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**States can be added to yield a new state ¬ Superposition
**

To describe STATES, we use vectors.

VECTORS represent STATES

Each vector can have finite or infinite number of elements

A vector has direction and length, and so do the kets

A state of a dynamical system = direction of ket

Length and sign are irrelevant

DIRAC

bras

kets

÷

Each state is denoted by a ket |>. Individual kets are distinguished by the labels placed

inside the ket symbol |A>, |B>, etc

kets

( )

1

we can add two

R

many, many

R

or even have

if x varies

Additio

contin

n

uously

2

i

i

A B

L

Q x X dx

= +

=

=

¿

}

C C

C

C

If a state is the superposition of 2 states, then the corresponding ket is the linear

combination of 2 other kets

are independent if no one can be expressed as a linear combination of the others

Multiplication

i

A A ¬ C

Complex number

Cont.

( )

1 2 1 2

addition of two identical kets

A A A A + = + ¬ C C C C

CM: addition of 2 identical states¬new state

QM: addition of 2 identical states ¬same state

CM: state can have 0 amplitude (no motion)

QM: |ket> CANNOT have 0 amplitude,

STATE · direction of vector , and if there is a vector, there is a length.

bras

a vector that yields a complex number by doing the scalar multiplication with a ket is a:

BRA

{ }

have the same properties as ,

and are defined by their scalar product with every

'

completel

'

y

number

number

B A A B A B A + = +

To each ket |A>, there corresponds a dual or adjoint quantity called by Dirac a bra; it is

not a ket-- rather it exists in a totally different space

as it happens with vectors, the scalar product of

number bra ket bra ket = =

,

i j

i j

B A b a = ·

¿

Cont.

*

for every ket A there is a bra A which is the complex conjugate of A

or A A A =

*

* *

associated for the ket , the bra is A A A A = = C C C C

the scaler product is

................

complex

number

B A A B = = =

? A ¬ =

? 0 unless A 0 A A A A = > =

( )

if A 0 and B are orthogonal

if 0 is to

B A

x y x y

= ¬

· = ¬ ±

*

and A B A B A B A B = = C C C C

the scalar product is

Length and phase

( )

LENGTH

vectors A A

bras and kets A A

÷ ·

÷

The direction of the vector defines the dynamical state, and the length is not important

¬ We can always use normalized vectors

1 A A =

' lenght ' ' ? length A A A A ÷ = =

phase does not change neither the length or directionof state!

Even when using a fixed-length bracket ( 1) there is a phase factor

which is not defined

'

'

i i

length

A e e A A A

¸ ¸ ÷

=

÷ = =

and ' have the SAME DIRECTION A A

Operators

An operator is a rule that transforms a ket (or bra) in another ket (or bra)

Every observable is associated with an operator

ˆ

ˆ G F A B o | = =

ALL Quantum Mechanical operators are LI (not all operators are lin NEAR ear)

( )

1 2 1 2

Properties of linear operators:

ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ and A A A A A A o o o o o + = + = C C

( )

( ) ( )

Properties of operators:

ˆ ˆ

ˆ ˆ Summation is distributive

ˆ ˆ

ˆ ˆ Product is associative

A A A

A A

o | o |

o | o |

- + = +

- · =

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