Spring 2009 Final Exam Review

Modified True/False Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the sentence or statement true. ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 1. The central core of an atom is called the hub. _________________________ 2. The chart showing the classifications of elements according to their properties and increasing atomic numbers is called the periodic table. _________________________ 3. The mass of an electron is about equal to the mass of a proton. _________________________ 4. Elements arranged in vertical columns in the periodic table are called periods. _________________________ 5. The region around the nucleus occupied by the electrons is called the negative zone. _________________________ 6. The symbol for chlorine is C. _________________________ 7. The maximum number of electrons in the second energy level of an atom is 4. _________________________ 8. Two isotopes of carbon are carbon-12 and carbon-14. These isotopes differ from one another by two protons. _________________________ 9. Metals are good conductors of heat and electricity. _________________________

____ 10. Scientists believe that naturally occurring elements are manufactured within Mars. _________________________ ____ 11. Because a water molecule has a slight positive charge at one end and a slight negative charge at the other end, it is a nonpolar molecule. _________________________ Completion Complete each sentence or statement. 12. A mixture that contains more than one type of matter and is the same throughout is a

____________________ mixture.
13. A mixture in which different samples are not necessarily made up of exactly the same proportions of

matter is a ____________________ mixture.
14. The metric unit for weight is ____________________. 15. ____________________ have a definite shape and volume, while liquids only have a definite

volume.
16. The transformation of a liquid to a gas that serves as a cooling process is called

____________________.
17. The ______________________________ (2 words) of water, where liquid water turns to solid ice, is

32°F or 0°C.

18. Most materials are (more/less) ____________________ dense in their solid phase than in their liquid

phase. Water is a notable exception since solid ice is (more/less) ____________________ dense than liquid water.
19. The _________________________ (two words) of an element is the total number of protons and

neutrons in the nucleus.
20. Elements with similar properties, listed in a single column on the periodic table, form what is called

a _________________________.
21. Matter that always has exactly the same composition is classified as a(an) ____________________. 22. Pure substances are either ____________________ or ____________________. 23. An element has a fixed composition because it contains only one type of ____________________. 24. The symbols for elements have either ____________________ or ____________________ letters. 25. A compound can be made from two or more elements or other ____________________ joined together in a fixed composition. 26. The substances in a(an) ____________________ mixture are evenly distributed throughout the mixture. 27. In a(an) ____________________ mixture, the parts of the mixture are noticeably different from one another. 28. Measuring ____________________ can be used to test the purity of some substances. 29. When a metal changes color because it has been heated, a(an) ____________________ change occurred. When a metal changes color because it has reacted with another substance, a(an) ____________________ change occurred. 30. According to ____________________, all matter was made up of four elements: earth, air, fire, and water. 31. Protons and ____________________ are found in the nucleus of an atom. 32. Neutrons and ____________________ have almost the same mass. 33. If element Q has 11 protons, its atomic ____________________ is 11. 34. The _________________________ of an isotope is the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus. 35. The difference between a sample of heavy water and regular water is that a hydrogen atom in heavy water has an extra ____________________. 36. In Bohr’s model of the atom, ____________________ move in fixed orbits around the nucleus. 37. The moving blades of an airplane propeller provide an analogy for the electron ____________________ model. 38. When Mendeleev organized elements in his periodic table in order of increasing mass, elements with similar properties were in the same ____________________. 39. The atomic mass unit (amu) is defined as one-twelfth the mass of a(an) ____________________-12 atom. 40. Elements can be classified as metals, nonmetals, and ____________________. 41. The elements potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and scandium (Sc) appear from left to right in Period 4 of the periodic table. Among these elements, the most reactive is ____________________.

42. Element 3, lithium, has one valence electron, and element 4, beryllium, has two valence electrons. Element 5, boron, has ____________________ valence electrons. 43. Hydrogen does not have the typical properties of a metal. However, hydrogen is located above Group 1A because it has one ______________________________. 44. In general, a(an) ____________________ metal will be more reactive than an alkaline earth metal in the same period. 45. The two most reactive groups of elements in the periodic table are the alkali metals and the ____________________. 46. Fertilizers usually contain two elements from Group 5A, which are ____________________ and phosphorus. 47. In an electron dot diagram, each dot represents a(an) ______________________________. 48. The chemical formula for calcium chloride, CaCl2, shows that the compound contains two ____________________ ions for every ____________________ ion. 49. You are given the melting points of three unknown substances and asked to predict which is an ionic compound. You would select the compound with the ____________________ melting point. 50. When cesium and fluorine react, they form an ionic compound called cesium ____________________. 51. The compound whose formula is SO3 is called sulfur ____________________. 52. Single-replacement reactions can take place with nonmetals. In the following equation, assume that A and C are nonmetals and B is a metal. Complete the following general equation for the replacement of a nonmetal in a compound by another nonmetal: A + BC → ____________________. 53. In a double-replacement reaction, there are two reactants and ____________________ product(s). 54. In terms of energy, the general chemical equation AB + CD + energy → AD + CB represents a(an) ____________________ reaction. 55. For a certain chemical reaction, the reactants contain 362 kJ of chemical energy, and the products contain 342 kJ of chemical energy. In order for energy to be conserved, 20 kJ of energy must be ____________________.

Figure 7-1 56. In Figure 7-1, circuit ____________________ is wired in series. 57. In Figure 7-1, circuit ____________________ is wired in parallel. 58. In Figure 7-1, circuit ____________________ represents the way that homes are usually wired. 59. In Figure 7-1, circuit ____________________ is the type of circuit that causes an entire string of decorative lights to go out when one of the bulbs burns out.

Matching

Match the following terms with the correct definition. There is one extra term which will not match any of the definitions. a. Archimedes' principle b. buoyancy c. density d. fluid e. malleability f. viscosity
____ 60. A measure of the upward force a fluid exerts on an object ____ 61. States that the force exerted on an object in a liquid is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by

the object
____ 62. A property that describes the relationship between mass and volume ____ 63. A measure of a material's resistance to flow ____ 64. Any matter that is able to flow

Match each part of the atom with its identity from the list below.

____ ____ ____ ____ ____

65. 66. 67. 68. 69.

energy level neutron proton electrons nucleus For the following element, match the letter with the type of information given.

____ 70. name of element ____ 71. atomic mass

____ 72. symbol ____ 73. atomic number

Match the following terms with the best definition. There is one extra term that will not match any of the definitions. a. conduction b. convection c. radiation d. emitters e. insulators f. reflectors
____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 74. 75. 76. 77. 78.

Heat transfer by the actual motion of a fluid in the form of currents Materials that "turn back" radiation from their surface before it is absorbed Heat transfer by the direct contact of particles of matter Materials that decrease heat transfer due to reduced internal molecular collisions Heat transfer by electromagnetic waves
Short Answer

79. When a density column is created using water, oil, and molasses, in what order will the liquids ap-

pear, from bottom to top? Give a brief explanation for why this arrangement occurs.
80. Explain why a cork floats in water in terms of density. Do you expect the same cork to float in oil?

Why or why not?
81. For the nucleus shown below, do the following:

A. Name the element. B. Give the mass number. C. Show the isotope notation.
82. How many energy levels would be completely filled by a neutral atom of fluorine? How many elec-

trons would be left over?

83. Use the periodic table to answer the following question. A sodium atom will react with one chlorine

atom to form sodium chloride, NaCl. Name two other elements that are likely to react with chlorine in a similar manner.
84. Using this periodic table for reference, predict the oxidation numbers for potassium (K) and chlorine (Cl).

The Periodic Table of the Elements
1 1 18 2

H
1 Hydrogen 1.0 3 2 4 13 5 14 6 15 7 16 8 17 9

He
Helium 4.0 10

Li Be
2 Lithium 6.9 11 Beryllium 9.0 12

B
Boron 10.8 13

C
Carbon 12.0 14

N
Nitrogen 14.0 15

O
Oxygen 16.0 16

F
Fluorine 19.0 17

Ne
Neon 20.2 18

Na Mg
3 Sodium 23.0 19 Magnesium 24.3 20 3 21 4 22 5 23 6 24 7 25 8 26 9 27 10 28 11 29 12 30

Al
Aluminum 27.0 31

Si
Silicon 28.1 32

P
Phosphorus 31.0 33

S
Sulfur 32.1 34

Cl Ar
Chlorine 35.5 35 Argon 39.9 36

K Ca Sc Ti
4 Potassium 39.1 37 Calcium 40.1 38 Scandium 45.0 39 Titanium 47.9 40

V
Vanadium 50.9 41

Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
Chromium 52.0 42 Manganese 54.9 43 Iron 55.8 44 Cobalt 58.9 45 Nickel 58.7 46 Copper 63.5 47 Zinc 65.4 48 Gallium 69.7 49 Germanium 72.6 50 Arsenic 74.9 51 Selenium 79.0 52 Bromine 79.9 53 Krypton 83.8 54

Rb Sr
5 Rubidium 85.5 55 Strontium 87.6 56

Y
Yttrium 88.9 57

Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te
Zirconium 91.2 72 Niobium 92.9 73 Molybdenum 95.9 74 Technetium Ruthenium (97.9) 101.1 75 76 Rhodium 102.9 77 Palladium 106.4 78 Silver 107.9 79 Cadmium 112.4 80 Indium 114.8 81 Tin 118.7 82 Antimony 121.8 83 Tellurium 127.6 84

I
Iodine 126.9 85

Xe
Xenon 131.3 86

Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir
6 Cesium 132.9 87 Barium 137.3 88 Lanthanum 138.9 89 Hafnium 178.5 104 Tantalum 180.9 105 Tungsten 183.8 106 Rhenium 186.2 107 Osmium 190.2 108 Iridium 192.2 109

Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
Platinum 195.1 110 Gold 197.0 111 Mercury 200.6 112 Thallium 204.4 Lead 207.2 114 Bismuth 209.0 Polonium (209.0) 116 Astatine (210.0) Radon (222.0) 118

Fr Ra Ac Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Uun Uuu Uub
7 Francium (223.0) Radium (226.0) Actinium (227.0) Rutherfordium (261.1) Dubnium (262.1) Seaborgium (263.1) Bohrium (262.1) Hassium (265) Meitnerium Ununnilium Unununium (266) (271) (272) Ununbium (277)

Uuq
Ununquadium (285)

Uuh
Ununhexium (289)

Uuo
Ununoctium (293)

60 58 59 61 62 63 64 65

66 67 68 69 70 71

Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
Cerium 140.1 90 Praseodymium 140.9 91 Neodymium 144.2 92 Promethium (144.9) 93 Samarium 150.4 94 Europium 152.0 95 Gadolinium 157.3 96 Terbium 158.9 97 Dysprosium 162.5 98 Holmium 164.9 99 Erbium 167.3 100 Thulium 168.9 101 Ytterbium 173.0 102 Lutetium 175.0 103

Th Pa
Thorium 232.0

Protactinium 231.0

U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr
Uranium 238.0 Neptunium (237.0) Plutonium 244.1 Americium (243.1) Curium (247.1) Berkelium (247.1) Californium Einsteinium (251.1) (252.1) Fermium (257.1) Mendelevium (258.1) Nobelium (259.1) Lawrencium (262.1)

85. Predict the chemical formula of the compound formed when the two elements, K and Cl, combine. 86. Name the compound formed by combining K and Cl. 87. For the following antacid reaction, list the reactants and the products. 2HCl + CaCO3 → CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O

Graph 8-1A Use Graph 8-1A: Temperature-Solubility Graph for salts to answer the following questions.
88. Based on Graph 8-1A, which salt is most soluble in water at 70ºC? 89. Based on Graph 8-1A, which salt has a solubility in water that is least affected by an increase in

temperature?
90. Based on Graph 8-1A, how many grams of NaNO3 will dissolve in 50 mL of water at 70ºC? 91. Based on Graph 8-1A, what do you predict will happen if a student adds 60 grams of NaCl to 100

mL of water at 20º C?
92. List two examples of natural convection. 93. What is viscosity? 94. How do changes in temperature usually affect the viscosity of a liquid? 95. Give an example of a physical change that can be reversed and an example of a physical change that cannot be reversed. 96. If an atom has 32 protons and 38 neutrons, what is its mass number? 97. If an atom of germanium has a mass number of 70 and an atomic number of 32, how many neutrons are in its nucleus?

Figure 5-1 98. In which segment of Figure 5-1—A or B—will properties of the elements vary the most?

99. Selenium has six valence electrons, while rubidium has one valence electron. Identify each element as a metal or a nonmetal. 100. The elements silicon (atomic number 14) and chlorine (atomic number 17) are both in Period 3. Which is the more reactive element? 101. What determines an element’s chemical properties? 102. On the periodic table, there are two numbers in the block for the element krypton, Kr: 36 and 83.80. What are each of these numbers, and what do they represent? 103. Period 5 of the periodic table begins with element 37 and ends with element 54. Consider the following elements from row 5: strontium (element 38), cadmium (element 48), iodine (element 53). Which of these elements is most likely to be a transition metal? 104. Sodium chloride is a compound of sodium and chlorine. Which of these elements is the alkali metal, and which is the halogen? 105. In a periodic table that included electron dot diagrams, in which column would the diagrams contain more dots—Group 2A (the alkaline metals) or Group 7A (the halogens)? 106. In an electron dot diagram of rubidium, there is one dot. In an electron dot diagram of silicon, there are four dots. Which element would you expect to be more reactive?

Figure 6-1 107. Study the electron dot diagrams in Figure 6-1. Which of the elements are most likely to react and form a compound? What type of compound are they likely to form? 108. Are covalent bonds more likely to be found in compounds containing both metals and nonmetals or compounds containing only nonmetals? 109. A student balanced the chemical equation Mg + O2 → MgO by writing Mg + O2 → MgO2. Was the equation balanced correctly? Explain your answer. If the equation was not balanced correctly, write the correctly balanced equation. 110. Explain how the adding of a substance, such as antifreeze, to water decreases the freezing point of the water. 111. Explain why increasing the surface area of a solid solute helps dissolve it more quickly. 112. Identify two methods that can be used to make a gas dissolve faster into a liquid. 113. Give the period and group for each of the following elements: F, O, P, S.

Figure 18-1

114. Do the elements shown in Figure 18-1 belong to the same period or the same group? 115. What is the formula for each of the following compounds: copper(I) sulfide, calcium chloride, calcium oxide. 116. Which group of elements is the most stable? Explain. 117. What is the name of MgI2? 118. What is the name of PbO2?

Figure 19-1 119. What type of bond is formed in Figure 19-1? 120. What is the formula for magnesium chloride? Problem 121. Calculate the volume of a marble which, when placed in a graduated cylinder containing 60.0 milli-

liters of water, raised the volume of the water to 67.0 milliliters.
122. If a solid copper cube is placed in a graduated cylinder and it displaced 27.0 milliliters of water,

what would be the edge length of the cube?
123. Ice has a density of 0.92 g/cm3. What is the volume of 1.8 kilograms of ice? 124. Balance the following chemical equation. Cu + HNO3 → Cu(NO3)2 + NO2 + H2O 125. Which of the circuits pictured below is an open circuit?

Essay 126. What does the placement of an element on the periodic table have to do with the following: (a) oxidation numbers; (b) valence electrons; and (c) the formation of chemical bonds with other elements. Use the periodic table below to help you answer this question.

The Periodic Table of the Elements

1 1

18 2

H
1 Hydrogen 1.0 3 2 4 13 5 14 6 15 7 16 8 17 9

He
Helium 4.0 10

Li Be
2 Lithium 6.9 11 Beryllium 9.0 12

B
Boron 10.8 13

C
Carbon 12.0 14

N
Nitrogen 14.0 15

O
Oxygen 16.0 16

F
Fluorine 19.0 17

Ne
Neon 20.2 18

Na Mg
3 Sodium 23.0 19 Magnesium 24.3 20 3 21 4 22 5 23 6 24 7 25 8 26 9 27 10 28 11 29 12 30

Al
Aluminum 27.0 31

Si
Silicon 28.1 32

P
Phosphorus 31.0 33

S
Sulfur 32.1 34

Cl Ar
Chlorine 35.5 35 Argon 39.9 36

K Ca Sc Ti
4 Potassium 39.1 37 Calcium 40.1 38 Scandium 45.0 39 Titanium 47.9 40

V
Vanadium 50.9 41

Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
Chromium 52.0 42 Manganese 54.9 43 Iron 55.8 44 Cobalt 58.9 45 Nickel 58.7 46 Copper 63.5 47 Zinc 65.4 48 Gallium 69.7 49 Germanium 72.6 50 Arsenic 74.9 51 Selenium 79.0 52 Bromine 79.9 53 Krypton 83.8 54

Rb Sr
5 Rubidium 85.5 55 Strontium 87.6 56

Y
Yttrium 88.9 57

Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te
Zirconium 91.2 72 Niobium 92.9 73 Molybdenum 95.9 74 Technetium Ruthenium (97.9) 101.1 75 76 Rhodium 102.9 77 Palladium 106.4 78 Silver 107.9 79 Cadmium 112.4 80 Indium 114.8 81 Tin 118.7 82 Antimony 121.8 83 Tellurium 127.6 84

I
Iodine 126.9 85

Xe
Xenon 131.3 86

Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir
6 Cesium 132.9 87 Barium 137.3 88 Lanthanum 138.9 89 Hafnium 178.5 104 Tantalum 180.9 105 Tungsten 183.8 106 Rhenium 186.2 107 Osmium 190.2 108 Iridium 192.2 109

Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
Platinum 195.1 110 Gold 197.0 111 Mercury 200.6 112 Thallium 204.4 Lead 207.2 114 Bismuth 209.0 Polonium (209.0) 116 Astatine (210.0) Radon (222.0) 118

Fr Ra Ac Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Uun Uuu Uub
7 Francium (223.0) Radium (226.0) Actinium (227.0) Rutherfordium (261.1) Dubnium (262.1) Seaborgium (263.1) Bohrium (262.1) Hassium (265) Meitnerium Ununnilium Unununium (266) (271) (272) Ununbium (277)

Uuq
Ununquadium (285)

Uuh
Ununhexium (289)

Uuo
Ununoctium (293)

60 58 59 61 62 63 64 65

66 67 68 69 70 71

Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
Cerium 140.1 90 Praseodymium 140.9 91 Neodymium 144.2 92 Promethium (144.9) 93 Samarium 150.4 94 Europium 152.0 95 Gadolinium 157.3 96 Terbium 158.9 97 Dysprosium 162.5 98 Holmium 164.9 99 Erbium 167.3 100 Thulium 168.9 101 Ytterbium 173.0 102 Lutetium 175.0 103

Th Pa
Thorium 232.0

Protactinium 231.0

U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr
Uranium 238.0 Neptunium (237.0) Plutonium 244.1 Americium (243.1) Curium (247.1) Berkelium (247.1) Californium Einsteinium (251.1) (252.1) Fermium (257.1) Mendelevium (258.1) Nobelium (259.1) Lawrencium (262.1)

127. Explain how knowing the element lithium's oxidation number (1+) helps to determine what compounds it will form. 128. When you mix baking soda and vinegar, the mixture bubbles violently and the temperature drops. Is this a chemical change or a physical change? Provide evidence to support your answer. 129. Two students design an experiment to measure the dissolving rate of sugar. One student measures

out 1.0 grams of sugar using an unbroken sugar cube. The other student measures out 1.0 grams of loose, finely granulated sugar. Both students dissolve their sugar in the same amount of water at exactly the same temperature. Will both students observe the same dissolving rate? Explain your answer.
130. Draw the Lewis dot diagram for the water molecule, H2O. Include the location of partial positive and

partial negative charges.
131. Explain why water is considered a polar molecule and how this gives water its excellent properties

as a solvent.
132. Lithium's atomic number is 3. Fluorine's is 9. Explain how an atom of lithium and an atom of fluorine combine by ionic bonding. Other 133. Show the Lewis dot diagram for the element oxygen.

USING SCIENCE SKILLS

Figure 5-2 134. Using Tables and Graphs Which of the elements shown in Figure 5-2 are in the same period? 135. Classifying Which element in Figure 5-2 is a transition metal? Which is a noble gas? 136. Using Tables and Graphs Which elements in Figure 5-2 have the same number of valence electrons? How do you know? 137. Comparing and Contrasting Based on what you know about elements and the periodic table, compare and contrast the elements beryllium, Be, and iodine, I, which are shown in Figure 5-2. 138. Inferring Find the block labeled ? in Figure 5-2. Predict the properties of this element. What is its atomic number? How many valence electrons does it have? Which of the elements shown in Figure 5-2 will it most resemble?

Figure 5-3

139. Classifying Classify the elements in Figure 5-3 as metals, metalloids, or nonmetals. Explain your answer. 140. Inferring Identify the most reactive element shown in Figure 5-3. Explain your answer. 141. Predicting Explain why knowing the properties of K, Ca, Sc, and Ti would allow you to predict the properties of Rb, Sr, Y, and Zr. 142. Using Tables and Graphs What do the numbers in the boxes in Figure 5-3 represent? What is the importance of these numbers? USING SCIENCE SKILLS

Figure 6-2 143. Using Tables and Graphs Write a description to place in box (2) in Figure 6-2. 144. Using Tables and Graphs What compound name belongs in box (1) in Figure 6-2? 145. Classifying What type of bond belongs in box (3) in Figure 6-2? 146. Classifying What type of bond belongs in box (4) in Figure 6-2? USING SCIENCE SKILLS

Figure 20-2 147. Classifying Are both circuits in Figure 20-2 series circuits? Explain your answer. 148. Comparing and Contrasting In which direction do the electrons move in Figure 20-2? How does this compare to the direction of the current? 149. Interpreting Graphics What objects and how many of each object would you need to draw if symbols were not used in Figure 20-2? 150. Predicting Based on the circuit diagrams in Figure 20-2, what would happen if one of the bulbs in Circuit A burned out? What would happen if one of the bulbs in Circuit B burned out? Explain your answers.

151. Comparing and Contrasting In Figure 20-2, what device could be added to the circuits to open the circuits? Explain how this device works. Compare this device to safety devices that stop the current in a home.

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