive for operators because they allow further exploitation of the existing base station sites and transport infrastructure.Input assumptions for future HetNets Performance benefits Higher frequency > 3 GHz 4-8 antennas Power saving during low loading Minimized reference overhead especially in HetNet Improved beamforming with 4-8 transmit antennas Flexible uplink: downlink asymmetry Low number of users per small cell TDD duplexing Small cell optimization and New Carrier Type Figure 2: Deployment assumptions and benefits of small cell optimization and New Carrier Type Inter-site Carrier Aggregation – i. These generic optimizations are expected to be implemented in LTE Release 12 and will enable base station energy savings. small cell deployments through a significantly shortened latency and an extremely flexible duplex scheme.e. advanced receivers. NCT can optimize 4 LTE Release 12 and Beyond . The main deployment assumptions and performance benefits of small cell optimization and NCT are shown in Figure 2. NCT will reduce common reference signal overhead and allow the operation of downlink control channels to be based on demodulation reference signals. Primarily. increasing the throughput. flexibility in deployment and ways to reduce interference in HetNets. inter-site carrier aggregation can provide a cell edge gain of 50%. 2. carrier aggregation between sites – is an attractive solution for HetNets that do not have an ideal backhaul network. It allows mobility management to be maintained on the macro layer while aggregating small cells to provide extra user plane capacity. Based on increasing the bandwidth through carrier aggregation. There are opportunities to enhance the network capacity and coverage of current LTE macro cell deployment significantly by exploiting multi-antennas. network architectures and new spectrum.5 GHz 2. as well as performance gains for four transmit antenna and eight transmit antenna macro base station configurations.3  Macro cell enhancements With exponential growth in network traffic.2  New Carrier Type The New Carrier Type will allow the optimization of small cells but can also be used in macro cells. even in loaded networks.

Building upon vertical sectorization. While the urban area today can have up to 5. Using active antennas where the RF components are integrated into the antenna and performing vertical sectorization or sector specific elevation beamforming (using two fixed beams per sector) can give significant improvements in sector capacity compared to a single beam system. 2. where a baseband pool serves the macro site and underlay remote radio heads. Release 12 will be developing two techniques namely a) UE-specific elevation beamforming that adds UE specific vertical beamsteering to existing azimuth-only closed loop SU/MU MIMO methods and b) 3D-MIMO techniques that simultaneously exploit both the azimuth and the elevation dimensions of the multipath channel on a user-specific basis. Last but not least. and combinations of the following features: •  Large number of transmit and receive antennas: more than four transmit and receive antennas •  Active Antenna Systems (AAS) where antenna and RF are built together •  A AS with vertical sectorization and user specific elevation beamforming/3D-MIMO •  Advanced uplink receivers •  Cooperative Multipoint Transmission and Reception (CoMP) •  Advanced radio network architecture including on-site resource pooling •  High capacity backhaul •  Authorized Shared Access to gain access to more spectrum By increasing the number of transmit and receive antennas at the base stations from two to four and then to eight. In addition to the already specified MTC support in 3GPP. Such a radio network architecture allows for further improvements in radio performance. This gain can be further enhanced by using advanced receiver and single-user and multiuser MIMO schemes (SU/MU MIMO) based on dedicated demodulation reference signals.000-10.000 connected devices per base station. the following areas of optimization are expected to be covered in Release 12: •  Network load optimizations will continue: MTC-specific signaling and connectivity optimizations ensure that a very large number of connected devices can be supported by the LTE radio.000 subscribers per base station. setting new requirements for the mobile network. a significant gain in network capacity can be achieved.4  Machine-Type Communications The number of embedded machine-tomachine modems is expected to increase substantially in the future. LTE Release 12 and Beyond 5 .band. the growth of machine-to-machine could see up to 100. with small amounts of data delivered efficiently. macro networks evolve by exploiting Authorized Shared Access – a new and complementary way of authorizing spectrum use in addition to exclusive licensed spectrum – which leads to higher spectrum availability and predictable QoS in the shared spectrum. Next in line for deployment are centralized solutions such as cluster level on-site resource pooling using high capacity and UE-specific elevation BF/3D-MIMO Figure 3: UE-specific 3D-MIMO low latency fiber backhaul (Centralized RAN). These techniques are expected to give significant improvements in both the cell edge and sector capacity. The concept of 3D-MIMO is illustrated in Figure 3. thereby increasing the number of subscribers and the capacity of the network.

5  Further enhancements Self-Organizing Networks (SON) will play a key role in the efficient operation of dense small cells. Summary LTE evolution continues strongly in Release 12 and beyond by enhancing LTE and LTE-Advanced operation. macro cell enhancements. intelligent solutions to easily switch small cell capacity layers to a power saving mode will be essential. discovery in device-to-device communication. flexible deployment and improved interference management in HetNets. Based on these. Furthermore. LTE Release 12 addresses coordinated small cell deployments. The following two tables summarize the most promising Release 12 features: Benefits from 3GPP Release 12 – Boost performance Rel12 feature Small Cell Enhancement based on Inter-site CA Benefit •  Optimized small cell mobility by reducing Radio Access Network to Core Network signaling •  Improved data rates by using macro and small cells together •  Efficient use of TDD spectrum •  Minimized inter-cell interference •  Lowered energy consumption •  Significant overhead reduction for downlink 4-8 antenna transmission modes.• T  he low cost MTC device studies are completed. Additionally. 3GPP will look for new opportunities to enhance LTE-HSPA integration and LTE-WLAN interworking. 2. as well as to enable device-to-device discovery and communication for commercial and public safety use. Machine-Type Communications. 5% by accepting reduced peak data rates and 10% by accepting reduced maximum bandwidth. 15% cost savings can be achieved through simplification to a single receive antenna. MTC device costs can be reduced in various ways. as well as to enhance mobility robustness and load balancing in small cell coverage gaps. hence resulting in an improved downlink spectral efficiency •  Significantly enhanced macro cell capacity and coverage •  Removing interference to increase uplink and downlink capacity •  Enhanced coverage by exploiting coordination in case of non-ideal backhaul •  Efficient operation of dense small cell deployments •  Energy savings in small cell capacity layers New Carrier Type (NCT) UE-specific elevation beamforming / 3D-MIMO Advanced receivers Enhanced DL Coordinated Multi-Point (DL eCoMP) Enhanced SON 6 LTE Release 12 and Beyond . Mass deployments will introduce new requirements in SON functions to ensure 3. enhanced SON. proper cell identity management and neighbor cell relations. For example. In particular. and in particular the New Carrier Type enabling energy savings. Release 12 features aim at boosting performance and at entering new areas and spectrum.

including participation in the EU FP7 collaborative project METIS and contribution to ITU-R IMT vision work. and Capacity).  Further Reading • L  TE-Advanced – The advanced LTE toolbox for more efficient delivery of better user experience. Nokia Siemens Networks White Paper • D  eployment Strategies for Heterogeneous Networks. Nokia Siemens Networks 3GPP presentation LTE Release 12 and Beyond 7 . Coverage. Nokia Siemens Networks White Paper • R  elease 12 and beyond for C4 (Cost. Nokia Siemens Network White Paper • 2  020: Beyond 4G – Radio Evolution for the Gigabit Experience. 2020+ 2015+ 2013+ 2010+ LTE Rel-8 and Rel-9 Beyond 4G LTE Advanced Evolution Rel-12 and Rel-13 LTE Advanced Rel-10 and Rel-11 Figure 4: The radio evolution in the present decade 4. Nokia Siemens Networks White Paper • T  aking advantage of the convergence of Wi-Fi and 3GPP.000 devices per cell •  Secure operator’s market share by expanding LTE footprint Nokia Siemens Network is a leading contributor in 3GPP. Coordination of small cells. Nokia Siemens Networks White Paper • L  ong Term HSPA Evolution meets ITU IMTAdvanced requirements. driving LTE and LTE-Advanced standards.Benefits from 3GPP Release 12 – Expand to new areas and new spectrum Rel12 feature LTE-WLAN Integration LTE-HSPA Integration Machine-Type Communications (MTC) Public Safety Benefit •  10 Mbps minimum downlink data rate •  1000x hot spot capacity in present decade •  Enhanced multi-technology support •  Get prepared for 50 Bn connected devices or 100. It is also shaping Beyond 4G through various activities.

Other company and product names mentioned in this document may be trademarks of their respective owners. Box 1 FI-02022 NOKIA SIEMENS NETWORKS Finland Visiting address: Karaportti 3. This publication is issued to provide information only and is notto form part of any order or contract.nokiasiemensnetworks.O. and they arementioned for identification purposes only.Nokia Siemens Networks P. Finland Switchboard +358 71 400 4000 (Finland) Switchboard +49 89 5159 01 (Germany) Copyright © 2012 Nokia Siemens Networks. www. All rights reserved. The products and services described herein are subject to availability and change without notice. ESPOO. Nokia is a registered trademark of Nokia Corporation.com . Siemens is a registered trademark of Siemens AG. The wave logo is a trademark of Nokia Siemens Networks Oy.

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