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MIND PHILOSOPHY OF

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Philosophy

of

Mind

AN

ESSAY

IN

THE

METAPHYSICS

OF

PSYCHOLOGY

BY

GEORGE
PROFESSOR OF

TRUMBULL
PHILOSOPHY
IN

LADD
YALE UNIVERSITY

NEW CHARLES

YORK SCRIBNER'S 1895 SONS

Copyright,

1895,

by

Charles

Sckibnek's

Sons.

2Snfoersttg

$ress:

John

Wilson

and

Son,

Cambridge,

U.

S!

A.

aber wir achten die

Namen

siud

Duust

Geister,
uns

Heilig

Kunst." ist die

wir

die

Meister,

aber

frei

Wurdig

ehren
uns

Uhland.

PREFACE

THIS
the
course

book

is

an

essay

in

the

speculative
but not

treatment

of

tain cer-

problems,
of Inasmuch
nature
a

suggested

usually study
all of relate of

discussed mental
to

in

thorough
as

empirical problems
and be

nomena. phethe real

these

and the

actual

performances
may

relations

the

human Let with

mind,
it
be

essay

properly
that the in
"

called

metaphysical.
forward

confessed,
in

then,

author the that

comes

treatise that

metaphysics,
I

more

special
in

meaning
the
in

of

term. into

think,
which

however,
all

spite
has

of

marked certain such first


two

disfavor

metaphysics
for

fallen readers

quarters,
treatise

no

detailed be the offered book which

apology
in its

asking

for the how

need of

Preface. in of of

Indeed,

chapters
is the

are

occupied
science

showing psychology
its

inevitable makes for

demand

the

further

philosophical
this demand

discussion is not made

all

principal
clear be

problems.
the
more

If, then,
detailed

perfectly
it

by

discussion forward of

which

follows,
at

would

quite
of my

useless

to

put
the

it

unsupported,

the

beginning
first

task,
upon

in

hope

producing

favorable

impression

luctant re-

intelligences.
As
two to

the

kind

of

metaphysics
remarks and

which

it is

designed

to

offer,
first
meta-

or

three
to

preliminary
be open

seem

important.
Of all
"

And,
bad
"

of

all, it is

undisguised.

viii the physics, and while views


worst is

PREFACE

very
"

to likely
even

be that which from the

is unavowed

concealed,
as

sometimes
is
or

author

himself,

yet he
others,
No
one

engaged
in

in

the metaphysical criticising essays in

of

denouncing metaphysical
peace of mind is
sure

general.
by
any

whose

to be disturbed

attempt, however

carried

out, at
the

this

form

of reflective table

thinking should
of contents wish
to be

venture

beyond
On the
two

and titlepage

of this volume. held

other

hand, however, I
are

for responsible
to

things which
treatise of
a

required
acter. char-

in order

to entitle

respect every
statement

similar

These

are,

the first,

of the

facts and

laws,

to established, scientifically

which

the

speculativediscussion
in

constantly refers
for

for which
as

its

own no

grounds

experience.
in

And

metaphysics

has

foundations
as

incontestable
one.

experience, I
besides

have

little respect

has
to

any

But

this constant

appeal

to

facts and

laws

empirically
the tion deriva-

established, sound
of

reasoning

is

indispensablefor

acceptableconclusions
or

in any

metaphysicalenterprise.
will

Any

reader,

critic,therefore,who
of these
two

point

out

tions viola-

of either
to

requirements, will be entitled service,no


less

gratefulrecognitionfor
by the readers
few
to

his

by the author

than A

of this

volume. relations
same

words

concerning the

which

this book will


be

tains sus-

preceding works

by the
In

author
sort

helpful
volume works1 This

for its better may


on

understanding.
as

some

the entire series of

be

regarded

in

continuation science of

of

psychology, or
as
a

the

mental
ever

phenomena.
must

science, which,

science, is,and
many

remain, chiefly
the real
nature

starts descriptive, and

inquiriesregarding
external

relations

to

the

world,

and

especiallyto

the

Physiological Psychology,1887 ; Outlines of Physiological chology, PsyPsychology, Descriptive and Explanatory, 1894 ; Primer of Psychology, 1894. (All published by Chas. Scribner's Sons.)
1891
;

Elements

of

PREFACE

ix

body,

of

that
to

subject of
call "the

all the mind."

phenomena,
The

which

we

are

accustomed
at

partialconsideration,
difficult to

least,of such
the

inquiriesis extremely
at

separate
treatment

from of
a

attempt

anything
these

like

comprehensive
be

psychology.
little way

But

very

inquiries can
so

carried

only
with
us

before

they

become

inextricably mingled
to make

comprehensive problems
aware

in

general philosophy as
some

that

we

are

already at
is

distance
a

from

that

form

of discussion The

which

appropriateto
shows of

science. descriptive

discoveryjust noted
at
a

the

necessitywhich phenomena

every of

attempt

metaphysics
conclusions

mental from the

feels

borrowing

certain This

general field of philosophy.


and it is also

necessity is

made the the

apparent,

acted

upon,

in the the

chapters on
of the
not
a

the identity, the reality,

unity, and
relations discussions of

permanence mind
to

mind,

and

on

the Hence
to

real the views the

the of
or

bodily organism. infrequentlyrefer


work
On

this

volume

stated briefly
same

hinted

at in

philosophy1 by

author.
nature

The

of

psychology, however,
nature to

and

the

nature

of

the philosophy,and especially between the

of the relations it

existing
not

two,

are

such in
one

as

make

undesirable, if

to impossible,

consider this of

book science

all the

metaphysical problems Indeed,


more

which whole this.

empirical

suggests.

the

sphere
A

philosophical study scarcely does


but not

than of cussion dis-

somewhat

wholly arbitrary selection


made the
; and
one

problems had, therefore,to


was

be

their

detailed

then The
course

brought under

title, "Philosophy
are

of Mind." clear in the


I Finally,

reasons

for the selection

made

sufficiently

of the discussion believe that advanced


to

itself. of

do not

specialstudents
students, and
Chas.

psychology,

whether

beginners or
1

thoughtful men
Sons.

Introduction

Philosophy,1890.

Seiibner's

PREFACE

generally,
are

lack

interest in this

in

the

metaphysical
The the fashion

inquiries
of of

which

undertaken

treatise.
or

denouncing
or,

the

study
of is

of any

metaphysics,
group the and of the of

of

theory

knowledge,

indeed,

the

profounder
"fad" of than of these
a

philosophical
blase* the the

lems, probor

more

scholastic selfish
on

minds,
result

the any of Such

refuge genuine

of

weak lack
in

spirits,
the

of

interest,
earnest

part
of
to

multitude

thinkers,
"persons

discussion
or

problems.
for

become

agnostic,
at

resort

demand

tioning unquesto

faith,
baffled and To of
or

the
in

point
the

where
at

they

themselves As
to

begin
the

be

tired of

effort
men

thinking.
will
in

limits

validity
rebuke human

knowledge
for like
no

always
the

eagerly
of the face

inquire. history
of the
or

them
reason,

this

seems,

light
In
more

solemn

trifling.
can

the

regnant
more

agnosticism, important
And
than

inquiries
which in
and

be

obligatory
a

those
so

concern

theory
of of
a

of

nition. cogare

while

many,

the

name

science,

denying
existence

the of

reality, unity,
the

possibility
and
are

permanent
its
"

human of from it

mind,

resolving
associated

entire

being mena,"
cerebral

into

stream

mechanically
the is
not

epiphenoof
or

thrown

off

molecular
an

machinery time,
a

the
a

hemispheres,
useless like
and

inopportune
to

wholly
discussion

thankless undertaken

task,
in

propose volume.

serious

re-

that

this

GEORGE

TRUMBULL

LADD.

Yale

University,

New

Haven,

1895.

TABLE

OF

CONTENTS

CHAPTER

Psychology

and

the

Philosophy

of

Mind
PAGE

The

Opinion
involved of Mr.
"

of The

Kant

"

Psychology
taken

"

without

Metaphysics
Sciences
"

"
"

Assumptions
Inconsistencies

Course Peculiar
"

by

the

Physical
of

Huxley
"

Difficulties James
"

Psychology
M.

Professor
"

Hbifding
examined 1
. .

criticised

Views of
"

of

Professor

Flournoy's
"
"

Position Views

"

Principle

Psycho-physical

Parallelism

Contrasted

CHAPTER

II

Psychology

and

the

Philosophy

op

Mind

(continued)
of
"

Difficulties
Views of

examined
"

The The in

two true

Courses

open of

Views
"

Volkmann
"

Wundt"

Conception
"

Psychology
asa"

Use

of

physical Meta"

Assumptions
Nature
"

Psychology
"

Psychology
of

Natural
to

Science

of
"

Philosophy Spencer's
"

Relation of

Philosophy
"

the Relations
"

particular
of The

Sciences
to

Mr.

View Branches Mind

Philosophy
of

Special

chology PsyProb41

Philosophy

Metaphysics

involved

blems

of

Philosophy

of

CHAPTER

III

The

Concept

of

Mind

Popular
not
mere

use

of

the

term

"

Mind

"
"

Standpoint
"

for life

Inquiry
an

"

Psychology
Nature
"

doctrine in of The

of

"Content" Nature of

All of Mind of

mental

Activity
"

of

Conception

general
the

"

Self-knowledge
False
"

Formation

and Views 83

Development
examined"

concept

or

inadequate

higher

Knowledge

Self

xii

CONTENTS

CHAPTER

IV

The
The in
"

Reality
and ?

of

Mind
PAGE

concept of

Reality
"

Knowledge
"

Realitycorrelates
"

"

Of real in

Beings

general
"

"What
an

is it to be

Real"

The
"

Foundations Of

experience
criticised

Reality
And The

implicate of Reality of

Self-consciousness
"

recognitiveMemory
Views mind's of the

"

of reflective contrasted

Thinking

Scepticaland
"

Agnostic

"

Things

True

Nature

Reality 113

CHAPTER

The

Consciousness

of

Identity,
Consciousness

and

So-called

Double

The

concept of Identity
"

The
"

identity which
The

Things
as

have

"

Immanent
"

Idea

an

implicateof
in

identity

concept of Self
"

self-same and
"

sible Permisof Minds And the

Changes
Contrasted
true
"

so-called Personality of so-called toward them


"

Identityof Things
Double Consciousness"
' '

Phenomena

"

scientific Attitude
"

Principleof Play

ism" psychicalAutomatetc.
"

Phenomena

of

Inspiration,"Possession,"
of the

"Obsession,"
"

"

Dramatic
"

Sundering Experience

Ego
"

"
"

of Children of of

Phenomena
"

of

Dreams from

of Actors
"

Phenomena

Prophetism
"

Parallel of sonal Per148

Ethical

Consciousness

Explanation

Hypnotism

Loss

Identity

CHAPTER The
The

VI

Unity

of

Mind have

concept of Unity
"

"

The

unity which
"

Things
Ethical

"

Unitary Being
from

of

Mind

Development unity of Degrees of Reality And of mental investigations Possibility visibility Unitary Being Teleological Principle involved Simplicity and Indiof mental Conclusions
"

the foregoing

"

"

"

of Mind

189

CHAPTER Mind

VII Body
at
a

and

Realityof
the

"

Relations"

in

general
"

Attempts

non-metaphysical use
in the of the Conservation
"

of

of Principle

Causation View

"

Current

conceptionof Causation
"

cal Physiand

Sciences Correlation
of the of

"

of Phenomenalism
"

Law

of

Energy

Origin

of the
"

concept of Causation
of Intellect
"

ment Developthe World 208


.

concept of Causation

Work Reason"

upon

Things

"

of "Sufficient Principle

Summary

of Results

CONTENTS

Xin

CHAPTER

Vm

Mind

and

Body

(continued)
PAGE

Classes
"

of

Phenomena

discussed
"

"

Phenomena absolute
and

of

"Concomitant

tion Correla"

so-called, rejected
of two
"
"
"

No

Concomitance
"

demonstrable of this
"

Formation

concepts, Body
The from

Mind

Development
an

"

BiThe in tors Fac-

"or Diremption partition Body only formally distinct the

concept of Body
Nature
"
" "

Abstraction

All

Metaphysics
of

involved
"

Validityof
in mental

this

"

bi-partition

Influences

body
"

on

mind

Life not

in the represented

bodily Basis
of Ideas Will

Influences The

of mind

on
"

body

"

"Dynamo-genetic"
"
"

Influence

"

Principle of
237

Suggestion

Influences

from

Feeling and

CHAPTER

IX

Materialism
Use of Terms defended
"

and

Spiritualism
The four Forms and
"

"

Limits

of the Discussion

"

of speculative defined

Opinion
"

Materialism, Spiritualism, Monism,


Materialism stated
"

Dualism

Position

of

and

discussed of

Incomparability of
et

physical and
criticised
"

psychicalphenomena
Outcome of Materialism
"

Positions

Biichner, Vogt,
"

ah,

unintelligible Metaphysics
monistic examined

of Materialism
"

examined its Tenets and criticised


"

Position
"

of
"

Spiritualism stated
and

And

Animism

rejected
"

Materialism 283

Spiritualism mutually

destructive

CHAPTER
Monism
Method of current Mind Monism The
"

and

Dualism
Monism
"

"

Agnosticismof
of Professor
"

The

assumption
"

of Absolute

justified
"
"

Views

Hoffding criticised
its Terms found

The adequate in"

principleof
or

"Parallelism"

examined

And
"

either

unmeaning
"

Proportionality an

inappropriateTerm
"

Facts
"

incompatiblewith
Monism
to this

the

Identity-hypothesis ends
summed

The of this Principle complete Extension in the unintelligible The Case against psychological
"

up

"

Position

of

speculativeDualism

"

jections Ob314

positionexamined

CHAPTER

XI
Mind

Origin
Nature
"

and

Permanence

of

"

Problem followingDiscussions of to of terms Locality Mind Application of Mind "Transmission an absurdity of the
"

of the
"

Origin

of Mind

stated

Traducian Creation

"

"

Theory Theory examined

examined
"

xiv

CONTENTS

PAGE

Problem

of
to

the Mind
"

Permanence The of all

of

Mind
"

stated
"

Concept
Man" of The all

of

Permanence

as

applied
of Mind
"

"Tripartite
conscious of
states

division

of

permanent

Unity Reality
of

the

Subject

"

Principles
but
"
"

abiding
Mind

Possibility
"

really

existent

Unconscious

"Phenomena ence Existfinite mind 356

of

so-called of Absolute Mind

unconscious

Cerebration and

Only
Mind
"

possible
Relation

unconscious of

"

Being

Becoming

of

to

Mind

CHAPTER

XII

Place

op

Man's

Mind

in

Nature

Kant's

criticism of

of Mind

the

Doctrine Existence
"

of

Immortality"
of unconscious

Nature
"

of

Arguments
of for Relations
no

for value

mortality Im-

Mind-Stuff"

"

Views other Mind

from

the

psycho-physical
True
"

standpoint
Nature of

"

Necessity
"

introducing
of man's

Considerations
to

Mind-Life
to

physical
as

Nature
"

And,

finally,

the

Being

of

the

World,

sidered con-

Absolute

Mind

396

Index

413

PHILOSOPHY

OF

THE

MIND

CHAPTER

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OP

MIND

IT is
the
exact

now

somewhat Kant

more

than

hundred
in

years

since
over

the the

philosopher

expressed
ever

himself

despair
a

possibility of psychology
sciences.
to
"

securing
which
was

title to

place
this

among

One
a

reason

influenced the inherent

great
of

thinker power the


robe at
as

such he

state
"

of
on

mind the

lack
to

as

thought

part of psychology
and
to

put off
on

traditional

incertitude

of

metaphysics,
a

put

the find view of

of mathematics. end the of the


nature

It is

certainly
almost For

significant fact change


the

to

the
to

century
of this

an

complete perhaps
worth

of

study.

majority
now

those

students
not

whose that

opinion
the science

is best of that
so

consideration

hold,

only
with shown of
the

mental

phenomena
form

should it has teristic charac-

dispense actually

metaphysics,
that
"

but do

in its modern
an

it
"

can

; while

essential

new

psychology
it makes and the

is of

undoubtedly

the

large
and

and

methodical This

use

which

experimentation study
of that
"

statistics.

experimental
of course,
exact

statistical exercise

of mental
arm

phenomena
which
measurement

implies,
all and

by

alone

the

sciences

triumph,
seem,

namely, then,
has that
ceeded suc-

mathematics.
but
now

It would reinstated in
a manner

this

for

time

dethroned her
nature

queen which

in considered

changing
her very

vesture,
to
1

Kant

render

forever

impossible.

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

A and
state

more

careful

examination

both

of the

current

practice
the real

of the of the

history of opinion, however,


case

shows
or so

that

is

by

no

means

so

clear few

satisfactory.
writers who admixture themselves

For

the obvious
most

truth

is that

not

of those the

cry out of

loudly and
with

unsparingly against psychology unkindly


tenets

metaphysics
the

scientific

are

often their

greatest transgressors in this very regard. Indeed,


the
not
sarcasm

practice suggests
exclude

that think

the it

metaphysical hypotheses indispensableto


are comes

and from of

which science
"

they

the

"

of mental And
on

nomena pheso

solely those
that
in
some

their

opponents. by such

it

about

treatises

writers
more

chology psyless which

the

soil is first of all

cleared, with
weeds of

or

declamation, of all those noxious

philosophy
the is

might
science
sown numerous

otherwise
;

mix

in and

spoilthe purity of
it

empirical diligently
from

then, next, the seed of this pure science


our

before

delighted

eyes,

as

comes

fresh

physiologicaland
the

psycho-physical laboratories,or
himself. is for the

from Yet
not
a

of the author brains, fertile in conjecture, when the total crop


are

somehow,
few

ready

harvest,
crept

sprouts of metaphysics

still found
are

to have

into it. which made It

Strange

to

tell,however, they
on

chieflyof species
room

flourish best for them


can

just that soil,whenever


of that which the

has

been

by the clearance

species. pre-existing practice of keep


the shall
as

scarcelybe claimed, then,


of
a

advocates

scientific

psychology
desirable
to

itself
us

clear of all

metaphysical implications has


to turn
secure so a

yet taught

precisely how
And incline
matters

result. does
not

if
to

we

from others kind

example
better

theory (forwho
he does himself
not
even

teach this

than
case

practises in
then
seem

of better.

?),the
confident from

much who

For, in general,it is those


most

very

psychologists metaphysics
discussion of

have

been

of the

of freeing possibility of

scientific who have

psychology
given
us

all

investiture

least

and intelligent

calm

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

of

consciousness of various

or

as

to what

kinds, amounts,
the

and

timethe

rates
nervous

stimuli, when
are

applied to

periphery of
states,
the
mere

system,

succeeded

by definite

known

changes in
"

the

intensity,and quality,

time-rate

of mental
state
as

then

these
to

investigatorspropose
between
as

to faithfully

facts, and

let the

from generalizations the


two

them

stand of

orderly
But if

sequences the

classes movements

phenomena.
of

question be

to what

of the

vations muscles, inner-

of organs

of sense,

determinations

qualitiesand
tions; func-

changes of perceived things, disturbances


or

of cerebral

of the all the


or as

and respiratory, circulatory,

digestive systems,

with

therewith;
modifications

and secretory activities connected capillary subtile organic changes and to what more form of tissue

of every

(such
or

as

birth-marks,
certain forms of

stigmata, and
reactions of the of consciousness

hyperesthesia epileptiform
"

hallucinations,

psychic cells" so-called)follow


called
" "

emotions, passions,desires, deeds


or

will, and
these

"

suggested

fixed

"

ideas,

"

why

then, too,
to
knowledge ac-

writers

accept the obligationto be equally ready


sequences in fact of between different

mere

classes

of

phenomena.

It is the business

science, say they, simply


between

^to discover
And be

actual

orderly correlations
of all of
to

phenomena.
it not

if this be true
true

science, as such, why should

of the be
our

particularscience
purpose later
on

psychology ?
consider last of in the detail the

It will various

assumptions
such this

involved from

in
our

the

positions
to

just mentioned.
fault with
a

It is far

present purpose
its
own

find

position.
its

It
be

has
seen

justification; only temporary


blamed
because

although
and

will justification Nor


are

to be to be

partial.
that

advocates and
assume

they habituallyuse
are

language

subordinate

ises premfor all


can

thoroughly
to the

suffused

with

metaphysics ;
case.

this
even

belongs

very

necessities

of the and about

No

one

talk about

mental
or

phenomena
upon

their

dependence
under psy-

upon

brain-states

changing

stimulations

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

cho-physioallaws
minds What
"

without

assuming the real existence


between

of both them.

and

of interaction things, and the reality

is meant is

by such

complex
one even

network may

of

assumptions, psychological
all.

that

something

which and

pursue

science It is
as

without

knowing

without

consideringat
which
a

preciselythis question
a

of and

meaning
natural

scientific,

distinguishedfrom investigate.
Grave fault is to be

naive

metaphysics, aims
with the considerable of psychology the
so*

to

found, however,
on

number

of this latter class of writers for the

science

unthinking

way

in which
"

they adopt
yet graver
to to

called has

purely scientific point of view,


indicated, for their
For

fault,as
by it
the

already been

failure

abide

consistently.
after of the all

they, too,
view of has
a

as

rule, fail

keep
front

adopted point of temple


door. sacred of

dualistic been

phenomenalism.
out

And,
door

metaphysics

thrust
are

of the somewhat of

science, they
some one

found form

tinely clandes-

admitting
the
rear

favorite

metaphysics by

The of that science

precincts have
of the his
some

indeed

been

industriouslyrid
all

metaphysics adopts.
But
on

Dualism

which

unsophisticated
is tific scien-

high-priestof
knees,
"

the establishment in the main


or

finallydiscovered
aula,
"

if not

at least

in

ante-chamber

side
an

apartment,
physician meta-

before

the

altar is

of Monism.

Now,

for about

avowed

there

nothing shameful
to be done

this; but
who has in

it

is

scarcelythe rightthing
his voice before all the very

by

one

lifted up

threshold Such

of the conduct

temple
of

warning
the

against

metaphysics.
the What
on

certainlyleads
a

bystanders to
made

suspicion of
later
; and

ulterior

motives

concealed will be
us

philosophicalkind.
more

these

motives how far of

usually are they


in
seem

clear

to

ficient sufbe of

to

justifysuch
We
are now

an

attitude

worship
the

will

also

explained.

simply arguing
and
we

interests

and candor; intelligence

believe

that these

twoquali-

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

ties

ought
as

to

characterize

the

study

of the

science

of psychology

of all the other


seem,

sciences.

It would
form

without

special research, as
were

though
and
to
an

tain cer-

of

metaphysics
of every This

the natural

necessary

accompaniment
mental
common-sense are

scientific form

approach
course

the

study
"

of

phenomena.
Dualism. "minds"
are;

is of

uncritical,

Psychology
and "nature" of

assumes

that

things

"

and

that, within

certain

limits
act

mined deter-

by the
upon each

so-called Those which

both, they
which
to
"

causally
to
garded re-

other. those science

happenings
are

are are

ascribed
never

things, and by
or,
"

ascribed

minds,
as
mere

without word
"

metaphysics phenomena
and
to
"

phenomena

rather, the very

necessarilysuggests
the

and That after

implies beings of
is to say, what

which

which "the

phenomena
modes of And

are.

science
as

calls the

phenomena"
of

are,

all, in fact, regarded


of real the

observed and

the
so

behavior

beings,both
the

of minds

things.
the

long

as

student
on

of mental

science

maintains

this

tude, attiof

he

remains

ground occupied by
The the

students
as a

all the natural science correlations

sciences.

study of psychology pursuit of wholly


a

ral natu-

is not

really,then,

knowledge
any

of

between

phenomena
the is

without this

physics meta-

whatever; it is rather

pursuit of
for the

science

with

only

such

metaphysics as

naively assumed then,


it so,
"

in all scientific time


"

inquiry. Psychology
one

may leave

being,
a

"

if ence sci-

is
"

only willing to
but

be called
upon
a

natural

only

as

it is founded

natural, uncritical,
far

and

unreflecting metaphysics.
in this

How way
we

psychology
also

can

successfullybe pursued
later
on.

shall

consider

It is ardent the

instructive, although
advocate of
a

somewhat

for disheartening,
to

the

purely scientific psychology


of his

contrast

practiceand
of the
"

theories

colleagueswith
sciences. somewhat

those

of the

students how

principal physical
who himself dabbled

All
too

remember

Newton

freelyin

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

rather

poor

metaphysics
the

"

issued
no

to

physics
his
successors

warning
in

against all metaphysics ;


at investigation

and

doubt

sical phy-

present day suppose


sensitive

themselves, in
of this great
to what
own

the

main,

to be

carefullyobserving the warning


rate, they
are

master.

At

any

enough
their

they

consider when

the immeasurable with


most
even

superiorityof
the modern

sciences

contrasted of the

endeavors, in this
sionally, Occa-

regard,
of the

advanced

psychologicalscience.
ill-concealed of

however,
"old

while

speaking with
as

contempt
worthless show

psychology"
hold the
out
"

mostly composed
the hand with
"

metaphysics, they
of toward cordiality

charming
and

new

psychology ; promise
of

this because tific scien-

the latter offers to them

the

exhibiting,in
use

form, methods,
If it
were

what

it

can

accomplish by
to discuss

of

scientific

"without
our

metaphysics."
present purpose
or

problems
of

in the

philosophy
than
in

of nature

the

metaphysics
or

physics, rather
of psychology, critical examination the

the
we

philosophy of
should claims It is
are

mind

the

metaphysics

profit by giving a
of

detailed

to

these

superiority on
now

part of the

physicalsciences. physical sciences


On the

enough
far

to affirm that the modern

very

indeed

from

being capable

of

exhibiting themselves assumptions


structure and

as systematically stripped of

all metaphysics.

contrary, the

most

sical stupendous metaphyare woven


mere

implications
Instead among of of

into formulas
are

their for

throughout.
and

being

stating uniform
to

sequences

phenomena, they experiences which


that and the assumed

scriptions deat

explanations
invisible and

appeal

every

step
abstruse
among

to mysterious entities,
are

hidden
to take

and

forces, to transactions

place
can

beings
become,

whose in any

existence
sense

modes

of behavior

never

of A

words, immediate
of

data

of

sensuous

knowledge.
one

high place only


after that

honor,

although
the pangs

doubtless of
a

to

be

obtained

enduring

prolonged crucifixion,awaits

philosophi-

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

cal

or biologist,

that

philosopher sufficiently acquainted with subjects the


critical its modern doctrine
with
a

scientific
to

biology,who
a

of view

lution evo-

thoroughly

analysis,
turn

to

detect such
a

and
one

to estimate

metaphysical assumptions.
out

When

appears,

if his criticism

mainly
will

tive, destrucof be that


"

it will be the so-called favorable this result and


"

interesting to know
science
"

how

much

remain

of evolution in

; but

if the criticism is safe


"

conservative

result, it

to

say

will be attributable better


as

to the fact of the

scientists

having
as mere

builded

metaphysicians
the that

than

they

knew

"scientists."
to endeavor to break

It is vain

force of the present the students


causes,
or

tention con-

by reminding
science which

ourselves

of natural and
can

regard all so-called


never

entities,real
themselves of

actions, trans-

have

become

become

phenomena, hypotheses.
be conceded
to

in

the

light simply
be
at
once

permissible
; and

and

helpful
the

Let that
a

this

conceded

let it also

this way

of

introducing hypotheses, in
actual is

effort

find

more

complete explanation of
if
one

ence experi-

(of the "phenomena,"


this

on pleased by insisting

word), is scientifically legitimate. It will scarcely be


that
men as

seriouslymaintained, however,
causes, and
"

entities, by hypothetical
of science and
mean mere

transactions, the
that

hypotheses,
of the of

is, assumptions
as

pure
more a

simple
than the

states
sciousness con-

hypothesizing mind, ideating and


satisfied if

nothing
in able
to hit

reasoning only
For

certain upon
one a

way,

and

of

feelingbetter
of
"

certain call

way the this of

ideating and only

reasoning.
ether" that
a

example,

may But

luminiferous
means

hypothetical entity.
an

by

one

it is

entity about which,


cannot
we see

the
no

existence immediate

which, and
and smell
an one

the transactions

in

have

certain
or

knowledge.
it. such But
and account

One if such
one

it,hear
to

it,taste
assume

or

touch

is

permitted
and

such

and entity,
can

transactions

in this

then entity, of

the better

for existences

transactions

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

which is
be

one

has
as

indubitable
an

knowledge.
such
an

The

assumed

entity
cannot

assumed made Or

entity; and example:


as mere

assumption

"without another

metaphysics."
What in

to take

physicistthinks
his
own

of the duced intro-

so-called

"atoms"

ideas
a
an

mind,

into his dream in the interests does science

about

an real,

"extra-mental" The

world,
rather

simply

of

ideal

consistency?
the themselves

incline

to maintain

that

things seen,
"

heard,

smelled, tasted, and


"

touched
;

are

at

least relatively and


in

phenomenal
the and

and

that

the

beings between
occur are

which

relativelyreal
entities. It and

transactions

just these

transcendent

permanent, these is, says


this

all-potentbut yet hypothetical


natural

science, these
entities which

non-phenomenal
do the real work this It is in

never-to-be-phenomenal
real world. but in and than the

of the frank

courageous in its
success

totallyuncritical dispensing
; for

metaphysics,
all sciences such
to

rather

with

metaphysics, that metaphysics,

of the present superiority

physical
it is

psychological science
and it of nature who

largely consists
is the wishes

alone, which

appropriate
himself
sions excur-

outfit of the student


to scientific

to confine

without investigation, the fields of

avowedly making
Its fundamental is

into

philosophy.

and

unquestioned epistemological assumption Knowledge


and tion of is to be had

briefly this:
for

by working in the right way


the mental
are.

it;I

by "knowledge"

is understood
events
as

representa-;
And
to

things
is

and

they really
is the

if the work in

question
for

raised, What,
? the

then

"right way"
have

knowledge

sufficient in which

practical answer
others

consists

pointing out knowledge.


But the

the way

already attained
the
"

correlated
were,

ontological assumption
transactions

"

other is that

side, as it

of the that

epistemologicalassumption actuallytake
"

things reallyare,
that
causes

place, and
"

actuallyoperate (and by

really"or

actually

"

10

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

is here known

undoubtedly
to

meant

"

extra-mentally")
to

as

they

are

be, to take place,and

operate.

Nor,

unless

he is

influenced
tenets

by
held

some

suspicion of danger
reserve

to other

cal philosophiwith ethical

in

and

connected chiefly the student of

and

religious tenets, does


hesitate
to

the

physical
the of minds has

sciences

apply

both
own

the

epistemological and
and to the

ontologicalpostulatesto
other neither that he
to
men.

his of

mind

As
own

man

science
"

simply,
the
ago,
same nor

he

doubt

of his
was

real

existence,
even

self

somehow

yesterday and
himself
as

years is.

"

of his he

ability
not

know

he

really
the hesitate

Moreover,
of

does

think

himself

obliged, in metaphysics.

interests about

any the

scholastic

metaphysical theory, to
common-sense

adopting
it would

ordinary
tesy cour-

Surely
the

be scant with whom the

in discusses

him the

to

deny

that

colleagues

he

nature

of luminiferous of the in

ether, and
are

lences equivareally

and

performances
minds,
to

atoms,
actual

themselves of

existent intercourse It

standing
that

relations

friendly
physical
it

himself.
true
some

is, indeed,

authorities
are

in

the

sciences, particularly if they

engaged
with

in

composing
sary neces-

unusually voluminous
to

and words

profound treatises,think
of
way.

have in
a

a more
a

few

reckoning

so-called their

physics meta-

formal

In this case,

custom

is

to

announce

position of thoroughgoing agnosticism respecting assumptions


told and

the fundamental

conceptionswith
same

which For

they will example,


and
not

soon

be found readers

dealing in
are

these

treatises. with
a

their

at

once,

becoming
does

impressive scientific modesty, know,


matter
or

that

natural

science

even

aim

to

know,
Next in the

what
comes
use

"matter" the

reallyis, or
confession science that desires

what

is per is
a

se, etc.

"energy," too,
to

word

of which

get rid of all metaphysical implications; here also science


neither the

acknowledges
that

obligation nor
term

the
so

to ability

tell what

is real is meant

by the

it

constantly employs.

12

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

mechanism of the

to be

explained in
and natural

accordance of

with

the

hypothesis
this
comcerning con-

conservation

correlation

physical energy,
is He

celebrated
'mon-sense

authority in
he himself

science

obviously
discourses he himself

realist of the dualistic what has

type.

done, and what


that

knows,
in

with the

naive

metaphysical assumption
of and

transactions
vast

real world of space

things,actuallystretchingover
time,
as are

sions exten-

set forth. being correctly

But

let

some
or

question arise
as

to the

freedom and

of the

human
or as

animal,
to

to
"

the

relation
"

of

brain

mind,
how his

the

so-

called

reality
show
a

of the

latter,and
!

quickly

does

Mr.

Huxley
of

to change disposition

philosophicalpoint
so

view, with
is his

all its

implied
be

tenets

Indeed,
that in the find

rapid
several of

times some-

metaphysical metamorphosis
taken
we

quite
a

distinct pages. himself followed of Pure criticism

standpoints may
For
an

course

few

first, perhaps,

shall

him

announcing
who
"

agnostic of

the

type of the Kantian


the first edition
on

has

only

his master

through
who

of the the

Critique
sequent sub"

Reason," and
and its

lays emphasis
while
"

destructive

negative outcome, Critique

rejecting the
Reason

attempts of the
find
anon,
room

of Practical and

to

for is
to
a

metaphysics
"

of morals

religion. Then,
he
may be

he

materialist,
or

really so,
name;

however he the

inclined

accept
the

rejectthe
the other

for and

is found whole
to

ally virtunervous

assuming
system, and
science
must
"

realityof

brain

of the

entities

belonging
that

the

natural

of man,
be

while

maintaining
"

all mental of
more

ena phenomthe

regarded solely as
in the fundamental and
now

phenomena
a

brain,

mere

epi-phenomena.
takes

Or, yet again,

still

ing astoundthis facile

change
reasoner

metaphysics
he appears in
a

of

place ;

ing garb simulatAll that


to

the idealist
we can our

of the advanced and


states to

Berkeleyan type.
is
"

immediately
own

certainlyknow
of the

now a

declared

be

ideas
a

or

consciousness,

proposition
of

from

which

return

position that

no

knowledge

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

13

reality at all is possibleoffers


varied
are

no

insuperable difficulty.So
of the
man

the for

metaphysicalperformances
some
reason or

of science

when,

cal other, he gives up the uncritiis


so

dualistic
enters

metaphysics

which

becoming

to

him, and
scholastic

self-consciously upon
!
"

the mazy

of territory

theories But

why

we

may

now

ask

with

increased

eagerness,
"

and
not
on

perhaps
the
seen

with be

somewhat cultivated
same

improved intelligence
as a

shall

psychology
basis

purely
as

natural

science,
we

of the

naive

Dualism the

that which

have of be last

rightlyto characterize
students of the not other

metaphysicalassumptions
sciences?
also boast of If this
can

the

natural

done, why shall


what
a

psychology
it
never

being
"

at

Kant

seemed without
are

to think

could ? And

become,

namely,
not

science who

metaphysics
anxious natural dualistic
to

why

do

the that

writers

most
a

establish science

their

claim

psychology adopt
The and
reasons

is

purely
to

themselves

frankly
satisfactory largelyun-

cling

this

position? vacillatingand
its recent

for the

somewhat

practiceof psychology, in
build itself up
as a

attempts

to

science
can

without
no

metaphysics, are
that
an

partly
lines Some of

historical.

There and

be

doubt
movement

exceedingly
new era.

promising

already

fruitful

in

research psychological of the leaders

characterizes have

the modern indeed for


a

of this movement

been

quite

too

ready
and

to

forget the large accumulations

trulyinductive
the
were

scientific of the

psychology, which, preceding


This if

even

under

excessive made

domination
men

special metaphysical views,


era. seems

by
and the
too

of

less

strange
to

basely ungrateful, however,


recent

attention of what

is called is somewhat It
was

rise

and

rapid
the Weber
"

advances

boastfullycalled
1835
"

"new

pyschology."
Fechner's did
not

only

in

that

E.

H.

published his
and

articles first appear

in

Wagner's
work,
1860.

Handwbrterbuch der

great
until

"Elemente

Psychophysik,"

14

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

Now,

it is of

course

almost discussion

wholly
of that

in

connection

with

the law of

investigation and
connected
exact

the the

psycho-physical
modern has the science
been

with

these

names

measurement

of mental
so

phenomena
time, then, has
in
earnest to

oped. develof
robe

Only psychology
workmen,
thousands
as

for

short

science
on

been

endeavoring although patient


to

put

the

of mathematics; with of

hundreds endurance have

of skilful

and

diligent
of

through
been of this

hundreds

experiments,
the scientific of
"

meal, contributing piecerobe.

it were,

construction

In

detailed

study of the

nature,
immortal

origin, and monographs


"

development
of
"

the sense-perception,
"

Helmholtz

Lehre

von

den

Tonempfindungen Optik
these 1862
"
"

and
as

Handbuch the

der

Physiologischen
of
no

deserve in

pioneers
first

place
form the

honor;
earlier

but

appeared
and 1867

their

complete
On

than

tively. respecand had


not

physiologicalside phrenology
and of of determined Fritsch

the almost Gall and

worthless

highly misleading
to

Spurzheim
; and

provoke
the

long

reaction and

it

was

until

experiments
foundations function

Hitzig
the

in

1870

that of of

the bare cerebral certain first and

of the modern
were

science With

of localization

first laid.

exception
which in the
even no

exceedingly
the

fundamental
are

matters,

about

the little

simplest conclusions experimental


mental
assume

still involved of

doubt, begun
General

investigation
cannot

so-called
to

"higher"
to

phenomena
the form of

be

said

have

attempt

at exact

measurement.

nerve-physiology, which
handmaid
to

may

in of

time all

become classes

helpful
the
to

the

understanding

of

psychoses,and
cerebral be
a

the particularnerve-physiology of especially

centres,

cannot
as

as

yet truthfullybe claimed

science; while
much of the
to

for

hypnotism,
which

psychiatry,
of the

criminology, and
lower animals

the

tribute

anthropology,
treatment

race-psychology, and
assume

comparative
pay
to
a

psychology

truly scientific

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

15

of human form The then of

mental

life,
"

why,

the less said

about

this in the

claims scientific

the better. student


to

consciousness

of the average

of

psychology
somewhat of forms

is

(not wholly unwarrantably) apt


as

become

confused

to

the

relations
to each

which

all these
to the
as

the

phenomena
wider duties branch when while of the

sustain of

other, as

discussion
own

of the

problems

philosophy, and
an

to his

rights and
this lessened of the

taking the part of


natural science. fundamental

avowed is the

of investigator confusion

Nor

more

preliminary discussions
and of the safe and

methods, right psychological


use

satisfactory
are

of

those upon and

methods him.

deemed

right
the

in

themselves,
of that

thrown ethical

Moreover,
also

shadow

portentous
seem how some-

perhaps
to

problems, religious
up
or or

likely
What
to the

get

mixed

with

his

attempts
or

at

an

empirical science,
one

overawes

stimulates

angers

him.

thinks

is true,

ought
of

to be

true, with

respect

origin and explanation of


or

the so-called

consciousness the ness consciousone's

of

freedom,
of "the

the

consciousness
does not

self, or

ought,"
the
a

concern particularly racemes

investigationof
scales and

pistilsand
fish, or
etc.

of chemical
a case

plant, of
and of

the

fins of of
a

of the But

physical laboratory
the

constitution
work in
or

rock,

if it is

of investigation of of conscious

the

phenomena
it

of

tion voluntary attento

choice,

is

difficult

exclude the

influence

philosophical prejudices. Moreover,


of

pursuit

of the science
as

psychologywithout
metaphysics
is
"

metaphysics (inasmuch
often becomes practically the the Not

this

"

without the

so

equivalent to
lack
a

rejection of

all

metaphysics except
embarrassed

pursuer's own)
of few of the

undoubtedly
the who
our

often

by

thorough training on
young
men

psychologist's part.
been
set to

have

investigate
either from with its

"special problems"
laboratories have with
no

in

newly

founded

psychological

adequate

acquaintance

philosophyor

human

psychology as

pursued

16

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

various

points

of

view;

while attainments hands and

the

psychological
of most committed mental

and

philosophicalinsight and
and

physiologists
the

physicians, into
of

whose

chieflyis

first treatment
are

abnormal

pathological
for

nomena, phe-

scarcelyworth
is

mentioning
potent
of

in this connection. the and marked oughness thormodern and be


physical meta-

But

there

yet another
and lack

reason

shamefacedness which

confidence, candor,
the attitude of much

belong

to

psychology
the influence

toward

metaphysical
The
reason

assumptions
is

speculations.
which of

partly to

found

in

psychology
natural been

has

received In
some

from

certain

leading
influence It has of

forms has

science.

respects this
and

undoubtedly
to correct to

stimulating
too

salutary.
method their

assisted

the

former mental

prevalent phenomena,
from relations the

attempting
and
to

deduce

the

connections notions soul.


as

accepted explanations,
and nature, activities,

preconceived
of the

the also

It has

spurred

on

investigationinto
of of collection secured
more

attempt adequate
and
care

at increased

accuracy

in the observation the has

psychic facts; it
a more

has

enlarged diligencein
for

basis in

induction,and
Of

reserve

generalization.

course,

also, without

the

knowledge recently
improved

which

physics, chemistry, and physiology have acquired upon a great variety of facts,laws, and
forms
of instrumentation for and

experiment,
as

any

satisfactory
laudable
established many in

equipment
desire
at

experimental
would be the

psychology
older

atory pursued by labor-

methods

quite impossible. The


other and better

last to rival has

empirical sciences
results

undoubtedly contributed
yet
a

good
the

already; it promises
of scientific the other

larger
of the

number

future
On natural
means

psychology.
the modern

hand,
upon

influence

physical
been
not

and
no

sciences

wholly beneficial. chieflyof the


students

psychology has This, however, has


of these

by
been

the been

fault

sciences; it has

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

17
all

the fault of the them


use,
a

chiefly
"

as

far

as

one

may

speak
here timid

of fault
we

at

"

students certain
own

of half

psychology. surrender, or
must

And
too

may

note

in

and

deferential This

of their

peculiar psychological standpoint. always


No mental remain turned
at

standpoint is
of of

and

the upon

same.

It is that

discriminating consciousness
consciousness. of the

the
"

phenomena objective
the least of
nature
"

attempt

sQ-called
can ever

observation diminish

phenomena
to

in very

necessitywhich
view of

belongs

to

the

psychologicalscience
the

regard these phenomena

always
in what

from

point

of

introspection also.
can we ever

Only
know The

sentative reprethe of

self-consciousness

phenomena
the assist the

of consciousness

really are.
other
"

piling up
"

experimental results,the enlarging anthropological and


science of

of collections

of statistics,

objective
in
so

data,
as

all

psychology only

far

they
foundly pro-

help
For in

the

psychologistmore
to

extensively, accurately,and
his science is

analyze
soul ; and. the

this

representative self-consciousness.
moves ever

the world his


own

in which

mirrored collect and he

if he

first goes

outside

to

arrange
must

signs of
come

conscious
to his

processes
own

of other

minds,
to

always meaning

back

consciousness

interpret
fear of

the

of these

signs.
student of

When, being
to

then, any
too

psychology, through
too

considered
or

subjectiveor
he

metaphysical, neglects
the
a

cultivate

depreciates and
sale his

denounces is in

analytic of
soon

a,/

trained
be

introspectiveobserver, offeringfor
are

fair way

to

found

own

peculiar birthright ;
of his

and this

the chances

very

largelyin
mess

favor

exchanging reign
of

birthrightfor Moreover,
this of
awe

some

of half-cooked
sense

pottage. law,
as

the

overpowering
in sacred
as

of the

reign

is maintained the

the

physical realm
the
a

; the

feeling
and
to

before

principle of though
it
were

conservation
near

correlation

of energy,
to

approach
be

blasphemy

suggest

that

this

principle

may

utterly

18

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

inadequate
relations of
not

(not

to

say

totally irrelevant) to
and
in

set the

forth mination deter-

psychic phenomena;
to

general
for in the

claim

attainments scientific from head


to

psychology
garb
an

until

she

is
"

clothed

foot

of

mathematics,

all these
on

things have
modern
some

exercised It

unduly
is to be

depressing hoped
that

influence

psychology. day
dwell

psychologistsmay
their of mental formulas

at peace
a

with mission sub-

physicists and
to treatment

not physiologists,
as

simply by
for
terms but

dumb

sufficient
on

the of
a

scientific

phenomena,
it is
not

genuine
former need
to

equality. Indeed,
may know The of Mr.
now

possible that
a

some

day the

show

the

latter

few

things

which their

they
own

for the

more

successful has

pursuit of
been
"

sciences. the mention It

foregoing criticism Huxley's


be
name
"

excepting
and illustrated

quite general
and far from

impersonal.
by

will

briefly enforced
It is very detailed

several

selected in

examples. selectingfor
of
as

our

ever, intention, howthe

examination Professor

opinions
and

and M.

practice
and

Professor

Hoffding,
hold

James,

Flournoy, obloquy.
a

respects the
to

relations any
one reasons

of .scientificpsychology of these which


to
name

metaphysics,
On the

writers

up

to

contrary, the
our

might
these

induce three
to

critic

undertaking
are,

present task
most

gentlemen
them. Of

for

the

part, distinctlyhonorable

Professor
as

Hoffding,1
"the science

it may of

be

said
or,

that

in

defining
"of that
as

psychology
which the science

mind,"

again,
with and

thinks, feels,and
of
at

wills, in
moves

contrast

physics

that

which

in

space

occupies
point standdefinition "mental

space," he
of

first takes

and frankly the intelligently

uncritical
assumes,
"

dualistic
not

metaphysics.
the
as

The of of

plainly

merely
"

existence

phenomena,

but

of is
1

mind

"

the "that

subject
which
1.

these

nomena. phe-

Mind

spoken
Outlines

of
of

as

thinks, feels,

Psychology, p.

20

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

what where itself. the which science

breaks

down

is not do
not

the

attempt
but
"

to

the justify
very

laws

they plainly
And
now

belong,
*

the in the
to

contrast
as

it is announced
we

that

mental the

in

material
was

world,

hold

fast,"

not

contrast,
of the

formerly

declared and

to define

the very

nature

of

psychology
"

the very law of

essence

of the
"

cal psychologiAnd
so

standpoint,but

to the

continuity

the

"identity hypothesis" is affirmed to be triumphant at the which originally very beginning of a psychological inquiry professed
What,
to

maintain
not

standpoint "purely empirical


or

or

phenomenal,
now,

metaphysical
for his

ontological." identityhypothesis," thus


avowed Dualism

is this "so-called

naively
writer "these
on

substituted

formerly
the

by

purely
of

"scientific" mental the

psychology?
and

Why,

it
two

regards
festations manirience. expe-

worlds

[the
one

material] as
that the

and

same

being, both
show

given
most

in

"

We

shall

in due

time

avowedly

tions high-and-dry ontological dogmatism contains few declarametaphysical more obscurely,not to say unintelligibly, than this. Even
at this

point it
"new

is evident

that

nothing
And
"

but

the fear of his

misunderstanding2
view
a

deters

Hoffding
all
we

from

edging acknowlwas

as

the

Spinozism."
above

not

Spinoza, then,
"

metaphysician, and
However short road this
to
a

an

cal ontologicertainly
contrast

philosopher?
led
any

may

be,

have marked

ibeen Iwith

by

very

positionin

purely empirical standpoint.


this taint of due original transgression,
as
a

After between has been

to

commerce

psychology
admitted

science the

and

monistic life-blood
must not

metaphysics,
of
be

into

very

Professor

Hoffding's psychological inquiry, one


to find

surprised
the the of

it

repeatedly breaking development


of the of instances the

to

the

surface

throughout Among
effect

structural several

inquiry
such of
a

itself.

marked upon
of

corrupting

metaphysics
1

purity
66.

his

"empirical science,"
3

Outlines

Psychology, p.

Ibid., p. 68.

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

21

single
able

selection discussion

will of
a

quite
the fair

suffice.

In

his of

interesting
the

and

"Psychology
amount

Will,"1

Hoffding starts with


science of consciousness. that
as

of

to psychofidelity logical

dealing primarily
But when which he
comes

with
to

the the

phenomena
clinch with

profound problem
detailed the of

certain under
we

facts the find

usually included
term
"

by
not

psychologicalclassification
reflective

Will

"

offer to

study,

him

abandoning
also the
ally naturmost

only

strictlypsychological standpoint,but metaphysical assumptions


this which
an

very

field

surrounds

standpoint.
that of "so

For

in

unqualifiedway,
we

just

after

admitting2 place
the in

long

as

keep

to

the the
not

purely empirical ground


action, takes
and

what,
before

before

and

during
is law

consciousness, it
the causal mental life in

possible to
the

demonstrate of will in

the
or

validity of
the

in

sphere

of

general,"
dicta: determin-i

Hoffding3 indulges "Psychology,


istic; that
that the causal this law like is to

the

following metaphysical science, must


start
even

every say,

other it must

be

from in the

the

assumption

law is

holds assumed for

good
to

life of the the

will,

just as
conscious How
to

be

valid

for

remaining identity
reign of

life and

material

nature." the likeness in


or

thorough Hoffding (as implied by


law
we

conceives words
"

be

the

just as ")

the the

causal

within
may

both

the

psychological and
too

physical
told:4

realms,
which
"

gather only
follow. whether the

certainly from example,


of
we

utterances
are

immediately
not matter

For

It does small

the breach

causalityis great
"

or

[thatis, in
one

phenomena
A whether

of so-called

Will

"]

;
a

the

question is
to

of

principle.
And

weight suspended by
the

string falls place


not
"

the

ground

string is

cut

in

one

or

in

many."

again,6 "Indeterminism
also
ff.

conflicts,

only
Outlines

with
of

psychology,but
Psychology, vii.
*

with
2 6

physiology [sic],
Ibid., pp. 344 f. Ibid., p. 347.

pp.

308

"

Ibid., pp. 345 f.

Ibid., p. 346.

22

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

inasmuch the

as

it enters

into

irreconcilable
energy
a cause

contradiction
in

with

principle of persistenceof
If
a

the is

organic [sic]
system
from of of
or

province.
be allowed of

volition

without and

admitted, then
must

the functions
to

of the

brain

of the
a

nervous
"

originate without
of

cause.

Neither

the

point

view
nor

psychology
that the and
to

as

the

science

psychical sical metaphypsychical


"

phenomena,
being, as

from
as

of any
nature

possibleforms
of

doctrine
to the
as

physical
the

nature

of reality of

so-called and

causal
we

law," or
now

to the real connections

body
of

mind, do

question these simply ask,

rash

statements
now

of Professor

Hoffding.
a

We
"

What

has

become
not

psychology as
ontonaive

purely empirical or phenomenal,


What has

metaphysical or
of the and
a

science? logical,"

become

tively rela-

justifiable metaphysics which


of
. .

considers

it

as

science
contrast
"

"that with
.

which that

thinks, feels, and


with the which

wills,

...

in deals?

scientific

physics
to

Later with ask the this

on,

when

attempt is made
the show

deal

thoroughly
shall
one

metaphysics of authority to
which the
"

we "identity-hypothesis," reason satisfactory


"

why
to

the

to reality

contrasted

and phenomena (psychical

physical)are
the
one

referred,might
the conservation

not

possibly choose
and

follow in

principleof
Just

correlation

of energy

of its contrasted
now we

aspects, and
are

decline

to follow

it in the that

other.

merely
at

forced
a

to the

conclusion

Professor

Hoffding'sattempt
with
a

purely scientific psychology


confusion of science and mischievous
be

really begins

mischievous with Nor


a can

metaphysics, and
worse

ends

yet more
the

confusion
as an

confounded.
but

result

excused
to

honest science

necessarily unsuccessful phenomena


such The failure without
as

attempt
is

treat

the
at

of mental

metaphysics, or, legitimate in


be

most, only with


scientific
a

metaphysics
into

all
to and

inquiry.
effort to

plainly must psychology

ascribed

covert

introduce

scholastic

doubtful
a

metaphysical assumptions while claiming to purely scientific inquiry.

conduct

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

23

So

varied

and James the

shifting are
boldest and

the

metaphysical standpoints
treatise hesitate them
on

of Professor
as

in his voluminous critic to

psychology affirming
nor

to

induce

before all ;

that think show At

he has

detected

comprehended
would

do

we

that the most how

friendlycritic
all be held this

readilyventure
a

to

they
very his

can

together in
writer is

perfectharmony.
than

the

beginning,
warning
when treated told
: l
"

more

usually
into the In

lively in
Preface

against introducing metaphysics


as

psychology
we

"a

natural

science."

are

Metaphysics, fragmentary, irresponsible,


unconscious she this that
we

and

half-awake, and
science." the With

that she

is

sical, metaphyinto

spoils two
a

good things when


all

injectsherself
it is

natural

perfectly agree; "fragmentary,


whose

especially with
and irresponsible,

suggestion
"

half-awake every

metaphysics
of natural be

corrupt-v
and the On

ing
other

influence

over

form

science,
feared.

over especially

to psychology, is chiefly

hand,
when

we

also

believe is

that
"

and thorough, responsible,


"

wide-awake

metaphysics
it is

good
and

thing ;
with

of

such

physics, metanot
see

"consciously"

and intelligently,

or clandestinely

combined dishonestly, any

science, we
over

little

reason

to fear

corrupting
does

influence

any

form

of natural That
as a

science. James
not

Professor science

propose any

to treat

his

subject

wholly
affirmed its data

without
us

metaphysics whatever,
top of this
as a same

he for

has he

already
has for

informed that

at

the

page; science

psychology
time and

natural

assumes

(sic),(1) thoughts and


in space, with it know.
as a

feelings, and
which

(2)

physical world
which for that

they

coexist, and
claimed science

(3) they

Now,

might easilybe empirical


of the

psychology

perfectlypure

(descriptionand
(or states

explanation) of the phenomena


of consciousness)
vi.
as

consciousness
1 8

such,2only

The

of Psychology, i. p. Principles James

So Professor

defines it to be in his smaller

work, "Psychology,"

p. 1.

24

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

first of these

data

"

namely, "thoughts
those
"
"

and

feelings,"as
which assumed. be
and

including,
we

of

course,

states

of

consciousness

call

"knowledge
of
a

are

necessarily to
world in time

The with

assumption
which these

"physical
and for

space,"
indeed
a

thoughts
science. it is

feelingsco-exist,is
is, however,

justifiable assumption
form of natural but

psychology, as
It that

it is for every
a

other

metaphysical
of

assumption;
it,constitutes

just

metaphysical assumption
loose way

which, in Professor
one

James's entire

large and
a

stating
there

half of

crude, uncritical

Dualism. view

Moreover, from
is

the other

purely psychological point of subject the


better said
treatment

probably no
is
more

of which very of the

by this
of

author

unsatisfactorythan
" "

those modes The

"states

consciousness,"or
mind which "You
are

of activity "I

called

"knowledge."
etc., and
the is attainable
as

assumptions
in

know,"
that

know,"

assumption
and every it is other
a

general
indeed form of

scientific

knowledge

actual, are

legitimate
natural and

for

psychology,
At the
same

for

science.
a

time, genesis
has

chief

tion obligaas an

supremely
to

difficult task the

for

psychology
in his

empirical
volumes

science

trace

and

development
less
reason

of

knowledge.

Professor

James this be

nowhere

spacious
formed perfor

fully recognized
this task. It may
"

obligation, much
that
"

suspected
in

the the

this

is to

be

found all
"

at

least

part
"

in
to

complete
even a

inability of glimmer
of

cerebral upon the

psychology
involved in

throw
to

light

psychological, not
such

say

the
sciousness. con-

epistemological,problems
After Professor

states

of

having
James

once

recognized and
reference

approved

the

opinion of cal metaphysiwe are

with
at the to

to his fundamental

assumptions
more same

top of this remarkable


what
sentence
"

page, the

the the

astonished page. For

read

he

says which
"

at

bottom the

of

in the

follows the natural

warning
of

againstsuch metaphysics as

spoils

science

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

25

psychology,we
forward
as as a

have

the

theory of

"

spiritual agent" brought


**

leadingexample.
are

It is

just such
"

metaphysics
books." toward the ?
"

this,"we why

told, which
excessive

corrupts the
tenderness
a

psychology
the Preface

But the

this

in
as

metaphysical postulateof
"

mind

(to quote again


wills
"

phrase of Hoffding)
unless, indeed,
different will is the from
to

that
a an
"

which

and thinks, feels,

be

that-which," etc., is fundamentally


"

being

agent

"

and

to to be
"

think, feel, and

other something necessarily

than of
a

spiritual." On
is the

contrary, if the

assumption
mental

physical world
"

and legitimate the the of

necessary of
a

metaphysical standpoint of physics, being (or


necessary

assumption psychology.
with

spiritual agent ")

is

and equallylegitimate But


we

metaphysical standpoint
that
physics meta-

have

already repeatedlydeclared
the

both

assumptions
which of

constitute
every

equipment
of natural

in natural science
"

student
"

whether scientific

of

physics or
This

psychology
between

starts necessarily

his

inquiry.
vacillation all the

philosophical standpoint which


mix with

denies that but

metaphysics the rightto


affirms all the

psychology,and
of
' physics,

which denies

rightsof
the treatise
more

the

metaphysics
of Professor

rights to
entire

metaphysics
of

mental James.

science,
The ture admix-

characterizes

the

total result is rendered of life who of but


a
"

even

confusing by large
with those students the

philosophical sympathy openly affirm


is not
to

of mental

and

defend intelligently
are

assumption

spiritual agent," whose


be identified

the

psychical phenomena,
with the with sum-total the of

who

either

these of the

phenomena
James

regarded content-wise,or
cerebral
to

subject

and physiological
seems

phenomena.
that
but

In many

places
only the
word

Professor

hold

this the

is

not

legitimatepreliminary assumption,
of science To would prove and
our

very

last

philosophy upon
somewhat

the matter. accusation who of

sweeping

inconsistency
studied
"

scarcelybe

necessary

for those

have

The

26

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

of Psychology Principles ourselves with

"

most
one
"

carefully. We
or

must many

content

citingonly
A

two

of

the

possible
to Other nature

illustrations.

chapter1

on

The

Relations is from
"

of Minds its very


2

Things
a

"

in

psychologicaltreatise
discussion. In when that whereas
not
"
"

metaphysical
affirms

this I

discussion

Professor I
am

James

perceive Orion

only
"

and cognitively, work


no

dynamically, present there,


to my

because

effects,"
as

brain

am

dynamically present,
to react be
more

inasmuch processes
to the

my

seem thoughts and feelings

upon

the

thereof." advanced such


not
a

Of course, advocate
sentence

nothing could
of
as

agreeable
a

most
"

the

"

theory

of

spiritual
that the

agent

than

this ; for
"

it affirms

spiritual agent
too, upon

but only exists, processes.

works such

and effects,"
a

that,
ern mod-

the cerebral

By
and
so

claim

the

hypothesisof
and cal all the current
way
as

the conservation weak

correlation
use

of energy,
an

attempts
the

to

it in of

ontologiordinary
where Still toward
two

to

contradict

plainestdicta
de
grace.

our

experience,are
materialism it is accustomed further
on
3

given a private coup


a

Especiallyis place

inflicted with
to
are
a

deadly wound
itself
as

in the

represent

invulnerable.

we

told that the

attitude psychologist's Dualism.


"

cognition is
elements
"

thorough-going
"

It and

supposes

(rather beings),
treats

mind

knowing,
Neither
is the

thing known,
makes

and

them

as

irreducible. in any way

gets out of itself or


other, neither

into the

other, neither

the other."

Further, however,
Professor
said James in the

as

to
4

the
to

relations

of

mind
to

and has

brain,
been
our

refuses

add

anything

what

preceding

two

chapters. What,
memories find
or as

however, is
what has

surprise, on
said
not

refreshing our chapters,to


mere

to

been shows

in
so

these
much

that

the
as

comparison
a

addition

subtraction For in
one

different totally these

metaphysical point
1 2

of view.

of

preceding

The

of Psychology, vol. i. chap. viii. Principles 3 ibid., Ibid., p. 214. p. 218.

"

Ibid., p. 216.

28

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

the interests for reality


"

of scientific
"

explanation.
and

But

as

to any
or

assumed

the

agent," for spiritual thoughts


the Whether

the soul
"

the

mind, for
physics metaor

the

subjectof
is
is

the

feelings, why,
we

such

avoided. carefully

like

the

word

not, this
Hence

undoubtedly

positionof

materialism. of
a

arises Professor

James's
as

ideal

scientific treatment form


x

of mental
a

phenomena
"

possible only in the


his frank of declaration
at

of that

cerebral

psychology ;
a

hence

nothing resembling
exists. whenever

science"

psychology

present

Hence,
he is

his finally,

intimate

philosophicalalliance, thoughts, with


in the

pressed

for his Mr.


we

ultimate

metaphysical standpoint of problems.


in italicized
at print,

Hodgson
are

treating of
and

chological psy-

Indeed,
the close

told

out

out, and

of the

that following chapter,2 of the


not to

it is the relations
to things feelings,
or

of the and
to

subjectivedata,
the brain

thoughts
one

and

(but
the

another

to

the

mind?),
view his

that

"constitute

subject-matter of subject held

psychologicscience."
The M.

pointsof

and

of

approach

to this
3

by

Flournoy in

interesting monograph Hbffding and gives


James,
to
as

differ

widely from
title
"

those This

of Professors

already discussed.
the all physics Meta-

writer,although he
and

his

work

Psychology," undertakes (ifwe


"good"
may for the in time James

to banish

metaphysics,
to
a

good
with

or

bad

being
there

continue
is

agree

Professor

holding
He

that

such the

thing
of it be either

possibleas
considered
to be
or

metaphysics), forever
will have in the form
none

from of

arena

psychologicalinquiry.
as

it,whether

introduced
verified

of

assumptions
of scientific the
course

disproved or
form of

by the progress
interests The

inquiry,
of the

in the

speculationsarisingin
the

inquiry,or

professedin

of fuller

explanation of
whose

acknowledged psychic facts.


1

general principleon
2

See the close of his small

book. Th.

Ibid., p. 197.
en

Metaphysique
1890.

et

Psychologie,par

Flournoy, Docteur

medecine, etc.,

Geneve.

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

29

proud

shoulders the

is to be laid the task


"

of this

date exorcisingmanor

is called

Principleof Concomitance,
This is principle

of

physical Psychoat the

Parallelism." very base of modern

declared

to be

psychology.
M.
as

It is not

quite clear,to begin with, what


of his

Flournoy
the
to base

means
"

by speaking psychology,
"

principleas

"

serving
we

of

whether, for example,


of those which all necessary
but

are

understand

that it is

one

non-metaphysical
may make admitted
;

supposition preor

empirical

science

whether be true while


sorry

it is

derived, but principleinductively


of
our

to

by
to

all students take into that done


a no

psychology whose
account.

opinion it is meaning
us,

worth be
;

Personally,we
author's

should

to believe

the
us

latter is the the honor


to

for

he himself

has

quote

and

this in fessor Prowho this


so-

conjunctionwith
Wundt,
as

less

distinguishedauthority than
the few
extent

among

remaining
in

"savants"

deny
called

the
"

absolutelyuniversal

of application this

l Denying principleof parallelism."

is principle the

defined

by M. Flournoy
of

as

the

equivalent of holding that plain tokens


function and of that of
an
"

phenomena
of sense, function

psychic

life show
"

activity
data

having the properlyspiritual,"


is
to
"

the elaborating such

comparing them," etc.; independent of


the the

activityor
it

organic processes."
of the the clause

Now,
may would would
as can

precisephrasing
that

just quoted
in of
"

safely be presumed
be

both

writers

question
them
so

interpose well-founded willingto


that be committed
"

objections. Neither
to

the

view, and
has
ever

far

be readily

shown

neither
or

of them functions

expressed,
stricter

the view
sense

psychic activities
word,
ever

are, in the
"

of the

" totally independent

of the this
;

organic,
we

that
not

is,the attempt
in

cerebral, processes.
to
answer

Further

than

will the

for Professor

Wundt should
to
some

and wish of

for
to

answer,

its fuller

form, which
must
et

we

make later

for

ourselves, reference
1

be

had

the

Metaphysique

Psychologie, p.

6.

30

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

chapters of
with
but

the

present treatise.
modern

It will

now

suffice to say that

obviously it
all

is not

experimental psychology alone,


measurement

its elaborate

system of
of all

and
even

psycho-physics,
the
commonest

psychology
correlates

times, and
man

knowledge
which

of the unlearned
states

about

his

own

mental

life,
with does

of

content-wise, consciousness,
that the

the character
not

of the stimulus
a

produces them. type trained

One

need

to be

of psychologist that when within

in the modern in the crack of that that the


ten

laboratoryto
of
a

know

one's
"

fingers are
the
one

door, the
is

more,

limits,"the
grows

pressure
or

door

increased, the
make which

greater

pain;
candle
;

candles

things brighter than


is

or

the

weight
who

heavier, when
to

thrown

into

the

narily scales, ordi-

feels heavier
man

the

muscles, skin,and
common

joints of
to

the

lifts it.

Indeed, the

impression really is,


than underdo the It is difficult there is

in many estimate for


so men

respects,more
of the

likelyto
be

overdo

strictness

of this

correlation.

generallyto
difference of the

convinced, for example, that

much

as

actuallyexists
the
exact

between

the

subjective
the

time-rate which

sensation,or
into
or

temporal position at
the

it strikes

the

stream

of

consciousness,and

objectivetime-rate
stimuli.
one

temporal position of
"

occasioning
of sensations of
"

So, too, everybody knows


"

that the kind avoid

has

depends
savor,

upon
we

"

or,

to

metaphysics
with" the

even

the kind of

weakest

will

say, is "correlated which


act

the

of external

excitements

upon

end-organs
influences

sense.

Here, again, it is those

far

obscurer

which which clear

do not
even

belong
modern

to the

obvious
can

external

and correlations, of with any


as

psychology

only speak

terms by employing psychological intelligibility


are

(such
overlooked

that desire,intention, etc.) imagination,feeling, in the

popular estimate.
a

It is of view when

long

and

weary

journey,however,
that all man's

from

this

point
but of

to the

conclusion
on

especially psychic life, passive content,

regarded

the

side, not

of

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

31

those
"

activities and

functions like

which
manner

develop into

the

so-called

is in higher faculties,"

correlated strictly Such


a

with,
sion conclu-

not to say determined is do


we

by, the physicalseries.


in accordance with the warranted

not certainly

popular view, nor


most

believe it to be the view

by the
base
"

minute At

data study of psycho-physical any

after the modern


"

methods. for

rate, it

can

be

said it is

to

serve

as

modern have

psychology only as
and
our

put there

who by investigators the

already grievouslydeparted from


have taken incontinently

scientific position, strictly the

up with

metaphysics of
of M. Flour-

modern But
we

Spinozism. psycho-physical
have

alreadysaid
his

that

the distinction this


"

noy

consists

chieflyin
"

deriving from
or

acknowledged
physics meta-

of principle

concomitance,"

complete
he

psycho-physical
this

a crushing refutation,as parallelism,"

thinks, of all

whatever.

For
"

he goes

on

to declare " that

physical psychoscience,,

principle, like Janus, presents


of which while the
one,

two

opposed faces,,
at

looking toward
toward it does
to

the the

future, smiles past, shows


to be

other,turned
needs

its teeth

at^
"

metaphysics." Now,
metaphysics which
this new-born

not beware

appear

simply
and

"

bad

of the

growl

bite of
"

Janus psycho-physical
as

; it is all

metaphysics,
to learn

metaphysics by
"

such.

As

to

what
can

M.

Flournoy understands
from the

metaphysics,"the
This
are

reader
as

claim scarcely but

his definition.

runs,

all the world


"

sicians metaphyspeaks

themselves those who does with


not

agreed :

Metaphysics is
which It would

that of which he who

listen understand himself


to

nothing,and

understand."
the audience

scarcely consist
were

courtesy
to

(these words
take the

originally
nition defiof

spoken), or
of the

the

speaker himself,to
too

this facetious

metaphysics
"

seriously;for

larger part
a

remainder of the

of this treatise is taken

up with

cussion critical dis-

metaphysicalhypothesesconcerning principal this discussion is of the soul and the body." And the union reader to comprehend. clear for any intelligent sufficiently
1

Metaphysique

et

Psychologie, p.

6.

32

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

Now,
we

it will at

once

be

said,in defence
in mind how his

of M.

Flournoy, that
nounced, already an-

must
"

constantly bear namely,


and
to show

intention

this fundamental inconsistent But

and with

nerable invulthe
two

psycho-physical principle is
tenure

of any

exery
to

form

of

metaphysics.
; and

here

important things are


back the the way

be noticed theoretical

both

of them

bring
in

practicaland
of every from

difficulties which
to

stand

attempt wholly
of

separate scientific psychology

the influence of
as

the

criticism
no

any

philosophical speculation.First, rejected metaphysical hypotheses has


no

itself

force

and criticism, influence critic's


own

meaning

as

out language, with-

admitting standpointsas
suppose it to be
tenets

the the

of

other

accepted metaphysical Indeed, in general


we

part.
that be
no

true strictly

particulartenet
or

or

tem sys-

of
without
tenets.

in

can metaphysics

gainsaid

even
or

discussed

adoptionof some
It follows that

other
no

metaphysical tenet champion


"

system of
of

consistent without

science,
can ever

pure
even

and draw
come

simple,and
his sword within the

wholly
to

metaphysics"
the

slay the metaphysical ogre


and

unless

he

first

realm,

put
and

on

armor,
are

of metaphysics.
but

Otherwise,his
;

sword of

he

himself the

toms phan-

and

his
not

work

hewing
must in

down

metaphysical
In is
no

hypotheses
by himself
other

only is,but
that
to

consistencybe regarded
goes
on

as

being,like
for bad and

which the

in Valhalla.

words, and
cure

change

figureof speech,there metaphysics


of the but

critical and

insufficient

good

consistent

metaphysics.

But, second, M.

Flournoy's very
destructive and
a

proposal

physical psycho-

principle as
of the statement unless it be taken in

of

metaphysics is
he

itself incapable

which application

gives to it,
materialists

metaphysicalway.
which both

It is itself the very

scientific and

principleon
be

metaphysical

base metaphysicalspiritualists
more

their conclusions.

Perhaps

it would upon

correct

to call it the

metaphysical principle

which

both

materialism

and

base themselves, spiritualism

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

33

by emphasizing

"

each

one

"

only one-half
an

of this

principle.

It is,properlyspeaking,not itself of
can serves as

at all

inductive modern
course

which principle

the

base

for the

the

empirical science
of this treatise

psychology. Only by
the made
now

entire

full force of obvious. be

our

criticism both the


we

of M.

Flournoy's position
criticism in the consider them

be

But

foregoing points of
shall easier the task

will order

illustrated ; and

above

mentioned,

as

putting the
assumes

first.

How

inevitably every
and takes for

author

point, metaphysicalstandsome

of granted the validity

(hisown,

of

course)
other
on
"

metaphysics,whenever
well illustrated
1

he criticises the

metaphysics of
for that
to

is people,

by M. Flournoy in his remarks


chosen form the
sciousness, con-

Phenomenism."

This

is the term which

of

metaphysical hypothesis
of

carries

idealism
state

length

solipsism.
that

Its

conclusion

is, " My
in

of

is all the
matter

reality." Or,
to
"

other

words, its
our

hypothesis reduces
consciousness, an
of investigation have
"

pure
a more

representation of

idea." the

Perhaps
the

thorough preliminary metaphysics?


would out Withthat is

What inquiry,

is

suggested to
all

the author
"

followingconclusion:
so-called matter somehow

totallywithout

any

metaphysics whatever,
or

what precisely

whether reality,

so-called

mind, becomes.
in the and
not

But, conversely, as
state

given,or implicated,
as

of

consciousness, regarded

my

state,

all reality, regarded merely as state, by any possibility of matter


or are

whether The is M.

of

mind, exists.
now

questionwe

interested, however, in discussing


from what he is
or

Flournoy'smethod
resort

of escape

pleased to i solipsism,
The final
as

call the without wrench


not

of phenomenism, metaphysicalhypothesis
on

his

own

part

to

metaphysics.

of this modern sponsor


or

advocate

of

science psychological

the

the

heir,but

the executioner of the

of all onto-

from logical hypotheses, is

the clutches

metaphysicalogre,
Johnsonian
37 f.

accomplished in
1

the

followingsomewhat
3

style.

M^taphysiqueet Psychologic, pp.

34

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

It

is not

material

things, however,
or

whose

reality can
with

be
our

demonstrated
canes,

by kicking them,
the fashion of

by strikingthem
common-sense

after M. the

ordinary
the

realism,
He
eats

which that

anxious Flournoy is chiefly real existence mental of very

to

save.

admits1

bread

he

might
"

be

spared

if the

phenomena
could which

vulgarly
be

called

seeing,
by

touching, and
the mental and

eating bread

constantly followed
no

phenomenon
for there
maw

I call

longer being hungry


need feel
no so

being reinvigorated" Surely idealism point;


never as was a

alarm
cious vora-

at this

solipsistic ogre
to

of

metaphysical
of bread. But
a so

to wish

deprive us

of this

kind

there

are

other

interests

(touching

real entities and


cannot

of

metaphysical sort) which


surrender. lightly all For

this critic of he goes


on

phenomenism
a

to say, with
or

feelingin
children,
diverse of

which

metaphysicians,whether
:
"

idealists my

would dualists,

share fully all

To

admit, however, that


and

wife, my
are no

humanity, past, present,


of
my

future,
"

only

groups love
or

sensations exists there


my brrr

and of

ideas,
those

that which than

sentiment

hate
"

outside
are no

1 my

directlyexperience,
own,
"

that with
...

other memories

Egos
or

that all

alone,
"

actual

hopes, comprise
solitude that

Reality,
a

! the bare and I


am

idea of this
not

gives me
all the
to

chill in the

spine;

astonished fact

phenomenist philosophers are system."


The the
sentences

in

unfaithful

their

justquoted undoubtedly
of the barriers
to

land

their author advocates But


to

on

other

side when
see

erected limits of

by the

of who
mount sur-

idealism does
not

pressed
that

the

solipsism.

MV Flournoy has employed, in order

these sentiment with with

barriers, the soaring wings of the metaphysics of


have
no

? We

to mingling sentiment objection

freely

philosophy,if only
warmth and
1

it be done

in such
a

way

as

to suffuse

color the

body

of

sound

reflective
42.

thinking;

Metaphysiqtieet Psychologie,p.

36

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

The

meaning
which is to

of

the

fundamental the coup


de

psycho-physical principle
grdce
to

give

all

metaphysics
ligible intel-

is stated

by M. Flournoy in the following compact and


"

way:1

Every psychicalphenomenon
The is to fuller say, "That the

has

determinate
of

physical concomitant."
runs as

statement

meaning
interior tutes constimental in
tem; sys-

follows:

totalityof psychic or

events, thoughts, sentiments, volitions, etc., which


what
we

call the life of


a

our

soul, our

is accompanied by life,
our

parallel series of modifications

bodily organism,
and this in such
upon state

and
a a

particularlyin
way that each
term

our

nervous

term

of the

psychic special
fibres of
ment state-

series

depends
state

definite

of

the

physiological
a

series ; to each molecular

of consciousness

corresponds
group cells
as
or

of

our

brain,

determinate in the

of

co-chemica physi-

phenomena
our

effectuated

cerebral

substance."
in
a

Now,

just so
of

long

this

is understood

totallynon-metaphysical
one

way,

it

simply

affirms

the

regular sequence
class of

class of Phenomena

ena phenomcalled

upon

another

phenomena.

"thoughts, sentiments, volitions, etc.," depend


called

upon

nomena pheof the

physico-chemical,or
these

molecular
to

states

brain; and
know
as

of
one

two,

it is

impossible (the so-called


in
an

deny

that

we

the

(the "thoughts, etc.") directlyand


while
are

indubitably

phenomena, phenomena)

the

other known

cal physico-chemiwhat is most

only

extremely uncertain,
But the is
as
"

fragmentary, important
and class of
to

and notice

conjectural
is, that
so

fashion.

long

as

strictly logical psychoheld, the they


about latter fall under

non-metaphysical standpoint
can

phenomena
class,
"

be

known
"

only
and And
"

the former for the most

that

is, as

thoughts

(or,rather,
and catch
"

part, somewhat
faiths

wild

irregularguesses
now one

half -conceived
at this last

about,etc.).
ask
"

might
"

word, and

about

what

Oh,

about

the

brain

and

its cells and


1

and fibres,
et

about

physico-chemical and
5.

Metaphysique

Psychologie, p.

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

37

other M. of

molecular

changes.
intends
to

But, again, we adopt


he the
must

insist that

unless

Flournoy
common-sense

metaphysical standpoint
class very himself for the

Dualism,
the advocates

present with
he refutes

of that
on

phenomenism
of

which

by flying aloft

the

wings

metaphysical sical metaphy1

sentiment.

However,

plain signs are


M.
assumes virtually, reverse

not

lacking of
; for

another

standpoint which
but if
we no

Flournoy, perhaps unconsciously


he goes
on

less should

to say

that

this has
a

and proposition, determinate the limits


reserve.

affirm,"Every
tant," concomi-

physical phenomenon
we

psychic
of
"

"should upon make of

depart from

positivescience, Now,
for the of for the

and

enter

metaphysics
this
very

without

right to

reversal, and
the

indeed both

tive imperaof what with

duty
science, we
we a now

making it,in
shall elsewhere
to know

interests

logic and
But

strenuously contend.
this refusal of the
tenure

wish

is,how

is consistent celebrated here


one

purely non-metaphysical
of it is and

ple princimay

psycho-physical parallelism? Surely,


a

say,

lamentably "poor
it

rule

that with

won't

work

both

ways,"

might

be

added, work
The Either in your

equal ontological nism, phenomeBut cisely pre-

in efficiency

both

directions. itself.

appropriate exhortation
stick
to

irresistibly suggests
or

your

else

be

consistent

metaphysics.
to

what favor said becomes in brief

kind very that

of metaphysics is
clear the when
we

be told

shown
: 2

special
may

are

"It

be

principle
is

of

parallelism, on
assumes

which every

experimental psychology phenomenon phenomenon;


of because

founded,
a

beneath

consciousness

correlative in
as

physiological
to
as

psychology,
to

order much

become

positive science, ought Indeed, physiological."


Flournoy, is Now,
1

become

possible
to

its

grand ideal, according


but
a

M.
"

to become

"

nothing

branch

of mechanics.

it may

be
et

that

psychology
13.

will

ultimately have
a

to

Metaphysique

Psychologie, p.

Ibid., p. 15.

38

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

sell its
'

"

soul

"

for

so

cheap

price as
be

mechanics

is

likelyto
do
not

be able to pay ; propose sell at value


to

although
the
are

there

psychologistswho
if for in

close

bargain just at present:


content to wait
a

they
rise "Just

must

all,they
of the

large

in

the
at
one

commodities it
can

offered

exchange.
claimed

present," however,
who has sufficient

scarcely be
with

by
an

any

acquaintance
cerebral
to

facts to be

edged acknowla

authority,that enough
whole how such scientific of it in
an cosmos

physiology constitutes
induce
even a a

large
the But

wise

man

to

take

exchange

for

hypothetical soul.
effected
to

exchange
is what have his
we we

will find
not

ever

be

totallywithout
prehend. com-

metaphysics

it

difficult particularly
seen

And

just now
if

M.

Flournoy
the

self him-

expressing verity of
his future
"

willingness to daily bread,


and all

surrender

ontological
save

his

own

only

he

can

that

of and

"wife, children,
? That
a

humanity, past, present, defending


certain destructive

is to

say, when

souls, in
physics meta-

\whom
of the

he has of

interest, againstthe practical


he is
a

phenomenism,
in the

pronounced metaphysician emotional),


a

common-sense

(albeit,rather
interests
"

realistic

type.

But

now,

of

so-called works of

physical "psychothe is

principle of parallelism only


in
one

that in of

"effectually reducing
"

direction,

"

"

namely,
a

that

science

of

psychology only
suppose, What

to

branch

mechanics,

he
own

ready to
and,
and
we

assume

the

ontological verityof brains, his


of
"

must
"

those

all

humanity, past, present,


without of real "all how would become

future.
to
"

would

become
or

of real brains

bread

nourish

them,
as

what of

humanity
men

considered win and

devoid

or psychicalreality,

would

distribute did have

bread
a

and

grow

brains

unless
comitant, con-

physical phenomena
are

determinate But the

psychic
what
same

not

made

quite
more

clear. than

is exceedingly tenderness toward


the

clear which
we

is

something
Professor of the

found

James

displaying
of the

ontologicalinterests

physical half

principleof

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

39

parallelism. Indeed,
this one-sided that elsewhere

the

standpoint involved metaphysical


the Yet M.

in

working of
and have

is defiprinciple of parallelism nitely

of metaphysicalmaterialism.
criticises
as we

Flournoy
of materialism; of

rejectsthe metaphysics
seen,

and,
a

he

adopts
in

the

standpoint
interests

metaphysics
and Further

of

spiritualidealism, humanity."
of
a

the

of his

friends

of "all

illustration

similar effort

shifting of philosophical
to

points
the way science

of

view, in the very


without

establish

science
us

of

psychology wholly
in which and of of
a

metaphysics,
the

is afforded of

by

M.

Flournoy invariablyspeaks
conservation is Here his

physical
lation corre-

of its

principle of
realist of
a

and

energy.

standpoint
the world

apparently
type.
material
may

that

common-sense

dualistic of

Bread

exists, and exists, and former, may


that the is to The such cal
be
"

brains all

exist, and
"

objects
know the fact

humanity

exists ; the latter in

effectuate

changes

it,
a one

in

spite

of the

principle,as psycho-physical
taken

scientific

principle,
at
'

ontologicallyin only
of these with three
so

direction. been discussed

views

authors

have

length, and
criticism,
which
to

much

of somewhat
are

sharply polemithe
are as a

because

they
in the

quite representativeof
and
treat

success

Monism,
attain

Materialism,
effort
to

Positivism

accustomed

psychology
of

purely "natural
whatever. One
and
can

science," without

any

admixture

physics meta-

scarcelysuppress
on

pardonable feeling of
writers

relief

satisfaction

turning example,

to

who,
tenets

like the

Volkmann

and

Wundt,

for

openly

maintain

right

toy

introduce

speculativeand
and who remain and

metaphysical
some

into scientific

psychology ;
and
a

openly adopt standing


views

point, philosophicalstand-

in it and So the held

ready
far
as

to defend

it, in
sary neces-

consistent

intelligible way.
on as

it

seems

to refer to definite

relations

of

psychology
who
set
so

and

the

philosophy

of

mind,

by

writers

40

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

commendable

an

example,

this

will

be

done

in

the

following

chapters.
The result of
our

investigation
much of the

thus

far

has of

been

to

show

how

inconsistent

is

practice

the

advocates

of

psychology
what
are

as

"natural

science,"
of the

without

metaphysics;
sciences,
in
as

the

advantages
when

physical
with

at

present
of their

pursued,
method

compared making

psychology assumptions;
kind of

respect and,

of

metaphysical
way,

at

least

in

preliminary
with that

what

metaphysics justifiable
science
as

is

consistent

uncritical

but

wholly

approach
such affects.

to

its A

problems
more

which

psychological
examination
must

careful

now

be of

given
mind

to

those

relations

of

psychology
very
nature

and

the

philosophy

which

grow

out

of

the

of

both.

CHAPTER

II

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

(continued)

THE
related
to

difficulties

of in

consistent

and

not

needlessly

sive offenas

practice
to

treating
are

psychological
so

problems
as

metaphysics
from There the
are

scarcely

great

would the

seem

follow

examples
two

criticised of

in these

earlier

chapter.
either candid
one

ways
to

adjusting fairly
In the

difficulties,
to
one

of

which of the

ought

be

satisfactory
first

any may the

student the and does


not

subject.
of

place,

approach
modest who In the causal

examination unobtrusive aim


one

mental of

phenomena
the time
at
man

with of

metaphysics
be
at

science

to

the

same

philosopher.
to

this

way,

takes of between what

for

granted,
and of

least

begin

with,
of of

existence relations both it be

both

things
the and

minds,
and the

the

reality

two,
their

possibility really
are.

knowing
Let

they
at once,

relations that these

noted

however,
of in mental

assumptions by
the

justify

the of

explanation
those and
as

phenomena
with which

covery disare

changes
well

things hypothesis

they
a

connected,

by the
are

(undoubtedly
of
a

physical metaists ex-

one)
and

that

they
in

phenomena
relations
"

being
world

which of

develops
may
be

actual

to
"

the Such

things,
the every

and

which

called

the

mind.

is, indeed, by

matter-of-fact worker
in

metaphysical psychology
of who

standpoint investigates
or some

assumed definite of

problem ideas,
or or

(let

us

say, of

reaction-time,

association in the

changes

affective

consciousness,

laboratory;

of

42

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

the
or

hypnotic, the insane,


on

the

criminal, in

so-called

real

life ;

the

basis of the

dramatic To this

of representation
same so

soul-life in gator investi-

novels,plays, etc. ).
and finds of
an

standpoint every
as

unconsciously adheres,
to critically

long

he

does

not

try
no

sciously conone

be

metaphysical.
this.

And

any

fault with treatise

him
on

for

doing
call

Indeed,
even

the writer

entire

mental
we

phenomena,
our

including
of
"

those of may And

phenomena
of

which

conceptions
of

Self

"

"Things,"
far

"Time,"
the

of

"Space,"
same

"Causation,"

etc.,

definitelyadopt
so as

metaphysical standpoint.
may be

he adheres
not

to

it,he

in justified

ing claimat

that

he does he is

need

the the in

help

of

specialmetaphysics
considered

all,that

only taking
science.

standpoint appropriateto psychology


his how later chief he
on.

the

of problems investigations
as a

purely
will
or

natural
to

Where

difficulties may best face

begin
avoid

show

themselves, and
will be considered

them,

But, again,
scientific

it is

equally legitimate that


he propose of the entire
some

the

writer
what some-

on

psychology, especiallyif
with

to deal

thoroughly
should

round

psychologicalproblems,
of

adopt
its allied

definitive
or use

metaphysical point
reasoned of it
as

view,
and
to

with

assumptions
make such in the

conclusions;
can

that he should be

then

be shown of mental
friendly un-

helpful

or

necessary
a course

explanation undoubtedly
from

phenomena.
and immature But cal have

Such

would

invite ardent

perhaps contemptuous
advocates of
not

criticism without

but

psychology truth,
all

metaphysics.
of
an

why

may

speculative hypotheses
in

ontologitentative is not

character
an

(and,
mental

speculative hypotheses
to

ontological character) be applied

the

explanation of thought
in all should other

phenomena?
with
to fidelity

The the

same

method

inconsistent

demands

of science

departments
be

of made

investigation. Why,
"

then,

discriminations In
answer,

of all
be

subjects
"

against
time that

psychology?

it will

shown

in due

44

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

non

etc. multiplicanda), to

But
"

the that

call may

at to

any
a new

time

be

issued,"back
agement
of this

the

facts,"

is, back
to
a more

envisalysis an-

of actual

experience,and
and and modified

thorough

experience;

then

forth, again,

if you

will,to enlarged hypotheses. Now,


amount
no

speculative and assigned why


should

explanatory
considerable be

valid
even

reason

can

be

of

special metaphysics
above
a

not

employed
this almost is the
at

in

the

explanations of psychological science.


will be seen, such all

Indeed,
and
a

science
to

others, to invite
of

necessitate

method with

study.

Such

method

that
two

actually employed
writers close
to

distinguished
reference their of

success was

by
made and

whom last
on

commendatory chapter, in
the science

the

of the treatises

admirable

minous voluof

psychology.
the

One

them, Volkmann,
of the Soul of the mental

makes
as

prominent

metaphysical hypothesi subject(or Trager)


upon all
"

the

reallyexistent
as

states, and
"

reacting
into

kinds

of

excitement

(upon being
the form of

brought

relation

with

other

being)
The

in

mental

representation (Vorstellen). although keeping


at

other, Professor
tenets
more

Wundt,

his

tive speculathe
ception cona

in the Soul
as

background
an

first, adopts
forms conscious the

of the

actual

psychic energizing, as
ultimate of
as

dynamic
The

and

synthetic reality,which
of all the

explanation
of

phenomena
as

experience.
tion, assumpof

metaphysical outcome,
Volkmann the author is
a

well
a

metaphysical
form it another
to

is

really

certain

Dualism;
name.

although
That title of
"

himself certain
"

prefers for
form of

of Wundt

Monism,

which

the

Ideal-realism be

is

assigned.
say

It would of

unfair,not
without of the

to

ungenerous,
to

for the

cates advovery

psychology
authorities

metaphysics
voluminous the rank

deny

the

high
the

scientific merit

treatises fact of

written

by

two

just mentioned;
in the very front

is that

their

stand chefs-d'oeuvre

psychological

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

45

science. Wundt's
two

Indeed, Volkmann's

Lehrbuch

der

Psychologie1
are

and the deal

Psychologie2 Grundziige der Physiologisehen


modern whole
our

masterpieces among
the in does it appear,

German round

attempts
the

to

with scientifically Nor

of mental that

phenomena. quality of
"

judgment,
their

the
"

empirical science
jr

of these

has psychologists frank of and

been

spoiled,

even

greatlyinjured,by
well

but intelligent, and in that lative specu-

on

the whole

restrained, use
This

metaphysical
is maintained
to
even

hypotheses.
the form
as

judgment
realism

spiteof

dislike of the
as

shown

in certain

quarters
which

modified

Herbartian the various

Volkmann
of

employs

well

to

conceptions

psychic synthesis,

apperceptive function,etc., which


to his

Wundt

adopts, in

dination subor-

general metaphysical standpoint.


all writers of who aim
at any

The

practiceof
those

ness great thorough"

in the treatment of course, which

psychologicalproblems
present themselves
in forms the of mental

especially,
effort
to

the

explain the
"

so-called

"higher"
For this well

functioning
it will

differs
matter
our

largely,in respect of
of

metaphysics involved,as
other
reasons

degrees.

and
to

serve

general
Volkmann

purpose and

examine
on

very
use

brieflythe cal philosophicultivation the task the of

opinions of
of scientific

of Wundt

the

of the

standpoints and comparing


considered their in the
to

philosophical tenets
We leave
to the

in

psychology.
actual last

reader of

practice with chapter.


the

that

writers

According
of But reduction

Volkmann,
is the

primary
of

and

obvious

lem prob"the
are

psychology
of the in

explanation
is further of
our

psychical phenomena.
to
mean

"explanation" time,
Ph. Dr.

declared inner

phenomena
to

world, which
which
und Volkmar nach

given merely
1

those

aotual
des

events
Realisnms Putter
von

lie at
gene-

Lehrbuch

der

Psychologievom
von

Standpunkte

tischen

Methode,
1884. A

Wilhelm

Volkmann,

(3d ed.,
Professor

Cbthen,
2

an

just issued). Grundziigeder PhysiologischenPsychologie, Wilhelm von der Universtat zu Leipzig(4th ed.,Leipzig,1893).

fourth

edition

Wundt,

46

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

their

foundations

(das
follow

ihnen

zu

G-runde

liegende wirklich according to So, then,


and the tence exis1

Gesehehene), and
which the former

the establishment from the

of the laws latter. " of the

question whether
of the soul
to the

the determination

nature

belongs,
of

as

an

integraland
upon

legitimatepart,
whether
or

problem

psychology depends
any

not

the any

explanation of
way upon
our

of the

phenomena
the existence And while

is conditioned and this


we

in

insightinto phenomena. being,


that left

nature

of the

subjectof
admit that

all the time its

question may
must at
a

be, for the

unanswered,
in

least

investigationoccupies occupied by
how the

psychology

tion posi-

to parallel

metaphysics

of matter

in

physical science.
Now,
it is not of easy the this
to
see a

psychologist who
instance,
;
can we

takes tently consishave

the

position
the of

"scientist,"for position of
in the the

objectto
seen,

Volkmann interests

for, as
of the
a

former

assumes,

tion explanaand of
a

psychic phenomena,
of
as

existence actual

of

brain

real world

objectswith
are

manifold

occurrences a

in there-

(so far
or

they

in the

brain, though mostly of


as we

highly
seen,

purely conjectural sort). Only,


"scientist" often abandons
as

have

also

the of

early the peculiar standpoint


Volkmann does

psychological science,
near, in
a

not;
if he of

and does

thus
not

draws

perilously friendly way,


over

actually

go

wholly
For

to

the
on are

metaphysics
the laid in
"

monistic mental funda-

materialism.

Volkmann,

contrary, the
actual

principlesof psychology
events."2 And
so

psychic
physical meta-

close of

is the
a

connection

which the

the

hypothesis
the of scientific and

real sustains that

soul,
to

as

subject of

all

psychic phenomena,

the old
must

possible interests
division be between abandoned.

explanation,
has
been

the

rational Much
must
1

empirical psychology
held
to to

of what then
Lehrbuch

belong

to rational

psychology
to

be
der

assigned

metaphysics
i. pp. 2 f.
2

rather Ibid., pp.

than
3 f.

psy-

vol. Psychologie,

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

47

chology
the
can

at

all; and
of

what

should consists in

be

retained

as so

part of
much
as

science be

psychology

only

of

successfully employed
true

the

explanation
Volkmann method
a

of actual

phenomena.
The method
"

of

psychology,
"

goes
traces

on

to
plains ex-

declare, is the
the

genetic;

and mental

this

and

development of
think of

life by

combination

of
For of of
asi

empirical and
who this actual would life
can

or metaphysical principles. speculative

claiming by making

that

the

general
upon such
a

laws basis

be

established

induction
use

facts, without

any

of

concepts
which

substance, change, force,self-consciousness, causality, time,


etc.?

Indeed, it is just such


the interests
barren

concepts

as

these

have than
"

realityin
those
"

of

explanatory science, rather


concepts of "powers
old-fashioned the

wholly
"

and which

abstract

and
so

faculties

with

psychology

freely dealt.
Volkmann thus arrives
at

the

following definition
which
sets

of psychology.1

It is "that

science the the

before of

itself the

problem

of

explaining
means

general
forms

classes of

psychical phenomena,
representation

by
as

of

mental of the

empiricallygiven,
of mental

and

by

means

ception speculativecon-

representationaccording representation." discipleof metaphysics


to

to

the

laws the

of

the life of such of this and


consummate

It

is,of

course,

effort

the

Herbartian all mental

psychology ena phenomthe states; which both

Herbartian
as

explrin
the

due
"

to

one

mode

of the

soul's reaction
as

(Vbrstellen).

The

"soul

is,indeed, assumed

subjectof
reaction

but it is this

peculiarmode
Volkmann's

of the soul's
treatment

givesunity to
and

of

science, psychological
the

also furnishes

the occasion dissent from


never on

for

on perpetualobjections

part of those who

his theoretical be

point of
its its

view.

Psychology, he holds, can philosophicalcharacter


1

deprived of hand,

necessarily

the other

metaphysics

Lehrbuch

der

vol. Psychologic,

i. p. 34.

48

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

is

not

to
"

be

constructed
"

priori,but
is
.

in
us a

the

interests

of

making
the

thinkable

what

given

to

posteriori. Yet
different
tion assumpwith
can

standpointsof psychology and metaphysics are


answers

metaphysics
of the V
a

the

same

problems
which

with

the

speculativeprocess
of
a

psychology answers
process.
cannot ; for

demonstration be of

historical

But

how

they

kept wholly apart ? metaphysics, and


are even

They

all the

lems probphysics, meta-

all the

conceptionsof
the

psychical products; indeed,


but
a

totality of

metaphysical thinking is nothing


Even under relation does render
not

psychologicalprocess.
itself is

the the

conception
of the any

of

metaphysics
of of

possible only
Yet this

assumption

psychological
the

science.
on

dependence
means

metaphysics
former
our

psychology
to

by

deprive
the

of all power

assistance of the
as

to

latter; for

knowledge
of the of

of

the

correctness,
or

and objective validity,


as no

aesthetical

ethical

well is

value epistemological
means

metaphysical
upon
our

conceptions
to ability

by

wholly dependent
historical process be added

demonstrate

the

of their
"

origin
the

and

development.
does
not

Moreover, it could
insist upon and

although
"

Volkmann

this, as he might
demonstrates himself
are

that
a

psychologist who
process

studies
cannot

such the

logical psycho-

strip being.

of

metaphysical
parts of his

assumptions
own

and

conceptions which
mental

essential

developed
Volkmann be done
a

then

proceeds

to

point
and

out

""

and

this

may

always
to

to the

confusion

contempt of all attempts


without any
physics meta-

institute
"

cerebral the

psychology wholly

that

physiologicalhypothesis is
further follow
nature

itself

rably insepa-

connected necessary of views


to
our

with

metaphysical conceptions.2
to

It is not

purpose the and

his of

discussion the from


"

concerning
is

being

and

soul. the

Materialism critic's
own

neatly

consistentlycriticised
view
2

philosophicalpoint of
Compare
pp. 49 f.

so

also

Spiritual-

Compare

pp. 81 f.

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

49

ism," meaning by
from
same

this

the

explanation of Ihe body solely


of reality the soul. The which
ences, influ-

the task

standpointof
is then

the assumed

performed
any

for that form

of Dualism

denies

the
or

of possibility causal

mutually determining
the
on

relations,between
of the section

body

and the

the

soul ;

while
own

at

the

close

Monism

author's tions ques-

philosophicalstandpoint on
of

these is

fundamental

speculativepsychology "psychology
real of
a

announced. definitively This


assumes

It is that of the existence

of Realism."

the

spiritas
of the

and

unitary being; analyzes the


then shows how its the the soul takes while

body
the

into

system of unitary beings ; and


as spirit

development
of the

place through
it establishes the basis of

changing unity
The
to

relations soul's

with law

the of

body,
two

activityupon
which

difference

in the

nature

of the

beings.
Professor is Wundt allows
than

amount

of discussion

disputed metaphysical questions


allowed

less relatively
use

that

by Volkmann;
and This

while

his of

of

the

adopted
nature

philosophicalstandpoint
is
two not
so

theory
the

the

soul's between former

obvious. is

marked
to

difference fact that the

the
fessedly pro-

authors

partly due
all

treats

psychical phenomena

solely
But

from also

the
to

physiologicaland
a

experimental points of view, and


interests.

difference is known

in

and training,outfit,
as a

Wundt,
himself

who

leading authority in physiologicaland


committed definitely
to

experimental psychology, has


to

the

opinion

that

it is

impossible
and

effect

complete
The tion rela-

separation between
between

psychology
two at
a

philosophy.
close and

the

is,1he affirms, so

peculiar
in
an

that

the

attempt
scheme appear

partitionof sovereigntyresults
of

abstract

which, in the presence

must actuality,

always

unsatisfactory.
among

Prominent Professor
1

those

conceptions which, according


every

to

Wundt,
System

pre-existfor
der

attempt

at
f.

scientific

1889), pp. 5, 21 Philosophic(Leipzig,


4

50

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

is that psychology (psychologische Vorbegriffe) This

of the

"

soul.

"

conception,in psychology.
for

some

form,
we

must

be

adopted by
any of its
we

all scientific

When
us

approach
to

problems,

"soul

means

the

subject

which of

as attribute,

predicates,all
itself in in the

the

particularfacts
for the
"

inner

observation."1 it
presses ex-

Undoubtedly, too, logical sense,


or

natural the

consciousness,as merely
a

language,
but
a

soul is not real

subject
whose of the

a substance,

being, as
activities this

manifestations soul
are

transactions
"

the so-called the

apprehended.

To

adoption of psychology
on

cal metaphysipossibly be
upon
as

presupposition a
led at the conclusion task the author

scientific

may

of its task ; but

entering

that the

proposes inner
use

simply

to

regard the soul


This of
seems

logicalsubjectof
to

experience.
the of

equivalent
physics meta-

the

proposal to
enable

language

common-sense

until the science

psychology has
an

been

pursued

far

enough
critical and

to

us

to

establish,on
estimate

empirical basis,a
the real

interpretationand
of that

of

meaning

value

language.
does it become which
use

Repeatedly, however,
course

evident, during the


fill his of the
in two

of the that

scientific Wundt
we

discussions is

large

'volumes,

making
observed
2

speculative
the interests

hypothesis which
of At
a

just attributed
of there is

to

him,

fuller

explanation

psychical phenomena.
a

the close of the treatise

brief discussion
nature
"

of the of the
ing mean-

leading metaphysical hypotheses regarding the


soul. and Materialism, Spiritualism, Animism

the

given
Yolkmann The the

to
"

the
are own

second examined view

of the and

three

differingfrom
as

that

of

dismissed introduced

unsatisfactory.
a

author's

is then

by

statement

of

principle that "only epistemological


for
us

inner

experience
must

possesses

immediate
an

reality."

Idealism

fore therecontest-

always gain
1 2

indisputablevictoryover

every

(4th ed. ),vol. Psychologie Grundzlige d. Physiologischen


vol. Ibid., ii. pp. 626 ff.

i. pp

10 f.

52

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

are

at

once

informed:

"This

way

of

apprehending

the

problem beyond

of

reciprocal relation
the that

leads, however,
that

unavoidably
is the

itself to

assumption

spiritualbeing
essential

actualityof things, and development.


How far
we
"

its most

property is

find the

ourselves

in

agreement
or

with

either

the

standpoints,or
mann
or

assumptions,
the

the

conclusions
treatment

of Volkof all the

of

Wundt,

subsequent
we

problems
The in
we

involved of these
to

will,
authors

trust, make
been

perfectly clear.
at this
"

views order

have

introduced

point
and,
as

put their

theory and highly


as

practicein
favorable of the
to

contrast

believe, in
the

contrast

them, both
science in
"

speculativethinkers
with first And

and and

students of

empirical
writers

practice

theory
the

cited

the

chapter.
now,

leaving
of the what

for

present all polemical


of

and
anew

cal critithe stand of

discussion \iquestion: In
j

views

others,let
scientific

us

raise

relation mind This

does

psychology
three

to the mental

philosophy of phenomena)? questions,


"

(the science
What is

to the

metaphysics
What the

question involves

subordiis
two

nate

namely,
What of the

Psychology?
between

""

Philosophy? and,
which "If grows
out

is that very

relation

nature
as

of both? the
to

psychology is approached
of

purely as possible from


is, of
course,

empirical point
isolate,with
class of facts.
we

view,
to
use

the their the

effort

made

reference

scientific
more

pursuit, a

certain

Or,

to to

statelyand
and
to

impressive
it In

term,
is

endeavor

tell

precisely what
in the
not
"

phenomena investigate.
of

to designed scientifically
case

establish

the any

of

beginning psychology, as
so-called

case

beginning
immediate
"

other

science, we
the very

need word

give

pause

to consider

that the and

phenomena
which this the

is

ingless mean-

without

assumption"of
of other
can

actual

beings of

which

the

phenomena
appear.

are,

beings to
we

phenomena

Nor,

of course,

think

phrase through

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

53

without of

recognizing the complicated metaphysical postulate


in real relation
to

things standing
that know

other
so

things, and
obvious
an

to

minds

them. it

But

passing by
us

ontosecret

logicalskeleton,as
chamber the kind of of
most

grins upon
is

the

instant

the

empirical science

opened, and
next
our

studiouslykeeping inquire:
terms
"

unblushing naivete*,we then, does


this
one can

What
to
,

phenomena,
And

science
use

propose

consider?

here, in answer,
itself definition

must

which

only psychological science they


is admit of any

define,
Let

if, indeed, reply be,


such
"

whatever. of
or

the

then, that
"

it is the

phenomena psychic,
if further
"

consciousness,as
"

; it

psychic facts, as
of all examine.
"

if you

please

choses "psyto

kinds, which
And is
a
"

psychological science inquiry


"

proposes what are,

to

be

made

as

that
"

consciousness
"

of

whiGh

all the

phenomena
What
are

or no

to

which,
answer

as

to
can

general class,they belong, perhaps given


or

better

be
or

than

to

say:
you

you

are

whenever
use

you

think

feel

will, when
or

in in

awake widemost

of all your submission Yet the

powers,

when

you

dream
"

extreme

to the
even

capricesof fancy,
our

that

it is to sion expres-

be conscious.
as

thus, in
of

most

cautious

to

essentials
as

phenomena
we seem

of
to

consciousness,of
have of
as come

psychic facts, merely


near

such,

ously peril-

the For

scarcely submerged
to
seems

rocks

metaphysical
"what you be
{

hypothesis.
are

describe

consciousness
too
us

when,"
as

etc.,
its

likely, if
to

curious in the

inquiry
consideration

made of
some

to

import,
most

involve of

of the
"

abstruse the endeavor


as a

philosophicalproblems.
at

However
on
"

since be

knowledge

must
:

move

this
as

may
a

accepted

preliminary
science this way

definition

chology Psyof that

psychology as tive descrippurely empirical pursuit,


"the In of the

and

explanatory, is
such."

phenomena
seem

consciousness,as
the without either

it would
at least

branch descriptive

of the science
or

might

be

begun

interference

assistance

from

metaphysics.

54

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

Possible

assistance

from

metaphysics
of wish the the
to

in the form

of

tive speculafairly But,


appears
to actual
sity neces-

hypotheses explanatory
expect
alas S
to encounter
or even

facts, one
invoke

might
later
on.

even

the

of description such

phenomena
to and

of mind

quite impossible, if
of For other

descriptionis
the

correspond
almost and the

psychic facts,without actually


"

danger

introducing metaphysical
that
"

convictions

hypotheses.
and of

is, in the real life of ourselves


facts
are or

persons
"

the

not

at

all

described faithfully
or

by saying,
are,
or

Sensations

are,

perceptions are,
rather
or

feelings tion descripor

desires
us or

are," etc.
to say
"

The I
or

does

faithful

compel
or

(or you,
1

he) perceive;
etc.

J feel ;

/desire;
in the

plan;

think,"

For

such, when
the actual

stated

most

meagre

possible fashion, are


So the that total the

facts of
or

ordinary experience. "fringe," of


the
"

portion,or phase,
fact which is
tence descriptivesen-

"aspect," or (by the


"

psychic
the
"

expressed or place which


distinctive about the it

signifiedby I,
"

subject of
the

or

the
as

that- which

thinks),and
to

by the

it sustains

subjectto
the

perception,feeling,
it, is
as as

desiring, planning, or

thinking
be.

attributed fact

much

of, and possiblycan


it

integral to,
character
no

itself all this

anything
left out is of

Indeed, with
of the

the description,

psychic fact
a

totally

changed;
At take known
about
some

is, in truth,

longer

faithfullydescribed

fact. "psychic this


sort

point,then, the psychologistis compelled


of attitude toward those which

to

implications of
are

all

phenomena
from

of consciousness
nor

neither

remote

inferences

the facts

metaphysical hypotheses
to

duced introare

solely in the

attempt

explain
facts

the

facts,but
At

important belongings of
same

the very

themselves.

this

point,then,

the

psychologist must
has the
to

adopt

one

of those

two

metaphysical standpointswhich, as positions for only justifiable


science. He may say

justbeen
not

said, are
this his

the

investigator of
to

empirical

himself, if

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

55

readers:

Yes,

for

the

time
as

being
is of

I will

hold

by such
in

mon-sense com-

metaphysics
and
assume,

plainly involved
the

ful all faithI will of


a or

complete description
as men

psychic
there is
"

facts.

generally do,
what the it is may

that

some

sort

real

being corresponding to
that under

this

so-called

1,

"

this Mind

Soul ; and it behaves and in the

be known

by ascertaininghow

greatest possiblevariety of conditions,


To end render of all such

greatest variety of relations.


"

knowledge scientific,
of the process of

this

is the

very

logical psychoto

investigation.But
to modify reject,

the

right is reserved, as
criticise
"

the result

to investigation,

to

adopt
very To

or same

and which

to

restrict the
to

or

expand
the

"

this

assumption
this mind last

with

investigationbegins.
show
same

make
to

assumption
as

is but the

courtesy

the the

that which
as

psychologistswho
of
a

appeared
science" brain and and

in

chapter

advocates

"natural
to the

of mind
to other

without material this form is

metaphysics actuallyshow
things.
of How much
becomes
more

reasonable
at
once

scientific it

courtesy is
that
to as,

apparent, when
the

considered

the

very and

facts

which
are

psychologist only
etc.

undertakes
terms to

describe

explain

statable

in

such

"/perceive," "/think," "/feel,"


are,

And

say
or

simply, Perceptions
to

thoughts
that
"

are,

feelings are,

etc. ;

say,

Thoughts think, perceptions perceive, and


; or

feelingsfeel,etc.
knows describe them. the the other

to affirm

"the is
not

present knowledge
at

knowledges,"
It is to do

all
to

fairly to
travesty

facts.

little better

than

Yet, again, the psychologistmay


an

at this

same

point, with

equal proprietyand
his
own

an more

almost

if not

quite equal safety,


tions. assumphe

bring forward
He understands may
to

special metaphysical
is the
a

state be

what

real basis

import,
of the

which

on justifiable are

fact, of those
faithful To and

popular conceptions that complete descriptionof

implicated in

all

developed psychoses.

employ

56

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

speculativehypotheses
to

in

manner

to distort be
no

or

dishonestly
and

hypothecate
Here

the

facts

would than in
in

less of the

unscientific other

injurious in psychology
sciences.
statement

any

empirical
the
be amount

also, as
that in
to

all scientific
be

investigation, the

of facts

can

verified of the

as

facts,and
and

use

of

hypotheses

explanation
each be the

facts, must
kind

kept
of the

distinct; and
confidence
must

suitable

assigned. Practically, however,


skill in
to

psychologist'sabilityand
upon the he

doing
which

this do not he

depend
upon believes and very
even

particular
is
a

school the

belongs;
and

/whether
has

discipleof
or

old in
as

psychology
adherent

jin metaphysics,
newest

is "well

up"
without

laboratory methods
an

publiclyannounced
much the

himself

of the and

psychology, wholly
so as

metaphysics,
of
a

without
are

assumption
all the modern

soul.

Those know

who best

most

familiar the

with

researches the

how

much

theories

of the into the he is

man

behind

reacting-key
of his

incorporatethemselves
results. And in
a

very

structure to not

mental experilogical psychohuman

totallyunfit
way who does about the

handle

problems
much mind that has is true
been

broad wise

recognize how
of the

and

nature

told who

by poets, play-writers,novelists, and


never

metaphysicians,
existence Here meagre, of the

so

much

as

dreamed

of

the

psychological laboratories.
occasion
may

be seized the

to

remark

how

pitifully
tent con-

compared
human

with

rich, full,and
or

mysterious
of

of actual

lives,is that list


has

series
can

so-called

psychic

facts which

been,

or

which

be, subjectedto
and

experimental analysis. Psycho-physics psychology have, indeed, problems fully before


But
many

physiological important
in
or

interesting and
not be to

them, if

already firmly
much extended

hand.
even

supposing
of

these

problems
"

solved, satisfactorily

after

all,the

larger universal
undiminished involve

lems probin less

psychology
and in

remain

comparatively
These

magnitude

mystery.

nothing

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

57
and And revived

than

the

descriptionand
being which
"

explanation of
is called the

the total nature Human Mind. and

life of that what


a

tangle,
of in

involving not simply


as

sensations

images
but

sensations, determinable

respects quality,and
or

measurable also

quantity,
forms

in

time-rate

duration

in

time,

innumerable

subtle of tact

faiths, fears, anticipations,


or

instincts, and
blind renewals and

of

talent
or

so-called, superstitions,

impulses, freaky changes


re-establishments of

heaven-granted
and tary semi-volunand
or

good-will,varied

describab in-

and quasi-intellectual, affectional,

elements,
unconscious
to

to

say

nothing

of subconscious difficult is the


an

perhaps
life of

mental
"

activities
a

of kinds

impossible

describe,

what

tangle, indeed,
Nor of need whom

actual

this

so-called
or a

Mind!

it be
one

Aristotle, a speaking.
or

Leibnitz,
describe

Goethe,
the

is

To of

and

explain
child
or

actual

mental

life of Hans the

Bridget,
door,
much But the
or

of the the

at one's

feet, or
in

beggar

at

one's is

idiotic
a

insane

the

neighboring
ambitious

asylum,

too

great
the
"

task

for the most


"

psychologist.
the child and flow and

since idiot

psychologisthimself
is
no

yes,

even

less

certainly metaphysical
very
or

sophical philoof his


to

in mental
see

respect of the
was

structure

and

life than he also the is to

Aristotle the
on

Leibnitz, it is difficult
a

how

act

part of
at

scientific
some

psychologists
ceedings pro-

without

taking
role of

himself

stage in the

metaphysician.
the side of in

Suppose, however, fitting


"

that

metaphysics
the
mere

be

"

as

is

very

lightly emphasized
It is still upon

descriptions
avoid
more

of scientific

psychology.
the

scarcelypossibleto
side when of the the in
on

increasing important
of

emphasis
more

this

and is

truly
this For

scientific

function
course,

chologist psy-

attempted;
facts. in what and

consists, of

nation explawhat

the

to

explain
the

is to

show
as

conditions, and
what

regular
relations

sequences,
on

and

ing implicatbeings,

activities

part of other

58
the

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

psychic
desire,

facts

actually occur. explain


is to

Or,
show rather

to say

the

same

thing feel,
other.

in other
or

words,
or

to

why
than

think, or
in
some

will, in this way


some

It

to propound is,ultimately,

acceptabletheory respecting
of this
"

the the

nature

and of

development
that

"

to

which

all
are

activities

thinking, feeling, desiring,and willing


the

assigned. Suppose, then, phenomena triumphs


therefore the
to

investigatorof
the
recent

mental notable He of

is

greatly captivated by
to devote

of

psychology. psycho-physicsand physiological


himself in such
to

determines

the elucidation ways

phenomena promise
means, most

of consciousness of in

only

as

seem

tangible and thought,


of takes

verifiable definitely that the with


are

results.

This known

his

psychic facts, the


which
to

phenomena

consciousness

alone

all

psychological science
the

its start, character

be

explained stimuli,
of the and

the solelyby investigating

of the

external

histologicalstructure
more

and

physiologicalfunctions
the cerebral
or

end-organs, or
tracts, which
several

of particularly

centres
causes

afford

conditions, occasions,
of facts. the

of the

particularclasses
cannot

But, surely,explanation
observation
to be

of this sort
at

dispense with
nature

and

cation, certifiand
as

first very of

hand, of the very facts


of consciousness."
can

explained ;
defines

these

the

psychological science give us


immediate

"phenomena
But

only
of

self-consciousness
"

edge knowltion, observa-

psychological facts,
the distinct of

knowledge by
as

direct such.

that

is, of the facts of consciousness,

Here, virtually

again,

emerges

danger, and,
some

we

believe, the
of
"

inevitable
1

necessity
with all the with

assuming
facts.

kind
"

metaphysical hypothesis regarding mingles psychic


the

this But

Self

which

so

even

if the

gation investithe

proceed
as
mere

determination

to

regard
to
no

nomena phe-

phenomena
said of the

(of no

mind, and

mind),
of
some

what

shall

be

necessityfor metaphysics

sort when

and physical the complicated physiological detailing

60

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

sist

of

few

imperfect
and

and

wofully
to

meagre

perceptions, pieced
facts

always post factum


out

almost

always post mortem,


other future
never

by
the

crude

conjectures as
admit

possible perceptions.
verification have
as

And

conjectures
could

of
we

only if
never

we

perceive what
to

perceived,and
that science

can

hope

perceive.
the

More of

concerning
can

absurdity of
be built of
up

the

claim

psychology
between shall

ever

by establishing correlations phenomena,


any
one

two

classes of

known

of

which

consist

without brain-states, later


on.

metaphysics
to return

whatever,
to

will be said

It is when

enough here

the

indubitable

truth

that,
or

speaking
as

of

cerebral

conditions,or
of of

antecedents,
means

concomitants,
mere

explanatory
No that cate advohe is

psychic facts,nobody
to

phenomena.
science
"

physiologicalpsychology reallysupposes
"

contributing anything
without The

natural and

of

psychology
much of

making
to
can

use

of naive

uninstructed without

metaphysics.
this

claim

cultivate

psychology
met

metaphysics sj
than every the student in inferences.

scarcelybe
of

with fitly
or

anything

better What

charge
of

inconsistency
his science inferences

insincerity.
at every

physiological psychology actually accomplishes depends


are

advancing
These

step

upon

permeated

through
lead

and

through
the faith.
out

with of

metaphysical hypotheses, and


a

they
walk

toward

hope

knowledge
real

that

must

ever

largely by nomena, phe-

They

concern

beings
be

in which

changes, wholly
as
mere

of power
are

to

put themselves
to

in

evidence

assumed the

taking place.
cerebral

To

assume

possibilityof

psychology

as

u" natural
an

science," wholly without


The

metaphysics, is
no means

therefore

absurdity.
of the

but by insufficiency,
to

the absurdity,
and

claim

cultivate without
can

psycho-physics
be

mental experior

psychology however,
there

metaphysical standpoints
made

metaphysical assumptions exist,on

equally clear.
to

Here,
series of

both

sides,so

speak, a

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

61

phenomena
can

which
as

can

be

known For

as

phenomena,
:

and

which

be

compared

such.

example

In

discovering and

testing the laws


of illusions

of

color-mixture, of stereoscopic vision,or

of visual
can

perception,a

series of so-called in
some

physical
are

phenomena
observed

be

arranged which,
immediate

sort,

the
comitants, consame

and of
a

well-known

antecedents, or psychicfacts.
in the The

series of connected

thing is
of

true

of

investigationsundertaken
or

interests in

Weber's

law;

of

any

other

disputed principle physiologicalor


be
"

psycho-physics,in
On the

the

narrower

meaning
of
a

of this latter term. cerebral


we

contrary,

no

discussion

basis
are

for the

empirical principlemust
to
we as

admitted, unless slip


to
over serve

prepared

let

"

our

phenomena

into
as

the their
are

region where "bearers,"


inferred Nor
as can
or

need real

assumed

entities in

the

"substances" take

which

they

conjectured to
such
a

place.
of

continuous

series in the

physical phenomena
most

would M. of

serve

to

establish,even
has called

the

limited

way,

what

Flournoy

"psycho-physical principle dependence


at
as

parallelism," be gained
common-sense

without
as

upon

the

ordinary
has
in

realism

least every

a one

tenable,
knows

working metaphysical hypothesis. For,


who
any

practicalacquaintance
such
"

with

what

really takes
series is in any the such

place
never

conducting
as

researches, the
"

physical
known
"

given
as

continuous
can

it is
"

never

shape

that

it

be of

placed
it

parallel
consists

to

psychical
As
a

series, in the
series even, inferred and
or

form

actually observed always brought


order
a

phenomena.
very

that

is to say,

largelyof
ence exist-

conjectured changes
activities
must

in real

beings, whose

be

into be

consciousness, and

kept

in

consciousness, in
in psychic series, way.

to

compared
rather disturb

with than

the in

parallel
a

metaphysical
Nor does this

merely phenomenal
he is not

the practised

investigator,experimentally, of psychic phenomena.


For

thinking

at

all about

the

of possibility

estab-

62

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

lishingpsycho-physics as
rather

theoretical

phenomenism;
but

he

is

taking
Nor

the

ordinary common-sense
an

metaphysics

into

his scientific way. in of

researches, in
does he
"

uncritical
to cry out

wholly justifiable
to

begin
of

againstmetaphysics play the part


to critically

general,as
a

the

"spoiler

psychology,or
at

"Janus" of

showing

his teeth

speculativehypotheses, empirically determined

instead

endeavoring himself
own

consciouslyand
to

adjust his
facts. The and

metaphysics

the

of employing necessity

some

metaphysical standpoints
the

metaphysical assumptions
as

in

pursuit

of

scientific when the

psychology

explanatory
narrow

becomes of

still clearer

comparatively
to

fields

physiologicaland
a

physical psychois made

are investigation

left

behind, and
more

return

the consideration of

of the

larger and

comprehensive
we

domain the

generalpsychology.
of

In this domain

encounter

problems

knowledge,
and human

of self -consciousness, of
even

thought,
what
"

of ethical

sentiments of

ideas, and
belief in

of the

origin and

development
are

"reality." Indeed,

these
are

so-called so-called

metaphysical hypotheses themselves,


and systems of speculative

what and

Materialism,Idealism,Monism, Dualism,
elaborate the weird
"

all the most

tive reflecremote

thinking,all
from
at the

ideas, most

abstract

and

empirical data,
hands of undertaken

but

psychoses demanding
This
treatment

treatment

psychology? from,
we

must, indeed,

be

and

confined and
to

to, the

psychological
over

standpoint, unless
from the field domain of

frankly

intelligently pass
the But
same more

psychology
of

wide

and

all-

embracing
of

philosophy.
the which
must

in the very

tion explanawhich

of metaphysics itself, well


as

metaphysics
its say.

helps,as
of considered

of that

spoilsthe empirical science


have

psychology,this
as

science

Metaphysics,
a

phenomenon
to

of

consciousness, is
are

cal psychologiof then and

problem. explained.

Metaphysical hypotheses
be

successions

psychoses demanding

described faithfully

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

63

Now, for the explanation of many


if
we

psychic facts onflowing


faithful
some

and
stream

dencies, ten-

may

so

speak, in the
one

of

consciousness, even

when

remains

to the distinctively

psychological point
can

of

view,
as

ontological theory
or

by

no

means

be

regarded
all but

useless

insignificant.
be
not

These

facts, too,
as

like
occur,

psychic facts, must


also

only

described all that

they

explained, if possible, in belongs


is the entire
to

fulness

of

realitywhich Here, too, it


of the But

the

experience life,which
to
a

of the human the trend in


to

race.

total mental

psychosis,or deny
net-'

development
be

demands that work of any what of

explained.
mean

who
"

would
"

venture

men

by saying

I know

involves

ontologicalhypotheses?
of so-called

The

psychologicalanalysis
of those

state

knowledge,

of any "I

psychoses
shows that

properly described
all

by the affirmation

know,"
the

believed knowledge implicatesreality, envisaged,inferred,


"

in,

we

do

not

now

stop

to

inquire
true

as

to

manner

of

implication. Especially
act

is this

and the

obvious

of every is

of

so-called

seZ/'-knowledge ; everybody
the the

for

psychologist

simply ignoring what


he understands

means

by the word, unless


the selfdatum who he for
a

realityof
to take

self-knowing and
as an

known,
of

the

one

Self, to be involved
And of
"

immediate
"

experience.
thinks
at
a

another takes it

example giving
and

moment

describing what
at

place when
way

tugs
his the of
a a

hard

stone, and

last

feels

before

efforts,or
mountain's

climbs, however side,


which
as a

slowly

wearisomely,
two

correlation
no

between

series of in

phenomena
real world One of

needs

metaphysical hypothesis
and
to

being "working
real

effects" related

producing changes
What better
or

beings
even

itself ?

might

be the

disposed to ask, psychic


its
own

tory explanabelief in What that is the

hypothesis for realitycan


better the I which
be

fact of conviction

given

than

ontologicalverity?
or

explanation

of the

knowledge
wills

belief

of

men

and thinks, feels,

reallyexists,and

64

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

real

subjectof hypothesis

these

changing psychoses,than
is so? What
causes,

the

cal metaphysi-

that this that


"

better and

explanation of
active

men's and this


"

convictions work

they
the

are

agents,
that of
or

effects,
To be

than

metaphysical hypothesis
courage its
as

is so?

sure,
even

one's after

to

the

future

cerebral Lavoisier heart


as

psychology,
has
one

expected Copernicus
one's

arisen,together with
looks in this
over

great faintness
of well But
ever our

of

the of

assured

results

present
one

attainments wary of

line

science, may
in

make
as

metaphysical hypotheses
facts without
we

general.
are

to how

psychic

called
some

facts kind

of of

knowledge
an

to

be

plained exviction, con-

ontologicaltheory or
form
even

find it

impossible to
far from
to

the most

shadowy
true

conception.
In

general,
has
we

so

holding
do in the with this

it the

to

be

that of

metaphysics psychology, employed,


'

nothing
think of

explanations
when of

that

science, pre-eminently, rightly


the
most

speculative hypotheses
throw and
a

right order,
upon
many

flood
most

of

light

important
the with and

yet

obscure

of the facts. it may upon

For, after all,


strive the its
to start
to to

final aim

of psychology, however
close
nature

keep

to and

ever

return

facts,is
relations
we

^understandthe
other Soul timid

and

development, in
kind is what

beings, of
or

that And

unique
this
are

of being which

call the few


scorn over-

Mind.

all, except
afraid

psychologistswho
science and

morbidly
Even pages

of the

of in

physical

rabidly antagonisticto metaphysics


these upon of the forms

psychology, really scarcely write suggested by


or a

believe.

psychologists can
any

half-dozen

problems
of choses, psy-

the

higher
the

and

more

complex
that

discuss

nature

of

psychology

and

its relation the

to
same

metaphysics, without thing.


This whole and

showing
be

they reallybelieve

subject will
more

made

in clearer, especially
a

its of

broader

significant aspects, by

brief discussion

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

65

the nature
to

of

philosophyand
the of mental
to

of the relation in which

it stands of
to

psychology as phenomena

and descriptive life.1


state

explanatory science
an

the

It is not

easy the

matter

define sciences sciences define


out

philosophy,or
;

its relation these


one

to

particular
when the

especially, perhaps, in attempted,on


the

later
so

days

have

hand,
other

to successfully

themselves, and
every

yet, on

the

hand, have
all

reached

in indefinitely

direction and

taken

forms possible and its

of

experience under
Indeed,
way, uncritical

the
so or

protectionof long
as one

their

method consults

exactions. in
an

merely

history
the

merely

cites and

compares

great

authorities

in science
to what
use

and

one philosophy,

gets only a confused


to

conceptionas By
a

the latter historical

aims discipline criticism and

accomplish.
the
a

mixed and

of

analysisof
ultimate

content

aims

of the

sciences, particular togetherwith

of judicious recognition of human obtained. assistance The At in


reason,

the
a

deeper needs
learn

and

tions aspiramay of be real

result fairlysatisfactory may

any
our

rate, we

enough
shows

to

be

present pursuit.
rational
more

history of
been

progress
or

that

men

have

always

disposed to
certain
nature
"

less

of

reflective of the

inquiry being
of

concerning things,of
be
meant

problems
of if

of

knowledge,

the

themselves, and of the ideals of

duct. con-

Philosophy
"

by it the fruits of such reflective inquiry


and
more

is

an

older

permanent
were

interest

than

science.

Vague

and

as unsatisfactory

its

conceptionand
yet

pursuitamong
of what vague
we now

the ancient understand

Greeks, the conceptionand pursuit by


"

the sciences

"

were

more

and in

unsatisfactory.The philosophy, and


are science, more

present alleged lack

of interest of have full

the

relatively great
real.
are

amount

interest

in

specious than

As

we

the particular sciences already indicated, of


1

themselves

the
On

most
this

interestingand
in
see detail,

absorbing speculativetenets.
the author's
"

subjectmore

Introduction

to

phy," Philoso-

L-iv. chapters
5

66

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND absorbed up in the

Under
no

the

guise of exorcists
its of

of

philosophy they have


have thus
set

little of

and surplus capital,

business

while philosophy,
to

displaying the only," over


to

sign, "This
doors.

temple
Two

is dedicated
or

science

their

three

things relative
ventures

the

restless
reason

longings
are,

and

new perpetually

of

human

however,
such
"

clear. tolerably

Men

long for and

seek perpetually call


"

an
as

acquaintance with
shall

what

they

are

pleased to
of

reality

withstand

all the

assaults

critical and
devotion for

vestigat scepticalinto truth with

Science
one

cannot

professits
scorn

breath, although uttering its


next

metaphysics with
same

the

breath, without
human mind.

manifesting this
Even the word

longing
has

and
no

quest

of the

"truth" the
naive

meaning
of of
common
me

whatever

except with
and
are

reference this

to

impliedconception
utterances

reality ; speech

upon
as

point the
For

suggestiveas anything can


the of the mind, is

well be

"Tell
"

truly,is
an

it

really so?"

conception of
and
"

truth,"as

ascertainment

held universally
tal extra-men"

to

implicatethe correlated extra-mental being


transactions
to

which In

men

think

the word

real

is most

applied. appropriately
of certain
or

spiteof

the reiterated all

protestations
they ask for
sequences which this
most

devotees
to

of is the

physicalscience, that
uniform

claim

find

collocations formulas

and

of

phenomena,
express

and these

the

mathematical
and of

nearly
for and

collocations
of of
no a

sequences,

desire be
moved re-

assumption
from the render science

knowledge

cannot reality itself. To word science

body

science physical

remove

it

would
_

longer what
; it would

the very convert dream. the aims

signifies,
into the

system of knowledges

individual dreamer's

half-consistent

Only
know

slightacquaintance with
of the sciences particular entire structure
as

and

the

plishments accom-

is necessary, and

however,

to

that with

their

is underlaid

trated interpeneno

assumptions which,
little

sciences, they take


Even the

pains

to

verify and

pains

to

understand.

primary

68

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

them

all their

powers

of

observation

and

inference.
own

Thus of

chemistry regards certain


unification and
; thus

phenomena
with which from

for its the


we one

purposes

biologydeals

group

of obscure the abstract

complex phenomena
life. the the

derive

conception of
But
more

sciences particular the


more

are

pursued
obvious

in

prehensive com-

and
numerous

penetrating way,
subtle
can

become

the them.

and
one

connections then be
as

which claimed
to

exist between
to

Not any

of them
sense

be

particular in
it deals with

such

of the word
are

imply
the

that

phenomena
laws other On
so

which

not

inseparably linked

in, by objective
of those
names.

and

by mental

with principles,

phenomena
different

sciences

which, nevertheless, bear


can

the
as

contrary, they
to

all be build

arranged, however
up
one

roughly,
upon
other; anmore

show how

how

they

themselves

and

they
that

all alike real world for

imply

some

higher
all the

and

perfectunity for
in itself, of the

to which

groups

of

phenomena belong. Thus,


the form well
as

example,
"

modern

tends physiology ex-

called

general,"over
life ; modern up

the

phenomena biology;
more

plant life
form

as

of animal

chemistry, in
into under the

called molecular

"physiological," reaches physics


strives
as

modern definite

to

reduce

mathematical of the

formulas,

determining
of

ing chang-

relations and of

molecules, the phenomena


modern is cerebral

chemistry "general
former modern which
to the

physiology;
"

physiology and
with the

nerve-physiology
handmaid mistress
to

scarcely content
would household of

position of
her and

psychology, but
out

gladly turn
mind;
that

quite
is

of the
to

psychology
for

showing,

good purpose,
as

the view

regarded micro-organisms
reasons

with explicable, in
terms

respect

their

behavior,
"

of

undifferentiated from the assumption and

bioplasmic "stuff,"needs
of
a

help everywhere
in
even we

"psychiclife
into

the find

smallest the
"

simplest
"

living forms. turning

Meanwhile,

scientists

selves thema

philosophers of

the most

high-and-dry

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

69

priori sort.
their
own

They
doubtful

come

forward

to virtually

maintain
even

that of

recentlydiscovered
and basis eternal

and principles, be allowed

some

their most

hypotheses, must
truths. of their have

the supremacy
even

of indubitable
to

They
been

are

ready
ethicoing comfort-

dispute,on
to the

the

discoveries, all the


hitherto
most

religious convictions
Hence that

that

heart, however
some

to unsatisfactory

the

of intellect, of Clerk all

man.

for justification

the

sarcasm

Maxwell mechanics

already two acquired lapse


of

of the Newtonian
an
a

principlesof
and will

have sufficient
a

priori character;
the third

that

given
become The

of

time,

doubtless

priorialso.
growth
to
ever

very way

knowledge, then, calls


needs of human which
reason

attention from
ever
"

in which

forceful

those

philosophy vainly
science the
"

springs afresh, and


to

it

however said that


; but

strives is

satisfy.
"

Mr.

Spencer
"

has of

well

only

the

partialunification they
more

knowledge
considered each

particular sciences
to

themselves, when
sustain
"

with

reference excite
a

the

relations for the

toward

other,
"

demand It Mr.

complete
unification

unification of

of

knowledge.
which, says
true

is this

complete
is

knowledge
rather is it

Spencer,
this
more

philosophy.

The

that

toward with

goal

reflective
a

thinking

ever

strives,
it is this

though
which in all

never

than aim

partial success;
of
reason as

constitutes the
current

the final

it is

expressed
it

systems

of of of

philosophy. help
toward

Here

is,

then, that
stretched sciences. offer

the
out

synthetic arm
with this
an

philosophical discipline is
the

offer

particular
even

But

help

it

cannot

render,

cannot

without intelligently, of the its

itself

comprehending
Yet

the

ples princiitself

particular sciences, and


upon
can

ing constantly acknowledgby behaving


the

dependence
neither
own

them. do
a

aright, philosophy
sciences
can

work

which
nor

particular

properly undertake
not

accomplish. fitly assumptions

It finds its

material,

only

in those

70

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

which itself in

underlie

the

particular sciences
and

and

to which

it must also have and


can

give a
most
as

critical

yet conciliatory treatment, but


these sciences of minds

those

general principleswhich actuallyexemplified in


all this material the

discovered of

the world

things.

With

before

it,philosophy
its
own

continue function.
because

bravely to attempt
It
can

discharge of

supreme

give

not speculativeunity (speculative,

it is bare

speculationdisregardfulof fact,but
of the facts after subordinate of of
man.

because

it is the

highest synthetichandling
a

they are

grouped, in
to the

preliminary
as

way,

under

principles)

world

known

by the mind
is the work and

In and

brief,then, it
criticism, so

philosophy, by analysis
the

to discover
as own

shape
shall and

principlesof
serve as

the

particular sciences
for

that final
reason,

they
the

best this

material is the

realizing its
of

aim;

final aim
most

supreme

synthesis of

highest and Or,


to
a

complete
same

unification in
a

knowledge
way,

itself.

say

the

truth

different world

Philosophy
and based

seeks
as

unitary conceptionof
as

the real

that shall be

freed,
upon
as

far

from possible, facts of nature is, not

ternal inand

contradictions

all the

of human
to

life. But
construct

inasmuch
an

its business
or

latively specurather work of

abstract
as

ideal

world, but

to understand

the

world

it of

reallyis, the primary grouping


them
to

ascertainingthe facts, and


and verifiable sciences. unification of This is

in well-ordered the various


more

generalizations, belongs merely


to say

ticular parplete com-

that

the

philosophy
of the
come

reposes

upon

the

basis

of the
in this
sary neces-

partial unifications
way
can

particular sciences.
into, and
with toward
some

Only
the But

philosophy
constant above

keep within, actuality.


a

and rises far

close the

contact

since that
a

it is

sciences
to frame

unification

complete,it
of all

makes

bold the

conception of
each
be

Unity
ticular par-

Reality, in
For that

light of

which

of the the

more

principles may

subsequently
of

better
as

stood. under-

understanding

the

world

it

really

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

71

is which of formulas the world

alone

will
a

human satisfy
mere

reason

is

no

mere

ing gather-

facts, nor
more or

grouping
must

of

facts,as
To its

such, under
understand
\

less

approximatelyexact.
know
must

we rationally, even

import;
their and of

fully to

understand
to critically

the

facts,we
the the

know

significance ; generalized phenomena,

understand

assumptions particular groups


in the

experiencesbelonging to
we

must

be

able

to

view

them

light of universally
elsewhere defined of those

applicable ideas.
For such
reasons,
as

in

brief, we

have rational

philosophy assumptions

"the

progressive

system
to the

and

which generalizations
as

belong
a

ular partic"

sciences, all regarded

forming

Unity

of

Reality. it|
to refuse

Philosophy, then, necessarilyincludes


to admit

is

necessarilyontologicalin metaphysics.
To

its aim;

deny this is

the.

of philosophy, as distinguished from possibility And


even

science, at all.
shown from And

science,

as

has

repeatedly been naively,


to be
"

already, cannot
mere now

however distinguish itself, without

day-dreaming
the
"

claiming
and the

ontological.
indeed,

more

intimate in which may,

peculiar
science made of

the^o
chology Psy-

quite unique
stands
to

relation

psychology^

philosophy
a

be briefly,

clear.

is

sort

of universal
more

propaedeuticsto philosophy.
than is stood ordinarilyunderit is not

By

this

something
the term

is meant

by
a

"propaedeutics."For
up
to

simply
its

as

preliminary disciplineleading philosophy, that


any

the

successful

study place
true

of in

the

science

of

psychology holds

well-arranged system of education.


Nature's
are

It is also

that
"

in

school
out

of
to the

reflective

thinking, where
of
reason

the

problems
that hand connection

given

unfolding powers
of rational

by
a

which

guides the
the and
two

order is

development,
Those which solution
reason

between

maintained. strictly
over

problems
for
us no

of

being

of

conduct, reflection
but

has of

merely speculativeinterest,
in order
to live the

some

which

is necessary,

life of

at

all,

72

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

themselves
our own

start

forth life.

inevitablyfrom
most

the reflective

study

of

mental

It is in the effort to

explain
of

ourselves

to

ourselves
some

that

we

and intelligently of the world

persistently
and of

demand other

explanation
could of

things

minds.
as

Furthermore,
detail and array

be

shown

with

almost

indefinite

convincing facts, every


leads itself and
up
a

principal
upon

chological psythe

problem
very heart
most

to, and
number

lays heavily
of

of

reason

philosophical problems

important
does the

most

profound.
his scientific researches

In vain into the

psychologiststart
of

phenomena
to

consciousness, as
whenever him
over

such, with pursuit of


the

the these

determination
researches
seems

stop short

the

likelyto
He

lead

into

debatable
a

regions of
reserve

philosophy.
before

may,

indeed,
before

exercise

wise

here, with
there

respect to the presentation of his assured


the

whether results, But

public
one

or

his
"

own

mind. trarily arbi-

is, after all, only


reason

alternative, inquirieswhich
else

either it
to

to limit

in those

belongs to
pass
a

its very

nature

to

insist upon

making,

or

over

(if, indeed,
and the but

it is

possible even
the

to theoretically

draw

tinct dis-

fixed line between

the two) from


same

the

psychologicalto
What is it the

philosophicalpursuit of
the

inquiries.
which of

working of just this alternative

explains
the

confused whose it
more

theory
views
were

and

inconsistent
in

practice
the last

writers

examined which

chapter ?
clearer whose

Plainly,
and

is

just this, too,


consistent in the the that

guides the
the writers

theory
views

practice of
earlier

were

presented
doubt method

part of this chapter.


shows yond be-

Moreover,

history of psychological theories


it is and the of the character of the

psychological
of

employed,
thinker

attempted
toward

solution

problems
the tude attisible posOf

primarily psychological,which
of any in solutions of the connected

chieflydetermines
the

philosophy

different

philosophicalproblems.

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

73

this inevitable
a more

influence

there

is not

in all the than that

historyof philosophy
same

conspicuous example despairing


view

mind mastera

whose scientific treatise. critical and the

of respecting the possibility


at

pyschology
All the

was

quoted

the

beginning
and defects
to

of of

this thei

principal obscurities
of Kant
are

philosophy
in

largely due
of the
nature

obscurities laws of

deficiencies

his

views

and
a

phenomena
becomes the

of consciousness. the
more

Indeed,
the three

with

meaning
one

which

pertinent
of the defective

more

deeply

penetrates

doctrine that the

Critiques, one
affective

may the

safely declare

psychical experience,
the
no

lacking psychoses, especiallyof


great

kind,

of this for the

philosopher account,
character of his

in

small

degree,

defective
In

philosophical system.
emerge

particular,the problems of philosophy all


upon the mind in the and
to satisfactorily

and

force themselves

attempt thoroughlyto
the

comprehend
main lines

solve

problems of

; scientific psychology

and in

the

attempts, along the different


deal with scientifically this science This
tenet

of research

to psychology,
to

its problems all lead these


same

up
over

the

place

where

hands

problems
relations

to

philosophy.
to
more

ing respectof

the varied will A midst


now

of A

psychology
few of the

philosophy

admits

illustration.
be

important examples,
in
as an a

discussed
writer has

separately. repeatedly maintained,


treatise
assumes
on

recent

the

very

of

voluminous
this

psychology knowledge
In
some as

natural

science, that

science

already
is
at

existingand
no

inexplicabledatum.
For all the

sort

this claim
or

doubt

true.

attempts at ordinary knowledge


of knowledge possibility
to be known

science
"

imply tacitly
in

in

general,

the

actualityof something
some

and
a

the

existence

(at least
of the the
most

meaning
mind. and

of the

word,
the

as

cognizing activity) hand,


a

knowing

But,

on

other of

it is

one

of

important

difficult tasks
to assume,

truly

scientific

psychology, not simply

but

also to

explain, those

74

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

psychoses which
and

are

called
to

"acts,
their

or

states,of knowledge;"
as

this, with

respect

nature

complex
stream

mental of
sciousness, con-

phenomena,
But of this

their and

origin
laws

in

the

onflowing that, in
entire

the
ever,

of their

development.
the very fact but

here, as
form is" say

it appears

description simply,
and

of

psychosis, the
or

is not "I

"knowledge
when
men

"knowledges are,"
knoiv"

know;"

"I

they

mean

something quite they


has say
or once

ferent dif-

from

what
or

they

mean
or

when

"I

feel," or
faced this

"I When

will,"
a

"I

think,"
scientific

"imagine,"

"remember."

dutiful and

psychology being
of

complex
that

mysterious psychosis,it
the whole

is bound is

to

discover in

somehow
"

mind

implicated

knowledge,
and
senses even

memory, besides

imagination, thought, feeling,will, belongs


either
to

whatever
or

perception by
more

the than

to

self-consciousness.

Yes, something
in the For fact
"
"

this varied

content, as reached
content-wise. the

attempt
there is
"

to

regard

this
one

psychosis merely
may choose if
" "

however

to

express

conviction

of reality

here ; and
"

conviction is
no

of

reality
to be

be

wanting, why, then, knowledge.


of Aristotle This and

knowledge

longer

called be that

is true, whether

the

knowledge
or

Newton,
most

or

of the child

of the fool ; whether

it be knowledge

ordinary,

or

most

extraordinary, and
And he of hide

affecting
what his shall head
as

the title of the

so-called. science, specifically

scientific the and

psychologistdo
narrow

now?

Shall

under
a

and

drooping wing
few writers who where that

psychology
He
may to

pure and

totallynon-philosophical science?
are

do take that

so;

there

not

actuallytry clearly will


for

this this
more

course.

But

readers

think
a

see

is

precisely the place imperative


which

demand student need

something

becomes

upon

the

of mental for from


a

nomena. pheof

Here,

indeed, is where
undertakes
nature to

the

Theory
somewhat its

Knowledge
different

examine of

standpoints the

knowledge,

validity

76

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

psychosis
about and of

itself.

In

vain

do

you

talk

to

the

plain

man

sensations, and
eccentric

sensation-complexes,and
revived knows and
; he

localization, images
that his

and projection,

associated

merely past sensations,


even as a

well perfectly
not

experience,

psychosis, is
that it is And of
an

yet satisfactorily
of knowledge,

explained ;
"

for he

knows

experience
the

knowledge
to go
a

of
over

thing.
the

here

psychologistis
considered here

bound
as

again

ground
a

knowledge,

both is

psychologicaland
about

philosophicalproblem;
that
at

he

bound, in the interests of full explanation,to face the


the

inquiry,What
shall demand for

Reality of just
the
"

Thing

How, then,
where the
most

he, unless
an

he

pauses

the

place

explanation of
most

psychic facts
a

becomes which

imperative and emphasized


an

interesting,
form the of
a

demand

is

now

in

the

phenomenon
of
a

that

implicates
that is not
*

envisagement by
"

mind this

real

being
it to

mind,
Even the

refuse
more

to

consider
not

philosophicalproblem? problems
and started

if difficult, consideration

impossible,is
of the

keep apart
by the

scientific

actual

experience called
of that cluster constitute I
am

self -consciousness, and of obscure

the reflective

treatment

difficult of mind.

inquiries
"I know

which that

the and and

special philosophy
now,
"

here thus

thinking, feeling,desiring, planning,


It is Zand
no

doing
or

so.

other,whether
is;
now

mind and

thing;

here

and

not

yonder, where
well I
was

the other

not

then, when

I remember yes, indeed;

elsewhere.

Really

existing?why,
in the most

existing reallyand
manner

indubitably
in which
any

and simple self-evidencing alive


to

actuality can,
vain will the
as

the

very

core.

And

now,

again, in
of the

psychologist fence
to the

off the

questions

plain man
that
1

import

of his

experience,as
so

to the
a

truth of

exists,and
What teacher of

is known

to

be, in
found

wonderful

series

psychology has
as
a

not

interest in the

phenomena

of perception

by
of his

the senses,

matter

of natural up in the

science, drooping,until the burning


have

wrapped metaphysicalquestions pupils?

phenomena

begun

to stir the minds

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

77

psychoses
between useless

as

this, by attempting
as
a

to

draw

the

lines

tauter

psychology
the

valuable

natural

science of mind.

and For

the the

speculations of
science and contentful "I" that

the is

metaphysics
requested
to

thing which peculiar


What this
"

explain
series of the the
"

is

just this
and What and
trast con-

psychosis (or
assumes

psychoses).
"me;"
I
"

is this
"

to

know

me

that admits
to

that
as

it is known "I"
"

by

? be?

is it What

"really
is this with
some

be"

the and

knows unless in

itself to

being
"

"here

now
"

it involves the
"

then

and

there

which
are

same

"

was

When

such

questions as
total the natural ?

these
out

asked, in

the form

in which and the task

they spring immediately


the

of the effort to describe how


to

understand

psychic phenomenon,
science, reply without

will the
to

psychologist,on
of
a

pretence of sticking solely

so-called

resort

metaphysical
to be the

distinctions

Among
"

these

are

quite certain
"

distinctions

between

specious present Ego"


and "real
"

and

"

real tween beand is of in it of

present," between
space time
as

"phenomenal
time
"

Ego,"
space

and

as

valid objectively But

and

only

forms

of
a

psychoses.
either

such

language

empty verbiage without

quasi-appeal to
put
or

the arbitrament
a

philosophy.
without that

What

shall

find

meaning
essence

reflective ?

thinking

which

is the

philosophizingitself
Thus do the

psychological problems
of

started

by

the

mon com-

experience inevitablyserve
and
more as

perception
of mind. the

and the

of

self-consciousness of nature
r

to propaedeutic,

philosophy
these
to
more

the

philosophy gently
of them

Indeed, they do

something
branches of the

than

lead

inquirer
force interests

to

philosophical discipline. They


cultivation result
as

him of
a

undertake

in the

satisfactory

for his But

efforts to understand
even

the

psychic phenomena
this result
one

such.

to reach

out

toward

must,
vidual indi-

of course,

suppose

one's

self

capable
of the

of

transcending
the

consciousness,whether

perceptiveor

intro-

78

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

spective
nature,

form.
must

In

order, also,
resort,
not to but
a

to
a

have

philosophy
which
one

of

one

simple analysis of
sciences mind

the tell
must

object considered
us

as

Thing,
to have

to the

about
away

things;
from which like
two

and

philosophy of
to the

turn

simple introspectionof
can

self toward

all the

indications of other The

be

gathered as
of the

psychicalbehavior

beings.
main

branches of

metaphysics together
Real. But the
as

stitute con-

the

philosophy
discovers have
to

science

of

psychology
than
any

psychoses, no
thus the far realm

less actual

psychoses point
In its

which themselves
to

been of of

described, that
the Ideal. and

beyond attempt
cal

explain
and of the rise.

the

workings

ethical

aestheti-

consciousness,as
have their

such, the

problems
art

of the

philosophy
ics) aesthetscientific

of conduct

philosophy of
For the it has human
"

(ethics and
of
a

larger mission
as

psychology
and

is not

fulfilled until
our

described faithfully and

carefully explained
"

faiths

thoughts respecting
appear
so

respecting what
what

ought

to be

as

our

knowledge
of

reallyis.
others,
or or

Nor

does

this class

psychoses explain

separable,so
the think know
to
as

distinct,either
to

actuallyor
to

from theoretically, what


men

enable

psychology
to

beliove

ought

be And

without much

relation of what

to what

they

judge reallyis.
know
or

they are
be

entitled

say

they
in

infer

really to be, they


think
or

cannot

explained
to

without

relation
a

to what

believe

ought

be. and

Hence,

measure,

the

both difficulty,

theoretical

discussion, for of giving any purely psychological practical, how firmly No matter example, to the phenomenon of choice.
the determinist of
a

in

psychology
and

may

resolve of

to

maintain

the

attitude

collector

correlator of

udiced phenomena, unprejJust because


to
ceive re-

by metaphysical theories
indeed he for him his
to

causation, it is difficult

carry

out
as

his

resolution. he the is

regards
a

science from

natural,
hands of

tempted

bludgeon

the

natural

sciences,

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

79

wherewith
if at any amid
not

to threaten

or

assault the

"free
seem

spiritualagent,"
to raise
an

time

such

an

agent should
That in

his

head

the

psychic phenomena.
as

such
a

agent is there,

only

necessarilyimplicated phenomena,
forms of but also
as

rational

tion interpretavictor

of the
over

the the This

self-conscious

various

reality,

is

philosophicaltenet
tenet, too, it
as
an

of the

opponent
hard
to

of determinism. refrain from

seems

equally

introducing phenomena.
ethics,
the

integral

part of the explanation of the Thus, too,


eudaemonism which resolves of the
in the debate

of

questions between philosophical


in
or

and the

rigorism

between into

the the

view rience expewhich

feeling of

beautiful
and

sensuously agreeable
two

the
as

view

distinguishesthe descriptiveand nigh compelled


the from

and

regards

the

former of

unique, the
is wellbecause

explanatory
to take
a

science This
to

psychology
so

part.

is not

much

empirical
the

science of

is anxious

lift the

responsibility
over

shoulders it is rather

philosophy by coming
the science this the
cannot

into

its any and

domain;
line its

Decause

discover domain

clearly drawn
own.

between

philosophical
called from the

For
to

suppose describe

that the

psychologist finds
the

himself "I

compelled ought
"

psychosis

feeling
memory,

as

something totallydifferent
how he
as

expectation,calculation, or present experience


"

of the

urable, pleasto

can

then
to

fail to

have that

the which

more

ultimate

question suggested
and same? that which is

whether for

ought
is
one men

be,
the

sought
the

pleasure'ssake,
awakens

and

Again,
that in

if the them

psychologist finds
beautiful is refuse what he and

certain

taining mainand of

thoughts
and whether in

feelings which
ideal

imply
shall

objective,universal,
to consider
a

worth, how
of such

the import the world those


a

thoughts
But, of

feelings has
such and

basis
are over

at

large?

course, starts

problems
hands

among
to

which

psychology
ethics and

then

sophical philo-

aesthetics for their further

examination.

80

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

It of

that the is, indeed, only indirectly


in

attempted solution
to

problems
supreme

psychological science
is the But

leads

the work

effort at of the and

that

synthesis which
direction the of this
sense

crowning
does For both

philosophic mind.
lead in the in scientific different and

indirectlyit
of the

point
leave

synthesis.

it is
to

scarcely
the

highest
of

word with in

groups

psychologicalproblems,
and
answers,

their scientific isolated and

philosophical aspects
form. Here
"

fragmentary
so-called
as an

the

psychological treatment important.


categories
of very and
are

of the

"categories

becomes the

To

psychology,
the
most
; but

empirical science,
universal much

only

and persistent
to say

forms
comes

psychoses themselves
near

only

thus
are

to

saying
modes modes of is

that

the

categories

the

universal Some of

necessary

of the behavior of the and

of mind. behavior of mind of


a

them, however,

are

in the

inferential is
a

knowledge
which it

things ;

"knowledge employ
of with

things"
full

term

difficult to that forms

without intelligence,
as

implying

knowledge,
Thus the

considered

are psychoses (psychological),

also forms

of the

being
forward hard

of

things (ontological).
by the effort
of mind the in
to

interests

awakened

harmonize
pleteness, com-

and all,

to carry

the science upon


us

to its ideal

press supreme of

in

direction which the

of

that

unifying activity of
who inquirers, discuss
so

reason,

essence

synthetic philosophy
different
to

consists.
set out

It is not

strange, then,
the determination of natural
over

that

together with
in terms

mental often find

phenomena
themselves the
to

science

merely,
which For of

wrangling
the

the

problems
undertake. this and

it

belongs
a

philosophy of religion to
of supreme for task of real
to man's

it is

large part
find
reason a

branch

philosophy to
the entire

ground
reflective

ideals,
upon

to vindicate

right of

projectits
views taken mind

ideals

reality.
shows how

The

history destiny of

of

thinking
as

closelyconnected

are

the the

to

the

nature, import, and

human

(no

matter

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

81

how may and

much

pretence of being merely scientific


with

these

views

make)

speculativeviews
the
"

as

to the

nature, import,
without terms
"

destiny of
that the

World

as
"

Whole.
"

It is not
are

meaning applied to
take
over

Microcosm

and

Macrocosm

two.

It is not, of course, the

the intention
of to

of this treatise to underall the

speculativediscussion
of

problems

handed

by psychologicalscience

further
to

reflective

thinking.
the the

The

problems

Knowledge
of

belong
to

Epistemology ; Metaphysics (in


of the real

general problems
broader and
sense

Being belong
word)
; the

of the of

problems
to

being

relations

Things belong
of

the

Philosophy

of Nature.

Certain all these

points

view, and

even

certain

conclusions,from
*

branches particular
in the discussions

of

will philosophical discipline


we

be assumed "freedom of

which

propose. and

Although
aesthetical

will,"and

the

holding

of ethical

ideas,are
so, it would

activities
seem,

belonging to
these

the nature

of the the

mind, and
of for

naturallyfalling into problems


and

department
be reserved
to

the

philosophy of mind,
the

will

philosophicalethics
Under be

philosophicalaesthetics

discuss. is to trarily, arbi-

of Mind," as the term heading, "Philosophy employed in this volume, we separate (somewhat it is to be

admitted)

certain
over

class
to

of

problems
a

which
more can

psychologicalscience thorough examination,


be

hands and

philosophy for
solution the
most

for
are,

if solution, for

found.

These

problems
that

part,

started which

by the psychology of
is called
not

form

of human It

experience
is the

the

consciousness
as

of Self.

Self, bodily

however,
also
as

simply

known in
are

immediately
its relations

to to

itself,but
the
a

known scientifically And

organism.
and

although we
treatment

confessedlygiving
to

lative specuare

theoretical for this and

treatment

the

phenomena,
a

and

assuming
of ourselves

certain of

postulatesof things,we

theory
hold

knowledge

of

metaphysics
every
6

shall

responsibleat

step to the empirical science

82

PSYCHOLOGY

AND

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

MIND

of

mental

phenomena.
is

Indeed,
based upon laws

this

essay

in

the

philosophy

of

mind

deliberately
into the facts

previous
of
a

long-continued psychology.
the

researches To these

and

scientific for

researches

appeal
nature

must

be

made

right
we

to

speculate
has
"

as

to

the

of

mind. of

The

right
mental

believe

"

been all

earned

by

careful

study
view. of

the

phenomena
the author's

from

possible
wish

points
that the

of

And

it

is

controlling
conclusions

validity
be

the

following
face
to

speculative
face
with

should

constantly
of the

brought
science

the

conclusions

empirical

of

mind.

84

THE

CONCEPT

OF

MIND

every in

shade

of

philosophical tenets implying


obstinate

"

can

scarcely be

used

English
or

without

undesirable

theologicalassumptions
Mind
must

evoking
take its

theologicalprejudices].
into

Any

inquiry satisfactory
start

the

Concept of
of

plainly
effort to
to

from
nature

the
as an

standpoint inquiry is
then of
as

empirical by
the

psychology. explain,
the
use

Its very

denned far
as

set forth

and descriptively, actual

possible
to

those

phenomena

consciousness
as mean

which is
true

of the term

corresponds. Only
to

this
in

course

faithfullypursued (and by faithfullywe


to

form quent subse-

the
more

facts, and

true

all the

facts) can
discussion For

the

speculativeand
claim
consists

theoretical and

of mental of any upon

phenomena
discussion the

credence

respect.
of truths

the value it throws

in the amount inferred In the that

lightwhich
as are
a

import

of such

certainly implicated philosophy, it


no

in the facts. is

interests all the


in

of

sound

quite as important
than

truths the

(and
facts

other be

clusions con-

these) implicated
and

should

covered, dis-

examined, critically
as

systematicallyexpounded, psychology
that it the

it is

important
describe and

for

truly

scientific all

should

and

explain

psychic

facts.

The

exhibition

inferences and defence of the legitimate

ulterior

import belongingto psychicfacts, as faithfullydescribed explained, scientifically


"

avid

this is the
treatment may

Philosophyof Mind.
given by psychologists to
be called

But those mind will


"

if the

customary

psychoses which
be

properly
actual
to be
more

"concepts

of it

compared
"

with

the
"

psychoses themselves,
characterized fallacies. of these of view Two

be

found

we

believe and
even

by several

important
*or three
now

defects

important
and
common

of the

most

important
The

will
to

be

discussed. briefly shall


a

primary point
much

be

assumed It is

be

that

of scientific

psychology.
of the mental
current

most to
assume

important fallacyin
that the whole

chology psy-

of any the
mere

phenomenon
"

is described

and

explained when

"content

of

con-

THE

CONCEPT

OF

MIND

85

sciousness say, the


an

has

been

described of those

and who

explained.
cultivate

That

is to
as

larger number
science of the

psychology

empirical phenomena
Thus
statement
or or

habitually regard consciousness, and


as

the it
to

consciousness, merely "content-wise,"

were. a

descriptivepart

of the science

is limited

of what what what


so

particularqualitiesand particular associated particular forms


of

quantitiesof
of

sensations, sensations,

images

past
tained con-

feeling, are
or

in, and
total field the of

themselves

comprise
It of

constitute, the

consciousness.
"

is, indeed,
"

possible
so as

to

employ
to

phrase
all this

content

consciousness of

tually vir-

exclude

from

the

task

descriptiveand
have
no

tory explanato

science

considerations definite

that

reference the

answering
kind of

question:

What

is

particular
A of is

conscious

state, the
than B ? mouths
some

pyschosis, now
other

existent; and
an

why

is it this rather than


some

psychosis; why
can

rather
course,

Such of

psychology
of

always,
"What
to

stop the
left of any

objectorsby asking,
consciousness is

there and

phenomenon
content
course,

describe

explain, if,ex
definite ?
"

there hypothesi,

nothing
to

in

particular
and

left, no

remaining
also, no
its

be

described

explained

Of in

psychosis can
content
no

cally be scientifi-

treated content-wise.
to
no

neglect of
For
at
a

description and

explanation,
is

psychosis without
all. There
are are

equivalent
of
sciousness con-

psychosis
in and other

phenomena
need
to

general ;
with be

there

only phenomena
which their
concrete at

which be

have

such and if

no

content, and
reference described
as

explained

described

to

definiteness,
all.

they
Such

are

to

and

explained
are

admissions

the
course

foregoing
of those

very

far,however,
of scientific defect
a

from

justifying the
whom
we

students of serious

psychology fallacy.
It does of
not

have

just accused
careful

and

For

their

fallacy is, in
in too

its very

nature,

defect.
sity neces-

consist

recognition of
the

the

with dealing scientifically

phenomena

of

con-

86

THE

CONCEPT

OF

MIND

sciousness,
almost another all the and total

content-

wise. and

It

consists, the
if not
"

rather,

in

an

neglect

virtual
"

explicit denial equally belonging


all

of
to

aspect, a different

potency,

phenomena

of consciousness.

For

consciousness,
to be

every

makes phenomenon of consciousness,


as a

the demand
mere

considered

and form offunctioning, Phenomena


as

not

as

tion differentiaare

of
conscious

content.

of
as

consciousness

always
of
sciousness. con-

activities

truly

they

are

contents

Consciousness
"

is itself consciousness it is and


so

of

activity,
from of functioning.

fundamentally
lowest
to the

so

; and

all the way

through
forms

the

highest
of
a

most

developed

The

task

scientific

as psychology is,therefore,

truly the descriptionand


considered consciousness
"

explanation of phenomena
as

of

sciousness, con-

forms

of

active it is the

functioning (of descriptionand quantitiesof


the consciousness is not
at

function-wise the

"), as

explanation of phenomena

and particularqualities
as

regarded
In

passive

states
our

(of

"content-wise").
present
as

saying this,
any

intention doctrine
"

to fall back

upon
essence

metaphysical
of

of Will in the

the

ground
and

and

of all mental

life,
or

whether with

the

purely speculative form


more

Schopenhauer, given
elsewhere

modified

scientific
as we

character

to it

by Wundt.
is
a

"Will,"
without

indeed,

have it be in

shown,1
to

term
plex com-

meaning
the

unless

employed
the
course

designate a

faculty, developed involving all


mental The the made the life.
more

of of the

experience

and

primary
scientific
to

forms

functioning of

proof
cannot

which

psychology,
statements

faithful

to

all

psychic facts,has
be

give

for

like those For the such

just
proof

presented
of mind

here

in

detail.

philosophy
of the

appeals chiefly to
of The

empirical
and it of is

study

phenomena

attention,of conation,
conclusion,
as

discriminating
1

consciousness.

See
xx

"Psychology, Descriptive and

Explanatory,"especiallychapters xi.

and

vi

THE

CONCEPT

OF

MIND

87

by justified
forth in the is made

the

science

of mental

phenomena,
fuller the which

may

be

set

following quotations (for the


to

proof

ence referare

the

work

from

quotations

taken) :
"The

"

relation

of

attention been
. . .

to

the

conative

aspect of all by modern


that

conscious writers all


on

activityhas psychology.
even

much

emphasized then, it
is and rises

When,
attention

is affirmed

attention,

the that

most

primary,

influenced
is falls, upon

by
tributed disthe

conation, it
and

is meant

in re-distributed, of

constant

dependence
For, from

varying

amounts

which psychical self-activity mental of


states.

terize characthe is
most

the

different

fundamental

point
it appears

view, all psychic energy


in consciousness the
same as

self-

activity;
the
to look

the

energizing,
which between
comes

conation, the striving,of


upon and itself
as

being

attracted

to discriminate to

this

sensation
or

that, or
the

compelled
some

feel

some

bodily pain,
This

solicited

to consider
"

pleasant thought.
awareness
or

aspect

of conation
"

immediate

of

being self-active
mental the
states to

belongs

to all

passiveor impulsive
not

forced
as

as

truly, though
and is the

in and

the

same

way,

so-called in

distinctivelyactive popular
attention

voluntary
it

states.

Expressed
be attention And

figurativelanguage, impelled
or

may

said, If the
; 2"

forced, still
I submit
to

it is my the

yield

to

impulse;
or

force.

this it is
not
or

psychical yielding accompanied by


to

submission,
of

especially when
to yield or striving

the consciousness
or

yield,

to

submit

not

to

submit,

is the
1

conative

volitional

aspect of all my
presence be of

mental of in

life." the all

Or,

again: "The
must

aspect,

or

factor, of
in

'conation' all any

recognized
to

psychic facts, and


To be
"

development psychosis
is

psychic faculty.
"

the
to

subject of
be

always

speak roughly

doing

something.
1

Every

sensation

and

idea, every phase of change83 f.

and Explanatory, pp. Descriptive Psychology,

88

THE

CONCEPT

OF

MIND

fill

feeling, may
furnish
out act
; so

be

said

(with
with
a or

no

unmeaning
to

figure

of

speech) to
and
more

the soul
own can

challenge
express

arouse

itself

its
as we

nature,
obtain

its will.

Nay,
the very

far

evidence

concerning
with the

beginnings
of sensations affected active be

of mental and

co-etaneous life,

first of

having being

the

most

primitive experience
and
to

with

pleasurable or By

painful feeling,spontaneity of striving,may designate


. . .

consciousness, psychical doing


conation datum the
...

discerned. and

we

mean

primary
in All add such

indubitable

of consciousness.

All

to psychic lifemanifests itself


one

subject of
own

that

lifeas being,

of its fundamental aspects, its


are

spontaneous activity.

complex psychic facts


to

fully described
such
so

only

when

we

the

phrases

"

I have

sensations, and
and
so
"

recognize equally
this
or

and objects,

feel affected

this other
now

pertinent and
that
way.
. . .

necessary The

declaration,I
follows:
or

act

in

fully developed psychological


as

sion expresthat
or

for conation I

is,then,

I act
or

and feel
or am

I know

act,

"

this know

as

truly as
that

I see, the

hear,

pleasure

pain, and
the is identical any

I have For

sensation,

subject to Indeed,
if

pleasure or pain.
with
statement to

psychology,active
of

consciousness
. .

consciousness upon

activity.
.

based

purely psychological grounds explanation


upon, of
we

and

having
which

do with

the
as

description and
can

of facts

of consciousness, affirms of fundamental Yet in the least the

such,
continual

be

depended
here

it is that
as sciousness con-

presence

conation reach

activity. Indeed,
of all

the

most

psychic phenomena."1
intellection
a

again: "Primary
sense a

is not mental

so

much

faculty closely

of

being
of

form

of

life other

separable, at
most

by

process

abstraction, from
that very

allied forms conditions others in


1

; it is rather

which activity

furnishes related process


219.

to the

formation of

of every

psychosis as

to

the

stream

consciousness; it is the

of

and Explanatory, Psychology,Descriptive pp. 212, 215,

THE

CONCEPT

OF

MIND

89

elaboration
. . .

indispensable for
as

tbe
so,

formation

of

all

faculty.
must

Regarded

activity(and
that form of elaboration and
.

pre-eminently,it

be

regarded),

it is the

psychic energizing

which

accomplishes
life and
more

of all

materials, the organization

of all processes of mind.


. .

forces, the development of the total

Every

psychosis,
may
seem

however
to

elementary comprising it, feelings,


ness consciousside

simple
than for much

such
sum

psychosis
such

be, is something

the

of the so-called
a

elements

"

example,

complex

of

sensations, such

so

conation, as content,

etc.

Evert/state of
on

is not

only capable of being regarded


of consciousness, it
"

the

of
on

passivecontent
the side
term

must

also be
. .

regarded
The
.

consciousness. of active discriminating of the mind consciousness


one
'

very

'faculties which

implies different
discriminates

forms

of functioning

while
...

assigning
In criticism be said

them

all to the of the

subject of psychical states


it

popular figuresof speech regarded


as one as

scarcelyneed

that

consciousness

and objectively discriminated,

consciousness
two

regarded
it were,
cause or

discriminating activity, are


and the
same

only
"

sides, as
There

of

consciousness. those

is scant who

for

wonder,
or

then, that
even

chologists psy-

deny,

overlook,

unduly
should
"

minimize
no

this

conative

aspect of all consciousness


of
an

find the

dence evi-

of the presence
ena

"active arise

agent
some

in

phenom-,.'
extreme

of consciousness.
a

Hence

of the most studied of


as an

opinions of
science inferences

psychology that, whether


or as a

cal empiriand

rational ulterior

system

assumptions
mental
or

regarding the
thinks
to

explanations of
the so-called is there that

nomena, pheMind. ally gener-

dispense with
for wonder of the
so

Soul

Just

as

little
no

reason

people

take which
cannot

account

negative or agnostic metaphysics


an means. man

results
even

from

defective what it

empirical science; they


For may be however able little
to tell in

comprehend

the

uninstructed psychologically
1

See

"

and Explanatory," Descriptive Psychology, pp.

288 f.

90

THE

CONCEPT

OF

MIND

an

and intelligible of himself


as

defensible

way,

what

he

means or a

by speaking

having,
is

or

being, a
to

soul this be

mind,

what fact

he

does

reallymean
consciousness
aware

due chiefly

unassailable

of his and basis

of

activity.
this
construct

To

doing something, experience


on

to be

of

it,
"

is the

very their

the the

of

which, chiefly, men

conception of they
of

Self; and by being

they could, perhaps,


a

easier

tell what
content
no

mean

mind

with

no

definite

sensation,
form of But

ideation, or feeling,
agency of all
or

thought, than

with

definite this

conscious
so

attributable activity
as

to and

Self.

this,in
of

far

it is warranted shall

demanded later
on.

by the

phenomena
Another

consciousness,we

speak
often which

which important fallacy, but

profoundly
the

ences influa

of mind, the^^phTTosbphy defective

originates in
very
nature

psychological science, concerns


itself. any On the
one a

of

conception
that to have actual

hand,
Self
or

it is often

assumed
some how some-

conception of
of
a

Mind, implies
that

envisagement
to

pure,
as a

spiritualBeing,
statical and From

presents itself
one

itself

object (at least, if


strenuous

could

only think, in lofty, non-sensuous,


for its
own

fashion viand

enough)

contemplation.
all the of
most

this false and

ghostly psychology
and
a

emerges

high

dry
to

"doctrineof Subject
disport
itself before

Object, gaping
The

Subject-Object,etc.,
of

crowd

spectators in the
are

metaphysical
selves

show-room.
own

spectators

required
and of
sensuous

to

recognize their
as

concrete, warm-blooded,
in such

duly represented
This, of
course,

pale ghosts
and in

abstract
even

thinking.
many

Hans
more

Bridget,
the

and

another

somewhat

advanced

study
without
to

of

psychologicalphenomena
to

than

these, find it quite impossible


of
;
"

do.
"

Thereupon
make
in
a

the

advocates their

psychology they
think if

soul
and
can

rally in driving

turn

capture

hold

exclusive in

possession the theatre,


out to

only they
This feat

succeed

such

ghosts as

these. the

of

expulsion they expect

accomplish by

strange expe-

92

THE

CONCEPT

OF

MIND

that, really existing,give direction


the existence
as an

to

and
every

make
stream

possible
exists
; it

of the stream. succession of


a

Moreover,

actual

simultaneously existing parts consisting of


disturbances But
to
as as

exists, all

at once,

as

stream

sections the
a

with

varying depths throughout


misuse of the

and

different

of

surface

its entire

length.
stream,"
existence

it

involves

complete
states

figureof speech
"a

call the

successive any such

of consciousness and of totality

though
this
were

nency permafor of the


sciousness con-

realityof
"

implied
"

this succession. each

In this so-called
wave, to
comes so

stream

section,each
ceases

into
too

being only
that and
next

as

the

next
one

preceding
come

be;
so

did

preceding
the next

into its
wave

being ;

will

the next

yet
we

succeeding
matter

begin

to be.

Where, then, shall


ing reality answer-

find,no
that
or

how

closely we
a

search, any
Mind

to this fiction of
"

permanent

subject of changing states,


the
;

is, of
over

real

being,

for

something
ceaseless

more cession, suc-

than,
The

and

above, the passing being, in


states? of the

of the discussion

conscious

metaphysical problems
the

raised be

by

this

faithful in due

description of
time. For of such the
a

psychic

facts

will
one

attempted
admit the

present, however,
without description

may

truthfulness

any

great distress.
be tially par-

Or,

at

any

rate, risings of distressful


one

feeling may reality of


a

allayed if
in mind.

will
to

keep
see

two

or

three

important
the

truths

It is hard is to admit
or

how

the

Soul, if
any fulness truthself any

only

one

that

there
a

is such

loses reality,

of its interest of such


as

value

by

confession one's One

of the

general
ask

picture of
drawn.

experiences with might, indeed,


at to

one's of

has

just been

stream

of consciousness
as a

that for pure do

appeared
admission

the court the

of metaphysics of of

candidate this than


not

kingdom
kind ? Would

reality(and realityother
the soul

in

: What facetiousness)

this

you

then, indeed,
other kind

want
a

itself choose

to be any

of

real stream

THE

CONCEPT

OF

MIND

93

than entire

just
at

this?

Would

it

prefer to exist,
a

as

soul, in
or a

its

psychicallength, like
one

meadow

brook ?

mighty
mind

river,
But

and
our

the

same

instant

of time
to

it is not with

present purpose

minister the
cure

to

diseased
some

metaphysical agnostics,by
We wish pure rather
to show

of whole-*

laughter.
the very

that to
to

expect any

envisagement
mistake and

of the

being
of the
a

of mind of

take

place is
from

to

nature

process

conception itself;
but

this,not primarily from

metaphysical
view. demands of its the of such

rather is the
are

scientific and of mind the

psychologicalpoint of only
to

Nor

concept
upon stance in-

sufferer

when

made

consciousness of for the itself.


a

furnish, in proof presentation of


thing is
true

reality,some
an

concrete

realityas
every

object
"

The

same

concept,

of
as

concept of the

most

real material of pure


"

existences, as well

of

the most For that the

ghostlyconcept
indubitable itself

being spiritual
here form
a

"

so

called. is

truth psychological is

pertinent
of mental succession

conception

only
a

complex
under

functioning; it
of ideation one's and of

is

always

process other Let


one

involving
laws ransack
a

psychoses related
consciousness
or a

to each

of the
same a

life of way

thought.
for

in the

one's chemist
or

concept of
ransack of
some

horse,

dog,

tree,
for

star; let the


an

his

consciousness

his

concept of
; the
or

atom,

tion particular combinahis

of atoms

physiologisthis, for product


will
ever

concept of
"

some

bodily function
of these of

of

bodily functions,
come

and with

neither the kind

searchers

face

to

face

object which
realistic

he

seeks.

Here

is where has
as

the false
as

logical psychoharm
to
an

ism theory of conceptual


a

done has

much done

metaphysics
which
at

of

mind the

been

by

agnosticism metaphysics
based forced

denies

possibilityof having
of

any

all. the

Respecting
upon
to the

theory psychological
facts of
u :

conception,
we are

as

the actual

consciousness,

then

following conclusions

Concepts, judgments,

94

THE

CONCEPT

OF

MIND

and

trains

of

reasoning

are

themselves,
of them

in

actuality,only
life."
*

established

forms

of the movement

of mental
"

[The
may

description and
be

explanation
to the
"

whatever trains
"

they
of

concepts of, or
"

judgments about,

or

reasoning
life and

leading to
and

belong

morphology
actual

of intellectual

development.]
the

Or, again: "Conception, judgment, regarded


of words
as

reasoning must
in

all be
stream

forms the

of

psychoses
do
we

flowing
derive and

consciousness;
certain

rather

designate by
which

these their

successions

of psychoses of their
shown

characteristics

from

the

nature
are

sequence, the states in

of the laws (or fixedforms) which


in this sequence. which
"

by
the that
sciousness con-

of consciousness

Of

conception
to to hold

general, a psychological theory phenomena


"

has
us

regard

actual

of consciousness union of the

compels
the

its process

is

reproductive function
"

of

with latter

the
act

thinking function,
of

essence

of the

being

the

judging."3
of
we

Thus

the

psychological
to consist

of universality in
' "

the

process that
'

conception
are
'

is found

the

consciousness

mentally representing as
what
we are

belonging together,
and

'

as as

really related,
manifold; that
what is

is

given

in

sense

imagination
identical in

mentally
tion presentaand other into

representing as
as

experienced
time

in

various,
without

respect of place and

contents,

this To

variety
the
"

itself

being brought
to

consciousness."
"

discover which

peculiar character belongs


of the

of the of
sider con-

reproductive
the

function

process
must

conception, the empirical changes


that
go

science
on

psychology
of
as

in the
are

processes

tive representa-

image-making,
"condensation,"
ideas.4 While the and the

and

that

known of these
nature

the

"fusion," images
into
or

"freeing"

mental of the

psychological

thinking
all

function, of

activityof judging,

which

enters

and Explanatory, p. Psychology, Descriptive


2 4

430.

Ibid., p. 437.

"

Ibid., pp. 439 f.

Comp. ibid.,chaptersxii. and

xiii.

THE

CONCEPT

OF

MIND

95

actual
note
"

processes

of

conception,is
is
a

understood
"

only

when

we

that

judging, too,

process, of

to

speak figuratively,
is

and

that the

"synthesis

judgment

accomplished by
of consciousness,
waves

flow, in determinate

direction, of the
two

stream

intelligentlyuniting
stream
so

successive

of laws

this

that

they belong together under


"

the

which

govern

the

whole.

Psychologicallyconsidered,then,
ask wise
as a

it is

foolish

question to
other-'

whether
come

we

can a

indeed

immediately envisage, or
sort

to

knowledge of,the Ego, Mind, Soul, or changeless Being,


its
own
"

Self,
and
"

pure

and

of statical To
"

abstract such
a

object for

self-contemplation.
it would
as

realize

concept of mind
nature

be

necessary

to

change

the

essential the

of mind function
no

it is

cises capable of, and actuallyexercept con-

complex
is at

of,conception. But, then, the


these of any

of mind If
or one

peculiardisadvantage in being whatever


confidence

regards. reality,
can

is asked

to conceive

in this way, the

else

required to relinquish all identity of


latter
course.

in

unity, and
take the

such

being, why, then,


it is
a

one

only flimsy
which

But which
can

shallow such
a an

and

psychological science
as

propose else

alternative

this

either

no

metaphysics, or
the in

metaphysics
renders of mind the

the examination The

of fundamental all this upon time. and But

psychic facts philosophy treating of


not be

absurd. will be

bearings of
in
an

examined mind human


as

due

concept of
of
common

actual

incontestable
case

phenomenon
of

consciousness, the
a

must

prejudiced at
the

the

beginning by
of A

false

psychological theory
too

nature

conception itself.
which fallacy, third^ psychological the of often
nature

warps and

and tions rela-

dwarfs

philosophicaltheory
is
a

of the real

mind,

false
it
a

or

inadequate
never

view

of

knowledge.
knowledge,
If there

For

8e(f -knowledge, if not,


as

can

be

more

than

certainlyneed
1

matter

of course,

be less.
447.

Psychology,Descriptiveand

Explanatory, p.

96

THE

CONCEPT

OF

MIND

is any

one

subject in
the the
one

the

consideration has
cut

of which

speculative
an

theory, on
of

hand,

itself free from


on

nation examiother
sciousness con-

undoubted scientific obscured

psychic facts, and, descriptionand


the Hence
more

the

hand, alleged
has

explanation of
works the

important facts,it
on

is this

subject of knowledge.
of and which obvious

immortal
"

Theory
"

Knowledge,
Fichte's
soar

such

as

Kant's

Kritik
"

der reinen

Vernunft,

various aloft upon

treatises the

on

Wissenschaftslehre,"
far
too

wings
and

of

speculation in phenomena
mortal and

disregard of
Hence also in

actual those

concrete

of knowledge.

decidedly
of

deservedly
get
than
no

perishable essays
further in their

psychological science
the and

(?)which
factors the is

examination

phenomena through
it

to

recognize the knowledge


But

sensational

image-making
comes a

of that

of one's

self which itself is

senses.
a

knowledge
of the

psychosis;

mental
at

phenomenon
hands

demanding
student

description and
be found

explanation
And

the

of scientific

psychology.
in any

if the

adequate explanation cannot


or

psycho-physical
much the

physiologicalor
worse

statistical

researches,why, then, so
as

the

for their
sources

scientific

alleged satisfactoriness of psychology. It is


assumes

true

only truly that logical psycho"

science, like all science,


its possibility, like itself, the actual

knowledge,
But this
a

its

possession,etc.
assumed,
much mental
"

assumption
mental ! this
"

phenomenon
more,

is also

nomenon. phe-

Nay,
,is
we

and

more.

Knowledge

just the might


when

one

all

important
warrant

phenomenon;
mental

this is

say

with

the

all-embracing, perfectly phenomenon.


it you
at

patent, and
And

yet deeply mysterious,


you have described and all and

explained
"

find
as

yourself

to

have

described in it
"

explained
the factors

least

indirectly included
mental be life and of
a

and

phases
has
"

of

mental so-called of

development.
scientific those

What, however,
which
"

can
no

expected

psychology
called

satisfactoryscience

psychoses

acts

or

THE

CONCEPT

OF

MIND

97

"states

"

of

knowledge
the it be

to

propose?
or

If it the

inadequately nizes, recogfacts of all


edge, knowlthose for in

or

explains away,
immediate

denies

and

inferences
serve as a

implicated

facts,will Now,
without involved And that that

likely to
truths of is for
a

basis satisfactory

establishingthe

se"/-knowledge?
psychical fact
this
cannot

knowledge
it;
the

be denied of course,
at

assuming
in

assumption
to

is,

very

proposal
a

have

any

science
cannot

all.

self-knowledgeis assuming it; for proposal to


we are

psychicalfact assumption
the conviction with

be denied/ in all. and

without the Here very

this any

too

is involved
at

have

psychological science
how
a

again
all

met

with
pursue

inane

futile is the from how

proposal to
or

science

perfectfreedom
free with

metaphysical
from

ontologicalassumptions whatever;
futile is the

inane peculiarly science

and all

proposalto
the

logical psychorespect

ontological assumptions identity of


not

to

the !

unity, and reality,


For this is the of the

so-called

Self,or
it is'

Mind

(though
called

the

only) distinguishing!
I

feature
even

psychosis
as

"knowledge," "that

when

regarded

mere

seen phenomenon, necessarily

to be

ontological.
of knowing activity
the
cannot
or

The

be

performed
inference
of this

without

volving in-

envisagement,
falls in

the way

valid short of

of,reality. something
cannot

Activity which
less than

any The

is

knowledge.

object
exist

knowledge
mental

be

or presentatively,

or brought inferentially, representatively,

into

consciousness,cannot
known.
To
or or

at

all

as

object, tively objecreally,


mind. do
not

without

of implicating the reality be


an

that which

is thus is to be

object of knowledge
and

here Mental reach

and

now,

then

there,for
there so-called the may

the be

knowing
which of

activities

processes
as

reality,
"

such
or

the

having

sensations,
trains ing the holdare

of mental of pure and processes

images,

of

or feelings,

conducting of
or ideals,
"

thought, or
of

the creation of
mere

of bare

cherishing

beliefs,

but

they

not

knowledge.

98

THE

CONCEPT

OF

MIND

And whatever

to be

an

object of knowledge
be said about
"

is to be of

known

as

real ; of

must

objects
and

imagination,

thought
mind. from

and

of the "opining belief, the

the endeavor
as an

of the

Finally, when
the

activityconsidered
of

psychosis, activity of
as

psychological point self-knowing,


are

view,

is

so-called

its fundamental

characteristics When
or

knowledge knowledge
the

in

no

respects changed.

the

object of
mental its fundaknown

is the

so-called

Self, or Mind,

Ego,
and

as characteristics,

object constituted
in
no

by

knowing
very the and

process, effort

are

respect changed.
describe of and

The

to faithfully

analyticallyto
which
a

explain genuine
us

mental

phenomena
follow:

knowledge,

thorough psychological science


conclusions
"

requires,leads
by psychologists

to

such

as

"Two

important general

considerations
"

almost

uniformly

overlooked

concern

the scientific

description of cognitive states


are

of consciousness.
course

(1) They
From

reached the

as

the

result

of

of

development.
is
a

psychological point of view


And
.

knowledge

development.
we 1

(2) This

particular

development,which
of the mind.
the
"

call More form of

'

knowledge,'involves
"

ties all the activi-

particularly, knowledge implies


of intellectual

exercise

of every

activity.
the mental
is

edge Knowlact
more

implies the having discriminatingamong


than nable

sensations, and
but
to know

of

them;

something
and mental

merely
ways. but
to

to

be

sensuously
also is not
or

affected

in

various

discrimi-

Knowledge
know
not

implies memory
to

tion; imaginaimages, faculty


is

merely
with is

have

whether

identified

ence. previous presentativeexperipossible unless


is the which relating activity,

Again,
of

no

knowledge
of

judgment

is

operative; unless knowledge,


we

of the very process.


most

essence

prominent

in the

cal psychithe and the

And and

yet

rightly distinguish between


of

elaborate
we
1

highly developed logical thinking things


or

what

call

knowledge

of

Self.
509.

Not

and Psychology,Descriptive

Explanatory,p.

100

THE

CONCEPT

OF

MIND

reinen nunft For from


to
room

Vernunft," ")
and is
a

and

the

"Kritik
between

der

praktischen
and
as

Ver-

false distinction

faith

knowledge. separated
is

faith is conceived

of, by this great thinker,

opposed
be

to

knowledge regard
to

; and

knowledge objects in
the

supposed
that

be

removed may

with found

certain But of the

order

for faith.

undoubted

psychic
such in
must

fact,the
be stated and from When

obvious
as

characteristic
"

psychosis as
belief

follows

Knowledge

involves

reality ;
such. the

it is
mere we

just
know

this

which

chiefly distinguishes knowledge


or

imagining, remembering,
any

thinking,
as

as

object,it
as a

is not

merely

object for
some

knowing
that
we as itself,

process, know it.

but

'being' existing in
belief
or

state,

When
to

the

conviction

attaching
ciently suffithe
some

it were, clear and


may

the

realityof
one an

the

being

becomes I know

strong, then
say this with

may

say,

object, and
character be

emphasis bearing
belief.
. . .

proportion to brought
a

the

strength
in belief,

of the
contrast

The other

specific
since the it

of this
out

with

beliefs, may
to
'

by calling it 'metaphysical.' And

is not
nature

but belongs particularacquired belief,

very
'

of

knowledge
In

as

such, it may
without

be

called

rational and

and

instinctive.

brief,then, impossible.

this rational

yet

instinctive that

belief, psychological (?)metaphysical analysisshows


is In
...

knowledge

maintaining only
state to

that

metaphysical development
scientific

faith

lies at the basis

of all the
we

existence
a

and
as

of human

knowledge,
finds
"

fact

psychology
"

it,and
to

is

obliged

leave

it for

philosophy
If,
now,
as

if thus

possible
much
away

explain." *
discussion may be and certain
current nature

of

preliminary

regarded

doing
of

with

negative
and

agnostic conclusions
the process of

respecting the
also
as

validity of
a

conception,and
the

establishingon
of view from

basis which the

psychological science
discern

certain
more

points

clearly to
1

positive truths

respecting
514

Psychology, Descriptiveand

Explanatory, pp. 513,

f.

THE

CONCEPT

OF

MIND

101

same

subject,there
of and

is A

no

need

to

dwell the

long

in

further

details

exposition.

descriptionof
the
to include

origin,nature,
as an

development,
actual
:

of significance bound

concept of mind,
the life from
"

psychosis,is
That

following particulars
which
as

state, or

of activity,
to which

mental

this
"

concept is derived, and


with
or ever

it returns of content
"

it
same

were

richer

contributions
"

to the

state act
tent con-

is activity,

called

self-consciousness.
some

In

every

of

however, self-consciousness,
of is to be found. of
some

discernible definitely of

sensation,of imagining, Every


"

thinking, and
of

of

feeling

such
as

act
a

a consciousness is,therefore,

complex state,
of consciousness
are

state

having
all

such

sensations,
far
as

images, thoughts, and


state

feelings ;
can

and

these,so

each

be described kinds

content-wise. which
seem

Moreover, there
to stand in
to are,
a

certain

of sensations and
act

peculiarlyintimate
content

inseparable relatively
of

relation These

the

of

every such

self-consciousness.
as are

chiefly,either
vital

sensations

only

obscurely localizable,although they belong intraorganic and


found
to
on

to

peculiarly
as are

processes;

or

they
"

are
"

such

accompany
account

all the of their

so-called

pure with the the

activities fixation

of and

mind,
which

connection with these


tone

redistribution

of

attention,and
accompany
a

feelings of
or,

effort

customarily
are

processes; of

again, ful pain-

they

such

as

have

strong

pleasurableor being,
the

which feeling

for forbids",

the

time of

objective
so

reference

of the sensation-elements
or

consciousness,and
of these

compels
to the

favors,the subjectivereference
as

elements

Ego,

its states. in the of various


concrete acts

Furthermore,
(sometimes

of of be

sciousness, self-con-

either
one

these

different

classes
may

sensations

and

sometimes

another)

relatively

emphasized
Hence and

in the

complex
the

sensation-content of the

of consciousness.

different

organs

body get personified


but

identified with

Self, or

Soul,

only

with

it

as

102

THE

CONCEPT

OF

MIND

having
Thus

such

concrete

and

particularform
that stirred
"

of experience. joy or
anger
sorrow;
or

sometimes it is the

it is the "bowels
"

"heart" that
"

feels with

again
;

are

tite appe-

yet again, it is the


down with

head

that

is

loftywith
of

pride, or

is cast
on

humility, etc.

Different

individuals, too,
temperament
of self
as or cretely con-

account

of characteristic

differences

of

experience, become
denned How

customarily conscious
this

by different forms

of the sensation-content

of

consciousness. in
we a

psychologicallaw operates
by the
what the and
case

is illustrated If

very them
or as

interestingway
to

of children.

question
the "1"

find

out
or

understand they chiefly

tby

the both

"Me"

"Self," which

they
any

set

for

themselves declarative found


to

subject

object

of

sentence
are crete con-

of vary of

their its

self-conscious localization which


aware.

experiences, they
according
are, to

bodily being,

the

form for the

activityof
time

they

ness by self-consciousthe
"

With
arms,

"

that

loves and
set

they identify the embracing


the

the
"

swelling heart,
"

lips used

for

kisses ; with and fists, has

the the

that

hates,the
and

teeth, the
into which in adult

clenched the hatred

swelling

chest
were.

heart,

as poured itself,

it

So, too,
for

experience, that part being


one seems

of the

very

self of which

the time
to the

most
more

conscious,changes according
or

characteristics

of the

less

localized definitely Under

sensation-content

of the with
now

experience. particular larger part


my of my in
may

bodily
and the

sufferingI
with
now

am,

the in

very
my

self, suffering
abdomen,

the in
my

pain

head,
as
we

now

back.

Thus, too,
of the disordered

facetiously say, digestivecanal


disease of the

self-consciousness of his the


own

the dyspeptic is chiefly stomach


man

ness conscious; but

and with and

self-consciousness consciousness

of the of the

heart of

is the this

labored

irregular action Self, which


that of

organ.

Once

more, the

that

individualization of A

of

terizes characB

self-consciousness

from

is,

THE

CONCEPT

OF

MIND

103

undoubtedly, in

no

small For

degree
what

matter

of different Self

kinds
no

of sensation-content. less

each

is to itself is
some

truly different than what Yet, further, so changed may


time with

each the

Self is to

other

self.

sensation-content either in

of the

experience
considerable
may

of self-consciousness
or

become,

lapse
that

of

comparative suddenness,
by saying, "I
I
"

one

emphasize
Self from of the and

the

change
which

seem

to

myself ing changof


race-

another
age

that

once

was.

With

the

individual, the changing characteristics


race-environment,
and form the of

heredity
and forms

changing degrees
content,
which
or

of all

culture, this

the

belongs
diminish But

to

self-consciousness, may
and alter in

greatly enlarge quality.


any
one

in when

extent

complex
upon with

the

psychologist seizes
and identifies

form all

of
scious con-

sensation-content
content but

it not of

only

also all consciousness


one

functioning,and
instinctive he

then faiths

sinks and

in this

aspect of sensation
inferences
most

all the

implicated
of wonder that

of

self-knowledge,
defect
out

becomes

guilty
No

another

inexcusable which
sets

and
so

fallacy.

thinking
of

from

pitifully meagre
so a

psychologicalanalysis should
a

conclude
are

with

wofully narrow
recent at

philosophy
on

mind.

We

told his

by
own
'

brilliant

writer
'

psychology,1 that,
'

in

case

least, " the


to consist in the

Self of

selves, when
of the

examined, carefully
of these

is found motions
on

mainly
or

collection the head

peculiar
And

head,
the "our

between
as

and

throat."

this

basis that

conclusion,
entire

defensible, is ; scientifically
of

reached what

feeling
nature

spiritual activity,or
is is of
in

commonly
activities This Hence

passes whose is "the follows view" is

by that
exact

name,

reallya feeling of j
by
our

bodily

most

men

looked." over-

real

nucleus

personal

tity." identhe in

the conclusion of
"

philosophy that
no

"substantialist

the

Soul for

has

standing

experience,and
1

quite

needless

expressing the
i. pp. 301 f.

actual

James, "The

of Psychology," vol. Principles

104

THE

CONCEPT

OF

MIND

subjective phenomena
while "Transcendentalism the

of

consciousness is

as

they

"

appear

only
a

Substantialism and

grown
'

shame-faced, and
of the Now man's soul."
we

Ego only
venture
as

'cheap deny
he the

nasty

edition

shall

not

to

testimony
his

of any

consciousness

to where

localizes
a

dominant effort to the

bodily sensations
conceive sensations well the of the of such

whenever and self,


a

he

makes

concentrated

to observe

the effect upon of effort. All

bodily
with

concentration different different

this may
even

enough
same

differ with in

and individuals,
concrete acts

individual

of

sciousness. self-conto

Indeed, there
that great differences known localized exist.

is abundant But

testimony
the definite

prove selfof cedure profound


tent con-

to resolve

entire

Self,even
; and

"content-wise," into
is
a

any

form

bodily sensations,
this
stream
no

quite

unwarrantable be

less so, however

impossible it
from the of

to

purify the

of self-consciousness Even the author


a

all such

of sensation.

hypothesis just
that
over

cited, after "dallying with


and of above his

it for
"

while,"
is
an

admits
obscurer must

bodily sensations
"

there

feeling
edly undoubt-

something
be but

more.

Some
not

such

conclusion
a

admitted; and
of

only

feeling

of

"something
itself. For

more,"

however something different, of sensation-content


one

persistently any
assert

particular form just as


localized is
soon as

may

detects
or

in consciousness the head

the
and

sensations
one

"in

the

head,
to

between

throat,"
as

equally compelled
the

speak
as

of these the and

sensations

states even,

which

Ego has, not


all that purposes
as

all that

Ego is,
"

not

by any
now

means, For

it knows of

feels

itself here with

and the

to be.

complete
the and

identification constitution

self-known "Self whit the of


more

Self,or

forming
head than that

whole throat

of the
not
a

selves," these
competent
The in
utmost
cases

feelings are
the of them

feelings in
can

or finger-tips

in

toes.

be most

affirmed

is that

perhaps

certain

they

persistentlyaccompany

THE

CONCEPT

OF

MIND

105 It is

all the

individual's
to

efforts in

at

self -consciousness.
acts at

one

thing
we

say

that

all concrete
some

of self-consciousness

find

ourselves

having
and
are,

least
to
or

obscurely localized
say felt that these
us as

bodily sensations,
sensations identical What
true

quite another
or are

ticular par-

regarded
Self.

by

being,
is also

with

our

entire of all

very

is true

particularbodily all,considered
we

sensations

of

particular mental feelings.


These
states

images, particular thoughts, particular "content-wise," are


ourselves But whenever
we

emphasized perform change

as

in' which

find

the act
so

of self-consciousness. while and with and

justbecause
same

they

notably,
processes

essentiallythe
the every
same

underlying

intellectual

metaphysical faith, or
of the self-consciousness, their
now

leap to reality, goes images, thoughts,


ness,

act

with feelings,
as now

actual
;

concrete-

must

be I

regarded
here and

here

and

mine

but

they

are

not
to

all that be. For


"

know, feel,and
of that author

believe

myself logical psycho-

to

return

to

denial the

fundamental

fallacywhich
all

leads

just quoted
in all

to resolve

feelingof

so-called
"

"spiritualactivity" into peripherally


the truth I
am

located
cases

sensations

is that

actual, concrete
am

of self-consciousness active.
to

active, and
all that of

conscious and know

of

being
of

Never
mere

can

I resolve

I am,

myself

be, into

passive content
Whenever I
am

feeling,much

less catch with

bodily sensation.
in
a

I self-conscious,

myself, not only


some

state

of

being passivelyimpressed feeling, but


core

form

of

sensation, and
Indeed the

also

in the act of of
my
sciousness consome

doing somewhat.

and of and

centre

of self is the consciousness

functioning in
no

particular way,
to

of

being active
of

thus

otherwise. is not
as

For
an

talk

of

consciousness of

Self
of

that

really
as a

a activity, or
a

form

functioning,a
to

conation
an

well

sation sen-

feeling,is
selves

talk I

absurdity.
and

And
ever

that my

"Self

of

the

"which

seek

find, if

106

THE

CONCEPT

OF

MIND

search
and

is

the is chiefly successful, self. and of This


an

here Self is

and
no

now

concretely
is not is

actuallyactive
consciousness
at

For
act

self that
act

doing something;
not
a

of

which seli-consciousness,
an

is not seli-activity, "active itself


as

of

sciousness ^/-conand

all.

agent," actually here


active, is indeed
of the
no

now

active

and

knowing

cendental trans-

being, up aloft in the heavens Ithen


with is neither the thin is it

metaphysics ;
slime,
or

but

submerged beneath
of

covered It of

varnish,

purely empirical psychology.


is active
to

just that

active

agent which
self-known in

in

the

process

self-consciousness, and
called

be

active; and

it is
as

agent

because

it acts be of

being self-conscious,and, agent.


For
any

object,finds
find No
,

itself to
acts

active

analysis of
does not

I actual, concrete

self-consciousness
is

which

this

agent active
we

there

simply inadequate analysis.


that all
men

wonder,

remark such
to
scorn

again,
the

stare

at

the

expositionwhich
and then

psychology gives of

the mind

psychic
which

facts ; builds

laugh
such
to

philosophyof

itself upon In order of

psychology.
attain
any

concept of mind,
rather and

however,

cess pro-

reflective

thinking (or
basis of the

repeated
this

processes
must

of reflective

thinking)
the
acts

is necessary;

process

proceed

upon

concrete

experiences
The result what

had

in

the individual process

of self-consciousness. is to the

of this is actually
as

of reflection in

explicatefor thought

implicated
already
and is itself
been

concrete

experiences. But,
very

has

repeatedly affirmed, this product (the


a

reflective

ing think-

its so-called

formed and

concept of mind)
to

actually always anything


shall
as

process;

expect that
the

it

shall be

else is to

expect that, somehow,


be
a

concept

of mind

really not
the
acts true

concept

at

all. reminds
on

Moreover,
the which
concrete

view psychological

us,

all of formed, per-

of

self-consciousness,
the

the

basis
are

the

generalizations resulting in

concept

themselves

imply thinking activity. They

also

imply

108

THE

CONCEPT

OF

MIND

are

questioned
various of Self the the
as

either

directlyor
of their from that in

by

indirect
"

observation every
man.

of

the

expressions
differs

thoughts

man's

notion

of every

other
more

Since,
by
be of

however,
far than

concept of Mind concept of the


"

general is

abstract may

Self, more
of the

agreement

expected
the different different

to the

marks

"

former

concept than
different

latter.
races

Yet and

different different of

individuals, at
stages and
other

ages,

types of civilization,
institutes sive expresent differ-

schools

philosophy and

of the notions

highest
as

results of reflective the


nature

thinking,reveal How,
concept formed
; it

to

of mind. For of every


race

indeed, could
in the

this be otherwise mind of


man

than
a on as

so?
matter

is also

development
mind,
race.

implies
as same an

intellectual

growth
also

the
a

part of each
of the and

not At

only
the

individual,but
time certain indubitable
some

member

permanent
and that
"

faiths

assumptions,
of

certain
"

unchanging
are

experiences
for every It

knowledge,
the
to

factors all

the be mind
as

same

concept of mind,
is

by
and and

minds,

may of

discovered.
to
are

business

of the

philosophy
them

discover found the

these,

explicate
of

expound

they

actually implicated

relativelyunrecognized general also,it


which For the

in

growing experience
is the

mankind. In
/course
now

appears

clear what

natural
sues. pur-

development
the of

of the

concept of mind

children, and
of the
race,

in childish
more

individuals, and
and and
or sensuous

for the ments, elevital

childhood the

concrete

elements
a

bodily sensation
and Self. be true

of

warm

feeling having
dominate of

pronounced

pleasurable
For of

painful tone,
the process

imagination, memory,
the what

thinking, in
such
"

forming

concept of the
is known
to

velopment stages of deself is and each

"my

thought
of every

to be true

of the mind

of the other I
am

self than

me,

other
act of

than

myself.

then

to

myself, in
sensuous

concrete

a chiefly self-consciousness,

bodily self,warm

THE

CONCEPT

OF

MIND

109

with

some

kind

of

and feeling, other

doing something
are

in
as

fest mani-

bodily way.
to

And

selves in

conceived But

of
even

similar in this has upon the

myself;

so

also

of minds

general. thinking
is

low
been

stage of development, if genuine self -consciousness

reached, and
basis

if reflective

has

operated
For

the

of

self-consciousness, there
the

undoubtedly thinking, and


states to

feelingand
conscious

thought
of

of

"something
of

more."

genuine
of
an

self-consciousness reference in

implies acts
more

reflective

mental distinctively these forms made of


to

agent active
are

them;

and

functioning,too,
contribute of self
to

and self-felt, self-cognized, result in the form itself of that achieves. character

the
flective re-

total

concept
So

which

thinking

that, by

insensible of selfthe

degrees it

is

the likely,
becomes

of the concrete
;

acts

consciousness

changed
upon

and, in
basis Those

consequence, of these

concept of mind
acts
are

derived

the

concrete

becomes

profoundly
of
as

modified.

activities

which

spoken

peculiarlyspiritualbecome
is the Self known and vital

more relatively as

emphasized.
exclusive

Then

to itself

imagining, v
without the

remembering, feeling,thinking,
so

planning,
and

dominance

of

the

sensuous

bodily

functions. When the


ceases

human

being,

no

matter

how

young which

or

tored, untu-

relativelyfrom
in idea the

those down
or

activities with thinks of


an

size emphait were, for the

the and

bodily functions,sits
past,
some

as itself,

recalls
or

out

plans
becomes

future,
"

reflects upon

problem
self."

abstract

ter, characaware

if it observes so-called
to
or
"

itself

it self-consciously,

of

this

"spiritual
certain the these less

True,
"about

it may the but

still head

be and

forced

notice around than is not

sensations eyes, is
now or

throat,"
more

elsewhere;
the chief

the

thing "some-

part of the experience.


statable in
not

It
terms

real, because
On the

it is not

of

sensation-content.

contrary, it is
for the very

statable

in terms

of sensation-content

excellent

110

THE

CONCEPT

OF

MIND

reason

that "other"

it

really is
as

not
as

sensation-content, but
"more." in
more some

is

thing some-

well

Suppose,
that and

still

further, that

moment

of

dawning
somehow should

self-consciousness, in its yet


belief in somewhere

highly developed form,


all

or metaphysical leap, which reality,

surely

enters

into This

knowledge,
sure

itself be it is ism

consciouslyrecognized.
Transcendentalism of mind. But shows it

to be
manner

would

not,

take place in likely,


or

the abstract
as

of Susbtantialforms
"

recognized
it

of the

losophy phi-

might fitlycome actuallydoes


Self
set

and, indeed,
"

experience amply
such in way
as

that the

come

in

some

to awaken

consciousness

of that

distinctness

reality which against,the


as

makes whole will

every

itself off minds is the and

from,
and

and

lover

remainder

of other

of all

things. Here,
that

subsequently appear,
which And

jsecretof
scious self-conthat notions
men

feeling of
lives
can

loneliness have.

only
shall

rational

it be denied their yes,

have

these

experiences, and
and of other minds and and

that from

they get
them,
"

of

themselves and
women

plain men
women,

too, savage
of tender To in years, have

untutored those
not
more

men

and than

children

half

pos com-

mentis? express another it

the

experience
of Jean I

is

one

thing; and
is

to

the

words

Paul the

Richter

quite
in of
are a

thing:

"Never
now

shall

forget

phenomenon
by the birth
of which 1
was

I myself, never

till

recited, when

I stood

jmy

own

the self-consciousness, in
my

place and
a

time forenoon

distinct very
out

memory.

On the

certain

stood,

young toward
'

child, within
the

house-door, and
in
an

looking
tion revelastood
as

wood-pile, as,
like
me

instant, the inner heaven, flashed


I had
seen

am

I,'

lightning
; in

from
moment

and

brightly before
for the With the

that

myself

I,

first time

and

forever

!"
life all
as

development
and

of mental
"

sensation,ideation,
as

conation, feeling,
of this

thinking,

regarded
and

processes

life, processes

in consciousness

consciouslycog-

THE

CONCEPT

OF

MIND

111

nized

states,

"

and

with

the constant
we

accompaniment
It may be

of that and

ontologicalbelief growth
as a

to which

have achieved.

referred, the birth

of

self-knowledge is

regarded

considered, of all these forms resultant,psychologically

of

functioning.
"

So rounds From
As

he to whence

separate mind,
clear memory binds
may

begin,
in,

thro' the frame, that isolation grows

him

His

defined."

For of of

genuine self-knowledgeinvolves
determined succession

the

developed faculties
its

perception,of recognitivememory
time-consciousness,
to
some as

(with
and of

development
ence by refer-

clarified

form

of the

objective events), of
and will. This more"
motor

imagination,
than

reflective

thinking, emotion, bodily sensations


Thus much of

self-knowledge is, indeed, emphatically "something obscurely localized


concomitants. trained specially thus much and
; with
a

their

effects and it needs


no

concept of mind
to
we

powers of adult

of reflection

acquire.
cannot

Indeed, speak
On of the the defensible human

without
a

self-knowledge
human mind.
acts

developed highest,

basis, however,
most

of similar

of self-consciousness, and

comprehensive,
it is to be
a

thoroughly
as

concept of what

"Mind,"
To
"

all

minds

reallyare,
to

is constructed their utmost


"

by

processes

of reflective claim this

thinking, carried
there
new

limits. faculties

is
uses

no

need

to
same

introduce faculties. of mind

new

or so-called,

of the

The aims

philosophicalspecialist's only
and
at

study
what

of the nature

accomplishing
to

all human this

strivingin
is the

science

philosophy aims
the the

accomplish;
data of

highest possible elaboration


supreme

of the

experience, the
The the be. Soul Nor be is

interpretationof simply expounds of what


and the Soul irremovable

nomena. phe*

of mind philosophy
on

theory
to

of what
to itself

the any

basis

appears line

need

sharp
the

of

distinction

drawn

between

conclusions

warranted

by

112

THE

CONCEPT

OF

MIND

psychology biology.
sciences in

alone For

and

those the

warranted

by

anthropology
the

or

only
and of

as

phenomena
to treat

which

latter preted inter-

gather
terms

attempt

scientifically
known the in

are

consciousness,
as

as

ness, self-consciousof which stated mind. he is in

can

they

enter

data from

into

philosophy
circle in

No

investigator asking,
of what I

can

escape

the other be?


cannot

forever
terms

What know

really myself
of mind

are

minds,
For the

as

to

anthropological
at
a

and

biological
of mind these

sciences unless

arrive

real

edge knowl-

they

trust

the

individual's

self-knowledge,
and from which

to

which flow. But

deliverances

may

appeal,

they

may

this

highest point

knowledge
of

of

mind

is

itself,
more

from

the less

psychological
of of actual the
content

view,
to

process the

having
of the

or

according
mind in

degree
it is takes

development
It in is the

individual

which of what

place.

fullest actual other

possible
process,

explication
which the

implicated
of mind

such

an

philosophy going
to to

attempts.
process what every of

In

words,
and

we

are

now

try,

by

lytical ana-

reflective

thinking,

expound

mind
ally actu-

that

has
to

reached be. The

self-knowledge implications
and of

knows that

itself,
concept
as a

as

mind,

of series

mind,
of
to

whose

nature,

genesis,

development,
and

psychic
receive
a

facts,

psychology

presents
and

explains,

are

theoretical

exposition

development.

CHAPTER

IV

THE

REALITY

OF

MIND

ANY
mind be from Without

intelligent
is

discussion and in
what must

of

the
sense, borrow

questions,
if
at

whether

the is
to

real;
to

all, reality

attributed

the

mind,

"

certain

conclusions of

general
some

metaphysics preliminary
it is, of It is

and

from

the

theory
of
to

knowledge.
is
meant

conception
useless evident
to

what

by
the* which

"being
mind each
be is

real,"
real.

course,

inquire
the

whether
answer

equally

that

thinker's real? that will

reflection

gives

the
answer

question,
to

What

is

it to

largely
we

influence call
any

his

the

question:
to

Is,

then,
real?

which

"Mind"

also is
an

entitled
so

be

called gone in

Moreover,
as

if
to

inquirer
whether
or as

already
answer

far
can

agnosticism
to

doubt

be

given
edge knowlticular parmind in

either of

of the

these real

questions,
is

even

to

deny
over

that those of

possible

at

all,

debate

inquiries
may

which

constitute How

the
can

philosophy
one

be

quite
with How of mind
to
a

superfluous.
writer
can one

philosophize
of

company

who

rejects
a

the

possibility
in the

losophy. phiphysics meta-

discuss the
man

question
on

before

who,
all

theoretical

grounds

satisfactory
It would

himself,

abjures

metaphysics
to

whatever? any

be of
as a

unreasonable,
the

however,
of

expect

complete
in of
an

discussion

possibility

metaphysical
for of the

philosophy
discussion Such

general questions

preliminary particular
amount

necessity
branch
to

in

this would

philosophy.
two

expectation

demanding

voluminous

114

THE

REALITY

OF

MIND

treatises
to

on one

the main

branches
on

of

broad

as subject,

tory introducbranches.

treatise

another

of its subordinate
seem

This for of

order
one

of treatment,
on

indeed, might

commendable the construction


our

bent

proceeding most
all discussions demands of

in logically But the

an

entire of
out

philosophical system.
in

from

present
of
to

point

view

philosophy
How

mind have
we

spring
a

of the

psychological science
to this

answer fullyinterpretative

inquiry:
words,

shall

describe faithfully of human

and

satisfactorily explain
In other of of
a

the
it

phenomena
is the

consciousness?
of mind
as a

losophy phi-

the

supplement
branch
us

empirical psychology, metaphysical system, general


field of with ourselves rowing bor-

rather that

than has

as

derivative enticed

just now
We
a

into

the

losophy. phi-

shall

therefore

content

few

of the most of

necessary

conclusions The the


more

from

certain

other

forms and

philosophizing.
defence
be fitly

vation diligent cultidomain time. should


one

thorough
may what

of

entire another

from

which

we

borrow

left for of

And,

first, with

theory

knowledge
the

approach all particularinquiriesin


"~"lngeneral,this question just such
theoretical
desirable
a

philosophyof
its

mind

may

be

answered

by saying, With

theory of knowledge, of its nature,


its
as validity,

bilities, possiany

and

is assumed

in

entering upon
course,
as

discussion. for
us

Only

it is, of

eminently
to what

to

recognize certain
certain than

truths

that

view, fundamentally considered, actuallyis. Now, view,


on

nothing is

more

that

in fact

the

fitting
is not it

approaching any
regard to
a

discussion, philosophical
in

agnostic with
^harbor
so

truth

general;much
as

less does

extreme

negative conclusion

denies the
more

the possibility,

by knowledge, of reaching reality. On


it
assumes

contrary,
dencing self-evi-

the

very

truth, in yet fuller and


all

form, to which
of

analysis thorough psychological


^This

knowledge

draws

attention.

truth, when
be

stated fol-

curtly and

without

qualifications, may

expressed as

116

THE

REALITY

OF

MIND

uable is not
can

as

knowledge, and
serious
can

of

something
or

called valuable it.

"

reality
as

"

which

recognizable or
that
are

attainable

we reality,

scarcelyhave
"we

quarrel with
never

When but

it is

said,

however,
we

know
a

anything
statement

ena," phenomis either of the


most

invited
or

to consider

which

meaningless,
words it

else is

in

every

conceivable

meaning
of the

employs
of

squarely contradictory
each of the the of

obvious A few

facts

experience.
on

thoughts
No
one

positionsjust taken
words

must

suffice.

can

affirm

impossibilityof knowing
the

reality,in reality as
fundamental that in I know
same

such make

meanings
the of

knowledge
the I
cannot

and

affirmation

contradict itself.

undoubted,
tell you

facts that you

knowledge
and I cannot

know,

without the

assuming reality,in
as

this

agnostic proposition both


for
you

of possibility the

knowledge
some

and
you

for and
me.

me,

and And

also

sort, of both
a

inasmuch

you

are

always
I know my
own

"thing"
utterances

to me,
some a

and

I
sort

am

"thing"
of

to you,

unless

that

things in
as

reallyare,

I cannot
even

regard agnostic

communication Here

knowledge
its
upon

from

me

to you.

agnosticism,
the form
you
are same

in

respect of
as

theory of knowledge, splitsupon


which been
extreme

rock

that

idealism I
am us

in the real and know


"

of

solipsism has
real, as things
or,

always
and
we as

wrecked. both
as

minds, and
each
a

of

this to be so; otherwise there be

rather,
not
so

know
as

other

real,

is

much which

standing-place for
the vault

tip-toeto
into

found, from
dark

to

make

downward

the

abyss of

agnosticism.
But
as

for

knowledge
per
as
se

of

beings

per

se,
"

or

of

beings supposed
existence of edge), knowlconcern

to

exist than
as

(if this
or

uper
and

se

means

otherwise
"

actual

conceivable such of
se

objects being
no

to
over

such

knowledge
of

need

be felt

its fate at the hands

agnosticism. For knowledge

such

so-called

knowledge

being

per

is not

at all.

THE

REALITY

OF

MIND

117

This
mean or

declaration

is true

whether

the from
to

phrase be interpretedto
all concrete other

Being
modes exists of

that

is abstracted

attributes
or

activityin
itself. The

relation and

being,
other

Being
in in substituting out withactual

that

totallyisolated
use

apart from

being,

or itself,

by
an

of such
or an

phrases
attempt
as

results think upon the be


no

empty

concept,
in

to

thinking anything experience, for knowledge


"

particular

based
as

the

concept of knowledge
that this such

facts

of

warrant
"

concept should
there which

formed.

Being

per

se,

if any

being

be, is
we

somewhat either
to

about
care or

the
to

of knowing possibility debate. concede all this is

need

But

freelyto
to

quite

another
but

thing from phenomena


a

consenting
can

the

proposition that nothing


For
we can no more

be pure

known.

speak
of pure but

of

knowledge
as

of

phenomena
"

"

that
a

is, of phenomena
of the this

merely f
or

phenomena being
not

than
se.

of

knowledge

being,

of is

per

Knowledge
at

nothing
very may

phenomena

knowledge
to

all.

For

phrase "nothing
be) reveals
"

but" tion intentrasted con-

whatever (or its equivalent,

an

employ
with and
to

the

word

"

phenomenon
of

as

sharply
suggests

exclusive be

reality.
as mere

It

that
mere

phenomena
seemings,
does
not

are mere

considered

appearances,

apparitions.
"

It is thus
"

implied that Reality


the

belong
even

so

to

speak
an

to

object

of

sciousness, conas

when said

it is

objectof knowledge.
have

But,

has

already been
and

in another words

connection, the word

nomenon pheing mean-

all kindred

absolutelyno
is. And
mere

except
some

as

implying
the is

some

particularbeing of which,

and

being to which,
this word does reality, the the

phenomenon

all the more, appearance, the

when with of

sharply contrasted, as
it forbid
our

doing away
all into
as

with

concept
but

reality,or
On real

resolving of
with

nothing
mere

nomena. phe-

contrary, phenomenon
which the

appearance of ance appear-

implies

existence

contrast

is made.

118

THE

REALITY

OF

MIND

When,

however,
be

the

inquiry
whence

is

started, Where
our

is such of it

reality to
and

found, and
are

does

conception

we originate?

compelled

both

by empirical psychology
to

by the theory of knowledge


in

alike And

respond: Inknowlwe

edge and
the

knowledge
it were,

only.
and

thus

have
same

completed
ultimate

circle,as
This
but

reached

again

the

truth.

is the

distinguishingcharacteristic,and mysterious
fact the of all sound

indubitable
or

knowing,

that

it is either of real of

the

envisagement
of real

logical

inference

beings, and
these Not

happenings

in the states and

relations

beings.

infrequently, however, agnostic


with that is face

the

localization of the
the moment he which is

pains

of

the extreme face


to

changed

brought is, as
it

ontological inquiry

inquiry. Who, /were, the other half of the epistemological sort of realityis, indeed, could be found to deny that some
somehow,
and

knowable,
however

"

or,

rather, is actually known,


is

ever whenthis

there

knowledge
to

at

all ?

But

consideration
on

is almost

certain

shift
most
"

the

point

of view Now
"

which

scepticalinquiry
takes the
are

bears
:

heavily.
is

the
or,

inquiry
the

following form
we

What

reality ?
real"?

rather, What

to

understand

by "being

In

discussionoTsucn
to understand

aTPinqiiiry as
the nature when that the the

this it is of the of the

utmost

importance
from the
be

inquiry, and
is first is of
a

that

very

moment

inquiry

proposed.
such
a

It is to
nature

assumed
it can, at

question

asked
as

that

least,be understood
All

question

and

discussed. intelligently
concern so
as

ontologicalinquiry must
known,
terms
or

fore there-

itself with

reality as

knowable, and
of sense-perception,

capable of being brought


of

under

self-consciousness,memory,
"

imagination, thought,
some

feeling,will,and character,
terms

or

under

of all the other the

which

it is necessary and

to

use

in order From that

to define

sphere
either

of the known

the knowable.
to

another
to

point of view,
what

then,

we

are

compelled

say

inquire

THE

REALITY

OF

MIND

119

things

or

minds
or

really

are, per
an

as

"pure beings," "things-innot


a

themselves," inquiry.
and It To irrational

"beings
in the very
be

se," is

genuine ontological
attempt the absurd
itself.
to

raise such

inquiry is
name

to

of the and

highest reason
of

would, then,
a more

far

better

safer for

metaphysics
and

adopt
forms all it

form concrete, intelligible What


are

stating the
which

logical onto-

problem.
of

the

assumptions
be?

primary
we

representationand
and all minds
as

conception under reallyto


of all minds

know is

things

Or, again, What


are

reallyto be,
But
even

all

things and problem

known

to be?

after the
an

general metaphysics has been


its
answer

stated easy and

in

intelligible manner,
For in

is

by

no

means

an

affair. confused

metaphysical
several ways irrational

discussion

is often embarrassed these

unnecessarily. Among
to go
on

is the vain and

and

attempt
and

forever of

analyzing
reach

defining. Analysis
limits the and

definition
to
an

must

course

impassable
we

come

end

somewhere.
as

If, then,

analyze
in

conception

of

Reality,
in

such

reality is
its
we

known

and sense-perception subordinate

into self-consciousness, the


"

constituent
cannot

conceptions (
these residua of for
a

categories ")

analyze or explain
At this limit

of all
can

analysis still
to

further. immediate the terms define which


to
or

analysis, we knowledge
be

only appeal
is meant To

experience
which stand

of what

by
to

for such would

conceptions.
to

attempt

explain
to
we

further

attempt
is
more

to reduce

that But is to know the

is

simplest of
say that know and

all to that which


we

complex.
terms
mean

refuse

know

what

these

assert

that is

what

is most

complex,

but

do not
to know

what

simpler

necessary

to know

in order

complex. Metaphysical
the foolish unless
process.

discussion that the

is often

further
can

embarrassed

by

assumption
reached
as

nothing
result of

be

certainlyknown syllogistic complicated


con-

it be

conscious
more

It is often this

also assumed

that the
more

and

subtle

process

is,the

worthy

of assured

120

THE

REALITY

OF

MIND

viction

attaching to
of and

it is the

final conclusion. and

But its

in the

growth

knowledge, although intellection

activity
"

of inference
even

interpretationenter
we

into all

knowledge,
"

into that

which

consider

most

"immediate,"
is of
same

the

certainty of
connected

inferential
a

knowledges
to

always dependently
some our

with

superior certaintyfor
And
"

diate immeorder in

knowledges. dependence
for their That
1

consider
"

the

from

the
as

ontologicalside
the atoms upon

all inferred

realities

(such, for example, analysis and


known

of modern

physics)depend,

being known,
and

envisaged
of the

realities.

discussion

general conception of metaphysics implies,


real

Reality as yields the


as a

knowable, which

: following particulars Every

being is
be called

known

self-active of states, standing in manifold relations subject


and beings,

to

other

maintaining its right to


upon,
"

real

by
to

acting and
certain .and
no

being

acted

only,however,in of
its behavior
as

obedience such
a

laws

(or uniform modes

being

other').
in such
a

Undoubtedly,
unresolvable that both such words which
sort
"

sentence

as

the with

foregoing,several figuresof speech


indicated

conceptionsare
admit

mixed

up

call for and

of further

Among interpretation.
those

conceptions, or
a
"

are categories,

by the

subject" being

" relation" of states, " self-activity,"

(" in
Some

the

is
or

popularly said
permanence
"

"

to stand
"

"), etc.
"

of continuance of

in

time," and

change," implied.
"

whether

place(hence
the which
to
"

space

") or
their be

of states,are
"

also

If,however,
the them the be

meaning
is said

of the word
to

states," as applied to

being
"

be

"

subject

"

or

to

have that may self-

or

change them,"
in modes

demanded,

it is found that
"

same

transaction

is implied as reality of

which of

described
"

by
of law
" "

"

behavior," by
be
"

or

forms

activity
words

and
"

being
said

influenced is said
be to

other

beings
and

; while
"

like

(which
is

"

obeyed ")
in

formity" uni-

(which
when
one

to

discerned

the

"behavior")
us

tries to

comprehend

them, introduce

still fur-

THE

REALITY

OF

MIND

121

ther

to the

profound mysteriesof
try
to set about

all

reality. These certainlydoes


"

mysteries
not

science when any

may it talks

forth, but
"

solve,

the

nature

"

or

kind

"

of
to

being which
have. into For
some

particular concrete
the realities
"

realityis supposed
called kind modes
nature atoms
are

example,
to its

divisible

seventy kinds,

each uniform such


a

with

its

own

nature, according
But
to
"

supposed
of

of behavior.
as
"

any
any
a

definite

conception
and
so
as

belonging making
our we

being,
kind with
to

delimitingits being
no

and

it such

of its

being
"modes
same

and

other, depends upon


Thus
are

experience
recurrent

of behavior."

brought around

the,/

point in
modes mind

the circle

again : uniformity,or
of any
nature to

lar simiproves

of the behavior
a

being, suggests
of that any

and

to the
mean

permanent

being.

But

what

we

by ascribing a attempt
of
as so

nature

being is found
for its known do
or

only

in

the

to summarize

the

reasons

possible
atoms

modes behave

behavior.

Why,
while

for

example,
and

oxygen
atoms

they do,
it is their

hydrogen
similar
to.

nitrogen
? is meant modes

have be:

under differently
nature

circumstances what their of

Answer

Because
"

But for

by their
of behavior

nature," in which
found ? Answer

the
:

reasons as a

are

So,

matter

do fact,

these

beings
"

actuallybehave. Furthermore,
without which ascribed reality this
as

any

analysis of impossible to
and

the

conception
known,
same

of

law,"

it is
to

tell what
as

is meant shows

by the
that

things
the

to minds

conception is,in part, the


from which is framed.
are reality
"

result

of the
a

experience
for

that

conception of
so-called
to
"

nature
or

things and
not

for minds of each

The

law,

laws, of the being

in part interior
set
"

it ; and
any

they
"

are

thing some-

imposed
which
in the

upon," or
modes

over

above," the beings


law

obey the laws.

Obedience of behavior

to

implies a
source

formity uni-

which

has

its
same

in the

very based

being itself.
upon

This, then, is reallythe


same

conception,
we

the

experience, as

that

which

have

122

THE

REALITY

OF

MIND

already
however,

found

to

be

covered

by the
of modes of

word
one

nature.

Law,
to

always implies
it also relations
to

relations

being
of On
to

other under

beings ;
different

implies different
kinds differing modes variant
own

behavior

beings.

the other its varying

hand,

in

varying its
to the to true

of behavior kinds of

according

relations remain

beings,every
that those is to other also

being must
its
own

its

nature

; otherwise

it loses

peculiar claim
that it

really to
to

be.

It must,
to what

say, in all

does, both have


in relation

respect
which it

beings are
respect
there is

doing
to what

stands, and

have

it is itself

Law essentially.

reignsonly where
beings ; and

."both
as

and respect for self-respect of

other

this is

just
is

true

things as

it is of minds. is

it Now, finally,
1

absolutely impossible corresponding


*
"

to

tell what that

meant

by all this, as

to

anything
idea of

takes

without place in reality,


or

introducingthe
called,in
which which real.
may
now a

purposiveness ; being
to be

what the

we
"

have

elsewhere idea without of

confessedlyfigurative
to the

way,

immanent

belongs
it cannot

very

of every

thing,and
even

be

known

real, or
In

conceived

as

general, therefore, it
and subordinate

be

claimed

that

every

assumption
finds
most

conception which
necessary
to

metaphysics

by its analysisto be

all

reality, belongs
the

obviouslyand
is called
a

to incontestably

that

real being particular


were

which for such

the

mind. it could and

Indeed, if this
be shown that
are

place
physical meta-

contention

all these

assumptions meaning except


of .reality 'to act
'

conceptions
is

quite
from

devoid the known

of

as

such To

meaning

gathered
to
same

mind. other

be, to stand

in

to be self-active, relation, be
a

upon

being,to obey law,


be
"

cause,

to

be

permanent
to be

subjectof states,to
to identical,

the

to-day as

day, yester-

be

one,

all these, and


are

all similar valid for

conceptions, together with


real

the of

proofs that they

beings,are
1

affirmed
See
"

physical realities (projectedinto


to

Introduction

Philosophy," p. 247

f.

124

THE

REALITY

OF

MIND

experience which
treat

it is the

appointed
But of its

task

of

psychology
the

to

however scientifically, of such


a

difficult it may it is also mind


more

find the

plishment accom-

task.

right and
the

the
same

obligationof
and

the
to

philosophy point
out

to

examine

experience, and

ultimate sound

implications
of

in interpretation, and

accordance

with

views

general

metaphysics
The

of the

theory of knowledge.
reference kinds and
:

experience to which roughly be* divided into two


which which of other I
I

has it

been

made

may

is, first,experience

have have selves


as

with

myself ;

it

is, second, experience


of the

indicatingthe
minds. These

character
two
are an

experience
for the

or

are,

however, mutually
necessary
to the

helpfuland highestand
What is it alone

supplementary. They
most

both
answer are

defensible be
as

form

of

question,
with
to what

reallyto
may

all minds
me

Experience
as

myself
I know needed others
even

enable

to affirm

something
will

myself reallyto
to
as

be ; but affirm what

experience

witli others

is
to

enable
true

me

to

approbate itself
are.

that regarding the reality


in

all minds
we

Yet,

when

stated

this limited soul

way,

still find is
a

that,as

Tourgue'nieffhas
unless forest," But
man,
man

said, " The


can

of another the

darksome

we

lightit up
is
no

with

lamp

edge. of self-knowlin

Goethe

less

right in affirming,"Only
is also sound and broad

knows wisdom

himself."
in the

There

chological psy-

German
so

couplet,
"

"

Willst

du

dich

selber erkennen,

sieh wie

die Anderen

es

treiben ;

"Willst du

die Anderen

verstehn, blick in dein eigenes Herz."

And

now

what of

is that

experience with
may be and

my evoked
a

Self,that
and

nomenon phe-

which consciousness, the

studied

as

basis for

framing
?

of validating

conception of penetrating
the this

the

realityof
which who real is

mind

Thorough
it
as

analysis
by
no

and

psychologicalinsight present
affair those the incline
to

means

simple
both

customarily described,
"

and who

by

deny, and
mind.

by those
Both

stoutly affirm,
of

being

of

the

classes

contestants,

THE

REALITY

OF

MIND

125

minimize indeed, ordinarily the interests


is

and

thin

out

the

phenomenon,
Thus As

in
perience ex-

of their reduced
seen,
one

diverse
to
a

views. philosophical

convenient

"simplicity."
in

has

already been
as some

representsthe experience psychologist


the presence consciousness of of sensation-content the
about (localized

though

it

were

simply
a

peculiar form
or

the head talks


as

throat, perhaps,or between


it
were
an

two)
a

andjmoiher
pardoned
so

though
term.
"

envisagement of
"

ble simple indivisibe


,

or soul-being,

soul-" Both

stuff,"
these
vast
an

if

one

may

uncouth
too
"

views

are,

however, altogether1:
the

"

simple

to suit the
serve as

complexity of

phenomenon, (
plication ex-

not

to say, to

and adequate interpretation

of the

import
;"

which

properlybelongs,for
"7 have
as

reflective

thinking,
"I
men,

to

the
"

phenomenon.
was

am;"
on

and

meanwhile

been"

"

allv

questioningthemselves
in these three United

to their

knowledge
it

of what

is affirmed

find propositions,
as

impossible to
plained ex-

deny their truth.


so
an

respects their import, and

as

to

bring

out

their full content, and


we

they
the

amount

to

affirmation mind.
true

of the self-known the


moment

incontestable from

of reality

the this of

But

depart
find
to

sphere engaged

of

import, from
three know the

the.

sphere covered

by the full

content

these

we propositions,

ourselves
some

in

trying to
know with

unknowable,
the mind. what self

imagine
On the

perfectly
hand,
to

unimaginable realityof
is propositions
to know

other

full consciousness one's

is contained
to be, really

in these in

three fullest

the

meaning
When,
examined

of the words.

however, the three propositionsjust laid down


with

are

respect
as

to

the
as

kind

of

faculty,as

it were,

operativein them,
conviction
are

well

with

respect to the them,


here

strength of
ences differ"

which

attaches
to

itself to I
am,

important
and
now,

brought

view.

but

always perceiving or
and

thinking somewhat,
to have

feeling somehow,
must

doing something:

the

experience which

be

126

THE

REALITY

OF

MIND

described
to have

in such immediate

terms

as

this is to be the
"

self-conscious fullest

; it is

self-knowledge,in
then
and

meaning

of

these time

words. and

1 was,

there,
"

just

at that
or

other

perhaps

distant

place,
and be

perceiving
in

thinking
to

somewhat,
the these

feeling somehow,
which
must

doing something:
described such have it is to
the

have
as

experience
is to have of self
as

terms

recognitivememory;
in the been

edge knowlof

existent I have

past, in

fullest
"

meaning

these

words,

all the

meanwhile,
"

in various

places and
is

different

portions of time,
and
it

perceivingor
consciousness
"

ing thinkthis

somewhat, feelingsomehow,
a

doing something:
thens
a
"

statement

which, while
and upon memory
a

implies
basis
to

of self
and

here

and

now, rests

of self in

many and has

"theres,"
kind that which

different

different from

of conviction

attaching itself
the other memory,
two

its truthfulness For


not

belongs to
and

statements.

only
that into

self-consciousness may with


no

but

logical inference
into

be called great difficulty

doubt,

enter

this third In the

proposition.
attention

calling
under

to, and

even

emphasizing strongly,
of the three

important psychological differences


discussion, it
nor

tions proposi-

must

be
nor

remembered

that neither the lest ful-

self-consciousness
sense

memory of these

inference,in words,
One
cannot
can

of

either

three
two.

take become

place fully
nor

without

involving the
without

other

self-conscious
remember

developed

memory

and

intellect ;

without self-cognitively and inference


; nor

development

of self-consciousness
ing, reason-

attain and

knowledge by
memory.

without the states and

self-consciousness functions "I of mental "I

Yet

each

of

life and

expressed by
"I

the three
may

propositions emphasize
one

am,"

was,"

have

been,"
the

of these the other


of this may be

so-called
two.
1

to faculties,

exclusion

of relatively
1

For

the the

truth reader

view,

as

derived
to

from

scientific

study of

the

nomena, phe-

referred

the

author's

"Psychology, Descriptive

and

where Explanatory,"

it is maintained

throughout.

THE

REALITY

OF

MIND

127

For called here

the

that reality

I know is

myself here
and

and

now

to

be,
I

soy
am

h
I

~^

self-consciousness
now,

responsible. I
sentence
were,

know
as

that
to

and

thus
"

both

active
a

determined
that

content
in

of consciousness, the

this is
as

only

expresses

imperfect and,
which the the
use

it

temporally "elongated"
realities

fashion

of words the
or

for

always

tates, necessiself-

functioning and
In such
an

product
have like is

of immediate

knowledge.
and

act

state

self-activity, self-feeling,
attained
every

discriminating consciousness
of

the

ment achieveof
warm

self-knowledge.
this of the

And

achievement with the The


as

knowledge,
conviction
which whether

one particular

suffused

realityof
to be

that

which of
as

is known. itself

being
"

affirms

itself
as

aware or

existent
every act

regarded

subject
"I"

object
is

in

of

self-consciousness
that is known
or as

(the

that
"

knows, etc., or
not,

the

"me"
a

being, etc.)
of

however,

away far-

hidden

substrate

being.

It is

justthis
is here

ing, self-knowand
now

concrete, and

determinate
as

being

which

present
in
can

to

itself other

self-known.

In all such may what Self choose the which real has
as

language, and
to

whatever

language

one

employ,

one

only inadequately express


is to the
a

transaction

of of
or

self-consciousness it.
mere

every

experience
mere

To

describe

transaction, however,

state

of activity

definitive
"

kind, is imperfectlyto describe


it
comes
as

it

Self-knowledge
"

although
a

the

result

of

development
in
an

implies
and words

knowing

being

that

knows

I itself,
be.

actual have
no

indubitable
to

experience, really to
or

We

express,

power

of

thought
in

and the

imagination
attempt
mind
on

to

conceive, the
this self-known

absurdity
If the and

involved

to

deny
of

here-and-now-being
transaction the be

of the

in the

self-consciousness. side its

regarded
ter characdoubt
come

immediacy
which

indubitable

of the conviction
or

no guarantees its validity, can

denial

or us

hesitancy to accept
and

possiblyserve
confidence
in it.

to

between

it,to impair

our

It is

128

THE

REALITY

OF

MIND

philosophicalcommonplace, repetitionand luminousness, implicate the


understood
or

which

has

become

tiresome
its

by
own

almost that

obscure

in the

brightness of
No

avowed

doubt, denial,and hesitancy,all realityof


this
more

self-known announced ago, the

mind.

one

has

ever

clearly than Augustine.


has of fraction

dreds did, hunThis is

of years
no

Church-father

less true

since how

experimental psychology long (say,from


to
a

determined
a

approximately
six
no
or

second

to
;

seven

seconds) it takes

come

to self-consciousness

less
over

true, also,in view


the field of
"

of the

rapid wandering
of those which

of attention in

consciousness, or
"

changes
accompany make

the extent
acts

of the

grasp

of consciousness

of

as they self-consciousness,

accompany

and

an

important part
Nor
can

of all
case

phenomena
argued with
as we

of consciousness. this
"

the

be

witness

"

of selfto be

I consciousness,so

long

understand

its

testimony

confined the

simply
not

to the

self-known
to

"here-and-now-being" of
some

Self,and

to be extended

much inferred,
se,

less

envisaged,
substrate. of

pure

being,

or

being

per

of

an

unknowable

For, unless
no

its

guaranty is given in the very being


or validity can even
"

mind,
as an

argument argument
a

has any of any

have of any
succeed

ence existment argueach

kind.

The

"being
that

is other and

only

series

of mental

processes

according to
the

laws

of the mind's

intellectual is bound

procedure; premises
mind.
start
to

every

drawn, conclusion,logically
is

to its

only by \
finish in

living,combining activityof
assumed,
I the
me.
am

conscious

Excegtas it
existence
or as

and

have

been, from

the argument,

same

no intellect,

argument

has
we

validityfor
well
as

The which
can we

argument

by which

support,
self-known

that

by

try

to

controvert, the
nor

realityof
arguments
is

mind

neither

prove

disprove

it; both

assume

it. in this warm,

Yet, further,it
of the existence

only

full,and
that has all its

vincing ever-con-

consciousness

of self-existence real

knowledge
source

of so-called

things

and

THE

REALITY

OF

MIND

129 and existent the


to'

secure

defence.
no

If I my

am

not

really here
can

now

then
me

object of

knowing

claim it is.

as reality,

here-and-now-known
to

object that
mere

If it

were

sible posit is

as regard the object-Self

phenomenon
that the

when

an

objectof knowledge,
as
mere

it would

follow also. talk of

object-Thing
has

is known been
mere

phenomenon
is to talk

But,
any

as

already
as

explained repeatedly,to phenomena

knowledge
and
to
we
"

of
the

of that
so

which

is absurd
as

self-

contradictory. Indeed, just point of view, psychological


of consciousness the mind. of
an as

long

cling
the
a

and

regard only
affirm

phenomenon
the

such," we

must

as

bitable fortiori indu-

known

of (as "here-and-now-being") reality

For, psychologicallyconsidered, every


the

phenomenon being, as
of the

knowledge emphasizes
active

highest
the mind.

form On

of the

of knowing subject,

this form

mind's

functioning,with

the activities

involved
"

(inference,
call it what that
physical meta-

faith,assumption, or
you element "belief in the in"
or a

belief, reaching reality,


The
nature

will),all realitydepends.
which, while
"belief with

of

it is called

in the
"

subject a

reference to
it

becomes reality,

objecta "being real,"renders


character that which the Man for is known
to

impossible to give things


have any mind. is

the indubitable

which reality

preferenceover
At this

belong to
of all

point

ontologicalaspect
as a

knowledge

again
in

reached.

knowing subject is metaphysical


function. in the All form and the real of

respect of the
to

knowing being

objects are
his

given

him In

as

real

objects of

knowledge.
but than when

general, knowledge
less

realityare objectsare
to tear out

lates, corre-

no certainly

truly when
And the if
we

minds of the
act

they
of in

are

things.

try

phenomenon
of belief
we

knowledge

ontologicalpostulate (or
essence own as

reality)which
lose the real all

is of its very

edge, knowl-

do not lose

being
all

of

our

minds
once.

simply, ticism Agnosto


an

but

we

being
the

and

knowledge
the

at

here

pushes

explanation of
9

psychic fact

130

THE

REALITY

OF

MIND

extreme

which
outcome

does

away

with and

its in

essential

quality

and

essential world But of

altogether ;
in
one

losingthese, the
wreck.
as

whole

realityfalls
act

common

the

of

self-consciousness,so far
memory,

it may

be

sidered con-

apart from
the
was

implicatesand
which I know I

guarantees

only
"I

"here-and-now-being"
"

really am.
with than

is,however,
and

propositionwhich certainlywith
In time form its most and it is
no

is made less

scarcely
the

less confidence

frequency
form and

proposition "I
is,
In
arouse as

am." both

general
vague

this

ment state-

to

place,
of the and

indefinite.

this

its and

general
confirm is
act
"

likewise

most

impotent
mind. every in For

to

conviction

realityof

But clear

this and "I

conviction content-ful

experienced
of th of

implied
and

recognitive memory.
'92, at
one a

example:
of the with the

was,

on

July
upon

half o'clock in that the company obscured

afternoon,
A. B. and

the

top of Asama-yama,
of
not
a

others, in the midst

cloud hide

surrounding
very the
sore

landscape
weary

but

did

crater, feeling

and
a

with

lying most
with the wooden

of the

night
ridden of the
a

before from

on

floor of

tea-house, and morning


on

having

four

to eleven

of that and

saddle

Japanese
volcano's upon

pack-horse,
cone

having
I was,

thereafter

climbed
scene,

yet greatly exhilarated

by

the and

conversing

such active that

topics,etc."
and determined

there

then, thus

consciously
; it was

in content I know

of consciousness

was

there; and

all this

beyond

the

of possibility

doubt. On such

making, however,
an

a or

careful rather

psychologicalanalysis of
such
a

act

of memory,
as

series

of

acts

of

remembering,
"

the

foregoing,it

is found

that the different features of

moments

"

of the

the complex resultant,


a

different different indeed

the total

memory-picture, have
of the
"
"

somewhat it
was

originand
the
"

differingdegrees '92,"on
were
"

validity. That
of the month of the o'clock

year

th
a

day

July," and

that the hours


"

one

and

half

afternoon,"

four

of the

132

THE

REALITY

OF

MIND

sion ?

Then

the

memory-knowledge
; it too

is also be called But

considered upon
was

fit

subject for
the

discussion
upon

may

to

display original
of
can

grounds

which
"

it reposes. immediate for the those

the

knowledge, things or
be
no

so-called

knowledge,"
which

whether there

of self ?

Then

memory-knowledge
are

grounds superior to
nature

to be found

in the

very

of the

memory-knowledge phenomenon
nature

itself.

Still

further,however, in the psychological descriptionand


the of memory, it is

explanation of
notice that the

important

to

very

of the

complete memory-picture precise determination


a

(or, to speak
the

more

accurately,the
of

of

psychic
to

processes

is,to recollection)
on

certain

large
I

extent, itself subject to modification

grounds
"

of inference. that
am

Suppose
asked,
yama the and
one
"

"

recur

to

the

example just given


that you
a were on

How

do you

know and

the

top of Asamaafternoon
my

at

one precisely

half

o'clock

of the

?"

replymight noting
of my looked the

be

"

Because

I remember upon

lookingat
arrival."

watch here

hour

immediately
say
:
"

But

companions might
at your
were

I remember

that distinctly hour

you
as

watch

and

announced

this very

when,

yet, we

only half-way up
to argue,
"

the cone."

"And,

besides,"
one

he

might
a

go

on

it is very

unlikely that
of based

would

expose On

watch

which

one

valued

to the fumes

sulphur,"etc.
upon memory

hearing

this

contradictorystatement,
with
my own,

equally immediate
; I

and

the

argument
to revise my

urged in its
own so
ory-picture mem-

support, I might reasonably be induced


find might actually in it
it now
was

or modified,

obscured

that my

confidence original

partly gone.

Something

to prove so likely similar,though scarcely


occur

effective, might also


recall of the obscuring

with

reference

to the

more

accurate

cloud, the time however, I did


think the crater of flame aesthetical
not

of its appearance, feel


sore

its extent, etc.

That,
not burst out-

and

weary

exceedingly,did
and occasional

with

its horrible
not

rumblings
be

did impressive, it would

experience a high degree of


if not absurd, quiteuseless,

enjoyment,

THE

REALITY

OF

MIND

133

for

any
to

one

else

to

call upon

his

memory

or

adduce

ment argu-

prove.

In

then, general,
was

the clear and

vivid memory-

knowledge

of what
j

given originally to
as

knowledge

by

-consciousness self indubitable

considered, psychologically

respects the

content

of realityknown, approaches the original


"

itself. knowledge of self-consciousness


In the and

foregoingsentence
was

the word

"

approaches
ij or

was

used

this word when

carefullychosen,
are

fh"epsychology of
to
cover

memory,

its data
"

extended

so

as

the various

faults

of memory,

its
to

ordinary mistakes,lapses, cal pathologiof the


two

forms, liabilities
so representation,

confusion is few

leading kinds

of

that what that


case

reallyonly imagined gets


or none can own

itself tailing de-

recollected,
"

shows

of the statements vindicate and feelings of the

any
as

concrete

of memory Even one's

themselves

absolutelycertain.
not to

thoughts
time

might might
as

only get displaced in respect


them
in

exact

assigned
in

the
to
ever

past
that

stream

of
more

consciousness, but
or

also get its

assigned

stream,

less

definitely,
in it.

past, without
the

having actually occurred


of
our

Doubtless

degrees and shadings


and and

lower of
our

affective

nomena, phe-

the processes,
and

clearness,cogency,

order
our

ratiocinative

the elevation

purity of
been remember

aesthetical, ethical,
cases

sentiments, have religious


from what
we now

in many them

actuallyfar
candid

different But and calls

to be. to which
a

after

making

all

possibleadmissions
of the facts of
on

thorough

examination basis of

empiricalpsychology philosophy
not

attention, the

which

the

of

mind

placesthe knowledge
or .even

one's

past realityis

destroyed
much
as

impaired.
of the
concrete

This

realitycovers
I say
"

just
I
"

so

is

affirmed
to
some

mind and

whenever definite

was

with

reference Such

experience
the in

in the

past.
the

knowledge
of This mind

is

knowledge
is

still ;

reality of
act

object
still.
"

knowledge
known

implicated
mind in

the
"

of

memory

reality is
as

not

indeed, the
the

here-and-now-being
act

of

by

developed

of

self-con-

134

THE

REALITY

OF

MIND

sciousness

it is

the

"

then-and-there-being by
mind in the the of certainty

"

of

mind
act

as

representativelyknown recognitivememory.
be But

developed
conviction

of

ing attachcan

itself to the affirmation

is the

highest possiblethat
to

given to
It is

any

objectof memory-knowledge.
the

impossibleto put
not

proposal to
in

prove

or

disprove
terms

the that

of recognitive validity memory do


assume

general

into any
so

the

whole the

question,and accepted view.


could

evince Proof

the itself

absurdityof
cannot

all

oppositionto
a

proceed
it were,

singlestep
For the

without

of assuming the validity be trusted the


ing mean-

the act carry,


as

of memory.

unless

memory

to

meaning

of the would

premises and
no

of the

conclusion, not
the very

only

valid

inferences

be

but possible,

conception

of all that

to validity

inference

would

be

destroyed. Moreover,
the

synthetic activityof
in every

judging
involves

which

drawing of the conclusion

instance for its

is itself

dependent, both

for its character

and

validity, upon
inference
some

the assumed involve


a

trustworthiness conclusion But how is

of memory.
some

Every
to

must

from
one

judgment
what which

other

judgment.
without
"

to

know

ment judgmine deter-

to conclude

memory

of the How is

grounds
one

this the

question of
of

what of

"

to

conclude, with
to

rational

conviction the

truth

attaching itself
term

the

ticular par-

character

conclusion, without

memory

of the which the such

point
process memory from
"

of

and starting, moved


as

of the middle
can

through

How it

argument

be tested

without of
"

makes
same

to repeat possible to

the progress

thought
view "re"

the of
"

grounds
process

the

same

conclusion,
for purposes

the of

the ?

of ratiocination

fication veri-

Now,
fuses in skill, involve
1

it is true

that

the and

blind

leap
the

to

conclusion
"

which
"

with
a

1 perception

guides

display of
way, does

tact

and
to

nearly

or

quite unconscious
of

not

seem

the verifications Comp.


"

recognitive memory.

The

form

of

and Psychology, Descriptive

Explanatory," pp.

318 ff.

THE

REALITY

OF

MIND

135

inference
an largely

sometimes

called

"

instinctive
movement

"

is

undoubtedly
with

unconsciouslydetermined
that does of
not

of the mechanism

of ideas its correlate inference

involve necessarily It is not,

knowledge
neither
we are

reality.
are

however, of such
but

so-called is it of
a

that .we

now

speaking;

merely mechanical
under
a

movement

of the ideas that The other which of

speaking
of
rea'

the

term

recognitivememory.
one

consciousness
as

connection
or

of

judgment
a

with fact

judgment
must

its

//

son,
as

ground,

is

psychic
of the
that

be

recognized
It is all the
!

"""-v.

highly

distinctive

work

human

intellect.

upon

this consciousness of science

inferential

knowledge, with
of itself
can

fair fabric But the

and

of the truths

philosophy,reposes. depends
be upon the*

of validity

this consciousness it the

validityof recognitivememory;
either
memory. to

never

employed'
of such

prove

or

to

disprove speak
of

trustworthiness

too, when Plainly, it,and


man's
resort
source

we

improving by good
man,

memory, memory,

ing clarifyor one

correcting poor
be taken
"

memory

memory must

by that of another
to

the

appeal
and

in the last

this

same

mysterious
the

ultimate

of

authority, namely,

to

knowledge

of the

past

The moment, however, that we by recognitive memory. to call the memory-function by the term knowledge,^ agree its
was

and ontologicalsignificance the


case

guaranty is established,
"

as

with

the immediate the

knowledge
any

of self-consciousness.
concrete act

Whether memory
"

particulars of
with
some
"

of

and
can

only

degree
my

of

and particularity

concreteness

I actualize
"

as being-then-and-there,"

given
the the

in memory
"

be

more

or

less this

defensible I that
as
now

as

particulars,
remember is is

fact that
same

I was"

and
must

that
be

that was,

regarded given as
a

indisputable. It

not indisputable,

because

it is

matterbf

proof which indisputable


the

may

be

successfully maintained
to and to

by

syllogisticprocesses
it is

arguments againstother contradictory


because
assume

; but

implicate the past realityof

136

THE

REALITY

OF

MIND

Ego

is of the because

very memory

essence

of memory
even

as

form in

of

knowledge,

y and

cannot

be

called

out question with-

this How fact of

same

assumption. unity and


of identity memory,
we

the

mind

are

concerned
sort

in the and

knowledge by
is is

and shall

what

of

unity
on.

identity this fact


now

concerns,

inquire later
the
"

What
"

interests

us

simply this, that

theri-and-there
all have
act

realityof
memory. 7 of the This find How know
no

mind To

indisputablyimplied
h recognitively

in
to

recognitive

remember the

knowledge
of memory.
to

being in

past of the subject of the


is

is the truth
an

which
to

reallybrought

out
as

by the effort
the

answer
a

such that

absurd
was

questions

following:
in the

could itself

being

not

actuallyexistent
How could
a

past

as

existent

in that
some

past ?

being with
itself when
but
as

past know
in its that the

by memory
own

other what
we own

being
is

than

existent reaches

past?
of

For

memory,

it

development knowledge

which my
"

call

knowledge,
as

just

this,
"

experience
the immediate is the

involving knowledge
of my

my

"

then-and-there-being just as ;
"

of Self in the act of self-consciousness


"

knowledge

here-and-now-being
But if limit the doubt

scepticism and
on

agnosticism

are

to be

pushed

to the

utmost

epistemological side,and
or

the

condition

of

uncertainty
is to

or

denial

regarding all memory-knowledge


it is not the

be

maintained, then

past realityof
;

mind

alone the

which

drops down
my

into the dark which

abyss of nescience
into
mere

it is not

of reality

mind
"

first vanishes

phenomenon
and
most

of memory:

it is all

reality. But

it is first
as

the reality of things. Except irrecoverably


on

they
wife,

hang
sun,

dependent
moon,

memory,
;

with

its faith

and

knowledge,
"

and

stars

birds, beasts, and


"

fishes ; the M.

children, and
is
so

all
to

humanity past save),


which
"

(the beings
close

Flournoy
the

desirous

all
ever

are

engulfed in that bottomless


behind
ever

pit of

non-existence

follows

present being affirmed

and by self-consciousness,

swallows

THE

REALITY

OF

MIND

137 of the For


as

them

all
on

as

fast the
"

as

they
to

come as

forth their
"

out

womb

of

nothing
else has

way

nothing

tomb.

nothing
in the
berer's remema

its

then-and-there-being guaranteed
the very
as

implicated
the

inseparablyin
same manner own

nature

of

recognitivememory, being
of

the

past self-known
I
"

mind.

/
'

But
tween

the the
on

proposition"
present
yet
"

have and

been" the

during
remembered

the

time
"

be-

I-am

I-was,"
of the

f'r

reposes

other

and

different

grounds.
upon

gically Psychologrounds
from

considered, this
consciousness

proposition rests
to
a

belonging
in which

quite different

order
or

phenomena
memory I say, the
"

either

self-consciousness
What these 1 do

recognitive
mean

are

chiefly emphasized.
been
as

when since
an perience ex-

I have

in

existence

twenty years
had
on

time
"

when,
? And
a

I how

now

remember,
I
as

such what

do

verify, or
this?

grounds

believe, such

statement

and Epistemologically and the

considered, ontologically

the
way

import
"

proof

of existence from the

continuouslyall
remembered
" " "

the

through, as
the

it were,

to then-and-there-being

known consciously order of discussion

here-and-now-being require a quite different


from On that followed hitherto. of the

beginning an
proposition
"

examination
"

meaning
ever
"

and I

of validity

this the
"

1 have in

been," since

was," up till

moment
"

covered from the


a

the

knowledge expressed by saying,


of the power of reflective of
a

lam"

point of view of empiricalpsychology,it is

found

to involve

largedevelopment
the

thinking. Faithfullydescribed,indeed, the


consciousness which

phenomenon
Let the adult

proposition states plainlyincludes


conviction.

strong and
average

quite

irresistible

of

but intelligence,

without
or

special cultivation
Have then
you
an

in the with

analysis of self-consciousness
the

special acquaintance
you

problems
all the ? and

of

philosophy,be asked,
since the first
to greet likely

really
ber remem-

existed

time

thing

which

he will be

the

inquirywith

incred-

138

THE

REALITY

OF

MIND

ulous

smile

or

vacant

stare.

This

is not of the

so

much

because because called view mode


stream in

he cannot he
cannot

comprehend comprehend
at

the how

meaning
the

questionas
can

actual

fact the

be of
a

question
mental of

all. is this

But

what, from
fact? It

point simply
flow

of of

psychology,

actual certain

is

procedure, a accompaniment
it cannot be

determinate

in the the
"

consciousness, involving complex activities and


of rational convictions. As

rious myste-

enon," phenomall

described faithfully

without

noting
of

these
concrete

activities ; its form also. of the

description must
the activities, may

include, besides

the
victions con-

accompaniment
be forced
account

Or, perhaps, we

into consent
as

to

take
most

the

convictions and

especially into
permanent
to

among

the

important
that
"

of the

activities.

What,
1 birth

then, is it
is
one

which the

consciousness

actually gives
"

expressed by
of the
most

proposition,
and fact

I have

been of

"

Plainly,
"moments" of nitive
an

obvious

important

the

of this

complex psychic
number

implies the possibility


acts

indefinite On Your
"

and

variety of
asked, What

of recogbe
mean

memory.

this

point, again, let


when
"

consciousness do
you

consulted.

plain man
been I remember

by saying,
answer,
over
"

I have

? will

almost

certainly proceed
and
such

to

Why,
"

that I was/" years ago, in

this
a

over

and

again. again, even


and hour I

Once

I was,

place,under
thus and different

such
so

and circumstances, thinking,feeling,

planning

longer

ago,

was

elsewhere, under

circumstances, with

markedly
by.

different
more

and thoughts,feelings,

plans ;
but of
an

yet again, much


or

recently,or
the
same

yesterday, or
I that tell you many other

two

gone

I was,

it, as

remember, distinctly
I
am sure

existent recall

at these

points
sions occa-

of time

; and

I could

yet

many

when

I should

remember distinctly and


in

that I was." the consciousness determinate


"

This of of

of recognitivememory, potentiality

it, is then
mental

prime

"moment" the

that

flow been."

life which

warrants

conclusion,

I have

140

THE

REALITY

OF

MIND

necessary

in this connection
stream acts to be

to do

more

than

call attention widens


go
on.

to

the fact that the


as

bridged itself
themselves
"

ceaselessly
All these

the successive
acts

of memory
"

very

of memory

are

moments

in the

onflowing stream.
those

It is the

of thought, with distinctively, faculty

phases of
pany accom-

metaphysical assumption (or ontological leaps) which


its functions, that

bridges over
the that

all gaps

in the

knowledge, reality
is in

by self-consciousness
of
no over now our own

and Here from

recognitivememory,
manner

of the

minds.

of its

procedure
in
as

respect different
the
to

which every

it follows real
as

bridging
known
to

gaps

that the

lie between
same

being,

be, and

real

being

remembered process

have

been.

Indeed, without
its beliefs with

relyingupon

the of

of reflective

thinking, with
and
warm

accompaniment

ontologicalpostulates
cannot
even

conviction, we
or

speak
any

of

any

continuous

real

being whatever,
and
to

of

realityas
of external
to

belonging to change

motion

in the world appears

objects. If,for example,


same

perceivewhat point B,
B and

be
now

the
at

similar being (that is, the sufficiently

being)

the

point A,

and the X
now

then line A

at

the

still later say: from "I A

at

the

point (?,in
that the
same

(7,1 may
all the way

know
to C."

has been

in motion
at

Although
I that the

only perceiveit
B and
at

C, and

only remember passed only in

that

perceived it at
entire
a

A, I nevertheless

affirm confidently
over

it,as continuouslyand
line from A
to

reallyexistent, has
C. has in and
some

By

similar and

conclusion, which
but also

its basis not

ception per-

memory,
to telescope

inference, the
advanced

astronomer

directs his

another

point along the


; and

line of movement he has his he the than the

followed

by

heavenly body
sensation of existence.
to

when affirms
does

phenomenally
of the the

similar

he light,

knowledge
doubt several the

continuouslysame
the "this"

Nor

realityof
the

being inferred
and
now

have

been
any
"

in

positions between

"that"
"

more

of reality

being perceived"

and

here,"

THE

REALITY

OF

MIND

141

or

of the the

remembered being definitely


same

as

"

then

"

and

"

there."

With

persuasion of knowledge specimens


at

does

the

microscopist
This suasion pertake
are

examine

his

of animal when
even

and

plant

life.

is not

all shaken

important changes
when those

place in
such

the

object known
enters
even

; not

changes

of the most

and transforming character. startling


as

Indeed, all
not

knowledge
In

into the seeks and

theory of development
builds itself upon,
a

only admits
basis.

of, but

similar and that

spiteof changing states, in spite of


transformations of

wonderful

unexpected
neither memory which

character, in spiteof gaps


the
senses nor

immediate
can

knowledge by
science

knowledge by
with

overcome,

affirms
to

of
"

everything
it-is." In

undertakes investigation

deal

It has

really been brief,


per,

all the way without

through, from

the

it-was

to

the

this function memory,

of reflective science is

to supplement thinking,

ceptionand
the

wholly impossible;
goes

and

without is called dream.


"

ontological assumption
is

which

with

what it,

science,
Nor
are

nothing

but

the

dreamer's

well-ordered so-called
"

is it found

that the most in

agnosticof
warmth of

scientists when

lacking particularly
this

conviction

the

of validity

this metaphysical leap, ontologicalpostulate,


own

respectingtheir question.
If the of its

alleged knowledge
this form considered of
more

of

things is
the

called in

bearings of
of the

thinking, and
in

meaning
appear of the

were results,

it would detail, life and upon


many

that much
more

language

of

common

important
class
"

terms

of science

depend
"

it.

Of the latter
"

might
energy,

be mentioned
"

all that scientific talk about


"

tential po-

latent

"

etc., states, tendencies," strains,"


and instructs forms
us

with the

which brilliant

physics
relations

entertains

; and

as

well molecular intra-

pictures which
of the science

chemistry
atoms.

of

the

But

what, pray,
with

would its and

become

of the

proud
to

of
over

biologicalevolution,if
its gaps that

right were

denied For

bridge
who
can

thought
are

imagination?

deny

gaps

abundant

142

THE

REALITY

OF

MIND

enough
few

in it ?

And

who

can

deny
?

that

from

the known

as

it

|"now-is"
so-called of

to whatever

"thenmemory

was," biologicalevolution
The in truth
a

has this

stepping-stonesin
science consists

is that

almost

wholly

debatable would be

system

arranging

abstract
were

thoughts. Indeed, it
before rank
"

strictly ophy philostific scienof

if it justifiable

called to account

the bar of

(however
material

this

might
of

be

deemed
"

heresy

in

circles)for constructing a
realities out
to

then-was and

for the world

mythological
in known

imaginary beings.
this reality, science the his

Certainly,as
has
man

solid

ground

frail

standing indeed
he

compared

with

that which of reality

plain
own

finds when existence.

affirms

the continuous

soul's

When,
as

however, the grounds


to

on

which

our

conviction been from


"

poses reare

the

of validity

the

proposition"
"

I have

examined, they critically


on are

are

found
I

quite different
"

those

which
not

repose

the

propositions
but

am

and I

"

I was."
am,

They
very
not

only
of
me

different
act

inferior.

That

the does

nature

the

of

developed
/ But admits
was

self-consciousness

permit
of
remember

to doubt

; that

is

fullyguaranteed
been, when
called in

in the act I cannot

recognitive memory.
that I
was,

that / have of

being
as

question;
be

while gaps

to affirm

that I have actual the

reallybeen,
of

mind, during those

when

no

function

mind-life,no
"

psychoses to
this may

attributed
out not
even

to

subject,actuallyoccurred,
but which
a

turn

only

an

unwarrantable the basis


on

meaningless proposition.
of reality mind

Yet
as

thus

the

rests,

affirmed

by the proposition/ have


any

portant been, is in certain imcan

respects superiorto
the of reality
"

which

be

placed beneath
I remember of I

any

material

thing.
two

That that
"

I have

been," between
is
an

periodswhen
reaches
a

was,"

inference

which

high degree
that

but probability,
may
not

of

only. probability
have

It is conceivable

all the while


"

been, in any intelligible meaning


the existence of mind. In-

of the words

to

be," as appliedto

THE

REALITY

OF

MIND

143

deed, it is impossible to tell in what except


as a indicating mere

meaning

of the

words,

of possibility when
a

the renewal
as

of actual
we

which, being (a possibility

it is actualized
mere

renewal,

regard as
that /

certaintyinstead of
been

I can possibility),

affirm
to the

have

during those
states

gaps

when, according
It
was

no hypothesis,

mental

occurred.

the

impression philosophy
to
save

made

by

this

uncertaintywhich always only


of of
as a

led the Cartesian It desired

to infer that

the mind

thinks. But the


true

the tesian Carthe

of reality

mind

in this way.

the

argument

of the

philosophy saves
of potentiality
saves a

abstract mental

conception of
existence
or

renewal

; and

iti

this

at

the For

price
mind,

contradiction

disregard of|

psychic facts.
is not The
one

for all other

beings,bare potentiality
has in

worth

saving

at any

price.
similar

inferred
at

continuous least the for

of mind, however, reality

respect
can

preference over
material

any

reality
"

that
to

be claimed
to the

things.
X
at the to
same

It is conceivable
"

recur

illustration

already employed (p. 140)


end of any the

that

the

physicalbeing perceivedas
appear B the

line

((?),
it

although it
at

exactly similar
and A in the
to simulate

beings

remembered

points
at the

line, and

although
of
one

appear the
same

right time
from with
as

the movement
to

and be in

being
same

through
the

C, should

still not The

realitythe
which

remembered
at in

beings.

being
in appearance the and

appeared,
to

remembered have
at A

however i?,

similar

X,

may

been may

realitysome reallybeen
to

Y;

being which being,


"

appeared
some

have

yet another
that
ment move-

namely,

Z.
one

Indeed, it is conceivable
may
seem

however

continuously
same

observe line

the

of the the fact


may

thing along
been that
were

the
an

entire indefinite

AC, in reality
of
at

have

number

ciently suffithe

similar various observed of this

beings
sort

successivelyperceived
the line. Series
not

points along
are

of

nomena phemay

only conceivable,they
very

actually be

produced

without

intricate

optical appa-

144

THE

REALITY

OF

MIND

ratus.

The

same

conclusion
one

holds
not to
see

true

of the

continuous
"

realityof
however
one

any

thing

when

in

motion,
no

and

this,
of

it closely

is watched another

that

substitution

similar
a

for reality of

takes

place. Nothing, indeed, adjust ing regardand and


us

but

network

highly probable conclusions,which


the firmest
most

the

explanation in ontological
manner

ate appropri-

to

our

total of

experience, prevents things


world
as

from

the then But such


a

whole

world
a

momently actuallynew

quenched
realities.

replacedby

similar

of the

of concerning the reality

actuallyremembered
not

self,
a

supposition as
what precisely and

the
even

foregoing is
of
"

simply

to

high
For both
was

degree improbable,
this
means am

it is

absolutelyinconceivable.
act

is

the

recognitive memory
"I
was

necessarilyimplicates,
real I that
now

; and
case

I that of

the of

same

am."

In the

both
"

things
"

and which

minds, however, the


lies between
"

guaranty for the


" "

have-been the

the remembered
can

was

and that

scious self-con-

am-now,"
But for

be

found

only
results the

in

confidence reflective

which

is attached

to

the

derived

of much

thinking.
"

certain in whose the

points in
behalf

past life of the Ego,


can

namely,
evoked,
"

for those
we

recognitive memory by
this
an

be

have

guaranty furnished
the

absolute
to

of thinking impossibility the


"

contrary
not to

; and

belongs

of mind, reality

as

it does

the

of things. reality I should


to

I have

been,"
as

"

of this it is
not

impossiblethat
the "have-been" be covered

doubt,
cover a

so

long

I than

do

extend
can

larger area
"

that which

by

the indubitable

memory

I was." does
not

Who,
for its
own

however, that
sake

enjoy metaphysical quibbling


the claim
cover

will refuse mind


to

to extend
so as

of continuous

real existence and there

for the
never

to

all those
states

forgotten,
of which

perhaps

again
In

be

remembered,
in the

actuallywas
?
to

self-consciousness

past of mental
cannot

development
denied

general, the

term

knowledge
to

be
to

conclusions,with

respect both

things

and

THE

REALITY

OF

MIND

145

minds, that
which

rest

upon the

the essentially

same

basis

as

that

in reality of beings that only continuity it were, as are to be or reoccasionally, immediately known membered to have

establishes

been.

The

whole

body
An

of

physicalscience
we

consists do not
to

of think

just such
of
to

conclusions. material

agnosticism which
have
no

applying to
our

things,we

right

attempt What,

apply to

own

minds. said of those there gaps in the uity continmemory where


"

however, shall
existence

be

of mental
or

where

is not

only no
be

well-grounded inference reallywere


or no

of actual

but psychic facts,


to

there

such ?

facts existent The


more

subsequently
to this must
no no

remembered

inferred be

complete answer
answer

question

must

postponed.
:

The

which
are

be

given, however, is brieflythis


states,
existent of the
no

Where

there

mental

psychic
content

functions

actually exercised,
we

really speak
that
swoons plete com-

of

consciousness,there
of
a a

cannot

real
one
or

existence

mind. and
or

But

does

this

mean

when
away,

falls into because of

deep
blow

dreamless of disease

sleep,or
sinks be ? the

into

unconsciousness,one
if the words
"

ceases
"

really to
to

Certainly,
self-known
if I For
cease

real As

being

are

refer
no

to

reality of
from all

mind. the

mind,
and

exist

longer
of mind.

functions

activities

the

life consists of actual mentality ; it is the really being self-conscious, self-active, knowing,remembering,
and
as thinking,

realityof

mental

mind.

Bare
"

abstract substitute

of future potentiality

mentalityis
The truth

"

we

repeat

no

for,or

even

mental

representativeof,the real being of the mind.


may be

brought sleep to
disease
:

out

by

counter

question. Suppose
sciousness uncon-

the dreamless caused


return

be continued
or

the forever,
never

by

blow

to be

followed

by
ceivable con-

to consciousness

on

what

ground, and with what


existence
a

meaning,
be affirmed ?

could the the

the continued actual actual


10

of that

mind

Only

fact of

resumption of selfof the renewed

consciousness,and

connection

146

THE

REALITY

OF

MIND

mental memory,

life with
can

the

past mental
the inference
"

life
"

by

acts

of been with

recognitive
from which the
as

warrant

I have
"

beginning
the

until

now."

The

potentiality
strive to the

fruit of reflective
to account

thinkingwe

reason satisfy

in its
"

attempt
and the

for what

lies between

present

I-am

"

past

"

instead I-was," is the negation of reality

of its

equivalent.
It is in this

respect, then, that the


the mind
is contrasted

conception of
with
"

tinuous con-

for reality
x

the
recur

conception again to
I
now

of the

continuous
same

for things. reality


"

For

to

example
the

if I know the

that
same

the

thing Jf, which


thing
and
as

perceive at
remember
at the

point "?,is
the then I cannot

that

which

perceiving at
been in existence

point B,
think the

previous to point
A

that

point A,

of possibility
every

its not of the C.

having
line If X A. is

continuouslyat
some

C,
a

or

of

other
may

line

between
be to

and

composite being,it
by
circuitous
a

indeed from A

taken C ; and
or

apart and
it may
be

conveyed piecemeal, as
removed
to
some

it were,
and

unseen

path

then

brought
like

C ; while

meantime

reallydifferent
line A

but

seemingly
C. stated
"

body obviouslymoves
A the similar science
move

along the
of reflective
a more

result of

thinking is often
restricted way.

by

physics,in
A
every to

body
C."

cannot

from

C, along the line A

C without A and

passing through [That


be this it
can

between point successively

with proposition,

whatever
as

of for

ontologicalpostulates
all

involves, is accepted
no

true

things, there
discussion
us

doubt. for

The
our

interesting metaphysical
confidence in it cannot

of the the
over

grounds
this

occupy
to

at

present time.] If,however, the effort be made

carry

analogy
said

to

the

existence For
on

of the
can

the
one

mind hand

in
"

time, it
as

breaks

down

completely.
"

has the

already been
be affirmed

no

meaning

be

discovered
as

for

that proposition
as

the real existence

of the mind,

mind,
such

must

at continuing(to speak figuratively)

points

CHAPTER

THE

CONSCIOUSNESS

OF

IDENTITY,

AND

SO-CALLED

DOUBLE

CONSCIOUSNESS

THAT
was,
or

I,who
in
no

now

exist,am
how

the
many

same so a

as ever

the I that of my

formerly
bered rememmen

matter

past

inferred

experiences, is
with the
most

which proposition intense Both the the made and

generally maintain
conviction

indubitable of this of its


no

respectingits certainty.
the

meaning
conviction

proposition and
certainty reposes
little debate.

grounds

on

which
been

have, however,

subjects of
course, its
"

Any dispute over


with the

its

validityis,of

most

intimatelyconnected
On the
one
"

of interpretation of the

meaning. Identity
"

hand, certain
argue
as

advocates the grasp

so-called

of Mind could

though

of human the Self

consciousness
as a
"

by

some

supreme

effort

envisage
and

pure

entity,a being per


or

se, the

self-same

unchangeable subject
all the life and well-known
to

ground

of

the

phenomena,

through
to

changes which
On upon the that

actuallybelong
the other flux

mental

its development

hand, other

psychologistsinsist
such
an

perpetual
the very of lack

of consciousness, to
of

tent ex-

conception anything
even

change

loses

all definite with

meaning
which In the

by

relatively permanent
into contrast. that

change
mind,

itself may
nature

be thrown of

discussing the
of
we

identity which
the

may view
to

be that

affirmed have

shall chosen. also be

maintain The conceded

points of
maintained.

already been
view
must

rights belonging
and

these These

points of

THE

CONSCIOUSNESS

OF

IDENTITY,
the

ETC.

149

rights are
a

all summed

up

in this

one,

"

right

to

give

rational
as

treatment although speculative,


are

to mental
"

ena phenomquately inade-

they
"

described faithfully

and

however In

explained by empirical psychology. particulardiscussion,then, something


from wish
to

carrying again
be

out

this

must

borrowed
we now

general metaphysics.
borrow, after

The

conception which
and freed
course

it is clarified

from that
can

internal of
one
"

contradictions
or

by critical treatment, is of
"

self-sameness,"

identity." For, indeed, questionwhether spoken


of
as

how

discuss intelligently considered

the

the mind

is to
own

be

self-same, or
some

knowing
be

its

identity,unless
for these very
must

definite ?

meaning
the

first

obtained

words be

Here, too,
without have results

results

of reflective detail the

thinking
processes It is

accepted
the

retracing in
been reached.

by which

customary, especiallyin circles permeated


accompany the modern

with

those
and

prejudiceswhich
to pursuit,

physical science
the

its

insist upon

and independent stability with

nency permaations fluctuway


as

of

things as

contrasted
contrast

dependency
that all

and
a

of mind.
seems

This

is often stated the truth of

in such
our

to

of imply forgetfulness statable

edge knowlthere

of is much

things is
sound

only

in terms

change.
Greek

For

sense

in that view the

of the ancient

phy philosoand

which
so

emphasized
all character

changeableness,perpetualflux,and
as

unrealityof

things

in

contrast

with

the eternal
we

unchangeable
of of
in
man
as

of ideas.

if Certainly,

may and

speak
events
or

having

consciousness

of the character it is

the any

so-called way

physical world,
in this The the
and
or

nothing permanent
such

self-same
contains.

world, which

objective

consciousness is this mind


:

important psychologicaltruth
in

It is

only of

similar

things that the human


aware

is

immediately
of the

indisputably
the identical

;
an

'

all

ception con-

self-same

is
a

extremely
amount

subtile
1

and

complex affair,resulting from

large

See

and Explanatory," pp. "Psychology, Descriptive

274 f., 293 f., 447 f.

150

THE

CONSCIOUSNESS

OF

IDENTITY,

ETC.

of of
we

reflective

thinking, and
it

"shot In

through"
is

with
:

variety By sight
come

postulates. ontological
know the the similar ; but
same.

it might fact,

be said

only
even

by faith that

we

to of

know

And

this

is

more

indisputablytrue
those

things than
To

it is of minds.
senses

ordinary perception by the


"

things

are

called the
of states
or can

same,"

or

"

whose identical,"

successive
some

changes
idea,

be traced with
to
serve we

enough
the may their

of

conformity to

type, of change
In order

practical purposes

of identification.
use

that

re-cognize things,make

of
too

them, adapt ourselves

to

changes, we
exact
or on

must
even

not

be

scrupulous
if allow of the and often

about their

insisting upon
different
to be too

nearly
other in
our

exact

in similarity
we

states.

But,
and

the

hand,
mate esti-

ourselves

loose of

indefinite
we

permissiblelimits
of in their relations influence

change,

make

the serious
are

fatal mistake

confounding things that


and

really
needs,
this is

quite different
for his indeed

effects.

The

child that

the safety, the very brute


same

of mental

conviction

dog which

bit him

yesterday; although
ing snarlyesterday,
even

to-daythe
and which later. and

looks

and pleasant, His often

is not, as that indeed

showing
appear But
even

his teeth. like


is
are

lesson
not

those
same

things
comes

most

the

this lesson
more

less important for scarcely for his

his

safety;

it is

important
and of his

edge. growth in preciseknowl-

In both of
more
or

cases,

however, it is only the various


dissimilar
senses.

groupings
he its

less similar

attributes

of which

receives work

the

testimony
the
not

Thought,

with these

less cease-

of

underlays ontologicalpostulating,
conception of
a
"

various

groupings with
and does humorous order that
an

something which

is permanent
what some-

change.

This be

something" permitted
a
"

"

if the

tautologymay

is necessary rather
some

in than

anything may
appearance

be indeed

real
as

"

Thing,"
state to

simply thing.
To

to be ascribed

other

the uncritical

mind, then, it doubtless

seems

as

though

THE

CONSCIOUSNESS

OF

IDENTITY,

ETC.

151

an

unchanging
thus
to its

"

"

core

of

realitybelongs changing
as

to

everything.

The

attributes,the

states, the

modes
a

of behavior somewhat critical

of the external

thing, are
fashion,

regarded
essential
to

added, in
Little

core.

analysis
forms what

is

needed, however,
to

show
to

how its

and inapplicable completely figurative

or reality,

explanation,are
What
is

such and

of is

speech
known is
to

and
as

thought

as

this.

demanded,

actuallytaking place in
this
:

satisfaction
"

of the

demand,

simply
be

Every

(every " Thing


x

whatsoever), in order
"

entitled
in its

still to be called
run

(or the

self-same
as

"

thing),
cated be indi-

must

changes

only through
. . .

series such
on

can

by

x,

x1, x2, x3,x*

xn ;

or,

occasion

of its

coming
be that

into other relations indicated of every But

with different

the beings,
xf.

series may is true


y

by

x, xa,

z8,2?, a?
"

What

of

is true
z.

other
x

thing,
should

for

example
to

of every

and

every series and

if any
"

happen
the

break

off its proper


be

of

changes,
should series

especiallyif
to
run

rupture
the

sudden,

"

if it the

begin

through
;

series

yl,y2,y3,etc.,or
for the
become

etc. z2, z1, z3,

why,

then
x

(begging pardon
would have

apparent
y,

contradiction would
even no

in

language),
be
x, the

i. e.,

longer
a
"

self-same and have

thing.

That
must

is to
be

say,
formity consame

to be to

Thing,"
But

self-same here
we

real,there
come

law.

upon those

the which The

underlying and
us

unanalyzable conceptionsas
the last
its

met

in the

attempted analysisof
in
its

chapter.

real

identityof anything consists


in all itself,
to
an

this,that

fests maniself-activity
as things, forming con-

relations different idea.

to other

immanent has

In view

of what
;

just been
not

said, this important truth is change itself which


sistent is inconcharacter

apparent

namely, that it is

with of the actual

identity. On changes
or

the contrary, it is the very


or

observed denial

inferred of

which

leads either to
statement

the affirmation
no

to the

identity. This
beings than

is

less true

because

it is less

popularlyobvious

concerning the
of

most

stable of

material inorganic,

organisms,

152

THE

CONSCIOUSNESS

OF

IDENTITY,
But that
must

ETC.

or

even

of self-conscious be reckoned with with

minds.

not

the

atomic

theory

here,

"

brilliant of

metaphysical physics
and

hypothesis

which

the

modern

sciences

of chemistry (especially)

have

their justified and

most

sweeping cation appliwe are

? empiricalgeneralizations Certainly; of this that theory to reality


most

it is in the for which The

the truth

contending
force
to
are

is

forcefullyillustrated.
is found

compelling
ing here, accordatoms

of the illustration the very


terms

in the fact that

of

the

the hypothesis itself,


ever reality,

those

elements

of all material

self-same, by
all the In precisely

and combination, separation,

recombination

of which

changing

states

of

things are

scientifically explained.
.the real self-sameness for Certainly,
or

what, however, does


of the atoms about themselves

identity
of the
as

consist ? kinds consist of

each

seventy different

atoms,
in

considered

manent perthe

kinds,
"nature

it

can

only

conformity
atoms
can

to

"of and the


atoms

its

particularkind.
atoms
can

Oxygen
remain

remain and
so

oxygen,
on, to

nitrogen
end of the

nitrogen,
" "

entire faithful the

list of in laws

seventy,

only if the

oxygen

continue

ent behavior, in all the differof their kind


; and

possible relations,to
if the

only
"

nitrogen atoms
But
ean

in turn does
to

abide

ent by the laws of their differto


"

kind. No the
answer same our

what
be

all this amount this

in

reality
terize to charac-

given
of

question without
have
been
seen

recurring to

conceptionsas knowledge
the atoms
not

those the

which

identityof
The

the of
x

complex things
is x, in

into which and does

enter. y,

meaning
be
own

self-same,
The
x

become

only if x
to

governed

its behavior

in all relations

according
our

its

appropriate ideas.
not

metaphysics of
meant
some

conceptionsdoes
of
an

alter whether
a

by
star.

be

kind

atom

instead

of

stone

or

Or the

let kind

some

singleatom oxygen)
and remain

(some
be

individual and of

of representative named
our

called

selected

x;

then,

too, let the conditions


it
as

the character

knowledge of
be
sure,

self-same

unchanged.

Now,

to

science

THE

CONSCIOUSNESS

OF

IDENTITY,

ETC.

153

assumes

that

has

maintained

its

individuality, as

well

as

its and But

specific character, through


under it has define
an

incalculable
most

periods of time,
the laws

infinite

varietyof
this

trying circumstances.
to

maintained its
own

only by conformity
every

which stances. circum"

nature, under
all its

varietyof changing
in the it

In
now

transactions, so
in the water,
now

indescribablyvaried, plant,now
we are

in the

now soil,

in the

brain

of the scientist whose


"

conception of
remained

at

present

holding for true,


the permanent identical ? that

has all

the identical, But how


to

very

type of
and how truth the

amidst

change.
mind

self-same

Again
in the

is the

forced

recognize the
for that

only
of

ideal,as

applied for
we

the search

regulation of

limits of its admits


no

behavior,can change.
the

rest

our

which

Nor, when

the

exigenciesof
become

the metaphysics

and

physics of chemistry
with observed other
atom

heightened by
when Sir William infinite interior

enlarged acquaintance Thompson's, complexity


of
our or

facts,and
an

some

theory of
is

for the individual of

devised, is the character


No small
x,

conception mechanism),
with which
x.

identitychanged.
let
x

ever howintraand
as

small atomic the


same

(even if we
can

stand

for

some

unit

in the
one

vindicate

its claim

to remain
same

itself, except upon

the precisely the

terms
masses

those called But

belong
has

to

the

largest of
is indeed

material

if what

been

said

true

of the elements which all

of

material
are

and reality

of those
more

inorganicbeings into obviously


true

they
and
maining re-

compounded,

it is

of

organic

beings,with
their the
"

their greater

rapidityand
of all immanent the

varietyof changes
is called
"

capacity for development.


same,"
in the
some

Indeed, what

case

organicbeings,is justthis,
idea,while undergoing a
it were,

remainingfaithfulto
modern of matter

great
Thus

varietyof changes in
in any

pursuit,as
how

of

this idea.

physiologyshows

or nearly, quite, every

ticle par-

growing thing may


as

be

changed,
the
same.

and

yet

the

total

growth is spoken of

remaining

Here

154

THE

CONSCIOUSNESS

OF

IDENTITY,

ETC.

the unscientific similar relations

observer in space
as

trusts
as a

his observation chief the

and

memory

of

guide

in

the task

of identification. in of that

Only
vines, does
so

he

finds

phylloxera,for example,
within

similar sufficiently his he

relations credit
in

of space eyes
at

the substance conclusion

his

with

the

beings

different
can

aspect

the

different the
same.

stages of their If,however,


a

development
while
tree

reallybe pronounced
malicious
in his
can

he has for
a a

some slept, one

neighbor substitutes
refuses
to believe

poor
so

good

garden, he
same

that

different

growth
senses

be the that the

thing,in spiteof
occupy the
same
-"

the testimony

of the space.

two

place
minute

in

When,

however,

an

appeal
of

is

taken

to

the

and
"

comprehensive
as especially

observations

modern the

science, biological
of

supplemented by
powers

study

micro-organisms
rather than

under

the
"

higher

of the is

microscope, by embryology,

etc.,

the

impression
utter meant

greatly heightened

diminished, how
what unless
can

is the

of understanding impossibility

be

by organic beings remaining the self-same,


be

the

thought
some

admitted

of idea.

control This

over

the limits of is still of

change by
further

immanent the
more

impression
of the under ? this

heightened
is in

the

import
For

theory

development
what is there

considered. reflectively that reality into


mere

theory
all is that

does

not

change
"

then, Shall,

realitybe change
to the state
us

resolved
no

change,
ideal ? their full

into real To

change

in

real

being,or change of no
limits of
some

being,according
attempt
even

unchanging
such

to

as these, in inquiries

import, would

carry

quite too
We
turn

far aside
now

from

our

present line of thought.


the from
to

to

consider

identityof mind,
or

with

the

inquiry whether thought


forces

it is different
us

inferior For

to

that which the


or case

to

ascribe
or

things.

in

of

things, whether something


"over" and

organic
that

inorganic,composite
not must

tary, elementhat is

does

change, something
be

"above"

change,

postulated for

them

156

THE

CONSCIOUSNESS

OF

IDENTITY,
as identity men
"

ETC.

destruction,of the consciousness

of

based

on

valid
scious con-

grounds.
since

Thus
"

we

frequently hear totally changed


These
to

saying
or

with

pride,
so

I have
ago.

in this

that

respect,
have and

long
to

self-recognized changes
to faith, to opinions,

may

reference

knowledge,
or

emotions
and

sentiments,

to

the

most

deeply

laid

purposes

plans.
which is

Indeed,
does

even

the

popular estimate
"

holds

that

the

mind

not

develop

and
some a

development
idea
"

implies change,
far forth

change according to
its claim
to

fails
in

so

cate to vindiEven

be

real

mind,

any

worthy

way.

character, and
which
may
same

that called

vague,

indefinite

background
affirms

of tendencies

is

inherited

dispositionor

temperament,
itself to every be the

greatlyalter
individual selves
same.

; and

yet the mind

mind, distinguishingitself from things)


What
as

other
one

(both
and many

and

abidingly, in change.
The

some

sort,

the

is called of such all


men

conversion religious slower

affords tions altera-

instances startling that


are

forced

upon

of life, or by the discipline with that


some

that of

are

effected voluntarily purposes and

in accordance

reversal

underlying
passage arise
to

plans, or
different

naturally follow

from
or

through
from need

the different

stages of advancing age,

that

markedly
mention there

environments,

are

too

familiar In

here.

all these the

cases

is,to

be

sure,

another

way

of

garding re-

matter, which
the very
are

emphasizes
of

the

influence

of such With

changes

upon

consciousness

itself. identity its

this,too, all

familiar
as now

enough

although
its

highly figurative
to

character,

considered
under

in

relation

the

physical meta-

problem
observed.
more

discussion,is seldom
of

sufficiently
less

Men

not

infrequentlyspeak
are

themselves, and
more
or

frequentlythey

spoken
is not

of

by others, as said, He
"

greatlychanged. completelychanged
was.''
are

Sometimes
; he
more

it is
at

even

is
man

(or I am)
that he

all the and

same

When

the

fundamental from those

obscure

ings bodily feelconsciousness

markedly

different

to which

THE

CONSCIOUSNESS

OF

IDENTITY, disturbances Great


as, for
an

ETC.

157

is

accustomed,
of

more

or

less

profound
take

of the

sciousness con-

identity may
in

place.
"

and

especially
when
or

abrupt changes
one

the

environment first time riches


to in

example,
in the

is landed
one

for the from

Oriental
or

country;
reverse

when

passes
;
or

poverty,

direction fellows

when

the

accustomed
"

associations different On sudden for


;
a

with

one's

are

greatlyaltered
of this

produce
and may

but

important
to
selves" our-

disturbances from

consciousness.

"coming griefs or long


time

overwhelming
and has ourselves
been

tunes, misforlook far

the world otherwise


we are

than

their wont

things are
in the

and different,

wholly changed.
bearing of
the such alterations consciousness of

The

identityupon
permanent
and

metaphysical problem, where


the
extreme

they

become

reach be

limits later under


on.

of their effect upon But in all the


more

will personality,

considered
as are now

ordinary cases,
appear
at
once

such that

consideration,it should
than diminish the

changes heightenrather
the consciousness For this very of other

and reality described and

validityof
understood.

of identityproperly
conscious

recognition
and this
sciousness con-

of the alterations standard of

implies a
can

standard be
no

comparison ;
than the

comparison

same

of
to

which identity
or

seems

temporarily and
can one

partially
be
scious con-

be

confused of

impaired. How, indeed,


is not the the

being changed who


and
same

also conscious

of

being,in
the of

some

sort, one

being
? for

that is self -regardedas consciousness


not

identical
"

subjectof

change
"

This

being
such

the

subject of change,"
"

and it is i", of

another, that

am
manner

changed
that As

involves the
two
as

the
cannot

consciousness be that divorced. it is I

in identity

long, then,
this
so

I know and

that

am

changed,
Self is affected
"

"

that
now

veritable

continuously existent formerly to


have of

really
from

circumstanced, disposed,and differently


it remembers itself lost the

what

been,

I cannot
con-

be said to have

consciousness

identity. The

158

THE

CONSCIOUSNESS

OF

IDENTITY,

ETC.

sciousness

of

change involves
arnid all

the

knowledge
of environments
"

and

the and

tion convicinternal

that I am,

changes

states, in
clearness

some

import of the word,

self-same."

Indeed, the
of the
are

and

comprehensiveness
and the in

of one's with the And

knowledge
which breadth and

particular changes,
felt, measure
of one's power loss
no

keenness way self. and

they

unimportant identifyone's
of reflective

depth
the

to

nothing

but

complete
and basis of

of self-consciousness

recognitive memory,
as

of the

power

thinking
Self

exercised

upon
can

self-consciousness that

and the

recognitive memory,
as

destroy

knowledge

of

self-same

which

is

implied in
In view the

all actual

exercise

of these

so-called both of the

faculties.

of the statement of the mind's

just made,
affirmation

meaning
No form

and

grounds
at

its self-sameness of
or

become

once

apparent.
furnishes
an

First,negatively. knowledge,
core

consciousness of inferential,
to the so-called

the

either

immediate
as

unchanging
Self. be
or

of existence
of
no

belonging
"

The
may

consciousness
not be
"

identity
dead of

ever whatof

else it may
an

is

envisagement
of
some

unalterable
a

after self-being

the

analogy
with

lump being
it

of

material into of
new

entity,or
external variable that
a an

some

atom

capable only
other

moved

relations
states.

beings, but
Such

incapable
not
a
"

internal this very


"

And,

indeed, has

been

shown such such

analogy is misleading?
atom," would
be
no

lump,"
;

so-called abstraction Nor

self-same
no

existence

would, indeed, have


which identity which
to any

claim

to

be existent mind knows

at all.

does the

individual ness self-samein the

itself to have, and of

is the
as

only

worthy
In need
men

being

attributed
some

mind

mind, consist
as

being recognised by
same.

other

than
we come

its Self
upon

being

announcing
to be

this truth

considerations

which When

explained with
one

further

detail. have

say to
a

another, " You


"

greatlyaltered,"
most

or, "You

are

totally changed man,"


in the

they
and

frequently
Such

refer

to

changes

bodily condition

states.

THE

CONSCIOUSNESS

OF

IDENTITY,
indirect

ETC.

159

changes,

of course, of

have
in

only
so

an as

bearing

upon

the

self-sameness
or we

mind,

far

they

are

indicative

of past

present alterations
note
we

in mental

traits.

Frequently,however,
abrupt alterations of

with

joy or

sadness

the great and

which and and

in the mental get indication, forms of mental


we

disposition, tendencies,
our

actual

functioningof
trace

acquaintances

friends.
as

Again,
a

with

genuine psychological
alterations
set forth.

and interest, of

fruitful

psychologicalstudy,the
and

mentality which only,however,


and of mental

biographies, dramas,
when the

novels

It is

proofs of
in such

actual form
a

ness, self-consciousas

recognitivememory epochs
of and of reflective

to

bring the continuity

different of of

activities into

sort

of

development, and
a

thinking with
to be

its achievement

conception
an

Self, seem

permanently lacking,
"

that For

actual
as

loss of so-called

is deplored. personal identity


recurs,

now,

the

saying significant
Self-same he
no
no

This

person
no

has

lost his mind." the


same

longer is,for
is

he is

longer
members, re-

to
or

himself; he
thinks

longer
into
an

or self-conscious,

himself

actual

and

yet conceptual

"

for-self-being." positiveimport
is
not

But, second, the


as

of such

tions negative declaraFrom there


as

the

foregoing
conclusion

obscure. particularly follows

the is
no

negative
other in of of

it

positivelythat
such memory. and for the

consciousness actual
any

of

identity than

is No

implicated conception
by

self-consciousness whatever
be

import
"

words,
is not
to
a

"

sciousness con-

identity

can

gained
of the

which mind

gained
of
"

subjecting these thinking.


be and self-conscious

activities Therefore
to
"

process

reflective
to

and indubitably positively


is recognitively
to

remember
-same. self

be

scious con-

of being identical and


what is meant
was,

So that in order mind

to tell

by being
and
was

the

same

(as
so

mind) that
it is

formerly
necessary of memory,

yet before
the processes
to

that, and

on,

only
and in

to describe to

of self-consciousness
to set

subject them

and analysis,

forth

160

THE

CONSCIOUSNESS

OF

IDENTITY, other

ETC.

words

of (to be verified,
same

course,

only by

minds

that ca* what is

repeat the
found
to

processes
in

ill their these

consciousness)
In the
"

be

involved

processes.

narrowest

meaning possible
the

of the word

"self-same," then,
a same warm
as

and

this is

meaning
"

penetrated with

and
minds

irresistible conviction,
are

no

the being is really

self-same

that
same. so same

does Real

not, by actual mental


self-sameness
"

make activity,
are

itself to be the it is I
a

as

minds

capable of

form,
the
am

to

speak, of
to
same

for-self-being.*' Or, again,unless


am

am

myself,I
to
or

not

the
no

self-same being. And


other

if I my

the

myself,then impair
to
us

being
the bar

can

deny
reason.

ness, self-same-

its

standing at
out
over

of

Further

draw

the the

import

of this

conclusion

would

only take
and of

again

already well-worked
states

field of psychological

analysis as

applied to
We

of self-consciousness

recognitivememory.
the

should
"

only find
as

ourselves

again rehearsing familiar

facts,
are,

such
in the
oneness

how process of

the

knowing
selfthe the
ject subas

subject and
existence

object known
into
a

called how

consciousness, woven
of any
cannot state be

vital

being;

implies a being
as

that

is

subject of
this and

state, and

considered
as

mere

state ; how state

is self-known
mere

only
se

in the

some

concrete

not to

being
must

per be

how

of activity
as

self-reference

the the

subject
process

considered
to

to belonging potentially to
as

of
any

coming

and self-consciousness, may how be discriminated

the
one

passing
act

through
validates
a

phase
whole
mere an

that

of
and
as

self-consciousness the of
"

; and

belief, or
as

conviction,warms

so activity,

to

prevent its being felt


converts

process

thinking, and envisagement by


same

thus Self

it into

self-

knowledge,
and An
now,

of the

here actuality,

of the

Self. the
act

analysis of
to
as

of

recognitivememory
described, the
"

discovers, knowledge
now,

in addition of the Self

what

has

just been
in the

existent

past,
to

then,
the

as

self-

conscious, and

referringall

states

self-same

subject

THE

CONSCIOUSNESS the Finally,

OF

IDENTITY,

ETC.

161

of them
most

all.

very

conception of identityin its


in
no

refined,ultimate
by going
it would
over

terms, is realized

other

way

than

again,in imagination and thought, these


of self-consciousness and
to

self-same what
to be

processes

memory.
are,

And than
no

be

be

identical

as

minds

other of which

capable of just such


can

is something activity, be possibly formed.


men

conceptionwhatever By repeated conception of


comprehensive
acts

of this

kind,however, all
than
a

form
once

some more

their and

which personal identity


more

is at

vague

this. certain

Memory

and

thought
mental

avail to

produce the pictureof


which
my

of continuity
as

development
As of their

is ascribed
own

to the Self

its life-

history.

I remember

experiences in the past, the


of essential charI
can

consciousness acteristics is well

in respect similarity in
a

emphasized
I

vivid way.
same

Many times,as thoughts


have and I

remember, have
ago did

1 had

the

feelings ; re-formed,

long

form, and
same

since repeatedly

the essentially
in especially

plans. My

and disposition

tendencies, complex

the

realm

of affective
; my
"

phenomena
and

; my

emotions of
and

and
and

sentiments
of

habitual
are

ingrained modes My

action

conduct,
somewhat

consciously remembered
same. peated re-

recognized as
states of
content

the persistently
as

consciousness, whether
or

regarded in the

aspect of
all

in the

character marks with

of

functions, bear, amid


of

changes, certain
does this has
to
seem

permanent
to

cially similarity. Espeto


so

be true in

respect
the
a

much
a

of
scious con-

my

being as
intent with

been mould

taken
it

charge by

Ego,

with

according to
of all this
a

formed consciously
the
narrower sense

plan,
"

respect
As of

to

my

in character,

of

this word.

aware

by repeated
of memory

and

com

plicated acts

reasoning on
may
same

basis I know

and
to

self-

I consciousness, all

affirm

that

myself
of

be, amid

changes, the

being essentially unchanged. secondary knowledge closelyin


11

This

inferred and
more

tity personal identhat

corresponds

its characteristics to

162

THE

CONSCIOUSNESS

OF

IDENTITY,

ETC

sameness

which of
as a

is attributable real

to

things.

The

Ego

is

ceived con-

being, of

many

changing
as a some

states

and both Amid

manifold

different

and activities,

yet
follows

being

that

consciously and

unconsciously
it remains

law.

changes of its ideas


within When limits this with
seen

permanent,
some

because idea.

it is held

by the power
which identity
may

of

immanent

may

be affirmed of

of minds is

is

pared com-

that which

be affirmed the

things,it
several

readily

that the former

has

preference in
self-sameness

important

regards.
First,things have
a

known

only

as

they

are

perceived and
that minds and

remembered

by minds.

If it be

not

assumed

of their percepremain, in the essential principles tion memory, faithful there


to

the
no

same

unchanging

laws

of

intellectual
sameness

then life,

is

guaranty for the identity or

of any

thing.
in

Second, things have


and

realityno
as

sameness,

no

identical the and stated


terms
trol con-

permanent being, except


existence, and
that which In
some

they
the

conform

to

of mental of
terms

manifest

immanency
it be

is inconceivable vain do

unless

in

of mind.
to

physics,chemistry,
conclusion what
in
as

and The

biology
terms

strive which amid

escape

such
to set

this. the

they employ
all unless the

forth

physical world,
are

changes, remains

really the
what

same,

absolutely
to

meaningless

all material

is reality

admitted

be the

expression and
after the

subjectof
be

is ideal. self
as

to Third, actually
manner

known

to one's

the

self-same,
and
most

of every
"

self-conscious, remembering,
to

thinking mind,
indubitable the form

this of
act

is

realize On the

the
one

highest
hand,

and
to

identity.
which hand of

dispute
to the
even

validityof the
on

ascribes
to

this self-sameness
to

mind, and
conceive
are

the

other

try

vindicate

or

to

of any

other

kind

as identity

belonging to mind,
inconsist-

alike absurd.

Fourth, instead

of

change

and

development being

164

THE

CONSCIOUSNESS

OF

IDENTITY,

ETC.

"

catch,"at

the

best.

For

it is

only the Ego that, instead


in every
act

of

"

is actually present eluding cognition,"

of selfhas any

consciousness, self-knowing and


claim
to

self-known, which
in
case

existence,or
Just
to

to worth

of existence
as Self,

it validates

its claim.

know

the

actuallyand
that

concretely being,is
self-same. There
is
no

self-conscious, remembering, thinking,here-and-now


to be
a

self-same is
"

mind, and

to
"

know

you

are

For

this word

nigh

thee ;

it is not

afar off.

salvation
as

for the

entitycalled soul,in
the

such

ghostlymetaphysics
the

this.
In

the
"

lightof
double

foregoing discussion
"

phenomena

of

so-called
more

consciousness with their

become, if in certain aspects against the metaphysical


other less

formidable of

threats certain
in in

tenet
so. are

in personal identity, these

aspects much
or

About

phenomena
more

general,two
interests of mind.
more

three

remarks

necessary, than

even

the

of

psychological
first,the

science

of

the

philosophy

And,
careful

phenomena
with than
new.
a

themselves
to

require much
the exact

scrutiny
facts,
means

view

ascertain

facts,and
are

all the

they have
Similar
ago

yet received.

They

of

course

by
;

no

phenomena
been

are,

indeed, old enough


that
more

they might
to receive.

long
In
at

have

subjected to they
have

logical thorough psychobegun


not

analysiswhich
their all
more rare

only
and

of late

form, however, they have

yet been
ment. treatare

collected systematically
In

subjected to expert they are


abnormal
very rare,

their most
as

extreme

form
to

and

to

be

regarded
be

belonging
the take
as

and of

pathological
will
doubtedly un-

psychology. While, then, obliged to


and
so

philosophy
be

mind

their
it
can

testimony into
ascertained
can

the account, what that

just
such In

so

soon

far

testimony is,their bearing


as

and

weight

properly be only
it should remarkable
as

belong to
that

rare

and this

irregular phenomena.
historical fact also be of the most have
we

connection

with

noticed of

apparently in
double
.

none

cases

so-called

consciousness

yet anything

THE

CONSCIOUSNESS

OF

IDENTITY,
formation The
"

ETC.

165

like
even

complete
as

set

of data

for the
case.

of

judgment,
true

respects the individual

same

thing is
of all

of all the in the

phenomena

of

hypnotism,
cases,

part of which

indeed,
double

most

remarkable

these of

phenomena hypnosis,of
old the

consciousness of

actuallyare.
all varieties

States of the

degrees

depth
and

and

extremely complex physiological


are as as

psychologicalsymptoms,
But it is not until
to

historyof

man.

very

recently that
any scientific

hypnotic phenomena handling by psychology.


experts
in

have

begun

receive

competent experts in cerebral

physiology and
on
"

Up

to

the

present

time,

even

the

part of these
down
"

themselves, the
or

temptation

to

plump

physiological
that fit

psychologicaltheory,with
certain

coarse

general outlines
cases,

only
often
to

aspects of the
For

rarest

has

been is it
are

quite too beginning


current

triumphant.
how that

example, only just now


and

appear

inadequate
no

misleading
remains

the
over

statements

trace

of

memory

from
a

the

preceding hypnosis ; changed


and

that

the

hypnotic subject is
in the

totally
state

wholly self-forgetful being


unnatural abnormal desire

of

hypnosis, etc. Through


the of
"

the not
more

to observe

and

emphasize
cases

rarer

and

extremes

of the

reported

double
to the

consciousness," many

other

phenomena
been

which between
too

serve fitly

bridge
most

the

apparentlyimpassable gulf
all writers
matter to be. A

them much

and

ordinary experiences have


Almost
on

quite
have

neglected.
this have is

hypnotism
candid and defect

been

guilty of they
may observation
are

no neglect,

how

thorough
Its results than

intended
common

similar

of scientific

enough
rather
more,

in all the

sciences.
in

not any

less,but
of the

disastrous of

psychology
All

in

other

sciences

observation.
become

observers,

when
to

they

allow

themselves

to

absorbed the

in the effort

discover

the strange, the unusual, chiefly mental

abnormal, the
accustomed to

magical, the supernatural in


find it. And
no

life,are
But

doubt

it is

reallythere.

if it is

really

166

THE

CONSCIOUSNESS

OF

IDENTITY,

ETC.

there, it is in realityaccompanied
much and
tone

by, and
to

coupled with,

so

that
matter down

is of

ordinary, accountable
familiar

known

law, normal,
and
and

experience,as
outcome.

greatlyto modify Repeated


far

the theoretical

more

toward finding out searching observation, directed definitely of ordiis not what nary pathological, namely, the evidences
"

self-consciousness every person maintains


"

and

memory,

on

the

basis

of which

to himself

his
to

own cases

unitary being and


of

self-sameness, insane data double

must

be

given

all

hypnotic

or as

consciousness, before

they

can

fitlyserve
be

for

generalizations. philosophical
must

attitude scientific Further, the strictly maintained double toward


or

steadfastly
of it be

in

the

examination What
or

of the this

alleged phenomena
is, whether
toward

consciousness.

attitude

hypnotism
sorcery, doubt.

toward
can

witchcraft,
be

telepathy
no

toward

there The

in this age attitude the

of

the world what from

reasonable

scientific

clings to

is this

alreadyknown,
firm

to the

explicableand
then combinations first the

explained;

point
and

of

standing, it
theoretical which
at

endeavors, by further
of known
seems

sions exten-

new

to principles,

explain
This

that
our

sight

to

be

wholly
for the of

new.

is,in

judgment,
take The toward

only right

attitude

man

of science

to

the modern

discussions

hypnotic
to

phenomena. wholly
new

of being compelled possibility

admit fully cheerfactory satisor

principlesin physiology and psychology we


No

admit.

fact
ever

or

class
to be

of

established facts, If any known

on

evidence, is
class
or

denied. under

proved fact

of facts

cannot

be
"

brought
as, to

physiological
facts

psychological laws,
be,
"

indeed,
be

many

undoubted confessed.

cannot

this, too, is

frankly

But,

on

the all

other the

hand, all the historyof the development of science,


most
even

sacred the very

rights

and

precious achievements
of science
as

of

science,
from

existence
mere we

distinguished
upon upon

wild

vagaries or
what

popular opinion,depends
or

holding

fast to

have,

think

we

have

; and

THE

CONSCIOUSNESS

OF

IDENTITY,
conquer and

ETC.

167

using
more.

this But

as

the

instrument

to too

possess the

the

if in
more

reaching out beyond, we firmly have,


new case

eagerly after slip from


case our

still dim what


not ;
"

and
we

uncertain

let the
to

grasp
one,

already

most

becomes

of it
on

getting something
becomes the
to at
one

to

add

the all.

body
As

of for
to

science
us,

rather hand ranks


we

of
not

losing
allow

then,

will

ourselves
we

be not

relegated
rush off of the

the
a

of the
in

because Philistines,
new

do

tangent

pursuit of

and

theories high-flying what


not
;

double telepathy, other

consciousness, and

but,

on

hand,

we

will not, afar

through
in

fear of

being relegatedthere
the camps of the

by others, wander

company

with

psychologistgypsies.
To
even

apply the foregoing cautions


the when
most

to

the

subject in hand,
of double with them show

"

abnormal strikingly

cases

ness, consciousare fully care-

all the and

phenomena
much

connected

examined than As their

duly estimated, seem


too

to likely

another

already
case

emphasized
case

abnormal of the

aspect.

in the

of the wildest

insane, so in the
a

hypnotic.
and the

Between
most

the

vagaries of
the

pathologicalsort gradations so
Such mental disordered
most

regular operationsof
innumerable down
can

sanest

mind, it is possibleto
as

an interpolate

series of
one

to shade
a

up of
no case

or

shade

from be much

into

the other. for


to
case

process

mediating
matter

accomplished
it may mind.
seem

every

faculty,
in

how

be

the

of

the

insanest what inmates


in

In the and

of the

insane

mind,

even,

is normal of the of
our

ing. regular is reallypredominatare more

The unlike It is

mad-houses of

like and

than mind.

ourselves

workings
all

both

brain

only

that

loss like

so-called

faculty which
minds,
and

guishes distinferences dif-

diseases its

progressivegeneral paralysisthat subject from


cheerful of other
"

afflicted

this,

by the continued
The confident

removal and the


even

of all manifestation

of mind. be the ished cheruse

expectationmay

that, as

science

psychology develops by

168

THE

CONSCIOUSNESS

OF

IDENTITY,
it will
more

ETC.

of the its way

modern clear to

inductive

methods,
of

and

more

see

explain states
in

hypnosis,with
and all their the with

their

alleged
most

phenomena
established

of double

consciousness
accordance all mind.
to

other

unique phenomena, hypnotism


is

empirically history of
lesson
men or

principlesof
is itself in the
to
a a

Indeed,

the

lesson very

this
"

effect; the

same

embodied

word of

hypnotism."

Few

of of

science
"

continue
"

speak

"animal

magnetism,"

Mesmerism

diminishingnumber
of brain and mind

persist in ascribing
to

these

peculiar

states to

occult

telluric the
are

influences,or
person best of the
to

mysterious

physical

effluences

from

experimenter.
states
more

hypnoses Physiologically,
the
any

likened

of natural

sidered, consleep; psychologically

they
known way. of Who and

are

satisfactorily explicableby
"

wellother and
changed, una

principleof
can

mental

suggestion
essential

"

than

in

doubt of the after

that the relations


a

nature

of brain

mind,

between' the two, remains


of

when,
passes, from
or a

single word
of

command,
same

or

few
goes

minute

of fixed condition of double


"

staring, the
consciousness

person
to

the

normal condition

single consciousness
? It may
"

the well

abnormal

be, however, that


most

so-called

single

consciousness, in its indeed, as


it were,
some

normal
up

form, always conceals (and even

and

is

made valid that

of double

consciousnesses,in multiple)
;
"

meaning
every
a

of these of
"

latter words double


"

and,

on
"

the other

hand,
is

case

or

triple

consciousness that

only

relative the

exaggeration of processes

customarily single
and for the

underlie

recognized

forms

of

every

so-called

consciousness. In of the the the

interests,then, both
we

of

psychologicalscience obliged
Our the
to

philosophy of mind,
a

feel

maintain
in

present

position of

reserve.

confidence

of continuity as principle
and to

appliedto

study, both
as

scientific

of philosophical, this

the mental

life is such of

to

lead,however,

belief,
"

the

explanation

double

consciousness,

THE

CONSCIOUSNESS

OF

IDENTITY, the

ETC.

169

when will

the be

facts

are

ascertained the extension


to

and

explanation is made,
than the reversal of normal

found

in

rather

principles already known body


now

apply to
in
a

the

activityof
way

and

mind.

It

is,then, only

tentative
some

that

we

sketch briefly of these

our

opinion

as

to what

of the most

important
One of
a

principles probably are. important


is connected
and

of the most mental way,


a
"

comprehensive
in the
a

of all

ciples prinin what

development,

both with

regulative and By

constitutive be called

organizationof
a

may

psychicalautomatism."
we

purely physiological
cannot in

automatism nerve-commotions

understand

those

initiated centrally be the

generally due
reasonable

(although proof
control the the

given
of
or

for

the very of the


"

conjecture) to changes

character

which blood-supply,

end-organs

motion,

as

distinguishedfrom
the central
now

initiated peripherally

reflex nerve-commotions

that, ascending by the centripetal


organs.

tracts, excite

The

term

psychical

automatism,"
certain

as

it will

be of obscure

employed,
that
as

may

clude properly inThese


are,

modifications and

consciousness.

however,
themselves

so

transient

they
it were,

either

never
an

get
act

analytically separated,
and

by

of the

selective attention entire conscious


"

discriminatingconsciousness
:

from

complex

or

else

they

are,

although perhaps
of the Self
as scious con-

moments

"

actuallyrecognized as
not

constitutive
to

complex,
state, not

consciouslyattributed objectsof

the

its

made definitively

self-consciousness.
some

Or,
selfmay

again, although attainingfor the instant


conscious
never

tinge of Ego, they


no

recognition and

of attribution
so

to

the

live in memory in that

afterward,and
be that

have which

place
"

ever what-

consciouslyself-known [Itwill
seen

Self the

is also known

as

self-same.

sphere
made

of the

matic," auto-

psychologically considered,
with consciousness. ascribed
to

is not

co-extensive

conation, although including the


But it does include
"

conative is

aspect

of

all that

ordinarily

wholly,or

nearly,

blind

impulse," to "instinct,"

170

THE

CONSCIOUSNESS

OF

IDENTITY, side

ETC.

to

"

tact," and
least

in
is to

general to
known,
and

that

or

sphere of

ourselves

of which

which, when

seems recognized,

strangest even
In covered the

ourselves.] development
automatism and of mental
becomes

natural

life the

sphere
larged en-

by
and

psychical
more

constantly
it
were.

more

highly organized,as potencieswhich


"

To

those
or we

blind

and unconsciously impulses, instincts, appetencies,

exercised half-consciously in
our

belong
"

to what

ignorance call the


are

nature

"

of the

species and
forms from
"

of

the which

individual, there
are

added of

certain

similar

residua,"
of the
conscious un-

the

acquirements
appear

previous conscious dropped


the
or

functioning.
realm of the
"

These

to have

down

clearlyconscious
"

into

obscurityof
"the

the

or

the

half-conscious"
are description

sub-conscious,"
course,

so-called. the
enormous

Under

this

also

included, of

number habits of
so

of

forms acquired impulses,appetencies, constitute nature." round of what

of tact

and

which psychic functioning the


"

is sometimes

called significantly
man,

second

So, then,
his
nor

every

when
as

considered actual

in the whole not

as well potentialities even

performances, is
he
now
"

simply,
or

what perhaps chiefly, himself it may


more or
"

consciouslyknows
automaton."
a

remembers
automaton

to be ; he

is also

an

Of this that is

be said,with ordinarily

meaning
"

something
"

than
I
am

merely humorous, either,


it." But

I have

it,"or

It has

me,"
"

again,we
with which from

may

declare," It is
have
much

not-me

it is indeed many
a

something

/often

trouble

and

sore

and battle,

which
or

I receive much
worst

as help or ill-usage,

either my because

best friend within


can

my

enemy.

I have

the

automaton,
at
some

certain

limits

(narrow
show then mination deterits
cessfully sucor

enough, indeed, ownership


again the
over

times) I
over one me

control

it,and
But

it

as

of my in

belongings. spiteof
or

automaton to

has

; for

my

fixed

depart, on
of

due

occasion
grasp

habitually,from
upon
me

ordinary modes
broken

procedure, its

is not

by any number

of conscious

idealizations

172

THE

CONSCIOUSNESS

OF

IDENTITY,

ETC.

time. been

Not

a
or

few
rare

brilliant

extemporaneous

speeches
the and with

have self-

made,

improvisationsperformed, when performer


The and the
was

conscious
as

mind with

of the sad

far away,
or

occupied
memories

it

were

accusing thoughts,

absorbing
account
no

all its

powers.

Ego
the

then

took

little

or

no or

of

its automaton,
to

automaton

made the

little

report of its doings

Ego.
an

But

automaton

haved be-

according
as

to its

office, as

automaton,

quite

as

tably credi-

did

the
a

self-conscious, remembering, and

reflecting
of formed, perbeen

soul. the

Indeed
in
so as

large part
much with with

of the

most

impressiveart-work
of art, has ideation of and

world,
not

all the various

departments
self-conscious

tive reflec-

purpose
seem

and inspirations and above


"

forms the work


us.

strivingthat
soul.
not
so

born

of

life beneath then


us,

self-conscious
was

The much

artist must

confess,
another has declare and

The

done

by us

as

for

by

within

It is made

only a pardonable
many of of these the rules
to

exaggeration which
workmen which ascribe
or

in all ages their has

themselves

ignorance
even

governed them,
the work

which

compelled
to
some

them

accomplished by
divine
as a

them Thus

indwelling
"

overpowering
imaged
me,
a
"

influence.1

the
or a so

automaton
"

"

becomes

genius, a daemon, yet related


Self
as

god,

another and

than

not-me," and
to

in
to

intimate

peculiar a
time In
to

way

the

self-known into it

be

liable at any

be

absorbed

again.
not

other

instances,perhaps
instead with of two the
or

much its

more career

rare,

the
a

chic psyof

automaton,

of

running
strata

in
so as

sort to

parallel course
the

self-conscious
more

Ego,

give

impression
A
recent

of consciousness

lying

undertaken investigation, authors of successful

to discover

by
comment

the

theatrical clear faire far il this


une

safe scientific
notre

makes generalization,

lowed folprinciples consciously unfit for a compositions,however of view. Nous point ignorons
"

the

esprits'yprend
bonne

pour
so

piecede theatre," says

one

author.

Another, M.
avoir ecrit
une

Pailleron, even

goes

comment piece,

to declare, as "Si quelqu'un sait,aprfes s'yest pris, qu'ilrecommence." (Bevue

Fevr. 1894, Philosophique,

pp. 228

f.)

THE

CONSCIOUSNESS

OF

IDENTITY,

ETC.

173

one

beneath

the other view

at different

depths,as Many

viewed

from for of

the the

superior point of
time

of

assumes self-consciousness,

being nearly exclusive


"

control.
"

cases

artistic,
the the

exhibit or religious inspiration so-called, military, of double consciousness in this form. Thus

nomena pherior, wareven

only
then but of

after his

frenzy in
has actual done

the battle has conscious


; but

subsided, and
and

becomes partially, what he the


"

by memory
is

ence inferwhich

the

consciousness
more

accompanied
as

transactions

scribed accurately deand with

that of

another"

acting in ways
to

impulses
mind. In
vincing conear-

only

very

imperfectlyknown
instances

the self-conscious the

extreme

it

requiresall
"

force of the most of eyeand


"

objectiverecords
witnesses,
convince
own or

the

testimony
in he did

the

changes
himself astonishes of its deeds

effected that the

external
in fact
so

things
behave.

to

the actor

Its in
a

automaton

Self

either

by working

relative
a

independence
or

control,and
which
at all

yet under

its eye, for

season,

else
account

by

challenge self-conscious
except by ascribingthem

thought
to

to

for them

this automaton. Similar

phenomena
so

doubtless

lie at the base

of that
to

language
the become

which results the


or so
"

has of

frequently been
"

employed

describe
to
"

religiousinspiration. The organ," the


Another
" "

Self is said

scribe,"the
the

mouthpiece," the
than
"

penman,"
"

even

pen," of

the Self. when he

Oftentimes has
a come

Philo

Judseus
a

declares

of himself his mind have from

to

write has

upon become

subject with
full ;
or

empty, all of
fallen from

sudden like

it
a

thoughts
like seed
become

heaven

shower his mind

of snow,
; he

the hand of
a

of the sower,

into

has

possessed
he has

Corybantic frenzy altogether ignorant


of what
to

under of the
was

the divine

impulse ;
the persons

become

place,of
and

present, of himself, and

said

written.1 human
1

In

general,according

Philo, in
the

inspiration the

withdraws
rer.

completely

before

Quis

div. haer. t. i.,p. 510.

174

THE

CONSCIOUSNESS

OF

IDENTITY, its

ETC.

divine ; the visitant.1 Extreme forms of

finite

soul

yields

up

place

to

heavenly
certain mental

cases

of

"

possession
the

"

or

"

obsession," and
sensations
as

insanitywhere

disordered

and

images

are

and objectified

so personified a

to
"

out constitute,
"

of part of the mental

phenomena,

sort

of

double
to the

which

is

recognized as standing in peculiarrelations


of course, be instanced for the in this connection. illustrations abnormal

Ego, might, why


the should and
same

But in

principle be sought
In
no

unfamiliar way

experiences?
for all that which
are,
as

unimportant
in the
case

principle becomes
dreamer

operative
he
a

of

almost

every of his of

portion of the
passes in

twenty-four hours
The those of the

daily life
dream-life

dreams.

phenomena

rule,so different from


and it is not than

waking
to
as are

life,so

little remembered that subject,


to
some

attributed self-consciously difficult to consider the Self with whom them


we

their real

belonging
made these

other
our

acquainted by phenomena
forms of

waking
which

states.

Sometimes, indeed,
it were, into

get themselves
recurrence

organized, as
different

habitual
more

present this other and much


in

purely automatic
from

Self

as

markedly
conscious

impulses,
and scious, self-conThus
some

habits, environment, and


purposes,

even

ideas, feelings,
more

the characteristics

of the much

and self-active, the


sort

reflective Self of is in
to

waking
and entire is

hours.
in

automaton,

that

realityours
possess the

yet is
time

comes not-ourselves,

during
in
a

which kind of

the

stream

of

dream-consciousness with the true


at

running,

daily succession
so

and

higher Self.
to
us as more

This
or

automaton,
less

far

as

known

all,appears
Self.

markedly
and

unlike drives

the self-known the

It holds

the reins in
an

by night

ricketycart

of consciousness
"

irregular, freaky,and yet perhaps characteristically tempera1

The

prophet is quite unconscious


cannot

of

everything he

utters

in this condition it ; he

of

ecstasy ; he
all yeyovus

^v

comprehend it,is indeed in utter ignoranceof De spec, leg., t. ii., dyvota. p. 343.
"

speaks

THE

CONSCIOUSNESS

OF

IDENTITY, the reins

ETC.

175

mental

"

way
"

; but

by day

we

take

into

our

own

hands, and
direct and the

character," self-conscious
chariot

thought, and paths


of what

choice is real

mind's and
our

along

the

true

good.
entire

Moreover,

waking
and the

life is characterized of the

by

sive succes-

risings and
automatic self-active

fallings in the dominance

psychically
one's self halfon

individual

and self-conscious, reflecting, does each from


one

spirit. Repeatedly
of and

catch

in the condition

being aroused

states

in which

blind

impulse

nearly passive association


or

spurred
is

by
sciousness. con-

feelinghave
unable with
to

almost Not

quite absorbed
one

the entire is

field of

as infrequently, or
can

aroused, one

wholly gulf
of

remember,
turned of the

only descry as
and

shadowy shapes,
the longing experiences be"

faces

from

us

fleeingtoward
or

oblivion,any
to

mental
"

images
The

other

these

states.

psychic automaton
the

has

been

playing the prominent part upon


it is

stage of mental

life ; and

conveying swiftlyaway
and moral

its

troop of actors, just as the eye

of the intellectual

critic turns

reflectively upon

that

stage.1
Another less

important
much

and

yet

most
more

suggestiveclass
advanced
a cases

of of

facts,which
double

throw

lighton
be
venture

the

consciousness, may
which
we

brought
to

under

psychological phrase, the


facts,when
of

principlefor
"

suggest the
This class

dramatic

sundering of

the

Ego."

and subjected to thorough psychologicalanalysis, in the

explained
of

light of acknowledged psychologicallaws, instead


to

enabling us
is found
a

dispense with
to

the

authorityof

ness, self-consciousin In
more

have

its very

only origin and significance


to
as

full

recognition of the activities of self-consciousuess. words, 1


I
am can

other

make

myself
to

seem

myself
two in
or

two
more

or

or selves,
1

able
of the

to appear

myself

selves,

discussion

phenomena

of double

consciousness

hypnotic states, from


that

the

and physiological consists in


an

experimentalpointsof view, which


in Max
"

concludes

sis "hypno-

induced artificially be found

Ego,"

may

matic) preponderance of the secondary (or autoDessoir's Das Doppel-Ich." Leipzig, 1890.

176

THE

CONSCIOUSNESS

OF

IDENTITY,
and

ETC.

only as
of the

am
one

capableof constituting myself,


and

appearing

to

myself, as
of double

the

same

Self.

That

dramatic

sundering

Ego, upon

which

many

of the most is itself and

startling phenomena
in possible,

consciousness

depend,

any

alted ex-

form, only for self-conscious


minds. In mental

ing remembercognitively

discussingthe
life, an
somewhat

nature must to

and
be

import
made which of

of such
to states
were

phenomena
referred

of

appeal
similar the

of consciousness
to

those

just
the

as

coming
less

under

principle
and the

psychic

automatism. "other-Self" the tant resul-

And,
more

indeed, "the
or

psychic automaton,"

created consciously and activities,

recognized as
in

of

mental mixed

creating "self-cognizing
the actual and

Self," get
mental When I

together
many
most

and

interrelated

in life,

curious

interestingways. place,think
and my

dramaticallyput myself
as

in another's

thoughts
it is both

his

thoughts,and
or own

feel the

feelingsappropriate to environment,
that This I draw
ment state-

that other's

imagined
my

known

condition

largelyupon
for material

automaton,
for constructive

of course, energy.

and
an

simply
human
to

involves

extension

of the of

principlethat
of life

all

of interpretation life in certain


I know

the consciousness into the

others,all entering into ing belongthe I

general,or
and of

form specific
upon

individuals, depends
remember mental
my

self-consciousness.
as

Only
forms

as

and Self,
as

regard
can

and

laws

behavior that

unchanging,
"

mentally represent others


queens,
or

than

Self,
the the

be

they kings and


of
men.

thieves
even or

and of my the
as

beggars,among thoughts about


side of the
"

children

This lower

is true

psychic life
the

of the

animals,

psychic

or plant-life,

doings
It is

of "mind-stuff" consciousness of
same

mind-stuft,or

quiescent and dreamy


"World-Soul." No
ter mat-

some

hypothetical reallyam
no

always
how

the

I what

that I

puts itself into that other.


that other how may
seem,
even

unlike
me

for the
to

time, to

to be ; and

matter

absorbed,

the

THE

CONSCIOUSNESS

OF

IDENTITY,

ETC.

177

temporary
other,-all

loss of all
goes

I may in that become self-consciousness, to self-knowledge, back to to self-feeling,


as no one

consciousness
all this The
or

of

self-existence
and there is

and

the

same.

It is

nothing ;
and the

third to choose. of this

kinds of

degrees,however,
are

"dramatic

dering sun-

Ego,"

many; the the

the
most

variety of instances
and interesting in which

is

almost

innumerable.

Among
the

are psychologically

performances
of

dren chilto

gestive sug-

indulge.
construction of

In the

development
as

early infancy the


the
power

Ego

self-known,and
an

and separate off this Self,

by

of lively activity imagination

projectit
young

into

another,proceed almost pari passu. plays


ill; she the

Thus
not

the

girlwho
to

part

of

the

patient does

simply
of her real

pretend

be

has, according to the


of her the
no

measure

past experience and


to be illis

the vividness

the imagination,
case.

appropriate to thoughts and feelings


earnest to really

To
some

pretend in
of the much
so-

be ill; and

doubt

called real illness of her


as

later years

will be Yet

fullyas
she to the

tence pre-

is this earlier called

play at
back

illness.
at

can,

by dint

of

be questioning, she is not

any
is

time

knowledge
the normal
a

that

really ill, but Me,


Nor when does made her less

really only playing by imagination,as


who the takes
to

part of patient. So

that, after all, the healthy and


ill

Ego regards
of other of doctor

the

sort

Self. prove

companion equal

the

part
of

herself

peculiar task

artistic

diremption imposed
a

upon stretch

her. of activities in
a

Or, by

scarcelygreater
same so narrow

similar break the


as

the direction,

of personality
as

the child may


a

itself up into two doctor


; for the

dissimilar selves
child
can as

are

patient and
to

same

play both
patient. Who

patient
that

itself

doctor,and doctor
the skilful and the successive with her

to itself

has watched

of the phases of consciousness, quick shifting of the little mother appropriate objectifications, doubt But here the the of what psychic reality
measure

doll,can

is thus

accomplished ?

of the

actual

diremp-

178

THE

CONSCIOUSNESS

OF

IDENTITY,

ETC.

tion of the

Ego thus secured


its
own

is to be found Self.
to

in the the

child's

vious pre-

experience with
makes which the makes
a

Both
as

process

which that
and
rec-

child
it
a

real

child

itself
as

mother, and

real mother

to itself

child,presuppose
Now

call forth

certain

development
and of these mind

of

of self-consciousness,

ognitivememory,
exercise known and and and reality without these

of reflective

thinking.
faculties has
been

it is in the

development

that found

all the

self-

of identity faculties

to consist ;

it would of the

be

quite as
to

impossible place
often
with
"

for such
as

dramatic

sundering

Ego

take

at

all

for the consciousness In dreams,

of Self to
same

approach perfection.
takes the is connected

too, this

psychologicalprocess
Its result do

place
answer

in

startling way.
the

to

question: Why impossible as


so

dream-images
are
"

absurd,
so

changeable, and
to

they
the

become

tive objec-

the and

mind,
after The the

real to has
true

dreamer, both
out

during the
immediate this tion ques-

dream

he

awakened

of

his
to

enthralment?
reverses

psychological answer
for all those of

ordinary impressions;
life and

images, both

those alike

of

waking
of

dream-life,are
is

originally
the

both

objectiveand
trained

subjective. It
to
"

only

critical
the

operation
native which
"

intellect, checking and


all objectify

correcting
mental

metaphysical tendency
in
sane

images,
from

waking
realities

life
as

prevents such
have
so

images
no comes

being considered
in
that may to the be

in dream-life And any

difficulty
about

validatingtheir
uncritical

spurious claim.
Self
;

it

in dreams
any

of its of
some

performances performances, object or


tary "momen-

appropriated
own,

and

other

its

equally its
other Self. and

may the

get appropriatedto dreamer,


as

other
a

For

says
own

Delboeuf, is

involuntary dupe
the the

of his

imagination,"as
and the

the

poet is
man

"

momentary permanent

but and

voluntary dupe," sundering of


et les

insane

is

"

involuntarydupe." l
the

Instances

of this dramatic
1

Ego

in dreams,

Le

Sommeil

Eeves, p.

91.

180

THE

CONSCIOUSNESS

OF

IDENTITY,

ETC.

emphasize happens highest and


often order ;

the

latter of these

two

principles. Here
what life, the
same

again, as
is rated
as

almost what

uniformly
is rated

in the mental
as

lowest

evince

logical psychodreamer
no
mean

principles. Psychologicallyconsidered,
becomes
a

the of

constructive other
even

artist

or

seer

and,

on

the

hand, the
the

the artist,

actor, the
man

spired inhis

prophet, or
states

ethicallyquickened
consciousness, behaves
a

in

of most

intense

moral

in certain

important respects as though in


The of this

dream.
be

experience of
truth.1

actors

may

appealed

to in

illustration

This

experience, indeed,
which throw of and

differs

greatly as perhaps
sonality peras

respects the completeness with

different themselves

and

equally successful
"

performers
all its

into the

with

changes

feeling and
the

thought,
Some
to

fitted to the

changing they

situations

development
audience

of the
actors

plot
"

which

for the time

being represent.
to

that they testify person


are

not
are

only

appear

the

be

the

whom

they

but dramaticallypresenting,
same

that the Their

they
time
own

to

themselves suffer his normal


woes

that very and

person his

they

for

being
true

in rejoice

triumphs.
shock,

and
are

self is absorbed
so

in the characters

of the
or

plays
tinct dislongs be-

they

acting ;
for

that it

requiressome
meantime
actors

other which

reason,

resuming
self.

the

selfhood

to this true

Other

claim,however, that they


reflective and consider critical

find it necessary attitude


not
as

to maintain

constantlya
they
must

toward

themselves;

themselves

being temporarily the


as

characters

they represent, but


of all these with
a

rather More
seems

always playing
careful show that

part.
cases

examination psychological
we are

to

here who

dealing simply plays


such
a a

tion ques-

of

degrees.

The

actor
"

part wholly without

puttinghimself
is

into it

if indeed

thing be possible
"

and hard, unfeeling, a necessarily


1

untrue

of representative
examination made

On

this Archer

subject

see

the
"

very Masks

suggestive inductive
or

by-

William

iu his work.

Faces

"

THE

CONSCIOUSNESS

OF

IDENTITY, dramatic

ETC.

181

that the

part.

Some

considerable
a

genuine

sundering
this

of

Ego

is

to indispensable

dramatic satisfactory

tation represen-

of the the other in the

person

who
actor

is who

reallyother
becomes
so

than

Ego.

On

hand, the

completely absorbed
and
"

part he is playing as
over

to lose all self-consciousness

critical reflective control who


that

the

projectedsecondary Ego,
to

suffers the dramatic his


own

sundering
in and

become other

so

complete Self,
"

as

Self such
can

is

lost finally powers

that such this

must

either have
automaton

trained be

genius as

that the
or

safelytrusted
fail of the do
not

with

important work,
either

he the

must

probably
In is is
a

highest
realized. less

success

by over-doing
of these

matter.

fact,we

believe

that What

extremes

ever

completely
of
more or

actually takes
intercourse
as

place
between
observe

kind
two
me

intermittent /
am

the the

streams

of consciousness. in the other

the

actor

that is

now

part I
who
my

acting.
so

am

indeed

living largely in
and nowhere
as

that

is
own

different
true

in I

and character,situation,
am

destiny from
in the I that world
am

Self. he
or

he
now

perhaps does
absorbed
more

exist less

just

except
him.

the And

completely in
of my and which

yet all the way

through

this

tion absorp-

Self in that

other,my

consciousness

is shot
and
me

through
thoughts
guish to distinis in

through with perceptions, feelings, memories,


are

of my

own

true

Self; and
Self ;

these

lead

this other truth


my
own

from

that true

although
in all

this other

true

Self

acting a part. example historyof


the his
a

Perhaps
achievements in the

the most

marvellous

the

possible through
of dramatic
we

this cultivation

of native

genius
novelist

power Of

self-diremptionwas
are

Balzac.

this author

told,so vivid

was

sensuous

imagination that the mental


his flesh

representation of
and
was

knife

cutting

anywhere

produced the keen


It

lance-like
not

pain that
in
some

ordinarily requires actual cutting.


one

simply
his

other

than

himself For he

that this
seems

man

had

the power

of becoming
own

absorbed.

to have

lived,as

expe-

182

THE

CONSCIOUSNESS

OF

IDENTITY,

ETC.

rience

while

settingon
of his
"

the

stage all the wonderfully varied Humaine,"


purposes of the whole all the with The
round

characters the

Com6die

of

and thoughts, feelings, dined with him

characters.

They
sat

him, sleptwith
room

him, walked
he worked.

him, and
rather
was

beside
as a

in the

where

he,

self-conscious, remembering, and


for the

stantly, Self,conreflecting

voluntarilyadopted
into these ideals
ran

purposes
as

of

his out

art,

so

projecting himself
veritable projections of

to

create

of the

selves

that

their

appropriatecourses
one

history

somewhat

with nearly parallel which selves


was

another, and
tified idenespecially
were, set
over were

with

that stream
as

of consciousness
own

their author's other and

Other

they
and

against each
all Balzac's the creative

against his Self ;

yet they

the recognized and creations,

well-loved

works

of

genius of this central Self.


instructive is the the for the

and Particularly interesting


same

study of

the

psychologicalproblem
and prophets, The very indeed basis

experience of

the ancient
erally. gento

Hebrew

propheticconsciousness experience which


a

of the laid in

belongs

is prophetic inspiration

certain

dramatic

sundering
ing standSelf, of
nion commu-

of the

Ego.

To

become

the subjectof consciouslyinspired, Other than


his
own

must inspiration
over

recognize an
and to

against this Self


-it; and
"

holding some
the existence
it is in the

form and

with this Other

yet, as

character that

of

lo ! it appears

that

Self

spired is in-

which (for inspiration and all), that its character

is external

is not
to and

at inspiration is determined

corresponds

by certain
to

of the

and thoughts,feelings, These

purposes

belonging
purposes
in

the

normal

Self.

and thoughts, feelings,

have which

organized themselves they


the
were

into another born.1 In

One view

than of of

the Self this

themselves

ence experi-

Hebrew
is and

prophets describe
as

their

state
of

inspiration

This

view

true, psychologically
elsewhere may be

all the show


;

phenomena
and this their
as

prophetism among

the

Hebrews
answer

abundantly
the

whatever whether

given to
natural.

inquiryafter

quite independent of ultimate more origin,

or supernatural

THE

CONSCIOUSNESS

OF

IDENTITY,

ETC.

183

as as
"

"

of falling

the of
an

hand

"

of Jehovah
"

upon
"

them

; or,

again,
a

the burden

coming
"

oracular
upon

word

or,

yet again, as

which
bear.

is laid

the

soul, and
"

which

they
but

must

lift up selves
"

and

Thus, too, they


enter
most

their

real

inferior which is with


and

sometimes
in

into

communication,
realistic their

described that wiser At other

the One

objectiveand
is in
not

manner,

who

them

as

better, truer,
is
an so

Self ; and

yet is

wholly

this

Self,but

Other.
plete com-

times
and

the process

of dramatic
argue and

sundering
with

becomes

livelythat they
disobey his

this

Other, plead

with
or

him, complain before


venture
can

him,
most

voluntarilysurrender
For
another

to

to

explicitcommands.
He
appears
as

who

resist the ourselves does


not

Almighty,
? Yet
even
our

when

Self, Ego

within
can

self-conscious

and

self-active

and It is
so

resist

Him.

necessary,

however,

to

appeal

to

phenomena,
those of

even

relatively extraordinaryand
of certain
to

as unintelligible

or dream-life,

forms

of the

aesthetical wonderful and

and

prophetic

consciousness,
energy

illustrate soul.

self-diremptive highly developed


of the
sciousness conone

of the human consciousness power. The

All intense
a

moral
same

affords
essential
"

startlingillustration
of all moral else

characteristic

is that of another." In Paul

thoughts accusing or
this the

excusing
we

recognitionof
" declaring,

characteristic which I I would

find I do "/"

the
not
sent con-

Apostle
but

good

the

evil which the law

I would
; but

not, that

practice."
law

unto and

I find another
my

citing (another Self,in-

consenting) within
until of my I
become
"

members,
I
am

bringing
law do
a
"

me

into rather

captivity. Ethically considered,


than
one,
one

regularly two
the alone
;

with

and

yet
the
sonality. per-

by virtue

ethical rational

consciousness

I attain moral

highest
Kant the

form In

of

unity

"

the
same

unity of

recognition of
"

the

unique phenomenon,
other

and personifies

this objectifies
a

Self, and

gives
The

it

significant title of

categoricalimperative."

en-

184

THE

CONSCIOUSNESS

OF

IDENTITY,

ETC.

tire Kantian

system of ethics is,indeed, based


this ethical double
to

upon

figurative
The
nou-

of interpretation
menal

consciousness. of realities

Self, belonging
and
even an

the world

that
"

are

comprehe in-

impossibleto understanding,
attitude
to

free,

and
a

yet standing in
which and enchained
"

of necessary
"

respect toward

law

it is bound

keep,
two

and

the

phenomenal Self,
nexus

caught
two

in inextricably these
am

the causal

of

ural nat-

world-order,
are

I ; and

yet somehow
must
ever
our

these
serve
as

one

in that the

unity of apperceptionwhich
solvent, for all that I
to
can

the
even

menstruum,
think

know

or

myself
to

be-.
or

It is not, of
to

course,

present
the

purpose
"

either der fact


same

defend

correct
"

the
we

positionsof

Kritik the

Praktischen that its

Vernunft

only

call attention
upon
tially essen-

to

psychologicalbasis depends
sundering of the Ego which
and

the

dramatic

is characteristic

of all awakened Its


a

developed
even

moral

consciousness.
as

priorism
of mental

is

or justifiable,

explicable, only
And

such
to

forms the

functioningare
of
in the
man as a

found moral

actuallyto belong being.


"

essential

nature

all the sions concluyou

metaphysics implied
as

these
name

phenomena
of
"

call the

to

reality by

or postulates,"

what

will and

"

is valid the

only as recognition
these
man

is

given

to

the

persistency
in this tinctly disof

of significance the

facts. psychological takes himself


to
some

Whenever ethical

plain
he

in hand
extent two

way,

performs
one

act

dramaticallyseparating his
The
or
one

Self into

opposed selves. punishes


"

judges,approvingly or
the other.
course,
"

and disapprovingly,

rewards

Estimated the
the

by the ethical
that
"

standard,

which
sort

is, of
of
"

standard
one

alone the

applies in
higher" and
to
summon

this

transactions,
the lower before
"

is called former
an

the

other
the

Self. its

The

undertakes of

latter

bar, with

assumption
"
"

able unimpeachthe
"

veracityand authority.
which Self is the

Not

unfrequently does
me as

"

higher

Self

call the

which
"

is the lower
"

by

many

opprobrious terms

(such

knave,"

fool,"

THE

CONSCIOUSNESS

OF

IDENTITY,

ETC.

185

"

sinner,"

"

slave do its

")

; and

it will

not

readilysuffer dispute as
Self

to its

rightto
to to

this.
own

This
scorn,

higher
to

promptly

condemns bility, sensito

the

other

the

scorn

of all moral

incarceration More

in

prison,

to

the

gallows, or
awards the

the

fires of hell. universal

it praises, and rarely, the

prizeof
is any
man hu-

good-desertor
in the whole indicative

joys of
of

Paradise. human

Nothing
more

realm of the

experience

real and mind

profoundest being
to

of the

than

just
It is

this

moral activityof self-diremptive


vain

consciousness. the
as

quite

try

to

break

the force of

argument
the work

by speaking contemptuously of this experience


of diseased there is
or

imagination,etc.
And

Without of any

work

of

imagination
whether of

possibleno
of minds. is

knowledge

reality,

things

here, as elsewhere, the

question of sanity or
and of balance

disease

chieflya question of degrees


of the several so-called
we are

in the exercise

ties. faculnow

Besides, this is the very

point
the

for which
most

contending ; namely,
of mind which
most
a

that the sanest enforce into

and
same

ordinary states
those the

illustrate
must

and

as principles

be

taken and

account

in all It

explanation of
times

abnormal

extraordinary.
toward of

requires at

only
in

little

pushing
form

further

its extreme

possiblelimit
the Men
to

order in the

to make

this process of moral

dramaticallysundering the Ego,


as

consciousness, as complete

most

remarkable the

cases

of

hypnotic

double

consciousness. been found

of
as

have profoundest self-knowledge the entire system of moral of


"

speak
be

though

consciousness
"

could
"

best

described

only

in terms

the

good angel

and

the

devil,"
on

that contend certain certain be


in

within

the

same

soul for its mastery.


sane

Thus

occasions forms of

with

many

minds, and
than
two

habitually in
selves
seem

three insanity, below

rather and

to

interaction,both

above

the threshold

of ethical has that the

consciousness.
now

There

the bad is, first,


as objectified

Self, which
the
daemon

become in the
me

personifiedand
and possesses

is

it.

There

is, second,

186

THE

CONSCIOUSNESS

OF

IDENTITY, of my

ETC.

better

Self,which
contends
And

has

taken the

the

form
or

good angel,and
and

which
me.

with

daemon,

grieves over place of


others
cases

pities
one,"

there

is,third, the Self that is recognized as my


is

Self, but which


"

in perpetually and
on

the

the

"

torn

self-conscious

self-active still, though perhaps feebly, which


in

personal ground,
terrible almost between Those from
doubt

the

two

are

waging
latter

their

battles.
as a

Indeed,

certain

the

appears

helplessand
other have the the
two. most

disinterested

spectator of the conflict

the

who

examined

the

general field
view
can

of

tism hypnolittle

psychologicalpoint
two

of

have

that

principlesof
and

progressiveorganization
of the power find wide

of of

psychic

automatism

the the

development Ego
a

dramatically sundering
with life.
a

application
of
"

there.

Indeed, this field is closelyconnected

(but by inappreciable
our

gradations) waking
and
to

the The-

familiar very word

phenomena
"

ordinary

hypnotism

is
a

employed
somewhat

in designate,

rather

loose and

indefinite way,

and psychical heterogeneous collection of physiological But view when fixed


one

phenomena.
the

has

entered

that

field from and entific sci-

points

of

by

scientific the
"

physiology

psychology, one
also there. them demand appear
at

finds

principleof continuityregnant
however however

Its

phenomena
be, and
occult

strange

some seem

of
to
a

first to and

they give

may

strange
new

or explanations, psychological
"

wholly

metaphysics yield in
go time the

of mind
to

all

token

of

position diswill terests in-

to not

the

who patient investigator he does

willinglylet
of the

little that
or

know,

in the

unknowable

of the

still unknown. how the


true

Returning
of
extent

to the then, finally,

question
mind

trine doc-

the

known these of
no

of self-identity
two

is affected

by the
carried
venture

to which
cases
:

are psychologicalprinciples

in certain
to

hypnotic
new

double

consciousness, we
way.

affirm

In

important

In

general,without
of

the

operationof

these

the highest development principles,

188

THE

CONSCIOUSNESS

OF

IDENTITY,

ETC.

then, in every
have
a

intelligible meaning
of
"

of
"

the

words,
we

we

should
be

true
to

case

double-Ego
a

;
as
a

or,

rather,

should real

compelled
or

speak
Self

of such and
an

case

case
or

of two
a

selves,
and
as

of

one

real

automaton,
No such

dramatized
so

double 'objectified evidence But is


as

of this

Self. and

case,

far

the

yet sifted
such
a case
nor

understood,
we

has

ever

occurred.

should of

occur,

repeat, the
of

principles
the mind of
to

neither would

psychology
of far

of
to
are

the

metaphysics
The

admit
so

alteration
as

fit it.

solution have of the

its be

problems, given
into of
to be

they
of

peculiar, would
and

the

hands
or

speculative ethics
all

sophy philohave

religion;

else

hope

of

solution

would

abandoned. it not be

Let
or

thought, however,
would thus of
are

that

either

materialism
over

phenomenalism
the The human
any

gain any
mind

advantage
which
we

those been field be

positions in advocating.
of actual

philosophy positions

have the
never

intrenched
so

within

experience,
of attack.
; then

that

they

can

carried them and human is lost.


to

by
be

form

Or, for the moment,


it is not that the self-known from of without irresistible the

suppose

undermined
mind

reality
field of

identity of the

alone

is lost
sameness

knowledge.
For

All

reality and
is

every

kind

all
its

knowledge
own

lost ; and that

knowledge
and terious mys-

guaranteeing

validitywith
which is
a

conviction any then and and of existence becomes


or

part of itself,no
What is who
now

reality has
science

guaranty.
dream

called
is

the

of of his

dreamer
own

the And

permanent
not

incorrigibledupe
least, but
that
raw

imagination. completely, is
which
"

last fate

soonest

and

most

this

the

and
as

wild the

pseudo-science
"

regards
of
a

ledge knowand
a

itself inferred human

but

epi-phenomenon
be called

remote

phenomenon,
brain.

to

by

common

consent

CHAPTER

VI

THE

UNITY

OP

MIND

T
said

HE

nature

of
to
as

that mind that

unitary
is
so

being

which with little

is the

universally topics
to

ascribed

connected

ready albe

discussed,
in of this

comparatively
in

remains the

chapter.
and

Indeed,
the

considering
of

ness consciousdouble

identity
we
" "

phenomena
ourselves

so-called

consciousness,
the But
as

found and of
"

constantly
reference
to
some

employing
the mind.

words the
to

one

two

"

with

very the

use

these of of

words of
;

implies
the

conception
of mental
to

propriety
in of mode
terms

speaking
number

subject implies
in which

phenomena
the character for Here under this

it also

reference the

those of

special phenomena
speech
it
must

anty guar-

be assist

found. in
to

ao-ain, however, discussion,


borrowed
if

will be

clearing
certain

the

field

reference

made

ations considerWith
oneness

from

general
words
to

metaphysics.
when
we

what
or

meaning

do of

we

employ
Or,

affirm

unity

anything?

express what is

the it in

inquiry reality
each is

in that

more

definitely metaphysical
to
our

terms,
of

responds cor-

conception
Little how words.

being

one,

as

so-called

"Thing"
to

is it

one?

psychological analysis
shifting
and
as

required
the
are

make
uses

obvious of these

uncertain these

are

nary ordinarily ordibe end that is


garded re-

Indeed,
and

words

employed, regarded
had
in
as one

everything,
or as

every

transaction
to

may

many,
is

according

the

practical
united in

view. which

Whatever is
a

capable
to

of

being

synthesis
as

necessary

all

sense-perception
to

having

unity corresponding

the

end,

or

ideal,

190

THE

UNITY

OF

MIND

in behalf

of which

the

act
one

of
to
can

synthesis is performed.
visual be
as

The its the

table, for example, is


different eyes
"

perception,because
united of by activity determined
the

areas

and

aspects
and

imagination

judgment
the
some as

by previous
sensuous

experience,and
table
and

fused
"

with with
one a

mastery of

data,
The

being pre-supposed
same

end practical known very


to

in view.

is another

perception by skin, thing


if from

muscles,
that which
and

joints,
"

second

different

it is

as

known
is
one

by sight. And
and view. the To
a

yet the sight-table


table
we resume one

the

touch-table

same

the table

customary
is many
as

point
; and

of

physics, again, the


number of
in

it is

quite
view

different

things,
various

according
well-known laws.
an

our

point of

changes
is many kinds

pursuitof
and
; it

classifications To

of

physical properties
more

cal physi-

chemistry the
number

table

is, indeed,

indefinite Now

of different
cases

of so-called

atoms.

in all these

it is

indisputablythe
to the

mental

activity
But

of

synthesizingwhich
in be

imparts unity
unity which
have
"

phenomena. things,
to
as

what may

realityis supposed
and
to

that
to

the

things,
question,
wont to

In

answer

this
"

physics
refer
us

chemistry
that

the especially which in the the

latter

are

unity
remains of the

strictest
atoms

form

of

all the

possiblephysicalunity belongs to
individual
; the

alone.

Only

atom

one

throughout
are

all

changes

of relations

unity
which

things which
them.

composed
again the

of many of

atoms

is
atoms
:

wholly
What

relative to the compose


is
case

kind, number, and


But
as

relations

the

inquiry
event)
ception con-

returns

that the

real

(whether
be

being
atom,

or

as our

corresponds,in
of its the
can answer

of the
can

individual
no

to

unity ?
this

There

doubt

that in

pushing
of

to

inquiry,as only
which

far
come

as

metaphysical analysis
the been
same

possiblycarry it,we
as

upon

group
sary neces-

conceptions
in order In

those
to

have the

already

found

understand

realityand
can

the

identityof
the

things.

other

words, things

reallyhave

unitary

THE

UNITY

OF

MIND

191

being which
do

we

conceive with

of them

as

having only
the

in

case

they they
actual

actuallyconform,
to
some

respect
and

to

changes
the

which The

undergo,
presence
in order

immanent

idea. controlling

of some

ideal in the very be


a

being of

thing is
the

necessary

that it may
obscure

unitary being

at

all.
anew

Undoubtedly, important
which of

this is all very fact that

; but

it illustrates
a

physics

and

chemistry have
as

cal system of metaphysiput into

assumptions underlying them


is
more infinitely

empirical sciences
mind. of the
a

uncertain is the pass

and

difficult to

terms

experience than
For when
we

metaphysics of
a

from

consideration

real

unitary
of the ?

being which
In question,
we

things and
what
sense

atoms

have,
I

to

consideration
to

do
our

know

myself
by
an

be

reallyone

may

at least

begin
has and
very be

answer

immediate

appeal to
course,

indubitable
which
be

experience.
man

Such in

experience is, of
becomes
"

that To

every

so-called
one,
as

self-consciousness.
a

really here
to

now

mind,

and

as

belongs
than of the

the

nature

of

mind,
; for

this is it is

nothing

else

to actually

self-conscious
in

just this
Self
as

exercise
one

developed
all form and
to

faculties

constituting the

to

itself in which do indeed


here

unitary mental

being reallyconsists.
of the which mind
as

Men and
as

conception
now

one,

known

to in

be

one,

is wider

than
as

this.
pressed exan

They

go

on

include
one
or

the its

unitary being of mind,


states, certain
or

in

each

of

powers

of

obscurely conscious
order. Thus

subconscious is

totallyunconscious
the
one

the Mind

spoken
the

of

as

being that
;
perience ex-

performs

also activities below


course, any
or

threshold

of consciousness

although, of
that

it is
one can

only

in terms

of self-conscious it is to be the

tell what

subject
ties, activi-

of subconscious,
or

of

unconscious, conditions, totally


for

states.

The

reasons psychological are

this limitation do not


concern

of the
us

psychologist's power
it

obvious, and

here. But
can never

properlybe forgotten that

it is

only experi-

192

THE

UNITY

OF

MIND

ence

with and

the

Self

as

actuallyself-conscious
such
terms
as never
"

that
"

both

nates origietc.

all justifies

unity," oneness,"
been

For is

conscious the
come

being that
case

had

self-conscious

(as
there

probably
never

with
to

all of any Soul known


"

the
or

lower

animals)
the
the

would
states
or
"

be

imagined subject of
subconscious Self must
to

any

or Ego, Self,

to

which For

unconscious

states
as a

could

be referred.

be
as

actuallycreated
such

unitary being, and


it be and

known

itself

by processes
which

of

self-consciousness, memory,
can even

and
to be

tive reflecthe
one

thinking,before subjectto
consecration
be

surmised

all states

however activities,

lacking in
be,
must

by this actual
On the this

self-reference there have

they
is
no

may

referred.
over our

point,however,
which

need

to

go

again
What knows

considerations

already sufficiently
which the mind

occupied

attention.
nature

is the

of this
now

unitary being have, can


the the And

itself here in
terms

and

to

fore, only be stated,therefor the

of self-consciousness. all the terms


on

meaning
What thou

and

of justification The

only appeal is
this
:

sciousness. to self-con-

last word be
"

subject is
thou knowest

know

est

to thyself
to

as

one,

when

sciously self-conthyself
essence

be

at

all,

that,and
With way

nothingelse
this the

is the

of the
so-

unitary being of
called real

mind.
no

great variety of
The the
are

faculties is in of the

inconsistent. upon

rather

is the

unity
act
more

mind

dependent
; the
as

exercise,in the
all

fullest way, every the

of all the

faculties ; for

they

implied

in

of self-consciousness

completer
here and with

their

activity,
onward
stream

truly one
Neither forms

is the

mind,

now

present, to
the

itself.

is this

unity

inconsistent

flow, in varied
of consciousness.
it has

of

manifestation, of the so-called contrary,all self-consciousness


said
"

On

the

is

"

already repeatedly been


; and
a

actually a
mental
state

process

of
an

becoming

simple,unchanging
evince the

(if such
never

were impossibility serve

psychologically conceivable) would


or

to constitute

unitarybeing of

the mind.

THE

UNITY

OF

MIND

193

The from
most

metaphysical truth just stated


the exalted and

may
a

be

made

clearer,
of the

psychologicalpoint of view, by comprehensive


not states

comparison

of self-consciousness

with

states

of

dreaming, of
It should

confusion be
serve

of

thought,of
contrast to

distraction that all

by pain, etc.
states

forgotten, however,
by
self-conscious

of the latter class may


our

emphasize
mind. On

the the

more one

self-known

unity,as

of separating by fixed psychologihand, the difficulty cal limits


to

the principles life may be used


a

of dream-life the Life

from

those

of

waking reality
But dream-

favor

that representation is

all human

life is indeed is nowhere


on

dream.

M"yd,

illusion ; and
or

to be

found, whether
to be
aware

for

things

for minds.

the
as

other indeed

hand,

of the
seem

of significance

life what that


state

dreams, it would
characteristic

to be necessary

to invoke

is not clearer
to the

of this life itself ; that distincter

is,to invoke
of the

and self-cognition
one

reference
more

Self,which

is made from
most

all the dreams.

emphatic So, too, the


sometimes release self-

by its conspicuous absence


return
seems or

to Self from
to

the confusion

of

thought
a

which

absorb

it is often which

accompanied by
and this

of feeling

of

triumph,
in

itself enriches And


same

deepens

the

activities. cognitive
as as

Self which upon very agree

is thus

known

one,

spite of
its

the
own

assaults

just made
do
not

it,proclaims
1

belonging to
so

unitarybeing the
While
we

thoughts which
with
so

have

confused
the

it.

Lotze

in

making
cannot

feelingsof pleasure
for the

and of

pain

essential

and

determining

development
the For
to

we self-consciousness,

wholly

overlook have.

heightening effect
no

which

these

sometimes feelings

experiences more
one

certainly
each
one

get themselves
knows himself
to
can

attributed

the

Ego

which

be, than
think

do those and
act

of for

pleasure and. pain.


me

If

the automaton know


1

without

lettingme
me con-

what

it is about, and
"

without

receivingfrom
ii., chapter on

See

the especially

Microcosmus,"
Will."

vol. i., book

"

Feelings,

and Self-consciousness,

18

194

THE

UNITY

OF

MIND

scious control still it cannot my

and be

instruction considered

as as

to what

to

think

and

to

do,

suffering my
and from
; but
seem

pains or enjoying contemplative


of

pleasures. Enrapturing joy


or

distracting agony
clear instead
two

snatch,

draw from

away,

the

soul

thinking and
it away from

voluntary action
as

drawing
of one,

so itself,

to make

it

instead all in my

they rather
and influence dramatic affective

concentrate

it within

itself.

am

pains

pleasureswhen
upon

they are
the

intense And the

and

pervasive in their
most

consciousness.

in the

complete

sundering of

Ego,
can

imitative

and
a

sympathetic

accompaniments

reach scarcely the

high degree of

without intensity upon

returningupon
affirm

Ego
own.

and

selves fasteningthem-

it,as being indeed


consider

its very

men But, plainly,

something
themselves
oneness

more as

of themselves

than
spect re-

this when

they

unitary beings in
which

of their mental
to

life. The

they attribute
to

the Self does which

not

by any
now.

means

all

belong
that

that

ence experithe for look

is "here and

It is not

then, to solely,
we

unity
an

of

as such, self-consciousness,

must

exhaustive

account

of

what

is meant mind.

by
The

the rather

customary
does this

affirmation affirmation
to be

of the
connect

unitarybeing of
the

present state,in which


other

I know

myself
ally actu-

here

and

now,

with

previousstates,whether
to

remembered
to have

and

attributed In that
man some

the

same

or Self, common

inferred

belonged

to it.

sort

the

conviction the life-history

undoubtedly maintains
mind of each
in

through
is
one.

its entire This

individual that
to

certainly implies
has of

confidence found
memory to

which self-identifying the essential


nature

already
all To

been

belong
; but
a

recognitive
consider

it also

implies something
to

more.

myself,as
is

present mind,

be

one

with

myself as

formerly
"

present and active in all remembered

past experiences, this

scarcelyanything
Self and
now
"

different

from

consideringmyself I, now
the and

as we

Self-same say, One

and

in those

past experiences. When


am

the self-same
our

being

then," we

do not

increase

knowledge by using

conjunction.

196

THE

UNITY

OF

MIND

for the

of description No

its real

character, of the actual


or

facts of of

consciousness.
"

subconscious

unconscious
so

core

being
after

rigid,uncompounded, unchanging, and

constituted this

the

analogy

of

pseudo-atom
be one, the
as

"

constitutes
a

unitary being unity


same

of the mind.

To

becomes

true

is actually to Self, in

live,here

and

now,

life whose conscious

very of Self

being,and
as

being, is the
self-active and

becoming
the
to
a

at to

the

time that binds is

subjectof change. unitarybeing


different one's
"

And
runs
"

establish and

unique claim

which

through
mental

together
necessary

all the
to know

moments
as

of

it life,

self

the

remembering, self-conscious,
a

thinking, and
mental No

planning subject of
lament of of the

continuous

course

of

development.
one,

however, need
dead
one nor

loss

of

hypothetical,
knows in others

inert, and
itself
terms
as

substratum is

unity, which
has

neither

capable
The the
as
"

being presented to
this actual
"

of

knowledge.
has also
act
so

being that promise gather


have and

unifying

actus, and

potency
new

of

constantly

repeating the
enrichments has that
one,

to

into every been


"

the repetition in

of

being
itself

which

evolved all the and

ences, past experiTo be

all the

unity that it needs,


can

unity,indeed,
of the be
to

the mind in any

comprehend
or

appreciate.

other lose

known this

conceivable

meaning

word,
lose need other

and all.
not

yet
And
care

to

would self-unifying activity,


be
or

if this whether which

can unifying activity one

retained,one
more,

is two of number

beings
can

in

any
as

meaning
to the

words mind.

possiblybear

applied

human

It does treatise

not, indeed, belong


to

to the

main

intent

of the

present

consider

in

detail the task

the

bearings of the

preceding philosophy
are,

conclusions of the mind. of ethics three

regarding
Such the
a

and reality, identity,

unitary being
the

belongs rather
of which

to

and

philosophy

religion. There
follow

ever, howthese

remarks quasi-practical

from

THE

UNITY

OF

MIND

197

conclusions

with

the

force

of

corollaries

from

main

proposition.
of the human First,the reality
as

mind

is not of

to be

spoken

of

though

it

were

sort
so

of fixed quantum
to

being
the

that is distributed

in
to every

one

lump,

speak, to
same

all individuals from


"

alike,and
cradle
to

individual Here
are
"

in the
as so

measure

the grave. of

often

happens

the
more are

popular figures nearly


sentative reprethe technical

speech

much

less

much figurative,

of the actual
terms

state

of the case, than

and

discussions

of

and philosophers.Popupsychologists lar


even

language admits
be of
a a man

of,and
or

encourages,
to

the exhortation
or

to
more

(a

real

mind But

soul),and
forms of

become

to be

man,

etc.

certain the

metaphysics,which
human what and life and
must

have have

been

born

aloof from

study of
to

concrete

allowed the

undue

influence interest

preconceptionsof important
a manner
"

be, in

supposed
of

of

ethical

theological
our

in truths,represent this reality

to contradict

rience expe-

psychical changes (of becoming more," "growing in,"


these of
an

etc.). With
some

forms

of

metaphysics
the

the mind

appears

as

sort to

unknowable
"

substrate, laying equally valid

claim

the title the

real,"from

beginning
life. On search

and

all the way

through
modern

development

of mental

the other after

hand,

psychology, wearying
substrate,has
a no

of the

something
correspond
a

known, presentable,and
to

describable,which
to

should of

this

turned soul.

the

cultivation

so-called
physics meta-

psychology without
could which find
to describe

But

if the

old-fashioned

terms, with
of reality its

recognizablemeaning,
soul, the hypothetical
to
new-

in

the

fashioned
even

psychology is equallyunable
the actual
a

find terms

in which
some

to describe

psychicalphenomena
for the soul. Both
too

without

hypothesis

of

real

being
are

alike, when
to

critically examined,
use

quite
cover

often

found

be

making
which be

of abstractions And

under

of current

of speech. figures be that is

why,

if the

claimed reality
concrete

for the mind and experience,

is

actually implicatedin

only to

198

THE

UNITY

OF

MIND

got anywhere

as

it is found
as

in such
more

experience,should
of
or

we

not

speak Why

of

one

mind
as

having

realitythan

another
"

not

speak
and

well of

adding to

subtractingfrom
without mind?

consciousl selftary volun-

designedly or reality of

and indirectly individual

intent

"

the

any

In

this

way

we

of speech which should, indeed, employ figures need


to
on

would

always

be

interpretedinto
other

terms

of concrete do away

ence. experiwith the which all.

But,

the

hand,

we

should

misleading influence
cannot

of certain

other

figuresof speech
of
we

possiblybe interpretedin
course

terms

experience at
can

It is of of

only in
to the

figurative way
But the real

that

apply terms
from is

magnitude

mind.

proposed figureof speech


is not the
use

is,at least,one

whose

meaning
it is
one

far away of which

our paratively com-

every-day mental Now,


for
one

life ; and

free from for


any

injurious consequences.
to
more

individual
to

become real

more

and

more

real, or
a

individual
not

be

than

another, is
of

kind

of

growth
one

statable

and

measurable
not

in terms one's does

sive purely exten-

magnitude. expands
one's mental any
one

One

does
or one

expand
one

mental
not

being

as

limbs

lungs ;
extends

extend
estate.

one's But
perience, ex-

possessionsas
may,

one's

landed
upon

by

process

of reflection what

the

basis of
a

clearly enough comprehend


and

it is to live of

larger
sity inten-

yet larger mental


have which
are

life.
to to

Here the

all terms different

dently quantity evi-

reference attached

degrees of

our

conscious
terms

sensations, feelings,
have reference which also

and

conative

impulses.
consciousness

But
in

these the

to the

great differences

variety of elements
as

criminatin dis-

discerns

existingin varietyof

the different

mental mental

states states

; to the ;

time-rate
to all,

and
a

these

complex
ing accordand poses pura

and, above

standard

of values

to which
are

certain

thoughts,emotions, sentiments,
entitled "To
to to

regarded as

higher or
"

lower may

places in
not

scale brief

of "worth."

live

more,"

what

this

phrase

come

mean!

THE

UNITY

OF

MIND

199

After

having
terms
we

once

recognized what
of

that

is real
to

is

fied signilife of is

by all
the

quantity when
affirmed
an

applied
that
same

the

mind,

feel
can as

in adding justified be of the

itself reality

nothing
different kind.

which

mind,

or

of two

minds,
the real

attachment
as

of

fixed, unchanging
sists conreality

On in

contrary, inasmuch

all mental

feeling,knowing,
and both

and

willing,and
all processes
content

inasmuch of becoming

as

feeling, knowing
that

willing are
the

imply

and self-activity
"

of consciousness mind
must

passivelyregarded,
all

of reality
a

the

is, under
be realized all.

circumstances
in its
own

and

forever,

which reality
to maintain

peculiarway,
the

in order

at itself

Therefore,in
are even

only meaning speak


not, as

in

which

terms

of

quantity
of degrees.

at applicable

all to the mind, it is not of its existence

only permissiblebut
as a

necessary Souls
are

to

matter

respects quantity (however alike they


the

may

be word
more

as

or respects quality,

characteristics
real.
"

to

which soul
to

the be

realityis attached), alike


real,as
a

For

one

than soul,

another,
matter to

this is not

simply perfectly real, by


acts

it is actual possible,

of fact.

Only psychical
reflective thinking who
come

beings that actuallyattain


of entitled is
to be

making themselves
and real at all.

self-consciousness, recognitive memory,


are

called

Those

to

that which these them

richest, highest,best, in
most

the life that all the

consists between

of

acts, are
and

real

of all.

And

way

the lowest

there exist innustages of real mind-life, merable

gradations in the possession of this priceless reality.


It is clear, therefore, that the final and interpretation the

sphere of
is reality The have

ethics

furnishes both
physics meta-

the

highest manifestation of the


not

of mind.
a

For
an

mental

simply

or

chiefly
ethical

gift ;

it is also reference
; as

achievement.
was

popular exhortations,
of
course an

to which

just made,

import

has

already been

said,they embody
naive

not

only the
almost

results of

practical wisdom, but also those

and

stinctive in-

assumptions which

so

often

"

however

unconsciously

200

THE

UNITY

OF

MIND

"

hit the very


an

heart

of

truth. philosophical and

Metaphysics,on
life of
sages.
duct, con-

taking

ethical turn
multitude

applying

itself to the
but

joinsthe
too, in the
name

of unlearned

genuine
Would'st

It,

of the most

profound

and
"

searching analysis,
thou have then

issues its warnings and

exhortations.
be

reality ;
win and
never now

would'st

thou

real,as minds

alone

can

be,
is

"

it for best. have hast


;

will, that thyself. Think, feel,


Live other

which For

highest
wilt thou

most, and
in reality

thou kind

art most

real. this
same

thou

than

which of it.
a

therefore
no

get and

keep

all thou
or

canst

For,
;

indeed, there is
and there is
no

other,knowable
that has any

imaginable,for
as

mind

other

value

estimated

by

the

standard

of mind."
a

Second,
similar of the that
can

similar

train of

reasoning

leads

us

to inevitably

conclusions mind.
be
-man

regarding the unitary being, or


no

real

unity,
vidual indi-

This, too, is

rigid and

fixed

qualification
to every

assigned
in the
same

to all individuals
measure

alike, or

at

all

ment stages of his developinfluential in the estimations


to character
to

from of

the cradle that


are

to the grave.

Here, also,popular figures

speech

most

prevalentand
have

and

maxims
at

which
same

reference
most true

and

to

conduct,
facts.

are

the

time

the fundamental

They reallyset forth what


more

philosophical analysistruly
with less

finds,much

and forcefully, than


do

misleading

use

of

figurative language

the

scholastic axioms
The
cross man

of certain

accepted philosophical systems.


motives, of divided
obscure, and
moral the and

of

conflicting perpetually

purposes, dominant

of

shifting,
and which all his is

irreconcilable
not

of opinions, that

mental

has distractions, mind


"

highest unitary being of


man,

is

capable. only
an

"A

double

unstable

in

ways,"
In taken

he has

inferior

degree of the unity which

characteristic

of mind.

discussing this question at length,an


to the

appeal should
from From the

be

conclusions legitimate

that follow

actual,

matter-of-fact

historyof mental

development.

the first

THE

UNITY

OF

MIND

201

this method
not

treatise of

has

made

constant

acknowledgment
the

of We

this
are

procedure as
in

the

method. only justifiable


to what

engaged
must

inquiringas
to

unitary being
of

of the
as

mind what

be, or ought

of all experience be, irrespective the

to

it

actuallyis.
a

For

metaphysics
abstract

mind,

as

we

view

the matter, is not


cobwebs

spinning of
a

theories of
can

out

of mystical

; it is

treatment speculative
a we

psychical facts.

No

advocate

of

psychology without decisivelythan


been do from

soul

rejectany language
and
as

more

promptly

and

such

has
"

already (p. 163) subject Ego,


and etc."), which

quoted
found

Mr.

Thompson

(about
to

whose
was

substance
so

is unknown

unknowable,
an

even captivating

ent adher-

of cerebral
not
a

psychology like
similar forms of

Professor

James.
are

This, and ready


nounce to deas

few
as

other

theory,we

heartily(though perhaps
in another
"

in different
"

language)

"

strangelyenough
: 2

connection is
a

does

this latter
grown
'

writer

Transcendentalism
and

only
'

Substantialism and of
"

shame-faced,
of the
"

the

Ego only

cheap
out

nasty

edition

soul." of

For
"

it is not

the

soul

consciousness,
unknown may
are

out

time,"
"

a eluding cognition,"

forever
nonsense

and

unknowable
a
"

substance

(whatever
whose
in
"

such

mean),

pure the

Ego," etc.,in

unity our

interests

concerned.
as
a

On

contrary, it is the soul

consciousness, and
not

self-

known
movement to

subjectof consciousness,
and in flow of

since "eluding" itself, its real


a

is self-activity

life,
"

coming

be

time, and
we

always being
The scientific it

itself of

time-process,for unity, and


to

whose

unity
we

contend. upon

fact

that

its

nature,
its

rely

psychology
to

to establish

; and

remoter

implications

belongs

philosophy

set

forth. After and this the

attention is recalled

to the

only

correct

point of view,
from
; but

journey of metaphysical speculation is begun


of

point
no

view, the
arise

difficulties may the vain

still be effort
to

many

they

longer
1

from

overleap

the

See

again "Principlesof Psychology,"

vol. i.,365.

202

THE

UNITY

OF

MIND

limits of the
are

knowable.
to

They
of
a

are

rather

such

difficulties

as

comparable

those

traveller thick

at times

threading

his

way
are on

through deep
not

forests of
a

and

jungles; they certainly


stand in mid-air

like those
own

lunatic

endeavoring to

his

unstable

head.

Now, the psychologicalstudy of the


life shows that
"

phenomena
to

of

mental the

the
to

unity which
Mind To
"

belongs
is

the

subject of
of
not

phenomena
and
as

the

actuallya
infant

matter

degrees
one, not

of

development.
not
a

itself the

is

for

yet it has
to

arrived

at self-consciousness

; it has
a

yet
of

come

be

self-known
to

Self. observer

"IV of the

is indeed

unity

livingorganism
entire of its assured
a

the

physical aspect
the future is

of its

life ; to' the

observer

thoughtful of
as

course

development
so

human

being, it being.

tially potenthis
his

self-conscious, and

unitary mental
observer,
on

But in

unity is potential only.


own

The

reviewing
infantile

imagination
and

the

past succession regard them


as

of the
a

states

of

consciousness, may
of

continuityof

related inter-

reciprocally dependent states, which plan.


may This inchoate then

already give
low form life. the cess proinfant

token

some

organizationof psychoses
as

the observer of that He


may

consider,for himself,
every continuous the

unity which
also

belongs to

mental

enlarge his conceptionof


a

unitarybeing of
continued the
one.

infant of is one,

by projectinginto the future

similar

organization.
he

But

thus

far,in saying that


will become

only

means

that the infant of the


as

In the

enlarged meaning
assert

unitary being
mind exercises be said

of

mind, it is
whom the

only

"

we

again

"

the

to itself,

unity is attributed,acquires and


itself
one

the power

to make

to

that itself,
no

it

can

really to
of mind

have is at

such
once

unitary being. Indeed,


more

other

attribute

distinctive this

and

more

completely subjectto development unity.


Clear

than

attribute somewhat

of

self-consciousness
; and
as a even more

is,
so

a relatively,

late

development
the

the mental

grasping together of

past

continuous

life-

204

THE

UNITY

OF

MIND

is the

rulingprinciple of
is pursuit, The
more

mental
a

development. The
plan,and
the
acme

scious, self-conof
means

intelligent adoption of
for its distinctive

selection of
man's

of

ment. developthe

comprehensive
the

this

plan,and
But

the wiser

selection

of means,

higher is

the

standing of

the individual

in the scale of intellectual

development.
sentiment
seem

ends

suggested
to control

by

aesthetical

and of

ethical human

adapted
the latter which

large spheres
from the very that the end of

activity ;
mandate its

and

especially,
sort

nature

of the
own

with

it sanctions
a

promises

has satisfaction, But of meanwhile conscious

at least

phenomenal

supremacy.

the and end

of principles unconscious should be chical. psy-

of relativity, and continuity,

habit, forbid
as isolated,

that it were, when

any from
we

consciously accepted
the entire both life,

bodily and
all these
we

And in
aware

regard
of of

the

working

of

ciples, prinlife
own

every the

detail

mental

development,
in the ends

become

that far

import

final purpose

mental
on
our

extends

beyond

the conscious
stream

adoption of
of know

part. In
not
so

other
as

words, the
a

consciousness
not

appears,
nor

much

current
as a

flowing we
current

whence

whither, but
both
"

rather

designed from
surface and

the

beginning, depths,
forces,
that

as

respects its observable


and of such

its hidden hidden But

partly self-directed
to the most not
as

partly impelled by
a

"

fit

performance
is,if any
in

certain there

work.

what

work does

fit

be, scientific psychology


of all these

a investigate. In fine,

combination actual

ciples, prinfor

they

appear
stream

their

secures operation,

every

so-called

of consciousness that

that

related continuity,
as

of character, and action,solidarity

intelligible import
are

judged by
the

the

lightof
what
we

ends call
a

and Soul

ideals which
or
a

necessary

to

historyof
scientific the

Mind." which
an

Considerations of
on

like the

in foregoing,

the

discussions

psychology terminate,
of is

have

obvious of mind. truth


:

bearing They
"

metaphysical problem (though


not
so

the

unity

suggest what

obviously)the

it is

THE

UNITY

OF

MIND

205

here
must

again to ethics,as
be

the

philosophy of conduct, that appeal profound


and ultimate

taken

for the most

explanation
of in

of mental mind accord which


issues

phenomena.
exhortations the familiar

Here and
but
"

again,also,the metaphysics warnings


Be
at

which

are

practical
of in

with the
; be

uninterpreted figuresof speech


one

people employ.
at
one

with

the thou

laws have

thy
its
;

being

with

thyself.
in that then
a

Would'st

highest attainable
would'st for
a

form, the unity which


one

is distinctive way which be is


one.

of mind

thou

be

unique

possible Grasp

human

soul,
"

make

thyself to

together and
and selected
stream

bind

into

unity of self-conscious, remembering,


some

reflecting states,according to plan,


of of all the manifold

and consciously fitting in mental it be have


canst

movements

that life.
not

flowing
In

psychoses which being


For aside. thou

is called
;

thy
from

this,

thy
or

oneness

consists

and

distracted

turned

wilt

never

other

unity,in
In

kind

; therefore

get and

keep

all thou

of this.

ing gainfar

the most hast lost all.


a

of

thou hast gained all ; in losingthis,thou this, in

For

losing this
double mind

thou and

hast divided be. value

reallybecome
And in there the is

less of than other mind." A

unity (but
that

rather
a

against thyself)
no

it is

that fitting has

should
or

unity

any

meaning
which short
to

realm

of

philosophy of

the

mind

has work

its basis of

in the actual

facts of mental doctrines


"

life makes held


"

despatching certain
"

once

as

the

so-called

simplicity
in which

"

and

of indivisibility

mind. the

As

distinguishedfrom
sense

the known these


term

identity and
attributes of

unity of
mind
no

mind, in the

have

already

been
no
a

explained, the standing


way
as

simplicity
Whenever

has

meaning
use

and

in

facts. thing any-

it is made

of in such debates
one

to
no

imply
the

it introduces different,
"

which
"

have

relevancy
realm

whichever

side

of them of mind.

espouses

within

of the

philosophy
which
are

And,
to

indeed, if the

figures of
sim-

speech

supposed

be

conveyed by

this word

206

THE

UNITY

OF

MIND

are plicity more

to

be taken

account

of at

all, it would
or

be the

much mani-

appropriate to speak
than of the of instead

of the

two-foldness mind. with But

foldness
ness,

of simplicity

such

manifold-

being inconsistent
to any

its self-conscious

unity,

is

definitively necessary
Still
more
"

mental foolish mind.

unity.
is most The of the discussion
very

unfortunate

and
"

as an

to the

of indivisibility

word

in such
an

applicationis well-nigh meaningless, unless only


with
a

it receive

consistent interpretation view of the

gross

and

materialistic The
or
"

subject of
the

all mental
"

phenomena.
"

word

implies that
off
mass.
"

conceptions of

dividing up
the could

splitting
material that

are

applicableto mind,
Were this the old-fashioned

after

analogy

of

occasion, it fitting argument


of its for the

be

shown

both mind

the
as

of indestructibility the

growing
Kant

out

and indiscerptibility, alike absurd

argument
the realm
as we

by which
of mental admit
"

confuted

it,are
Both

within

phenomena.
what this mental
mass or never can

alike have admitted in

meaning only by
the observer the

be

who

discusses
concrete

philosophicalproblem phenomena
of
a
"

light of actual,
a

that the

analogy of
Here main

composite

material in
some

hypothetical, unanalyzable atom, rigid,


mind.

sort at

least,appliesto the
whichever

all argument directions


reasons, you

from
turn

analogy, into
it,goes
is

of the two and this which for

utterly wild; analogy


with

good
an

since

there

reallyno

upon

to base

argument.

In close

connection
course,

this view

of

the

unity of the mind


to which any
a

stands, of

the third of the conclusions lead.

the previous ity immortal-

metaphysicaldiscussions
of and

If there be of

mind, it is justthis,
"

the continuance

self-conscious Without
tinuity con-

recognitivelyknown
of actual memory,

life-development.
of characteristic

selfhood,it is
indeed

not
tradictory con-

mind, but something far different from


of Hence carried
"

mind, and
as

it,which

is conceived

of

immortally
were

existent.
to be

it
over

might
into

be

argued,

if the of

discussion

the

philosophy

religion
"

the

character

THE

UNITY

OF

MIND

207

of

the

mind's

immortality
The mind's

must

depend
future
must

upon

the

mind's

ent presactual

character. of

somehow,
memory, and

by

acts

self-consciousness,
be

recognitive
into
an

reflective it

thinking,
with its

brought
and said with

organic
now

solidarity,
in order that

as

were,

present
may be

its

past,
to

the

same

one

mind

to

continue

exist

at

all.

CHAPTER

VII

MIND

AND

BODY

THERE
more

are

few

questions
to

for

the

discussion

of

which

it is

essential the mind of the

fix and of

maintain the relations Current

clearly

defined
in

points reality
cially espebe

of

view

than the those

question
and the

existing

between

body.
or

theories, and
order
"

monistic
too

materialistic confuse
a

it will

shown

subsequently frequently
the

"

often

the

discussion and concealed


to two

ing by shiftway.

point
is this these

of

view, in

furtive

Particularly
of

true

charge
concerns

with the

reference

classes of chology psy-

topics.
and

One

of

right
with first

relations

metaphysics
in

in detail

dealing
in the

mental
two
use

phenomena, chapters.
The

"

topic

considered the of

other
"

concerns

understanding
Criticism these
current

and

of

the

so-called directed

principle
the

causation." of

and theories

polemic
will this

against
present,

method

be, for

the is
to

largely
to

excluded. the of way and of


not
one

Our

purpose of view

in

chapter

chiefly
these The in in The

define classes safe

right points topics.


of

with

reference

two

only

procedure
mind is that

in

discussing
which has

the
been

relations,
followed hitherto.
or

reality, of body
the discussion
and
"

all

the class

problems
of
but

undertaken
to

facts

them

the

relative of it

lute abso-

exclusion
"

of

other

classes,
and

all the
so

facts far
as

every is in

kind the the


more

are

to

be

observed

explained
to

power basis

of of

scientific such

psychology

accomplish
the

this. of

Upon
the

scientific and ultimate


may

generalizations
answers

edifice

speculative
the
same

which erected.

philosophy
We have

gives

to

problems

then

be

confidence

MIND

AND

BODY

209

in the science
or

of

psychology
will
"

"

tentative imperfectand largely

immature,

if you

as

alreadyexistingand along
in the the

capable of
physics meta-

indefinite research.

improvement by
But
we

work also

present lines of
a

believe Above should

of possibility
we

of mind. this the

all, however, do
base itself upon
and

believe
; and

that that

metaphysics
of mind

science

particularscience thus trusted


should be the

employed by
of without

the metaphysics rather

science

psychology
the

than

that findingitself pseudo-science, upon the

rightof
falls

reliance back

clearly ascertained
use

psychologicalfacts

upon

of

misleading analogies from general positionthat


and in the
more

physical
in the

science. It follows from this neither

study of
from

the

phenomena
nor

immediate

inferences

them,

in the the

of application

the

of general principles in

metaphysics
as ability,

to

particularproblems
If he and
or uninstructed,

hand, should
confidence

the

be investigator
a

one-sided.

displaysa
as

in his

novice

an

and intelligent brain


"

well-trained and
exerts not

to metaphysician,

know the
"

that causal

the

is, really
that
must physics meta-

what in

it

is,and

what

are

energies

it

determining phenomena
confidence is under
or

of

consciousness,he
when ability the

abjure all

in

similar

of mind faith
upon
or

discussion.
must

Surely the gulf which leap, in


no

intuition solid is
on

inference

order when

to

land is
a

the
soul

is ground of reality, its other This kind of side than

wider

what

called brain

when

what both

is called science

is there.

in consistency
rare

and

metaphysics is,however, no
if the so-called science bare

less

than the

precious. In fine,
correlation let it be the But
to
or

is to end of

in

simple
then

of
sistent, con-

phenomena
and

as

matter

fact, why
directions the
matter

correlate

in all the then leave


or

in which there.

nomena phethe
be

lead; and

metaphysics
excluded
as

of

Monism

of

Materialism of

is then

the metaphysics as strictly Spiritualism. If,however, we are to trust


14

Dualism

of

ourselves

to vali-

210

MIND

AND

BODY

date

critically, or
Let forms

even

to

postulateuncritically, any
us

physics metain

whatever, why then, too, let

be

consistent

this the

regard.
several

us

consider

without
best

prejudice which
accords with the

of

of

metaphysics
of all the

thorough
pretation interthe

treatment speculative

phenomena.
in the If from modes so-called
"

The

same

intelligent consistencyis demanded


and
use

of the
notes

principleof merely
one
"

causation. uniform of

point of
sequence
states
as

view

which

the

of the mental caused


"

of the

phenomena,
"

speaks
or
"

being

determined of the

influenced

or

"

by antecedent
similar refuse

states

body
one

and

brain, then

on

precisely
right
to

grounds
to

of observation the when


same

has
to

absolutely no
relations
as

apply

terms

the

of the

two

classes of states

the order In other

of sequence,

phenomenally
not
as

apparent,is
to

reversed.
a

words,
of

one

must

hesitate
"

speak

in such
"

case,

of states
or
"

body

and

brain

mined," determental of

influenced,"
there
so as

caused," by
no

antecedent the

states

; and

should
to

be

of shuffling

meanings
the

these

terms,

suit convenient

shiftingsin

points

of view.

Here, too, the crimes


discussions of

against consistency,which
mind

the current
as

body and
and
so

commit,

are

as

mischievous

they
is the make

are

numerous

great. The

so-called

principleof
so

causation

itself is

complex

in its character, and


to it in

shifting
as

conception answering
that certain mind
use use

different
to

minds,
obtain.
to

to

complete consistency difficult indeed


however,
a

pose, Supthe

writer from
a

assumes

discuss

relations

of

body

and

purelynon-metaphysical
of causation," principle
no principle

and yet standpoint,

makes
some

of the

since,indeed, without
of any bound kind
to

of this

discussion

of relations

is

interpret and
He

possible. Such a writer is plainly itself in a nonthe principle to use


"

metaphysicalway.

must

that he

is to say views

"

consistently

maintain, in whichever

direction

these

reciprocal

the point of view held by the baldest phenomenalism. relations,

212

MIND

AND

BODY

unwarrantable
The so-called
becomes

metaphysical use
science limited of
to two

of the relations

of principle of

causation. and
or

the

body

mind,
inferred

then,

statements

of observed of

sequences classes
are

between

classes

phenomena

and

both

alike but

not only in respect psychical,

of their
to the

acteristics, char-

also in

respect of their reference


them
to

logical

or

phenomenal (not real)subject of


we are

all. what

In

pointing
history of
consistent

this out

only callingattention
"

the that
is

philosophy has

repeatedly verified, namely,


in
a

phenomenalism ends
otherwise, since

form
and

of idealism
absurd. And

which how

trinsical itselfinit be full

unthinkable

could the

phenomenalism
that

begins by denying
the of

import of the primary facts of knowledge ?


Neither which
are can

it be admitted

conceptionsof
relations
to
to
a

causation
are

current

in the domain the discussion ourselves

physicalscience
of

to

be and

introduced

into

of the here
course,

body

mind, without
This which and

binding
remark

complete
form
"

tency. consisof theory

of applies,

every

recognizes the
of the

so-called
as

law

of the

conservation

correlation

energy"
either
more

or applying, either positively

within negatively, may,

sphere of

these relations.
in

The of
an

law

itself

however, be held
or

the less

interests

alleged
But

phenomenalism
whichever endeavors
way to

in

or

metaphysical way.
the and mind endeavor such
a

the discuss

investigator understands
the and relations this whether of

law, if he
in be

body

the
to

lightof
show
or,
on

this

law,

"

his main

the

absurdityof attempting to apply it to


hand,
he to enforce to
a

relations,

the other of

stricter

or

looser

cation applipsychothey,
and
to
as

it,
"

is bound that

consistency. logical

Suppose, then, physics


the and avowed
can

the

phenomena
with the view

with be
see

which

psychology deal physiological phenomenalist brought


of energy. this very under How
a

approached by
whether

to

too,

be

law

of the
an

conservation

correlation understand

is such
"

bound investigator

law,

with

its obscure

terms,

such

MIND

AND

BODY

213

"

"

energy

stored ("" and the

"

and

"

kinetic

"),
no

"

conservation,"

"

relation," cor-

like ? way.

Plainly in
He
cannot

metaphysical but abjure


all other

in

purely phenomenal
and and itself, the all

physics, meta-

yet accept the metaphysics implied in the law


his

still maintain and

consistency. Now,
of energy, itself when

this

law

of

conservation

correlation

strippedof
ment state-

implied metaphysics,becomes
of uniform modes classes of sequence of certain

only a
have

summary been
as

which

observed ble capa-

between of

physical phenomena,
some

alike

being brought

under

form

of

measurement.

considered, the phenomena Quantitatively


heat, and

called under

gravitation,
certain in terms the
at

possiblylightand electricity may, recurring similar


formulas.
and that the
more

quently freof

be expressed relations,

mathematical that continued

Valid

grounds

exist

for may other

hope
last

successful

researches is
true

demonstrate of

the

same

thing
be

of

classes

phenomena,
at

formulas
even

for whose

quantitative relations
with any the

cannot
assurance.

present

conjectured

degree

of

Moreover, there
a

arises in the mind

entrancing possible
it

ideal of

scientific determination between all

of all actual
manner

and

relations quantitative
; and
ever

of

physicalphenomena
this,could

it is assumed written and

that the be

formula

for all

be

out, would
eras

unchanging
of

for all the

varying

conditions

of the world's ardent


our

development. physicalscience
of the
must
fess, con-

Now,

the most

devotee

however, that
behavior which

knowledge
sets

particular modes

of

individual

things, or
far

velop species of things, derelations advance

under the whole,

particularcomplex

of concrete

is, on
in the For

just at present
modern

outstrippingour
mathematical
and

acquirement of the

necessary

formulas.
even new

example, physics are

biology, chemistry,
observation of
so

molecular and
derful won-

disclosingto
that it the
was arm a

many

facts behind them. where And

mathematics
ago

is relativelv its power of


a

far

century

in ideal

to

handle

perhaps,after all,this

universally ap-

214

MIND

AND

BODY.

plicableand
sum

unchanging
is

formula

for

the

expression
all classes the

of

the

total of

relations quantitative

among

of

ical physof does


tain cer-

phenomena
not

illusory. For
more

is not

conception
And

development coming
this

and

more

to the front ?

perhaps,necessitate conception,
the science ? And

the

of application

truths,to which
course

of life invites us, to the entire


may

of those

physicalaffairs
will be found

it not the

prove

to

be

true

that

changes qualitative
to

which

theory of

evolution lower

emphasizes
ideal of
a

be is ?

incompatiblewith
If all

this

machine-world

that

always theoretically manageable


be reality the
a

in terms manifestation of
not

of mathematics of life

progressive
herents ad-

(although, of
are

course, to
even

consistent

phenomenalism
to admit

forbidden of

suggest this), may

the

explanation of
us

the sequences

physicalphenomena
as

compel
with the

quantitativeincrements
necessary of the and is at universal

connected ? the

changes qualitative
the advocate conservation who

to this manifestation

If, now,
law of the

of applicability of energy consistent


to

correlation the
same

ical physin his

phenomena,
refusal make what
a

time the

of all

metaphysics,arrives study
his

at

point where
of

he must

scientific does
cannot

of the

relations

body

and

mind,
him

to

course

reputation for consistency bind


to

he Plainly, of

refuse law
to

acknowledge
very

the

cability apparent appliof the the For


two in

the

these

relations,because
difference

supposed great (or possiblycomplete)


kinds has
no

of

beings between
know

which

the of
"

relations

exist.

he
so

right to
that
the

anything
cannot

beings

"

with

natures

different under know

relations capable quantitative law exist between He


must

of

being brought
He
can

general
of
"

them.

nothing

kinds the

of

beings."
as

always, in

sistency, con-

approach
as

phenomena

only phenomena.
the

But
one

long

as

this is

if done, the first impression is,especially without

give

one's

self up

prejudiceto

of investigations do exist
between

psycho-physics,that physicaland
mental

quantitativerelations phenomena.
This, when

translated

into

MIND

AND

BODY

215

the

language figurative
to

of
to

that

metaphysics
"

which is
no
"

physics
more

naively employs, amounts


unwarrantable

saying : Possibly,it
energy

speak

of
"

"

being
and

"

stored

in the
to

mind, and

"

transmitted
same or

between

mind

brain, than
or

speak of
two
masses

the

metaphysical transactions
of matter. would From
seem

within the

between view of

molecules

point of
no

pure

phenomenalism, language.
these On

there the

to

be

impropriety
even

in such enforced

contrary, it is suggested and


Felt

by the phenomena.
are

changes in

the

and intensity

extensity(and

both

measurable

tive aspects or quantita-

are, as of the phenomena of consciousness, characteristics) less regular or matter of fact,connected in the form of more

sequences

with

observed
not

changes

in the amounts
"

of the bodily
this the est strictof mulas for-

changes.
has for

It does

follow, however,

and and

adherent energy
no

of the law

of the conservation assume,


"

correlation

rightto
have that the

that

the

mathematical could
we

these

quantitative relations,
same

discover

them, would

fixed

and
to

regularly recurrent

applicationas
between It is
naive

which

belongs

quantitative relations
and the self-conscious

physical phenomena. only when metaphysics, critical


in to disturb that the
or

and

uncritical,comes

purity of
the law relations of

one's of the

phenomenalism
conservation and mind and
becomes

of applying difficulty of energy And


to the

correlation

body
culty diffi-

oppressive.
a

the

degree of
of the

this

furnishes

very

good

measure

necessity for
law
more

applying a
The

careful

metaphysical analysisto
In other

the very

itself. perative im-

greater and
the

more

the oppressive the difficulty,

necessity.
when the law had

words,
of

what and

we,

above
are

all,
cussed dis-

want

to

know,
as

the relations

body

mind and

though

of the conservation whatever


as

correlation the cussion, disthat do

of

physicalenergy
is this
:

anything
is the

to

do with

What

meaning,

aught signifying
same

reallyis

and

that

reallyoccurs,
when

of this
act

law

?
"

What when

things actuallydo

they

under

the

law,

they

216

MIND

AND

BODY

"

conserve

energy," "transmit
the such

energy," and
of energy is taken this
most

behave
"

in accordance

with When

alleged
a

"

correlation

? the very
most

question as

to

determined, the fiercest and


of the

uncompromising deny
that the

advocates
ceived. re-

empirical law, only Many


of them any
at

very
once

unsatisfactory repliesare
law,
as

they
in the

understand

it, has

metaphysical reference,even
; that

sphere of physicalphenomena
into the

is to Let

say, these

they
very

fall back persons, of their


to
at

positionof phenomenalism.
be

however, law,
to

summoned,
the

in

the

congenial
are

company

face

phenomena
between of this
to

which

popularlysupposed
mind,
and

signifyan
once

interaction
out

body
mental

and

they

are

shaken

refuse position. They quite invariably

to allow

the law

apply to
mental

phenomena
and
to say
as

as

such,

or

to

the

relations

between think it

phenomena

bodilyphenomena.
to the

They
the energy

shocking,not
system

to speak of ridiculous,

of the stored

nervous

being

transmitted

mind,
seen,

or

in the mind, etc.

But

has alreadybeen as this,

is

because

they

cannot

avoid the

giving
law

some

real For

import
in the

to

the

terms figurative

which

employs.
merely
as

relations
no reason

of the for

phenomena,
any such

considered
or

phenomena,
exists.
clusion con-

shock

feelingof speaking
to be

ridicule

Moreover, it requires little inspection to establish that,


and
even

the

when of

they
energy

are as

of the

tion conserva-

correlation

obtaining among

physical
a

phenomena, they
that governs

suppose

themselves relations

laying down

law in

the actual
as

of real

things. They
amount

are,

truth, speaking
claim verbal
to

metaphysicians,however
And
no

warmly they
of

may

be

abjuring metaphysics. physics which


critical than writer of this touch the

the

and
on

logicaltwistings and squirmings customary


upon this their authors from
maw all-devouring own.

in the
to physics meta-

treatises withdraw

subject serves
of
a

more

their
on or

When,

then, any
advocate

the that

metaphysics
theoretical

of

psycho-

physics,any

construction

MIND

AND

BODY

217

of the
use

relations

in

realitybetween

body

and and

mind,

makes of
fute con-

of the

physicallaw

of the conservation his positively


we own a

correlation
to

energy, the

either to establish

theory or right
to

theory of

an

opponent,
itself.

have

know

how

he understands energy, reminds


"

the law the

Does and of

he consider correlation
an can
"

that of

physical
which
can

about
us so

conservation
some

he ally liter"

often, is

sort

entitywhich actually
" " "

seat
one

itself " in

or things,

which ? Is

pass

over
"

from energy

thing
to be

to

another

stored
an

or

potential
and

regarded
up,
atom
or

in the

light of
away, when in

entitycaught
some
"

locked literally
or

packed
? And

physical mass
kinetic
ergy," en-

molecule has

or some

it becomes
out

real
to

entity broken
move

of its

prison-house
is not conceives
our

and

begun again
as

afield ?

Certainly it
science

such of

transactions
as

these

which

physical
as

and taking place in reality,

representable to
law of the
must

thought
be

and

imagination,under
correlation that
some

its so-called Yet real

conservation
fessed con-

and

of

energy.
sort

again

it not

of

some transactions,

principles
know

actually obeyed by reallyexistent imagined,


what of the
as

things are
?
or

thought of, or
until the
we

signifiedby
can we

this

law

And

they
law

are, how to
so

affirm

deny
and

applicability
of ?
to

relations unlike
as

between
are

two

beings phenomenally
the mind
can we man

considered Or

the
to be

body
to

perhaps

it

ought

rather

said, How

refuse
to

consider

favorably the
known
to

proposal

apply

this

law

these the

relations,when, phenomenally considered, the body and


mind
we are

be

so

closelycorrelated
turn
out
or no more

Perhaps too,
to

affirm

again,it might
as

absurd

speak
in and this and
"

of energy

stored
to

by
in

the

mind,

set

free from

its seat

mind,

than
"

employ only

similar either
"

terms
case we

for

physical masses
know what
"

molecules,
"

if
"

could

storing," seating,"and
that is

settingfree
answers

really means,
term
"

what
as

really existent
to

to

the

energy

applied either

physical or

to

mental

beings.

218

MIND

AND

BODY

In

seeking
method

for

lightupon
mind of and

this obscure

subjectof
is
no

the causal safe and

relation

between

body there
than
to

other
to
a

hopeful
of mental
at
once

procedure
the Such of the

appeal
of

philosophy

that bases

itself upon

and descriptive
a

explanatory science procedure leads


and itself.
us

phenomena.
to

method

the

study

nature, origin,

development,
This its conclusions

of psychologically,

the

conception
*

of causation
; and

study
"

we

have here finds

elsewhere

undertaken passages.

from

we

quote several
conative

Psychological science given


as an

simply
in

consciousness
amount

undoubted of attention, of the

factor

determining the
of the mental As

and

direction

the control

train,and

of the movements

bodily organism.
and conclusive the

science,our psychological
; it is
no

investigation physics strives


correlation cerebral accompany
"

accepts this ordering of phenomena


than
are

less fundamental

those

data

upon

which and

to establish

of principle the

the conservation information

of

energy.
can

Moreover, all
furnish

which that

ology physior

regarding the

processes
"

(if one
consist

please)underlie only
of

conation,

volition,striving, etc.,
this

conjectural preconditionsfor [We


and clear of
'

primary

and
an

indubitable instant

psychological fact.
that the
more
more

turn

aside

barely

to affirm

acute

ical prolonged metaphysconviction that


* Cause,' and Reality,'

analysis becomes,
the
'

the

is the

most
'

highly developed
('conserved
themselves
or
'

notions
'

Energy

and

correlated
upon

within '), this

the

physical
datum of
to

realm,

are

dependent
These of notions

very

conation,
man's

active life.
name

consciousness, belonging primarily


cannot

mental
in

fore, thereconsistently, the

the and

so-called the

physical science, deny psychological fact


the
'

existence

validity of
"

on

which

they
"

all

repose.]

2
'

The

conception which

answers

to

term

causation

Psychology,Descriptiveand
ff.,and
519

chapters xL Explanatory,

and

xxi. ; and

comp.

pp. 482
2

ff.

Ibid., p. 215.

220

MIND

AND

BODY

of

course,

action

without
seem

being
a

that

acts

is

an

absurdity.
causation.
in

Being too, then, would


Moreover,
or

simpler notion
or

than

Relation is also
we a

(whether causal, simpler


way

merely
that and

space

in
.

time)
When

notion

than

of causation.
lar muscu-

act,

by

of conscious

conation
sense sense

then effort,
vice versa,

of changed presentations certain of other

follow

and

when relations

presentations of
beings
in the
to
us

indicative
we

of certain certain

occur,

then

suffer
the

conspicuous changes
of projection
our

content

of consciousness. ourselves the into

It is the world demand

experience with
the results in

of related

under things,

impulse of
the

intellectual notion

which for explanation,

general

of causation."
In of
"

tracing and
notion
scant
we

the illustrating have in the

details of the connection is needed

development
also
to

this

same

said

Only
that term
are

study of consciousness

reveal
so

the

bafflingcomplexity of men's
use

thinking, when
which fact
in

they

glibly
with those
enter

cluster
'

of

expressiveterms
This advanced the

is connected evident with

the who into

causation.'

is most

farthest

conceptions which
sciences. he
that
'

the modern

developments
to

of the natural

The
means

physicistis
when
or
'

far less able of energy he

tell what
as
'

is real and of
'

he

speaks
'

conserved

correlated,'
element unscientific
one
'

the

chemist those when


'

when

declares

that atoms than

one

attract

of another he

element,
the
' '

is the
'

observer

speaks of
or

influence
'

which

thing
'

has

'

over

another,
cases

of the of

action

of

one

thing
the

upon

another.

In all

alleged causation
we are

it is evident

that,
results
our

considered, psychologically
of the entire

dealing with knowledge


truth
; and

complex growth
the

of

thus

attention
to

is called to the of

important
of
"

that it is without

impossible implying
of attained.

speak
the

conception knowledge
of all

causation
as

that the

stage of

the has

complex already

resultant

development
1

faculty
"

been
f.

and Explanatory, pp. Psychology,Descriptive

504

MIND

AND

BODY

221

For

it is real

beings, as
of time
as

known and

to

exist toward

and

to

behave

in

manifold
are

relations of
our

space

each
As
we

other, that
shall
see

conceived

causally connected.
such connected in order

later on, it is

beliefin
is

and

interdependent thinkingmay
mind of the

which existences, end


"

chiefly necessary
and
as

that

in

knowledge.
lower

Certain
be

non-intellectual
subservient of its
to

activities of the the

may

considered

development
This is true

complex
unable the

conception
for

causation, although of

themselves
even

to account

development.
the such

of of

and the imitative, instinctive,

classes sensory-reflex activities


our own

activities. psycho-physical
are, both

By

choses psy-

connected activelyand passively,

together in
are

consciousness, and
connected attribute every with
to

these, as

known

in self-consciousness, which
we

those

psychoses
than

have

learned

to

other

beings
interest such

ourselves.

Especially does
to its

late painful or pleasurable sensory-motor experience stimuour

inquiry and
. . .

in

drawing

conclusions
a

as

cause.

Every

experience emphasizes
not

connection definite

between

doing something, or
desires

doing it,and
. . .

certain

pleasurableor painful consequences.


serve as
a

Thus

all the awakening upon the

sort

of interior
an

pressure ceaseless

motor

organism compulsion
"

they constitute doing


or

almost

invitation
or

and

to the at

to the

avoiding of

this

that.

Imitation, too,
more

first blind

and
"

and instinctive, establishes and

afterward
tions connec-

purposeful and
between

intelligent,
is done
. . .

other what
use

what

by the child

is

more
cles, mus-

passively experienced.
as

Indeed, it is in the
and

of the
with

dependent

upon

conation various

in

association

the

feeling of effortand
that painful feeling,
so

with the

forms

and of pleasurable has of


its birthplace,

conceptionof
under the

causation

to

speak. Certainly,mere
of

observation laws of

the

form uniof

sequences ideas would


never

images
serve

association

to

develop

this

conception; only as
sufferers do
we

being

ourselves

self-conscious

agents and

222

MIND

AND

BODY

come

to

argue

about

'

'

energy

and

'

causation

'

in the

world

of
K

things.
All the the

language
truth of It is

of child-life and
our

of the

common

people
category of
a what some-

confirms causation.

view

of the

so-called has
a

only

when of
can

the child itself attain


one as

developed being
that
in

complex something, and


the that of it

knowledge by doing
to terms

can

do

its purposes

changing things
is

to itself and relations,

to

another, of external

begins

use

implying the dawning conception


also of this

causation. upon
a

The the

development development

conception

dependent (Here
and

of the consciousness

of Self."

follows

lengthy quotationfrom
considered

Preyer '
from

in illustration

support of this view.)

If this

subject is
of of the

still further that


"

the

logical psycho-

point development
upon which

view, it appears

the next is

stage in the

conception of
with upon those

causation

chiefly ent dependthan him

experience
react

beings, other
cause

himself,
of feelings is the

promptly

the child and

pleasure or pain.
animals,
which human he
"

One

important
course,

class of such the


"

beings

of especially, becomes The the


most

domestic and
above

animals, with
all,his fellow

familiar,
such
'

beings.
bit
'

bearing of

experiencesis made
the

plain
the Here it of

in sentences

like
;

following:

I kicked
me

dog, and form, as

dog
the

me

'I hit the causation

boy, and he hit


is illustrated of motive

back,' etc.

of principle
"

in double and

"were,

both
"

as

consciousness

consciousness in

energy,

followed In

by
such

important changes experiences, the acting agent


to all

presentationin
sense

experience.
out

basis

and
creates

imagination for
of the

that act of intellectual


sense an

which projection like

objectof
of causal
. .

myself
a

is abundantly

supplied.
attribution of life.
.

From

such agency

experiencesit is things
.

but

step to the

that manifest
. .

signs
to

The

phenomena

of nature
to

are

assigned
the

unseen

agents imagined
1

to exist and

act

after

pattern
f.

The

Mind

of the

Child,The

Development

of the

Intellect, pp.

191

MIND

AND

BODY

223

suggested by
the

the

self-knowledgealready obtained.
act
as
"

ganic Inor. . .

things that
use

promptly poker
'

and
we

intensely upon
effect
our

us,
are

or

by

of which

instruments

ends,
'

larly simi-

regarded. poker poker


B,
in is of is of

The
"

makes

the fire burn the

;
'

and, if the
but To
or

wood,

The

fire burns The


'

poker
it A

up ;

if the

iron, then
Dr.

fire makes
we

etc. red,'

quote
that in

again from
we

"Ward

When

say

causes

this

attribute to A what we experience projector analogically acting,and to B what we experiencein being acted upon,'
"

and

this
one

'

long
or

before
recur

we

suspect that this relation is

nent perma-

must

again.'
the

"

It is

by the development of experience under


of ideas
in B

principle
are

of the

association
as

that, in large part, we


shall be attributed
as

mined deter-

to what

changes
the

to antecedent

or

concomitant

changes in A

their

'

causes.'

It is under
are

the
to

same

principlethat
rules for All of
our

connections

of the

past

made

furnish the

expectation as
our

to the

behavior

of

things

in

future.

conceptions
We
names,

of

things

summarize

the

judgments
to which

experience with
be entitled
to

the

individuals

of the class
to
as

the

things belong.
to

judge things according


to

belong
they

to

classes,and
behaved New

have
. .

themselves

in definite relations

other
up

things.
and

experiencesconstantlyconfirm, or
associations the of
same

break

readjust,
Thus like better

the old remains instead

; but

the

law

of associative
our
'

reproduction
have

throughout
so-called with accord

all

development.
Like
causes

stating the

law,

it would effects,'
to say
:
'

the facts of consciousness


may
a

The

same

beings

be
way

expected
similar
'

to to

behave, under
those remain
some

the

same

circumstances, in they most long


this
as

known what such

things which they


are so

resemble.'

Associations all.'

they

remain the
'

at

Upon

impression as safety and


said to be and
'

concerning
in
'

uniformity of nature,'our
The

very

life

daily depend.
to the very

impression may
of skin and

be

rubbed

texture

muscles

joints and

bones.

Beware

of

snarling dogs, of falling

224

MIND

AND

BODY

of sharp knives,of bright lightning, of stones, of blazingfire,

deep, swift currents,


is

etc.

One

experience with
will do ; custom

these

agents

enough
"

to

know
not

what

they

established

by

is repetition But

necessary of

here. upon the basis of


our an

association with

ideas, working
as

experience
is not in A alone
cause an

ourselves this

agents, and

resulting in
all other

of projection analogical
a

experience upon
in

things, changes
This is

satisfactory guide
this
or

determining what
in

that

particularchange
intellect, as
it is conducted

B.

rather

inquiry in
if

which

applied to reality,
by those
processes in science

exercises chiefly of
as

itself ; and

reasoning which, explanatory


For

successfully concluded,result
world of
events

of the

in

their

causal

tions." rela-

more

complete understanding
the of

of these

processes

and

their results in establishing a system of causal


may claim
name

relations that

science, a study of the psychology


This
to the

of the

intellect
!

is necessary.

study, as
all its

we

have

also The is of the but


to

elsewhere
essence

shown, brings us
intellectual and the of the

: following positions

of

in activity,

higher forms,
processes
"

thinking ; thinking is
much
an

essential

expression of all Now,


very
an

so-called

judgment. judgment,
is

early in
action

development

intellectual of in milk
a

life appears which

important
the

neglected form
agent.

attributes of
a

When,

the

consciousness

infant, the

' The proposition,

hot,'expresses
association it
assumes.
'

true

judgment

as

distinguished from images,


name-is there does milk burns of
not

mere

of

representative
Such
a

it is this form
so

which

sition propo-

much the

mean,

That-thing-there-whoseas
'

has

quality burn)
onward,
this
or

of

hotness,'
In

That-milkthe
or a

(or

will

me.' the that

fact,from
'

very that

beginning
person way,
or or

intellect is

judgment,
'

This in

thing

doing

(behaving
or

certain be

somehow affecting
1

another

person

thing),may
448 f.

and Explanatory, pp. Psychology, Descriptive

MIND

AXD

BODY

225

said to be the form truth

predominating

form
most

of

judgment. strongly;
most

It is to this its This

that attention
or

is attracted
our

and- around

falsehood

interests the

cluster

thickly.

fact is the

analogue,in

higher regions of mental


that sensations

of life,

the fundamental
are
"

fact psycho-physical with low

of motion

even effective, relatively

degrees of intensity.
with the

Out forms

of this

common

root, in connection
of resemblance of space
or

ing preced-

(judgments
which

and judgdifference, ments

recognizingrelations judgments
denied of
may

and

time), develop those


most
'

properlybe
are

called

metaphysical'
affirmed
or

in their intent.
a

Such

judgments

of attributes
cause

substance, judgments of

and

and effect, those

judgments
which and under
or

of

design adapted
are

to

an
*

end.

Even

ments judgparts

sometimes

called

judgments
under

of subordination,' and

in which

speciesis brought
the of
a

genus

the whole with

(whether with
the

scientific end

of classification,

the aesthetical end upon

pleasing proportion), are


of this form of thinking.
ever

largely dependent
For every

development
itself
as

intellect knows
ever

only active,as
change
child
or or

doing something, as
intellect is

effectingsome
of the science
can

; and

every
more

necessarily (not that


that of the The
man

savage

truly than only as


"

of

the

philosopher)
the
"

anthropomorphic.
a

intellect

understand
are ever

world
one

system of related

which beings,

each

doing something and If, now,


the

having something done


intellect
reason are

to them."

operations of
processes of

followed result
"

in

those mation forthe

more

elaborate of the

which
see

in

the

body

of

science,we

how action

it is under
an

form

of

judgment

which
cause

attributes and do
we

to

agent that

inferences In

in the line of
same

effect find

and develop. originate the intellect and of


to
man

the essentially with

form
to

concluding
For the

respect
of

interactingforces (or energy) origin


"

laws.

conception
"

force in its The


15

is

inseparable
is

psychologically
of conative

at

least

from

ness the conscious-

activity.

conception of law, too,

226

MIND

AND

BODY

primarily that
Under these

of the

mode

of

the
'

behavior and
'

of

some

agent.
are so

two

relations both
in

force ('

law

which '),

subtly intermingled
a

and reality

in mental closed does

sion, appreheneven

wide

field of

conclusions, otherwise
For who

to the
see

mind's those
to

entrance,
words
so

is mastered.

not

that

gliblyused by physical science


data and description Whenever
. .

have

reference covered dis-

presuppositionsthat quite outstripthe


in
our

hitherto

explanation of
one sees

the

phenomena signs
of the

of consciousness? force

certain

(movements, changes), one


of
an one

immediately
force

concludes
to

existence

agent with
believes

the

necessary

produce
of
an

them;

when

in,

or

knows, the presence


one or

agent with the


of the

necessary

force,then

concludes will

that

signs
is

agent's force
In this way

have
every

manifested,

selves. manifest, them-

P, perceivedchange (or effect),


of
some

inferred to be due
that

to the action
common

agent, S, for the


connected

reason

M,

which

is the known
"

sign of S, is
which affords
*

with
to

P;

thereforeP
"

the
case

cause

of

the

problem

the mind
"

is

to

be attributed of

to S."

An

elaborate

employment
to form

reasoning facultyis conception of


'

edly undoubt'

necessary

in order

the

causation

and

yet higher development is marked


notions

by the attainment
of such

of

defined clearly
as
'
'

respectingthe meaning
'

terms
on

doing,'and agent,' self-activity,'


hand,
one

the

like.

But,

the

other

principalform
line of this

of

logicalconclusion
This
own

is itself

developed along the


case

conception.
laws

is

simply
evolution

of the any

intellect

following the
of significance life
we

of its of the
same

without

corresponding development
and these of mental his
more

consciousness laws. what For


we

of the existence every form

in do.

do without the
events

knowing
child in his

Very early in
to himself

mental

growth doings

begins to explain experience by


persons,
events.
472 f.

the

noteworthy
to

attributing them
hitherto associated
1

the with

of

things
same

or

not

these precisely

Such

Psychology,Descriptiveand

Explanatory, pp.

228

MIND

AND

BODY

Of it three sufficient
man,
as a

things
reason

must

be

noted

"

(1) By
the

the

principleof tendency of explain


his
at principle

is

obviously meant
then, not really,

natural

to developing intellect,satisfactorily

experience.

This

is

an

abstract

of identity sidered, ; it is rather, primarilyconall,as is the principle


an

exhortation

arising from
of its

the

depths

of

our

lectual intel-

life. and pursues the

(2) All
in

the

explanation which
own

intellect demands self-satisfaction


one

the

interests
one

volves into

relating of
with it into such

object to another, of
is We
an

event

another,
connection
we

etc.

Everything

explained by being brought


understand
act

into

something else.
connection, by
be

only when
with P
;

bring
since
we

of

judgment,
a

and

relating can
each other

direct
to P

only to
all

very Thus

limited

extent,
and P

explain S explain
one

in relation
;

through M.
are

S, 31,
as

all

they

apprehended
events.
we

belonging to (3)
it in
as

world such

of connected
a

objectsand
that

For know of it of the

the it

that belief

world

and exists,

may
aware

exists,not

only by becoming immediately


but self-consciousness,
a

perceptionand
mind
.
.

also

by

processes
all

like ratiocination,lies,

beneath sleeping postulate,


to

of activity
reason.

according
The
.

the so-called 'law of the


to
we

principle of sufficient
causation' is

so-called it were, in

of

only

the
reason.

as objectification,

principleof
assert
our

sufficient

Its

meaning,
are

general,is
as

confidence

that

things
to

reallyconnected
or

find
are.

ourselves The
. . .

having
entire

'reason'

know

believe that
be

they
which

phrase,then, should development

held

to be

of significant

that in

perpetual giving a

of the life of intellect

results and

higher unity to knowledge ; a more to experience; a organization


on

complex
more

pled well-princigrasp
ot

comprehensive
events,
as a

the

world

of

known
'

objectsand
'

system

beings with
'

so-called
'

natures,' acting under


;
a over

law

and

ing possessand

forces

and

'

powers outlook and

wider the

theoretical invisible that realms

yet

defensible logically times and

of distant be made

spaces,

of entities

cannot

MIND

AND

BODY
"

229

the

objects of perceptive experience. Thus


more

our

'

reasons'
as

become

nearly ideally 'sufficient,' according


of intellect goes
more,
on itself,

the

development
and the race,
once were

the

part of the individual

on." what

But,
science

would in the

happen
to eliminate

if modern it is

physical
so

to succeed

which effort,

sistently incon-

and elements causation when


we

blindlymaking,
from We its may

all the of the

cal metaphysiof principle

conception
understand

and the

use answer

to this

question
ception con-

understand

that

this considered, 'psychologically

then becomes itself derived

nothing but
concrete to

barren
real

and

empty

straction ab-

from the very

and

the experiences
as we
a

plain import of which


elsewhere

it is suborned

deny. For,
of science has

have

said,2"The

superstructure
modern

so-called

priori

knowledge, or assumption,which
the of principle causation

built upon

ered, considis,at least psychologically We


"

utterlyindefensible.
believe and
"

do not either

naturallyor necessarily
of matter of the the truth But
we

much

less know

the permanency

of force in the
'

physicaluniverse,or
must

ment, judg-

Every

event

have

cause.'

do,

as

reason

develops,seek constantlymore explain on


the world
a

to explain; adequately

and

we

hypothesis which things


the
same

results kind it. other

from

our

to attributing

of

of relations To be
a cause we

which is
'

we

ceive perone

ourselves

sustaining to
to
some

for

being to

do

something unity of

as being,'

might

larly popuof

say.

Conceptions

like those and all

of the

universal the

reign

law, of the

matter

force,or
a

and regularity

uniformity of nature, etc.,are complex development.


introduced unification
"

later and
are, and
more a

yet

more

highly
can

These

never

never

be,

psychologically considered, anything by intellect


of in the

than
more

hypotheses complete
science

interests of

experience.
of causation which modern
485 "

that conception Finally,


1 2

and Explanatory, Psychology, Descriptive pp.

Ibid., pp. 503 f.

230
%

MIND

AND

BODY

has

enabled

us

to

develop
more

is still less lifelike abstract induces


as
a

as

matter

of

imagination,and
The scientific

still

matter

of intellect.
we are

study

of nature

the

feelingthat
of relation
own

unwarranted
we can

ill attributingto

things a
terms

kind of
our

which and

concretelyrealize only in
of This is to

conation in

followed feeling of effort,


sense.
'

regularlyby changes regard nature,


'

tions presenta-

we

are

gether told,in altoscience then this


no

too

anthropomorphic
the
more

fashion.

What

does

is to

extend Tn

purely thought-elements of
we are

conception.
less

doing this,however, Only, we


of
now

in

some

sort

anthropomorphic.
"

attribute

the laws
connect
'

of

tellecti in-

that

is,the forms
as

thinking which
their

clusions con-

with

judgments
the causation

finding in them

reason'

and
ception con-

ground
becomes

'
"

to

behavior loses

of things. Treated
all its concrete which
answers some

thus, the

of
a as

and lifelikeness,
to
some

pale abstraction
that
'

such
event

tulate pos-

every

event

follows Yet
even

other

accordmuch the their all

ing to

some

uniform be made
our

rule.'
to escape

here, however

effort may

conceptionswhich it,
ourselves
to the

have

originin
the Causation.

universal that how

experiencewith
these

constitute

of reality

thinking which
far

answers

of principle bear valid

In
to the

facts psychological conclusion

testimony
world
reason

general postulateor
and rational, that

that
to

the real human

is indeed in its

realityanswers

it belongs to philosophy to inquire." constitution, all events


are

In

brief,

"

regarded as

having their ground


"

in the
a

other events, and

these other events

in still others,

under

of influence

that demand

in the interests of for explanation is the


law

of experience which progressive unification


very

of the

lifeand

growth of
the

intellect

itself. It is this intellectual

to explain, we necessity

repeat,that gives to the so-called law


which it appears is the last
to

of causation world of

necessitywith
At
any utter

rule

the

things.
show

rate, such
this in

word
be

which left to the

psychology can philosophy to

upon that

subject.

It must

its supreme

scientific form

MIND

AND

BODY

231

conception of
that the world order ; and

causation of real in is

implies the
it under

confidence is
an

of

the

mind

things and

real events the


own

intellectual

that

knowing

of general principle forms of behavior in

causation, mind
the behavior So
to and

reorganizingits
of the

of

1 things."

lengthy a
of the

consideration

psychological(leading up
and
or

involvingthe metaphysical) origin,nature, conception,and


is these of the so-called law in amply justified
on

ment developprinciple
For one's and ence refer-

of causation critical

this connection.

opinion

formed points,if intelligently one's mind. these


or

adhered consistently
to the

to, determines
of the

with position Does relations


an

relations and

body and
of reality

the

inquirer
out to

into the be
a

import
or a

turn

Monist

Dualist,a
will

Materialist

advocate

of the

tenet? spiritualistic

This, if the

inquiry be
which has

and logically the view vocated, adbe and

honestly conducted,
he takes of
as
"

depend
The

almost

wholly upon

causation." alone

view

just been
now

psychologicallydefensible, may
as

brieflysummarized,

it

applies to

the

case

of

body

mind, in the following particulars.


the actual,concrete, and livingexperience which And, first,

gives

birth

to the

conception of
of those
one

causation

consists which
are
on

in the

ciprocal re-

dependence
on respectively,

phenomena
to the

assigned,
the other tween be-

the

hand
a

body, and

hand

to the mind.

In

word, it is here, in the relations


that actually experienced,

body
of

and cause,

mind,
or

as

the notions

being a

of

chieflyoriginate. being effected,


in

But, second, this conception of causation, even


immediate the passu of and

its most

originalform,
"

is

complex
or

affair.
more

It

implies

development
"

either

antecedently

nearly pari
an

of the

of being conception of self-activity,


manner

agent,
It

doing something, of effecting some


also the of

of of of

change.
"

involves

supplementary conception
done
to

sufferingsome being
507.

change,

having something
1

us,

subject

and Explanatory,p. Psychology,Descriptive

232

MIND

AND

BODY

to"
some

some

other of of

being, as
our

well
It
"

as

of

being

"the

subjecto/"
obscure and

action
a

own.

involves,further, the conception


a

of

relation
no

dependence,
a

feeling(at first
of
two

vague,

doubt), and
the
between

subject to developcognition(itself ment


power
same

under connection

growing
these

of dependent intellect) classes of

phenomena.
tion, causa-

These,

and

all the other


our

elements actual and

of this
concrete

conception of

originatein
relations of

experience of

the

body and mind. Third, this popular and metaphysical from


abstraction that from the its

universal

conception of
it is

causation

is

start ; and

always
farther which

so, until it is

theoretically stripped of
of take

metaphysical import by
and

processes from be

it farther It is
a

away
cannot

realityand
formed

life. the

conception

at all without

knowledge
upon, all these

of ourselves of actual

reallybeing,
selves them-

reallyacting
and due

and

being

acted

gizing psychicalenerare

suffering; and
to

conceptions
of

the
two

metaphysical working beings,body


activities and and

mind.

Here,

again,it is

these

mind, in whose
in
our

rocally recipactual first

determining living experience originates. The


as

changes, and
of

of

them, the

conception

causation of

so-called

scientific

conception

causation stated in

merely

relation (capable of being quantitative

mathematical

formulas) between
as

uniformly sequent

ena phenomtic scholas-

is,so far

it is

non-metaphysical,a partialand
of unwarranted reality, is go of causation which

conception.
Fourth, the
or

It is void

by life.
the
comitant con-

conception
and

applied to
on

successive

changes

in other

things,
them It of

through
our

secondary

analogicalprojectioninto
both

experience with ourselves,as primitive form, import


which

body

and

mind. and

has,

in its most

all the
to

lifelike warmth the

physical meta-

belong Things
other's
are

experience from
regarded
as

which

it is
as

derived. chiefly each


more

now

agents, and
selves. our-

from suffering In this

action,after the pattern of


and

secondary

projectedsphere

of its

MIND

AND

BODY

233

too, application,
of the

the

of principle actions
more

causation

asserts

the

reality

beings whose

affect reciprocally
abstract

each

other.

Fifth, the later and


and of its law and
or

conceptions of causation, generalizedfrom


can never

are principle,

all

the

same

actual

concrete

experiences. They
that abstract the

acquire a they
posed supin the

different import from


are

of the experiences from which

derived

The of
to

more

they
more

are

made
or

interests does it become and


terms.

science,
tell with
our

doubtful that
answers

impossible
to

what

anything
otherwise

concrete

real

thought
in

shall
most
are

fill up

their

empty

Indeed,

their

abstract
so

forms, the
as

scientific

conceptions of

causation the

ghostly

to

be

scarcelyrecognizableby
is due.

parentage

to which

their

origin

Sixth, this

process
as

of abstraction well
as

the various itself, different


statements

tions concepof its

of causation

the

law, and
to be

all the

causal particular in nature, show of

relations the work

which

are

supposed tion explanaitself admit of the

maintained
items

of intellect upon their

the various and

looking toward experience,


into
a

unification
a

systematic whole. validityof


concrete to

Science unless
we

is,therefore,only
the human
we are

system of abstractions
and

metaphysical import
intellect.

the

work

Here, too, for


go back

as filling,

it were,

always obliged to
in which the known the

those

very

same

ences experiand mind of the


servation con-

causal All

relations scientific

of

body
law

play

important part.
and correlation
we

statements

of causation, all ways principle of

of

phrasing the
end in that

of the

energy,

words, empty
takes
and
so

words, unless
life and what

put into them


to

meaning
is

hold
to

on

reality. But
is

get such
that of

meaning,
more

tell

that

real, what

anything

than

barren
must

abstractions, the
resort to
our

meaning

these

statements

is, we
as

experience with conception


and

ourselves.

And,
far
as

has it has

already
a

been
on

repeatedlysaid, this experience,so


the the

ing bearever

principlein dispute,is

234 with ourselves chiefly

MIND

AND

BODY

as

body

and

mind.

Were
as

it not

for the
upon
as

experience of mind

as

and self-active

yet

dependent
of mind,
any

bodily changes for dependent for


should
never

its particular experiences, and


states

of body
"

its

changes upon particular

we

have any

conception of causation,or
or or

so-called
tion conservaas

scientific and whether of

principleof causation,
correlation the notion and of energy, of causation mind.

any
even

law

of the

any

dispute

to

appliesproperly to
most

tions the rela-

body

Causality is

and originally and mind. of very

an concretely

of relations experience
attempt
to frame
as some

between

body
force

Seventh, the
the law of

abstract

statement

causation in which absurd.

so

to

annul of

the

of the

experience
and illogical its

the

notion

causation

originates, is vain, whether


not.
we

It will

also

always
or

be

and illogicality this

absurdity be
is of principle

detected

It is precisely
are

attempt which
of the
so

made, however, when


the conservation

told

in the

name

and

tion correlacannot

of energy

called,that the body and


"

the mind

be

causally related.
of this very of abstractions from the life and

Cannot," indeed
that taken has

! when

it is the
a

ence experiseries away On

relation have

given birth, by
and

which

it farther

farther

to reality,
we

the How

alleged scientific principle.


can a

contrary,

ask

principlelike
limited

that which

of the itself

conservation results doubtful

and

correlation

of

physical energy,
a

only from

within generalizations force which

and

relatively
the

sphere,acquire the
of facts from

necessary the

to contradict

plain import
and

selves themgeneralizations their

start, and
very

in which

they

have

only

real

support

life ? taken is sound and


secure

The whether

positionjust
the attack who science

in

defence,
of
one

upon

it be made

by the

student
or

ical physwho In the

gives a merely phenomenal,


at to

by

accepts
former

some

of metaphysical,interpretation
we recur once

this law.

case, must

the
"

positionthat phenomenalism
"

not

prate about

what

can

or

"

cannot

"

be, on

236

MIND

AND

BODY

upon

psychological
fact. This

data,
fact

at

this

place,
presence claim

were

it of rival

not

for

one

important

is

the

and

tradictory con-

metaphysical interpretation
even, to

views

which

to

give

better

the

results

of

psychological permissible
It is

science,
"

or

perhaps,
classes

to

give
of these

the

only
results.

interpretation
necessary,

to

certain

then,

to

pass

in

review

the

classes

of

facts

that

especially
the

require

explanation
theories which

and

also

to

examine

critically
the dualistic

metaphysical interpretation

give

another

than

of

the

facts.

CHAPTER

VIII

mind

and

body

(continued)
of

THERE
basis of the The
men

are

three of

main which

classes

phenomena
in

the

scientific
to

treatment

is necessary
to

order

give

in

psychologicalfacts
comprises
of of both

the

philosophical discussion
the mind and the

between relations, in reality, all those and


or

body.
lead

first of these
to
so

experiences which body


as

conceive

mind

really existent,
related in
to

and each

capable
For

being opposed
unless there
were

dependency
some

other. for

ground being
which
to

ence experi-

assigning a

certain

duality of
never

real

ourselves,

those and In

very Monism

questionings would
answer

arise

Materialism this

by denying the
a

reality of

duality.
plished, accomlating re-

other
a

words,

process in

of

diremption actually
and
to two

distinction

consciousness of
some

the

conscious of

of the two
"

classes and in

phenomena

sorts

subjects,
"

in

some

way

respects, at least,opposed,
the

is that

necessary As and

presupposition of
a

philosophical
shown

debate both

ensues.

matter

of in

fact

it will be

that

terialism Maa

Monism,
with

their very of the

customary

forms, commit
sword. involved of

kind The

of

hara-kiri second

this

two-edged phenomena
real

important
discussion of those
to
are

class of

in any and
sciousness con-

comprehensive
mind consists

relations
states

body

changes
the

of mental

(statesof

assigned Ego,
known
or

subject of

all states, the with

so-called

Mind)

which

dependency bodily organs.

connected

preceding
to

changes

in the

Expressed

in terms

238

MIND

AND

BODY

suit the

popular impression,a
subordinate of the
"

vast

number

of

our

experiences,
constant

covering various

kinds, show

the

and

pervasive

influence

body

over

the mind."
assumes

But

modern

and physiological
as

science psycho-physical

that

only

the less central

bodily changes get


cerebral

themselves do

expressed in they directly


scientific form
or

changes within
influence of
states

the

hemispheres
The
more

of consciousness.
concerns

inquiry,therefore,

those

antecedent particular
on

concomitant

changes in brain-states

which

particular nomena phecourse,

of consciousness
may

depend.
forms of

This

dependence, of
"

fall under

various

relation,
and

such

as

those

of

kind of

of time-rate of intensity, (or quality), fusion of of

temporal order,
into
more plex com-

synthesis or
processes, the

partial processes
of similar the materialistic

recurrence

processes,

etc.

These of the
it

are

phenomena
of

which mind relative

solution

problem

body and
to

selects for consideration


or

; which

emphasizes phenomena
real

the

complete
a

exclusion

of all other and cal uncritiof the


are

; and

which

it

then, with

one-sided

metaphysics,employs
relations of those In

to establish to

its

peculiarview
the the

beings

which

phenomena

popularly assigned. hypothesis too


the
since its

doing this, however,


its the other classes
to

materialistic hend compreAnd

often

shows

to complete inability

of significance

of

phenomena.
of the

the

questionwhich
as a

it undertakes of the

answer

only acquires
ness conscious-

meaning
of Self

result

development

(with

all the

and self-activity

concretely known

istic the materialthis development involves), of being which reality consists in denying the primary terms virtually answer of the The

problem.
third class of

experienceswhich
it were, of the

any

thorough
and mind

sion discusmust
prises com-

of the consider

in reality, between relations,


reverse,
as

body
and

is the

foregoing..It
states

all those organs which known

changes
appear
to

in the be

conditions

of

bodily
vious pre-

dependency
states

connected

with

changes in the

of consciousness.

Accord-

MIND

AND

BODY

239

ing
these

to

the

popular way
mind
to

of

expressing
has
a
"

the

conclusion
over

from

the experiences,
one

an

influence

the

body."
ment stateone

If, now,

attempts

give

more

precise scientific

to this somewhat must

vague what
are

and

too

general statement,
or

go

on

to

show

the antecedent determine scientific

concomitant

changes
states.

in

consciousness
on

that

particular brainknowledge
of the

Or, since
term

this

point our
note

second rather located of


rate

in the

sequence
must

is, and

probably must
more

remain,

limited, one

chieflythe
of

peripherally
forms

bodily changes.
"

These, too, consist


those of

of various

relations,
and

such

as

of timekind, of intensity, fusion of of

temporal order,
into
more

synthesis or
processes, sequences and in

partial
of when
a

processes similar

complex
It is these the

recurrence

processes.

phenomena,
of and

regarded solelyfrom
monistic

psychological point

view, which
so

to regard ; spiritualismselects chiefly

it,in

turn, frames

its one-sided occasion

metaphysicalhypothesis.
some

It will doubtless class of

surprise that
are

the

very

cisive deof
a

phenomena

which

supposed

to

consist mental

concomitant strictly

correlation
not

between

so-called

and
at the

so-called very such

bodily changes, are


of
our

especially emphasized
For it is upon the

beginning
an

discussion.
"

basis of
prehensive com-

alleged correlation enough


to embrace

absolute all those of

throughout, and experiences which


and mind claims of

the
to

discussion take This into

of the
account

real
"

relations modern

body
Monism

needs
to

that

build.
a

metaphysical theory is, indeed,


or

fond its

in referring,

proud
But, of
of

in

shy

way,

to

Spinoza
little or

as

great progenitor.
of that which science has all

course,

Spinoza knew

nothing day.
of

and psycho-physics

physiological psychology
since his This of the relations follower

been in in

established inductively

philosopher,
mind,
was

respect of his views


the main the

body

and

uninstructed is

of the

Cartesian

losophy. phifalse

This doctrine of

statement

true especially

of the

Spinozistic

substance, and

its

assumptions (undoubtedly

240

MIND

AND

BODY

and

misleading) as
of causation.
to

to the nature

and

of significance it would be

the

ciple printhe

On

this
as

last the

point

difficult,
of

indeed,
modern

regard Spinoza
doctrine. it is

genuine
not
a

ancestor

scientific

It would

be

difficult to

show, however, that view, instead


of the admirers. The
reasons

reallya

similar
a

'priori

point of

of

the

necessity for
which

scientific

tion interpretahis modern

phenomena, why
are

largelydetermines
of so-called
as

the
at

phenomena
once

"

concomitant the

correlation"

not

emphasized
the three
are

comprising
of

class of facts to be
are

taken especially
on a

into account, and classes


not at to

why they ena phenomto

not

even

put
have
are

par

with

which

been

mentioned, we
our

all loath go back

give. We
find
a

simply adhering to

purpose

and

basis for
a

metaphysicaldiscussion
known and
a

in the most

undeniable

facts of
are no

scientific

psychology. Now, strictly speaking,there


undeniable

such

immediately

facts

as

spond corre-

to the modern

conception of
mental and
case

concomitant strictly

lation corre-

of
From observed

so-called

so-called
no

bodilyphenomena.
facts exist there
never

the very
; from

nature

of the
nature

such
case

to
can

be be

the very of

of the facts.

observation

obtained

such

And

this is true

for two
two

(ifno
classes
same

reasons. more) indisputable

In the first
are

place,the
within

of

phenomena
that it

to be

related
; and

both

found

the
a

stream

of consciousness

this

stream

is of such

character and these in my

permits
of

knowledge, by self-consciousness
sequences of
as

memory,
states
own

only
must,

regular

states.

Some

of

indeed, be considered
; others

perceived changes
be

bodily organs
etc., which
of such the firm known I

of them

must

regarded

as

self-consciously recognizedchanges
purposes, the basis
"

in those

feelings, thoughts,
to

come

to

attribute
"

the
seen

Self.

On

sequences

as

was

in the last and the mind

chapter
are

popular
is built
or

conviction up. But


two

that
never
"

body
does

causallyrelated
detect

subject
of

of all states

remember

parallel"

series

MIND

AND

BODY

241

changes, running
"

on

side

by

side

in the

one

stream to

of

sciousness, con-

one
"

of which

it is

compelled
to the

assign to

the

being called
called Here
"

my

body," and

the other

subjectof

states

my

mind."

it is

important

to refer
our

to actual

experience as
such of
an

it

curs oc-

in the

of localizing
to

and sensation-complexes

bodily ence experidiate imme-

and feelings,

the

theory of perceptionwhich
as

So justifies.

far

this

experience consists
of certain

knowledge
of the and

of the condition of the


can

peripheral portions
to my

body

and

ideas, sequent changes in the feelings,


be
no

purposes,

there

doubt that in

as a

to its nature

or

as

its effect.

I see, my

for hand

example,
has
come

bee

lights upon
with
a

hand,
surface

or

that
; and

contact

heated of

immediately after
or

I feel the in that of

peculiar pains
In the

being stung
cases

of

being burned

place.

all such
more

the

more

localization objective of touch

sight and
the

localization subjective of the latter

(in the

most

general meaning recognition


in time of connected
case

word) co-operate to emphasize


as

of states with

of consciousness

dependency
But

antecedent

bodilyconditions.
that of the
are

in the upon

changes
of the

in consciousness internal is not Certain organs

dependent
of
a

conditions

body, this
have

relation

of uniform in the of

sequence
same

ordinarilya
sensations

matter

experience
strong
tone

way.

that

pleasurableor
not

painful feelingare they


are

known
as

only by touch, and


and

by sight;
the of

localized organs of

painful or
the

pleasurablefeelingsin
this, as
In of such
a cases

internal

body,

"

condition

their rise into consciousness the antecedent

at all.

ever, also,howon

dependence
condition
out

of the of the
"

states

consciousness organs may


our own

the be

bodily

often

brought
or

by

"

for

example

pressingwith
the surfaces
cases

hands,
which

being

otherwise

pressed upon
lie. and In such

beneath

the affected organs of


more

the

dependent
thus

sequence in
a

bodily sensations objectiveway.

is emphasized painful feelings

The

impression is
16

strengthened

242

MIND

AND

BODY

that

how

feel " depends

"

upon

how

my

organs

are

affected

by agencieslying outside
It

the stream
to

of consciousness. here the evidence


on

is

quite
the

unnecessary

exhibit

which reached of

modern

and physiological conclusion


that
nervous

psycho-physicalscience
brain, with (and

has

it is the

its contents

highly organized

substance

the especially and diate imme-

cerebral

hemispheres), which
It is this precisely the condition
to
or

is the sole intimate

physical correlate
about
has

of the

changing

states

of consciousness. ever, body, howwhich


one

interior
even a

portion of
the existence

the of the

least

reason

entertain
stream

from suspicion,

character modern

of the
man,

changes in the indeed,


"

of consciousness.
nervous

The

with
nervous

his

over-charged
action,
"

constitution
a

and of

over-strung

may

experience
in the

variety
of the
perience ex-

painful feelingswhich
But
or rarely,

he

localizes does

region

head.

never, any

anything

occur

in his

which

gives him
that within

information and

with

respect to the
of his cranial
to

of the great significance

contents

conditions
or

cavity.
the may

For

aught

he

knows,

is

tempted
bones

ture, conjecskull
most

"stuff"

the

unyielding portions

of his the

be, of all the

internal

of his

body,
of the
to

indifferent whose

to his welfare.

His

experience with
in the

those

tions percep-

organs the

are

seated

exterior lead

head, and

with especially

eyes, would

indeed

him

regard the
about

mind,
the the

or

soul, as somehow
or

located

inside the skull ; but which of the

objectiveaspect

objectiveexistence
can

is called

brain, nothing whatever

be

got

out

ordinary
tance concomistates

consciousness. It

follows, therefore,that
of the
states two

instead

of

an

absolute the

series

of

phenomena
"

"

bodily

and

the

of

consciousness
a

being

established
even

nary by ordivery

experience, such suggested.


into terms of actual consciousness. It

concomitance

is not
never,
as

viously ob-

can certainly

it were, and

be

got

experience for
This is
one

the chief

normal
reason

diced unprejuMonism

why

244

MIND

AND

BODY

all
no

metaphysics, it
life-blood
one
"

cannot

maintain

itself without of its


own

devouring
Its
peat, re-

little metaphysics in the interests demands

support.
;

very

metaphysical pabulum
the

for, we

entire

half of
mental

theory of
and behavior
on

"

concomitant

tions correla-

between

phenomena
in the thrive How

brain-changesconsists
of
an

of conjectural sequences
This

inferred entity.
a sistent con-

half, at least,cannot

food

supplied by

phenomenalism.
much of the and principle, then

inconsequential actually is
that is first

metaphysical import
extracted from

put into this


in the

it, will

appear

following chapters.
At the
same

time

we

do not

begin
on

our

metaphysical
the mind made In this

sion discuscomitant con-

by denying the alleged facts


correlations the between in other
as

which and

theory of
is based.
a

body

On

contrary,

we

have

treatises facts.1

somewhat

detailed of course, is

of them, investigation their

connection,
of mind

bearing upon

the

doctrine speculative

peculiarlyinfluential.
into the account
to

They

will, therefore,be
time. The
seems

carefully
scientific
us

taken

at the proper

true to

approach through
of

this

discussion,however, still

to

lie

the

recognition and
the been of

appreciation of those three classes


of which
to

experiences about
These
on so

existence declared which

there

can

be

no

dispute.
and under lead

have the that

be
men

(1)

The

facts of

experience body,
all

basis the
at

all

distinguishmind
relations
comes

problem (2)
that

of their real facts of

discussion
men

all ;

The the

experience

which

to suppose

body influences,or complementary


men

causes,

changes
mind

in

the

mind

; and

(3)
lead

The

facts of that of the the

experience which
body.
That wonderful

equally
causes,

all

to

suppose condition

influences, or

changes
"

in

the

"

bi-partition
Elements of

or

"

diremption

"

of

the

In of

tho three

works,

"

Physiological Psychology," 1887


;

"

lines Out-

PhysiologicalPsychology,"

1891

and

"

Psychology, Descriptiveand

Explanatory," 1894.

MIND

AND

BODY

245

states and
a

of consciousness

which the
two

results in the may be

concepts of
as

body
sort

mind,

so

that

regarded

in
a

some

related

existences, is undoubtedly the result of

process

of

development.
sudden it should is and

Indeed,
not

if

anything violent,or
the word
"

necessarily direinption,"
a

is suggested by startling, be

perhaps
to

employed
the

at all.

By
of of

such the this

term

it

designed
may

signify the place


of the
as

completeness
resultant

separation
process of

which

take

development.
The and formation

concept of mind
"

"

its

its nature, basis, discussed in


a

its

stages in evolution

has

already been
"

preceding chapter (III).


of the external be traced
to the

The

parallelpsychologicalhistory
of
a

developing conception
Self and But in detail.1 of and

Thing
the

"

as

not-seU
,

as

extended certain

before

Self,cannot

here

important pointsto
more or as

be noted

in the process tion of Self

acquiringthat
the
to

less
a

distinct

bi-partiin here of though al-

body, regarded
the

thing standing
have,
may

peculiarrelations
be

Self,which
necessitate

all adults

borrowed

from This
a

the will

and descriptive the

explanatory science
reference

psychology.
from

again,

different
to

point of view, to experiencesthat


our

have

already been
"

brought
distinction of the that

attention

more

than

once. or

As

knowledge is either of Things respects its objects,


The between Self and of

of

Self.
as a

Things becomes, only


clear and
be
so

result

development
it appears
to to very

so cognition,

fundamental and well


as

ordinary thinking to
conditions
sane

nal, origi-

to to

belong
the nature with

the of

of

experience as
never fuses con-

reality. The
the very

adult

himself make him and


to

things;
so

how question,

he

came

to to
sciousness con-

maintain of

this distinction,seems consistently Both


.

savor

irrationality.
.

the content
are

of
'

and
or

the

general

tone

of consciousness

tive,' objecin
our a

externally directed
of any

and

focused,
and

as

it were,

knowledge
1

thing.

The

meaning

bearing of

such
and xvi.

But

see

and "Psychology, Descriptive

Explanatory," chaptersxv.

246

MIND

AND

BODY

statement

can

be

understood thus
into
are

only by considering it
said

in

the

lightof
processes For
my

all that has which


enter

far been
our

respectingthose
'

mental

so-called

external

'

knowledge.
of
a

example,
mental

what

the I
am

distinguishingcharacteristics examining
a a

states

when

flower,watching
or,

or looking through spectacle, am mower

microscope ;
or

again, when
a

feeling a surface, liftinga weight,


? As
"

pushing

lawn

respects content

of

consciousness, those series of


and of
a cular touch, including mus-

sensations and
are

notably of

the eye
"

jointsensations determining the


is

that

have

tivity predominating objecof consciousness


;

flow of the stream


on

attention

being

concentrated the

the localized and and fused

projected
with the
; and

sensation-complexes ;
sensations the
are

images revived

of past chieflyrepresentative

sensations take

condensed
to

psychologicaljudgments
Moreover, the
"

that

place

have

reference

changes,experienced or expected,in
more

the sensationof the


cluding con-

complexes.
mental
state

conceptual
and
as

elements

such the

as

the
"

naming
are

of,and classifying
connect say,

about similar tactual


or

object things.

such

it with

other and

unlike

That

is to the
to

it is visual

with sensation-complexes,

memories,

imaginings, cognition.
this
state

thoughts, and
which

reasonings referring
the content

sensation-experiences,
external

characterize

of so-called
conative

and Moreover, the feeling-tone of

activityof
the

knowing

thing differs markedly from

affective
states.

and The

volitional affective

self-conscious aspects of distinctively

accompaniments
of their
"

are

not

so

much

selves, interestingin themare

because

painfultone, as they or pleasurable


which feelings the assist in

of sensations, feelings
more

discriminating
the

the objectsof effectively consciousness


some

sense-perceptive activity.
different
some

Conative of

is also very

when
state

object

cognitionis
the

thing rather
with

than

of the Self. of attention

This

is true, not upon

simply
it is

respect

to the

direction

different

parts and
also
true

changing phases
with

of the perceived the entire

object;

respect

to

MIND

AND

BODY

247

condition of the
and
"

of

dependence
I cannot I

upon

volition which

is characteristic

object.

will
can

changes in things,their relations


will

their The

as qualities,

changes

in my

own

states.

knowledge

which

is of Self

differs from
as

the

edge knowlcontent

which of

brings, both sense-perception


and

respects

consciousness

general
not

tone

of

consciousness. sensations
at

This

knowledge
mental elements

has its content

in chiefly

all,but in
sensuous

feelings,or images, thoughts,


of consciousness, and

volitions.

The

those especially

of the

most

nitely defi-

localized In sensations attributable


any
are

clearlyprojected sort, are


states

relatively pressed. supthe


are

predominating
of the vague,
as
a

of

self-consciousness

unlocalized

order, which
than

to

myself

sentient

organism, rather
the attention my In

to

thing. objective
are

But

is especially
me as

directed

to

which feelings their


tone

to interesting

because feelings, this way,

of

of either of

pleasure or

pain.
the when
as

by the
and the
one

influence forth
same

feelingover
the For

attention,one

often

passes

back

between

and objective

subjective aspects of
one

experience.
if it is

example,
water

is in

bath

feels the

temperature of the

the
or

of quality
too

an

external becomes
or

thing ; but
aware

greatly too
as

cold

hot,

one

of one's self

with suffering of their

the

pain of

heat

cold.
as

It is

largelybecause
our

ordinarilytoneless
' things."

character

feelingsthat
known
as

visual

sensation-complexes are

customarily
in It

of qualities

external

Now,
no

the

knowing
and
"

of the from

bodilyorganism, quoad body, is knowing


"

respect different
as

the

of any

other

thing.
"

is
own

external

extended,
whether

out

and

spread-out
of

for my

consciousness,
be

the

framing
or

of this consciousness

chieflyin
"

terms

of sensation becomes
as an

imagination

or

of for

thought,
me.

that

my

body
way

objectof knowledge
does
this
as as

In

no

other

than
as

thing
and

particular
true

object
internal

become
organs,
1

known
if

body
are

this is

of

the

only they

to be

regarded

parts of the
f.

and Explanatory,pp. Psychology, Descriptive

519

248

MIND

AND

BODY

body, as
that

it is of the most

obvious

superficial areas.
is not between
more

The
a

native alter-

presented
is not-mind

to

cognition,then,
a

thing
that those

and

thing that body


known
; the

is somehow alternative
me as

especially
and

mind, because

it is my becomes

is between

thing
other their of the the

which

to

my
as

body

things that
relations
case

also become the


not

known In

to me,

things, through peculiarity


this of

to

body.
consist

other

words, the

does

in the

of peculiarqualifications in which
to

thing known,

but in the

peculiar relations
of

particular thing (or system


consciousness. of one's the of
own

things)stands
process it
as

the states

Nor

does

the

of

developing a
It is the

edge knowlall

body emphasize
all

less

reallyhaving

which spatial qualities

things have.
the At chasm this of

process

or bi-partition, diremption, which

is itself

evolutionary ;
between mind

there

is

no

evolution and

bridging over
the the

(as such)
may

things (as such).

point,again, we
the this science process
at

profitablyconsult
We
resume

conclusions

of of the of

psychology. point
the "The involve different the all which

description of
the Self and

of experience between bipartition


at

Things

it

was

left when

tracing the development


of Self does

concept of mind

(see
of

p. the

111). knowledge
been
not

development
the from those
a

possession or the employment


which have of
are as

of mental

faculties

described On

(that is,in
hand, growth of

acquiring of
these of

knowledge
faculties
as

things).
exercised in the

the other

so-called

in the

this kind of
true

knowledge
From

well

edge growth of the knowl-

things.
follow
can

this

general
of the

statement

respecting the
life called

doctrine psychological
:

several important self-knowledge earlier which


to

corollaries
no
a

(1)
If

In

stages of mental
are

psychoses knowing

be discovered
we

worthy

to be

of Self. between
cannot

adhere

the and

distinction

already

insisted

upon
we

consciousness

sciousness, developed self-conself-consciousness of any


state to
"

properly
and

ascribe reference

or

the immediate

awareness

me

MIND

AND

BODY

249

as

my

state

"

to the

infant of

mind. mental

(2)

Certain

classes

of the

elementary
which focus

processes attention

life possess which

characteristics stimulate it were, Such

upon

them, and

criminatin disfrom

consciousness other processes


are

to set them

apart, as

in

the

stream

of consciousness. the
tones

acteristics charthe

furnished

by

of

feeling and

amounts

of conative

which activity this basis


some

render
states

ively psychoses subjectof consciousness, ascribed


to
on

interesting. On regarded merely


so-called basis of
'

as a

states,

are

fitted to of which

be

the the of of

Self,'
"

conception

is formed this very the

with at first, experience chiefly,


states.

kind

conscious like Self,

(3) Development knowledge


may
same

of

knowledge
a

that

of the

of

Things,
to

follows order
same

certain

general order, which


and the essentially
men,

be

said
men.

be At

the the

of nature time ferent dif-

for all

and

even

different Self
as

races,

differ

quite as
and

markedly
inferential called

in their Nor

conceptions of
difference of the
'

in their
to

conceptionsof Things.
has

is this

confined alone.
means

conceptual
Lotze

knowledge
'

Ego
no

What the

vaguely
its

self-feelingis by

same,

either in all

complex
or

or qualifications

in

its

intensity,with
as

individuals of Self
and

all

races.

Moreover, inasmuch
so

knowledge

is still laws

knowledge,and
which of
more some

is

subject to

all the

conditions

make is

the self-knowledge cognitionin general possible,


more

largely a
matter

matter

of intellection ; of of

others,

largely a
of

of

feeling ;
with

others, more

largelya
motor
sciousness. con-

matter

conception
not be

suffused

predominating
not so, the

And, indeed, if this


of Self would
to the

were

knowledge
not
respond cor-

knowledge
some

at

all ; for

it would lives the

reality. In
is

men's

actual upon

real (their intellectual

being) the emphasis


the conative
a

habitually laid
the emotional

aspect ; in others,upon
upon It is conclusion
1

aspect ; in still others,


1

aspect of consciousness."
from this

general statement,
Explanatory,pp.
522 f.

which

all

and Psychology,Descriptive

250

MIND

AND

BODY

the

facts

of

observation

warrant,

that

"

the

stages of selflines. when with


not

consciousness Of these the which

follow,in general,certain broadly marked


of the first is reached other bodies
are

stages the consummation

sentient

body
in

is

distinguishedfrom
known

it stands

changing relations, and


as

which The

themselves intellectual

immediately
certain

sentient.

primary
felt

involved activity

in this

nating stage consists in discrimiare

between

perceivedobjects that
a

not

as

pleasurable or

and painful,

certain

one

object that
to

is not jects, ob-

only externallyperceived in changing relations but is also painfullyor pleasurably felt.


then, that the knowledge of Things and
are,

other

It is

plain,
of Self

the

knowledge
known
"

in

the

earlier

sidered, constages of knowledge, psychologically

interdependent.
is my

Hence under

the

earliest

'myself

'

body, as
and under

sentient contrasted

and with

voluntary control,
bodies In the which
are

parted
not
tient sen-

off from
or

other

voluntary

control.

other first

nating words, discrimi-

consciousness with and the its entire

constructs
"

Ego

as

identical

living body,

its felt

pleasures and
connected

pains,
the

voluntary movements,
of the but

as especially

with

satisfaction

desire,the withdrawal

of it from
contact

objectsthat
resisting
(as non-Ego)
its movable-

give pain, or
things,
etc. ;

forcing
does not

of

it into from

with

it excludes

this and it,


as

Ego
follow

everything which
ness,

feel with
were,

and it. With

manifest

it itself, as

organicallyconnected
vivid

with
"

the child who

has

attained

any

knowledge

of

his

moving selfhood, it is (ordinarily)the feeling,


'

body that
his

represents the
own

self ; ' and


not

his most

abstract vague

conception of

being
with

does

get far
upon

beyond

generalizations, Ego
that could

warm

emotion,

the basis of

bodily experiences. If
the

the earliest form and could


use

of the the

of representation

speak,
would
'

abstract
: '

language
with

of

philosophy,it
now,
am

announce

itself thus

What

is here and agree

I.

In

this

regard the child would

the

philosopherwhen-

252

MIND

AND

BODY

other

hand, it belongs
attained
'

to the very

nature

of

knowledge,as
involve bundle
to which

development
in

by
as

intellectual known

to life,
a mere

the belief of
sations, sen-

reality. A

Thing'

is not is
a

images, and inferences; it


are

being

butes attri-

ascribed. self-known active

Every
as

one's
a

primary bodily Self


the 'thing-being,'
a

therefore

becomes

such

subject of
But
sciously connon-

passive and

experiencesof
processes
no more

peculiar kind.

discriminated
sensuous can feelings can

of

ideation, thought, and mid-air, as


sensuous
mere

float and

objective bodily self-

than pictures,

the

coarser

more

feelings. It
should form

is natural the

and

inevitable, then, that


a

the intellect real

conception of
kind of

Self

which

is

being,a

subject also possibleby knowledge conception imply


a

of all such the


same

non-bodilystates.
which

This

is rendered

abstraction, freeing of ideas,


renders

comparison, thinking,and naming


of of

possiblethe
of the

things. being
"

Such
'

consciousness,in the form


'

mind

or

'

soul,'
"

real

subjectof
nor

psychicalprocesses,
ever

is at

first vague

and

fitful ;

does

it

any

specialfacultyfor development, to
is

its attainment.
some

It

ever, is,how-

necessary

extent, of all human

intellectual
"

life." x

Finally, it
manifold of many
"

by complex

synthesis of judgments, based


to
one

on

experiencesconverging
acts

conception,
"

the

resultant

of memory,

and imagination,reasoning, of the


come

naming,

that The

the

knowledge

self

as

unitary being
is
"

is attained.
as

Self that

I thus of

to know

regarded
whether

the

one

of subject
states

all the states of

consciousness,
of here
or

they

be

of

knowledge,

feeling,or

willing; and
and
now,

whether of
states

they
of the in

be known

as presentatively,

jects obas istent exas

self-consciousness, or
past, or
time. future I thus

remembered

imagined
to be to

conjecturedas

possible states
known

become

myself
final

both

real and
stream
1

logical subjectof
of

all the states This

in the is the
525

ceaselessly
and

flowing

consciousness.

and Explanatory, pp. Psychology, Descriptive

f-

MIND

AND

BODY

"

253

supreme
can

achievement of course,

of be

self-knowledge.
other
as

But
a

this

knowledge
of
scious con-

never,

than the

itself result

process
a

mental In
one

attained life,
same

of

development.
its it that which

and

the

act

the mind

makes

the objectof itself

and self-knowledge,
creates
as

believes in the real and then this

being of

its

own

object ;
that

it passes

into other

states

of

knowledge
What

dissolve

unique

creation

by turning

the attention
now,

to external

x things."

upon

the basis of this of that

psychological description
which all
men

of the
between states

development
the of

distinction

make and the

phenomena
to

called
as

bodily
real

conditions reflective between

consciousness with

such, does
the

thinking
those and
a

conclude
two

respect
are

relation

beings which
? The

the called, respectively,

body

the

mind of

diremptive process
; it

is, indeed, itself

matter

development
different
not

impliesdifferent stages reached


different All is minds

by

ent differ-

and individuals,
at
are

phases
are

and

factors
and alike,

emphasized
all bodies

times. This of the

not

alike.

reallyso
it is
to

; and

it is so, too, in the selfat least paritself, tially,

consciousness
as as

mind But

which
as

knows

it

reallyis.
in
so

and metaphysical, of

therefore but
to

appertaining not beings


fast and

merely
far

classes

phenomena
is

different Just
it has
so

that reality,
as

this distinction process of

developed.
It is not upon
lytic ana-

the

bi-partition goes,

reference to the world


a

of the reallyexistent.

simply

distinction in

of phenomena, although it is based

distinction and
in the two

phenomena.
of which

Psychology
and

sets

forth, by

its

the evolutionarystudy of consciousness, groups

differences the But

phenomena,
the that the

it also traces advances.

stages
physical meta-

and

epochs by

distinction

analysis shows implicatedeven


distinction in the itself. this

of reality

the distinction

is

fully developed
between

consciousness

of the

Moreover,
1

distinction

the

two

beings
531 f.

called

and Psychology, Descriptive

Explanatory,pp.

254

MIND

AND

BODY

myself,
the the

as

mind, and

my

body

is

the

most

complete

and

irreducible

of all distinctions.

It is the distinction
states

between and of its

self-knowing subject of the


external and As has way
as

of consciousness
"

extended been than

"

the
we

physical
know
we
our

object
bodies other in

knowledge.
no

shown,
that

tially essen-

other them

in which
no

know

things.
those
most

We

know
are

possessed of knowledge

other material
not

than properties

which

possessed by
scientific
on

all other

things. modify
or

The

advanced
this

does

minimize the fact.

fact;

the of

contrary, it rather

emphasizes

To

the student

physiology or
have

of

psycho-physicsthe
of qualities does other
not

masses

of the cerebral and gravity, of matter. nerve-cells

organs

extension, weight, inertia, specific


essential
masses

all the other The and


most

powerful microscope
any

make

the

nerve-fibres

less

distinctly physical than


eye. Chemical

they appear
also

at first

sight to

the naked its

analysis

of the cerebral
"

substance warranted fit it in


a

reveals
in

enormous
"

complexity,and
other
as

we

seem

saying

certain
to
serve

physical physical
chemical of
a a

that properties basis for the

peculiarway
of

the

phenomena
of

consciousness.
any

But
secrets
as

instead analysis, that would


an

bringing out
us

hidden

sort

enable
"

to

regard
"

this

substance
one

tertium
"

quid, or
effect. atomic

external
"

aspect

of the has

being

whose

ternal in-

aspect

is consciousness, that which the


are

preciselythe
substance

opposite
the
same

It shows elements

cerebral found

has

in all

manner

of inferior

things.
And

why, indeed,
to substance

should

this

not

be

so?

For

where,

cording ac-

chemical,and physical,
come

science,did biological
what
can

the

cerebral

from
so

; and

the

cerebral of itself

substance, after
alone is not
came

being

elaboratelyconstructed,
these the inquiries The
water

(as it were) do?


at

To
or

scientific

reply
it is

all doubtful

ambiguous.
soil and atomic

cerebral and of
a

substance

from

nature,
molecular

"

from and

air; and

capable of

motions

highly compli-

MIND

AND

BODY

255

cate

order,

"

only this,and
like which the

nothing
that
we

more.

Science

no

more

makes
states

this substance of consciousness

self-cognizing subject of
call the mind from
not

the

than

it makes

the clod of the


same

valleyor

mineral

the mine

like that

subject. Psycho-physicsdoes
under all

endow

the nerve-cells

and

nerve-fibres,as such, with any psycho-physical properties ;

they remain,
upon

possible forms
but bits with

of of

examination

stowed be-

them,

nothing

matter,

"

things,
the

with

all the that

of things,but properties
to the

none

of the properties

belong

mind

as

the

self-known does

subjectof

phenomena

of consciousness.
a

Neither between in the which the

physiological chology psythe real


;

effect such

union

and psychological to

physiologicalstandpoints as
differences in the two fields

least

lessen

the

over

its researches

ramble

indeed, it is,properlyspeaking,nothing but the science of the


behavior of of
a

of

mind

as

dependency
knows
as
as

related not-mind.

to

that

other

kind

being which
mental

mind

It is the science
a

phenomena
construction

dependent
the the
nervous
"

upon

physical

and

molecular

called
term

system.
may

Moreover, the very


cover a

body

"

be used

so

as

to

unwarrantable scientifically series of inferences. from which


; and

and

leading metaphysically misis of

Strictlyspeaking, the body


behavior
cease

only an
of

abstraction

the
never

of
to be

a a

vast

number

physical elements physical nature


the
be

dependent part
leave the considered
two

which that
or

never,

therefore,so

sphere of
to

physicalas "aspect"
Our be

they

can

possiblybe
of
a

another
or

"face"

being with

aspects
existence.

faces.

as bodies,

such, have
a

only

formal
"

If the mind
ceases
a

styled"

stream
no

of consciousness

that

never

to

flow, and

has

existence
more
: l
"

except

as

stream,
to

similar

figureof speech
body.
As Lotze is the indeed of Nature
"

is far said

aptly applied
The ceaseless whose

the

so-called motion

has

universal
most

tide,in all-embracing
like

agitated part
1

not

steady islands,but only

Microcosmus, vol. i. book

i.,end of chap. vi.

256

MIND

AND

BODY

like the
a
a

whirling eddies
masses

"

livingbeings
onward into
a course new

emerge

and

as disappear,

in

their

experience momentarily path,


a

common

impetus fragments
that

concentration
cast

into

definite in

shape, before
into

being erelong again


the

headlong

and
same

formless, universal
to

tide, by the
intersection."

forces this

brought

them

this

point of
science

But

view, which

modern
so

natural many

emphasizes
is
as

so

and strongly,
as

illustrates in
man

astonishingways,
himself
at

old
was

the

attempt of

to

understand
not

all.

It

the

ceaseless

flux of

things,and
; and
a

least of the animal with led the notion conclusion To

body,
of the that

which

impressed
all
nature

ancient

thought
which of

of instability its essential

Being
is

to the

process

Becoming.
one

this perpetual and

flux of Aristotle of
one

physical things,as
the universal of the
to

every and

knows, Plato

opposed
and go

permanent
to

character Nor does


"

thought
need
to

being

that

belongs
of
on

it.

philosophy to only
that

learn
sense

that what the

I call word

my

body"
interest

is not

mine, in any
best
a

strict

sion possesusurious
ered recov-

; it is at

temporary loan
and which

which

is

constantlyexacted,
loaned
at

is

all finally form


some

by

the Nature

it,either
of do it

in the

of

heavy

instalments foreclosure that


"

certain

periods
For
so field,

life,or
we

by
read
"

sudden

of
a

mortgage.
of the

not

in

Scripture
in Shakespeare

as
:

flower

perisheth;

and

"

"

Hamlet.

man

may
eat

fish with of the


mean

the

worm

that fed of

hath that

eat
worm.

of

king King.
Hamlet. What

; and

fish that

hath

dost

thou but the

by

this ? how
a

Nothing through

to

show

you
a

king

may

go

ress prog-

guts of
view

beggar."

The

truly scientific
"

of the

origin and
and the two brain

nature

of the
"

bodily organism might


indeed

nervous

system

included

lead to the

theory that opposed


as

beings,body

and

mind, distinguishedand

they

are

in the conscious

MIND

AND

BODY

257 all do both which have the


term

life which their real

is characteristic existence in

of the One

after latter, Infinite and

that

Being

physical sciences
Nature, but
the Absolute would
to

call
the

by the abstract

unmeaning

which Mind. be
more

philosophy
however and

of this

religiondenominates
may

But rash

be,

no

sion concluat
once

unwarrantable

than and

the being of identify

the mind

(the source
and

conserver

of itself

all
as

of the distinction between and especially distinctions, the

subject of

conscious is

states

all forms
at

of

things)
a

with

that

body which

only
an

existent

all as, for

brief

time, formally distinct from


To the

all-environing physicalnature.
Monism
as
a

which insuperabledifficulty
encounters

psychological
shall
return

doctrine later
on.

from

this consideration

we

It follows and it

then, that finally,

all

metaphysics,
"

both
in
so

naive

and also scientific and instinctive, from

critical,
"

far

as

mind distinguishes

matter,

or

self-conscious, thinking,
as

feeling,willing beings
extended, and
in the distinction tion which
between

from
to

things regarded
the

external,

belonging

physical realm,
and mind. which

is involved

body

If that

bi-partience experithe it

arises out
"

of all

and experience,

all

justifies, upon
art,
case as

which, too, all science, conduct, and


"

well

as

religion, reposes, body,


all. of and Here

is not

in justifiable

of my

so-called

my

so-called

mind, then

is not

at justifiable

consistencyin declaring the


described be and

metaphysicalimport
Neither
can

as experience,

explained
upon.

by psychologicalscience, may
Materialism from the of
nor

well

insisted rigidly

monistic

Spiritualismnor
be in logical

Monism

escape

to obligation

its

ical philosophof that tinction disthe

treatment

phenomena
which

for

the the and


a

evolution

diremptive process
between former and
us

establishes

metaphysical
which of

body
realm

and of

mind,

assigns

to

the

things, is
of that
17

matter

experience

of fact. what is the

The

metaphysics of
nature

mind

has

already taught

unique

and self-identity, reality,

258

MIND

AND

BODY

unity which only


which with

the

mind
treats

claims

for

itself.

Physical

and

iological phys-

science
as

of the

bodily organism
to be
a

successfully
into

it considers
nature be at

this

organism

reallyinseparable
a

part of
can

large,formally
as

constituted

being
of

regarded
the

correlated, temporarily and


consciousness. The

loosely,

the

phenomena
the

of

metaphysics
is found

physics confirms
to

realityof the distinction, by attributing


all matter essential
to possess, to the

the

body

propertieswhich
are

but

which

opposed
then, denies

of qualities

all

minds.

Whoever,
which show

the

in reality of validity
process

that

distinction tion
a

results from how his

this universal
can

of

bi-partistand
at

must

denial

stand

in

consistencywith
can

general metaphysical system


the overthrow
as
as

it how, in fact,
structure

all without considered of existence In which mind the

of the whole such

of and

knowledge
differences

of representative

likenesses

belong
of the

to

all

reality.
main class of the

speaking
every must

second view

phenomena
of

metaphysical
take of

of the
one

relations
not

body
to

and
use

into its account,


common

need

hesitate

language
terms

life. the

This

language employs
causation.
; to

all the Thus the

various man's
"

that express is said


to
"

conceptionof
"

body
"

influence
"

his which

mind

furnish

occasions
or

or even

"

conditions
" "

on

mental

phenomena
which self-

arise ;

to

cause

those

mental
to

changes

consciousness

affirms should

actually
have
"

take

place.
in

Scientific
"

psychology, too,
the word
may

no

feeling of timidity or
of

if
use

be
same

pardoned
terms.

squeamishness

the

of any
sources

of these and the

The

preceding analysis of
cause

the

nature

of the
a more

conception of

has

at

least

clearlyindicated
: justify

what

complete analysiswould
its between reality the force the

fully
the

the

conceptionof causation, in
the relations in
to break

fullest import, is

to applicable

body
the

and

mind.

All

attempts
from the

of this
"

application by
tion conserva-

deductions and

physical principlecalled
of

correlation

energy"

are

quite impotent

here.

260

'

MIND

AND

BODY

as

these

principlesapply organism.
by the
All

to

the

life of

consciousness,
and

"

all

have
nervous

their correlates

in the

constitution laws of

functions

of the
"

the

biologicalgrowth
as

heredity,variation,persistenceof type
structure

established itself
"

in

the

metabolism

of the
say,

structure to the
nervous

apply,
that
tion, sensa-

we pre-eminently,

might

almost

substance. assertion in

In the the

same

line of connection
energy

is the

probable
amount

intensive is

of consciousness, for
upon

example
of

directlydependent
in

the

katabolic

changes
of mental

the

nervous

substance. the
as

Moreover, the time-rate


which it takes in time
to
come

phenomena,
as

time

to

consciousness,
states

well

the
are

sequence

of the

varying
with the

of

consciousness,
in the

dependently
is confirmed

connected

time

consumed This

development
fact

of related and

tions. nerve-commo-

general
of

illustrated

by

countless Another

thousands

experiments

in reaction-time.

class of facts which

modern

ogy psycholphysiological
same

brings forward
in the so-called
be

in confirmation

of the cerebral

view
;

consists

localization
to say,

of the

function of

perhaps
as

it would

better
nervous

localization

function vague

applied to
absurd last

the

system throughout. The


the old

and the

of generalizations

phrenology have, during


more

twenty-five years, given placeto


are

limited upon
not

and
a

definite basis of

that generalizations
observation

firmly

established
areas,

and and

experiment.
of the lower

Certain

only
bear

of the also

spinal cord
of the relations
to

portions of
now

the

brain, but
to

cerebral the
use

hemispheres, are
of the of limbs
sense.

known ideational

special
volved in-

sensory-motor and
of the The the and

activities the

in the of the

trunk, of
same

head, and
been

specialorgans
the

principlehas symbols
And of

experimentally
The
nervous

extended

to

intelligent employment
written correlated of

and

understanding of
exact

spoken
of

thought.
the

spatial limits ought


not

these

areas

system cannot, indeed, be fixed.


we

it is

altogether
limits

likelythat

to

speak

of

absolutelyfixed

MIND

AND

BODY

261

in this

connection
to

at

all. very

But

even

if this

should

be

covered disthe

be

true, the

variations of the the would


now

possible within
related
areas

limits,and

the movable

character enforce What is

would

only further
we are now

illustrate and

general truth
then have

for which
true

contending.
conditions

proved
known vary

of the
true
case

cerebral

undoubtedly
These of of

to

be

of the correlated of different


;

mental

phenomena.
of

in the of

individuals,admit
are
our

growth,

lapse,and
the

decay

and

there

cases

in idiosyncrasies
to

mental

aspect that baffle all

attempts

them explain or classify

psychologically.
In motion

general,moreover,
is

the conscious connected of


sense

life of sensation with the condition

and

of
and

dependency
of the of the

functioning organs)
reference and

organs

(including the
This and
to the

central has entire In

muscular

system.
the of the

connection

to the

of qualities the normal


content
cases

sensations
our

complexion ordinary
selected
as

of

sense-experience.

and

application of
nervous

particular

kinds
a

of stimulus

to the

system is followed,

from

determining
content

cause,

by corresponding changes in the


If
a

sensuous

of consciousness.

certain the eye

kind
or

cally (physithe
a

estimated) of stimulus
ear,
or

falls upon

upon

upon

any

other

of the external

organs

of sense,

then The
to

corresponding kind knowledge


most

of sensation class of

arises in consciousness.
are

of this

facts, which
been

familiar extended

the and

ordinary experience, has


details refined Not

greatly
science of

the

by the only have

modern the

experimental
conditions skin been

psychology.
of

various

confused

sense-experienceproduced by stimulating the


also
new

analyzed,but
those of the

classes

of sensations

"

as, for

example,
the circular semi-

muscles, the
"

and joints, discovered

possibly of
and their

canals
causes

have

been

physical
strably demon-

investigated.
is true
true

What

of relations of

of

quality is

even

more

of relations

quantity or

intensity. In general,

262

MIND

AND

BODY

increase the

in the intensive

magnitude of the stimulus

appliedto
to

peripheral parts
as

of the

body, and

of the

resultingnervesity intenAnd

commotions the cerebral of extensive influences the

propagated along the ingoing nerve-tracts by increased


form of

centres, is regularlyfollowed

appropriate
or

sense-consciousness. the cerebral


"

magnitude
the extent Just

amplitude of
this

disturbances circuit of
sciousness." con-

covered how

by the so-called
in relation,
and states
so

far

as

tained it is mainto

between be

brain-states
are

of

consciousness, is
to assert

expressed,we
Weber's

not was,

at

present able

with
to

dence. confi-

law

indeed, thought by Fechner


of the two. in the That is the
two

apply
is

to the

direct correlation
"
"

ical psycho-physsensations

law

The

difference the
"
"

of intensity

proportionedto
of their stimuli maintained the

logarithm of
was

the

quotientof
of the

the

magnitudes
relations and of the and

believed

by the latter

to state

directlybetween
this

phenomena
in

consciousness substance
to

phenomena By

of nerve-commotion which principle, with

brain.

he undertook infinite

defend in

illustrate Fechner
two

experimentally proved, as
he

patience
and
same

details,
are

thought, that body


one

mind

only

phenomenal

aspects of
research

and

the

underlying
very

reality. Subsequent
doubtful, even
of Weber
; and
as
an

has, however, rendered

the alleged law empirical generalization, of interpretation Some the law is almost
even

Fechner's

undoubtedly
that into all

erroneous.

1 have investigators

held

quantitativedifferences
if the
states

of

sensation

are

resolvable

differences. qualitative existence be of


a

Even mental the

difference reallyquantitative also

in

admitted, and
law law be is held

something resembling
in
not

psycho-physical
the correlations If any

true

fact, still the


to

of interpretation direct

(probably)
states

be

found

in

of cerebral relation
in his

and

states

of consciousness. these
two

simple

of

quantity between
Grundlegung

Miinsterberg so

maintained 1890.

"Neue

Psycho-physik,"

Beitrage, etc., Heft,

MIND

AND

BODY

263

were

to

be

maintained, it would

be

more

likely to
But

be

the

relation

of direct

proportionalvariation. magnitude
in

in truth, relations

of intensive mind
are

the

direction
some

from
"

brain
as

to

exceedingly complex subsequently


"

; and
a

of them that
is

will

be shown unfavorable

are

of
a

character

distinctly

to any

of principle
states

strict concomitant At way,

correlation

of brain-states

and

of consciousness.
most

present it

can

only

be

maintained and

in the

general
and In

then, that the


is

intensive

extensive

magnitude
brain.

of sense-consciousness extensive this

causallyrelated
nervous

to the intensive

magnitude of the

changes principleof
is true of mental time
"

in the causal

general way,
be maintained

however,
with
a

the very

relation

can

great certainty of conviction.


of is intensity also
true

What

of the

temporal

tions rela-

phenomena
or

and

cerebral in the and


to

changes.
elaboration of the

physical Psychoof the of

time

occupied

cerebral

conditions
"

of consciousness

changes
of

consciousness

is

causally related
The time-rate
states

the

character in time

our

time-consciousness.

and
"

order

of the

different sequent mental

is

influenced and

by,"
order
no

"

ent dependof

upon,"
the cerebral formula

"

caused

by,"

the

time-rate

in time
one

changes.
serve

Here

also, however,
and brain

simple
all the mind is

will

to

gather up
in

adequately express
and

facts.

The

relation

between reality,

apparently,as
The whole

respects temporal connections, very


of attention, this.
as

complex.

theory psychological
the

ally experimentagain, too,


to

amply investigated,
some

illustrates
are a

Here

of

phenomena
maintains
and to
; and

unfavorable distinctly

any tween be-

theory

which

strict concomitant of mind. Some the

correlation of the influence

brain-states
are

states

ena phenomof
the

calculated the

illustrate rather all of them of


too

mind the For

over

body

leave

totally unexplained
as we

origin and
it
can

development
said and time-rate

taVwe-consciousness often that when of states

such. have
con-

scarcely be
the

explained

order

in time

of

264

MIND

AND

BODY

sciousness
as

we

have
"

not

even

begun
and

to

ness explain time-conscious-

such.

Enduring

succeeding conscious
no

states, in
the
sciousness con-

themselves

considered,afford us of time-relations
as
'

full explanation of
those states.

to applicable

tions, Sensaand
go

feelings,
forever

'

moments

of

conation

might

come

without, by
or

the

mere

fact

of their

coming
of the

and

going,
This

accounting for
consciousness all the states

arousing the consciousness


a new

of time.

is

and

unique
; it

reaction

subject of
and mediate imlaws of its

of consciousness of

implies the
to

active

relatingwork
own

mind, according

the

life." * Still

further, the
take

synthesis of
a

all those

neural

processes
to

which

place,with
means

near sufficiently

approach

taneity, simul-

by
the

of

innumerable
areas, in

association-tracts is the

ing connect-

different

cerebral that

bodily correlate,or
every

precondition,of
state

unity

variety which
to
"

complex
the
are

of the

consciousness different

displays. Or,
known
to

reverse

ment, state-

factors, or
as

moments,"
its
own

which

fused

in

conscious

experience
in

self-conscious and in mode of

subject are,
the different

respect of their number,


to

kind,

union, dependently related


elements That and

the

combination of the
nervous

of activity substance

areas

of the brain. carries trained


enormous
use a

scientific
but

analysiswhich
much

direct

tion introspecthe of

little way,

which

experiment accompanied by
farther,shows

of

pushes introspection
our

complexity of
consciousness. others
the in

apparently most
some

simple
are

states

adult with
with

If,however,
same

states

compared
one

the

the wealth or individual, estimate Yet

of

mind

relative

poverty of another, our


is

of the range each the


state

of this

complexity
can a

greatly increased.
a

of

consciousness that it has This


be

be

called

state

at

all

only on

tion supposito

certain

unity for

the

subjectof
unique.
material

all the states. It is not

unity of consciousness
after the

is indeed of any

described
1

analogy

unity so-called.
310 f.

See

and Explanatory," "Psychology, Descriptive pp.

MIND

AND

BODY

265

Its

explanation cannot
by,
any
are

be which
to

wholly
the

derived

from,

or

even

gested sugor

unity
made

different
use

nerve-elements of

nerve-centres

have, by the

connecting
one

nerve-

elements modern different

or

within association-tracts, when the

the

brain.

Yet several

empirical psychology, points


of

pursued

from

view, enforces

conclusion

that

the the

physical variety in unity is, in part, particularcharacteristics psychosisregarded as Closely connected dependence
the cerebral this causal
will
a

the

explanation of

which

each of many

psychical unity, each factors, displays.


relation
upon

complex
this

with

form

of causal of memory

is the
tinued con-

of the train of ideas and the A habitual brief from

the

and integrity,
substance.

of dynamical associations, of description the science of


a

the

nature

of

taken relation, as "The

of

psychology,1
kind,
the it is in of

suffice.

inorganic tendencies
the

molecular

however, only faintly foreshadow


nervous

organic ;

system that all this effect of habitual


most

forms

activity
cells,

becomes have their used each

pronounced.
of

The

like nerve-cells, and them of

all

the power kind. for the The

nourishing themselves
nutrition

propagating
is

brought
of the

to

by the blood
the

enlargement already

under cell, with

that principle acter charbe


at

cell builds it has

itself in accordance attained. the Each laws

the molecular
may

cell also

held the

to
same

propagate itself under


time its internal cells
'

of

heredity.
and the

But

molecular

alteration

of activity Thus what and

the connected is called the further


upon

are

mutually interdependent.
'
"

organic memory

or

tendency
certain
"

to reaction

development

according
system.
as

to

lines

dependent

past action and


nervous

past development

is

gained for each reproduction


not

portion of the
on

Retention

and

the

physicalside,or
and

conditions physiological
but

only of
of

the

occurrence

recurrence,

also of the association

mental "The

images, are

thus

provided for.

foregoing considerations
1

apply

to

the
242

spinal cord,
f.

Psychology, Descriptive and

Explanatory,pp.

266

MIXD

AND

BODY

and

to

the

lower show

parts of the brain.


that these
nervous

Both

experiment
possess with

and
at

observation birth certain

structures

aptitudes and
these

tendencies

connected
race,

the

habits, physiologicaland
etc.

psychical,of
whether

breed, parentage,
case

But
or

organs,

in the

of the first do
same

born newsome venient concan

puppy

of the new-born

cannot infant, to

at

things which acquire,an


of the element

they
of

can

learn

do; using still the


need the
to

figure

speech, they
memory
on

acquire, and
of the

organic

basis

experience
'

individual. of the
nervous

As

we

have

elsewhere

observed,
more a

Every

system, especiallyin the


organs, may be considered of
curves as

nificant sigminute

of its central
area

intersected and may,

by

an

indefinite
; thus
a

number

of different in any of of the

directions such
area

orders

molecular

commotion and

according
out

to

its character the such

point
one
'

run greatest intensity,

into every But

system along any


small

these whole of the called upon

many
curve nervous

curves.' slumbers. elements

In
'

fragment
where

pre-eminently true
centres

is all this the


so-

of the cerebral
are.

pscyhic
them
one

nerve-cells writer
1

Of that

the these

effect of stimulation cells


never

affirms

return,

after their
"

excitation,to their originalcondition."


the
recur

Hence and

mechanism

of representative images,
with each

as

they

occur

in connection in certain
'

other,has
associations

its
'

iological phys-

conditions the
'

dynamical
And rather

amongst
rence recur-

psychic
of
some

'

nervous

elements.

the than

spontaneous others, as
upon

of these external and the

images

started

by

this

or

that

stimulation, depends
the
'

the character,
'

number,
which make
up

strength of
'

dynamical
'

associations
vous ner-

organic memory,
in the whole relation

so-called,of the

organism concerned
Of this form
to

process

of ideation." have
states

of causal

too, however, it would


of the related
Rev.

be
1

said

that

the entire

explanation

M.

et les Modalites Richet, " Les Origines

de la Memoire."

"

Philosoph.,

June, 1886.

268

MIND

AND

BODY

'

ance

it

occasions
cause

in of

the

cerebral

centres,
or

is

the

chief

determining
"Will" the
"

sensuous

pleasure
word

pain." corresponds
"

in

the

use

of that

which

to

complex development
so-called faculties
most

of adult of the

consciousness

involves

all the

mind,

with

their But

highest
word

potenciesand
"conation"

in their be used

form. spiritual the

if the

for

conscious, spontaneous, active


"so that

aspect of all mental


far
as

life,its physiologicalconditions, disentangle them, activitywhich


the central
seem

science

can

to to

lie every

in

automatic

molecular

belongs
nervous

living

cell,but

peculiarly to
to
a

masses." the constitution


become
more

"According
and functions and

general biologicallaw, higher


nervous

of the

centres

important
and head of

determinative
we

for ascend
man.

the whole the animal The


most

realm series.

of

bodily
At the
tres cen-

psychic life,as
at the

of this series stands of


man

supreme

nervous

are

same

time also

intricately organized
influential of mental

as

physical structures,
of all the animal.

and

relativelymost
'

for the control the

physical and
the human
are

development
'

Accordingly,
of the and

automatic brain
are

(or centrally
far
more prehensive com-

originated)functions
of any the
so

controlling than
nervous

the automatic In what in other

activities what

other of
a

mechanism.

words,
of

brain
to

human has far

being is, and


more

it does

itself,
the vidual indi-

speak,
and than

influence of the

determining
life of the

character

development
in the
case

entire

of any

other

animal. with
'

"It of

is not

with

but perfect certainty,


we are

high degree
'

probability,that

able

to

say,

Automatic

(or

nervous originated) centrally

is activity

the

peculiar physical
element, in
form
all

correlate

of active consciousness,of the


The

conative

psychic life. activityin


to his

enlarged
brain

amount

of this the his


'

of neural

man's

corresponds, on
over
'

physical side,
own

control superior intelligent evolution. The

bodily and
brain and

mental

automatically-

acting

MIND

AND

BODY

269

the
be

'

autonomous

'

(or self-active and


"

mind controlling)

may

said to be correlated.

Finally, scientific
relations which exist
"

psychology points
between

out

certain character and


most

causal of the tions funcspicuous con-

the

general

bodily organism

more

of especially the of

the structure and

of the brain

"

and

existence,tone,
the life
man

characteristics other

of

consciousness.

In

words, what
either in

the

individual

sidered, is, psychically concourse

respect to the whole


respect
at to

of his

psychical
of

development
his connected

or

in

the

more

general

features

psychical life
with This

any

particularperiod, is dependency
and

the character

development
It is

of the

bodily
of
our

organism.
indefinite

principle,thus
and

broadly stated,
of its

admits for

illustration

proof.

enough
more

present purposes

merely
The

to refer to

some

tant imporof the


or

applications.
sexes are

which peculiarities of note here.


way,

distinguish the
In

especiallyworthy
in effort, these
a

spite

modern overlook and and

and political

social

to minimize

the differences, of the human

scientific

study of the male


both

the female

species,in
serves

physiological size emphawhich blood


corners

psychical respects, only


these differences.
to all do
men

to

multiply and
respects alone
differ. In very hidden
are

Not and

in

those

are

obvious

women

and

tissue,and

in the most and mental of


a

subtle

ways of
sort to

and

of the And

physical

being
mental
causes

both,
are,

they
of

unlike.

the

differences

many

them,

plainly assignable for


differences In this of
same
or

their kind.

originalor developed
the

bodily
connection
more

may

be mentioned

dependence

of transient upon those

permanent
which the

psychical
belong
to the

manifestations different
are

bodily changes
of course,

ages

of life.

Here,

great climacterics
in the sentiments and
216 f.

cially espewhich

significant. That
comes

change

with
1

the age

of

puberty, and

the sudden

emphatic

and Explanatory, pp. Psychology, Descriptive

270

MIND

AND

BODY

stress

then

laid

on

the

psychical peculiarities of sex,

are

obvious
to

enough.
far

But

psychology is just beginning successfully important


mental

those investigate
more

changes
the

which

go
upon

on

slowly

and

quietly in
The
as

constant

dependence decay
of of

the

the waste, and growth, the nutrition,

the various

bodily tissues.
mood,
as course

psycho-physicaldoctrine
the

or disposition,

well in

physiologicalexplanations
of all
manner

of the rise and so-called the


same

development
mental circuit

of

diseased

or

abnormal In

conditions,enforces
of the

principle. day
and without

fact,the
be

twenty-four
normal The

hours person

of

night cannot
at

completed
character and of

for any

affordingan
in the the

illustration

of this truth. the

necessity for sleep changes


brain which
go
on

all, the
blood

chemical

in the

tissues of the in

during sleep,and
from the understood

changed psychical condition


of admit the causative action

which,
can

psychologicalpoint
as we

view, sleep consists,


of

only be
The

body upon
the that

mind. of the entire argument which is


soon

culmination

reached

"

topmost point of experience from


ever can

all is to be

seen

be seen,
rests

and in

where

all

beyond what

is immediately darkness
"

visible when upon


as

total and of any

irremovable consciousness
to
our

the obvious the states

dependence

whatever Onlv

of the brain

is

presented
a

view.

the

physicalpre-conditionof
with
a

cerebral

structure

momently

nourished itself

supply
in

of

aerated sufficiently molecular call

blood, and
which

engaged
what

in those
we

mysterious
our

changes

constitute

ignorance
correlated of

tion," "nerve-commoof consciousness

is fulfilled does appear. Cut

any

stream

off the stream beneath

blood, and
own

the stream

of
;

sciousness connor

dips down
does it appear

its

so-called

threshold
on

again until that physical change


Pollute the
stream

which with

it the

depends
deoxidized in other

reappears.

of blood
or

products of the bodily organs,


ways, and the
stream

with

drugs, or
is
spondingly corre-

of

psychical states

disturbed.

MIND

AND

BODY

271

What

need,
of

however,
mental

to

illustrate

further
upon

the

obvious

dependence
observed life of the
or

phenomena
are

these

changes,
to the

inferred, which
? For
we our

necessarilyascribed
we

body
two

part, as
no

have

already said, on
whatever in
sidering con-

admitting the facts


the of causation.
mean

feel of

hesitation

classes

phenomena

under
one

the
can

category

And, surely, whatever


word
two

any

properly
relations
two
mean as

by the

causation series
to

as

expressive
or

of

existing between
beings both
with

of
be

phenomena,
real, that
of

between
one

acknowledged

may

equal propriety when


to
same

speaking

bodily changes

related The insisted

dependent

mental

phenomena.
and

thoroughness, courage,
however,
which and
a

consistency must
the third class real of the

be of

upon,
on

in

treating of
be

phenomena
of

philosophicalview
must

tions relais
"

body

mind the
to
"

made of mind

to

depend.
over

What

popularly called equally manifest


field of of that series of
runs are

influence who

the

body
the
two

is

one

studies

with

candor

entire ends

psycho-physical facts.
not

Here, indeed, the


which the causal

happenings along
more

sequence
our

much infrequently
case

firmly within
consciousness the functions

grasp

than

in

the

of the certain

class

of facts in

just previously considered.


determine and very
a
a

That

changes

changes both
structure

obvious

and

in subtile, is Of
more a

of the of

bodily system,
experiences.
to
some

propositionbased important
classes

upon

wide brief

range

these

experiences, too,
must

reference

of the

suffice. No the
one

using

the

language
for

of common-sense, from of

and

stating
familiar somehow

conclusion apparently justifiable think


a a

the most that

facts,would
the mind with

moment

denying
and

controls

part of the

bodily organs

in accordance

conscious

ideas, wishes, desires, immediately after the clear or even picture of something
to be

plans.

times, Oftenobscure in

the rather
"

mental

done

some

change

272

MIND

AND

BODY

the
some

positionof
movement

one

limb of the

relative whole

to the

rest

of the for the

body,

or

body
be

in

space,

example
ideated

"

arises

in

consciousness, the

execution

of

movement
so common

is discovered is this it
man

actuallyto
that live at of the

taking place. Indeed, quite as


to
see

experience
could influence

it is

hard how

to

see

how

without

all,as

he could

dispense with
information This ideas
as

the
to

perceptions in conveying
to

present bodily relations


of

other

things.

rough popular way


to

regarding the

relation

of mental in what which

the

execution action

of those

bodily movements
to be

the ideated

consists has

only faintlyrepresents
the real

chological psyof the attain

science
case.

discovered

state

Not

an

idea

of any

kind, it is probable,can
and lifelikeness

any

considerable

vividness
at

in consciousness condition of

without strain vivid value. clear: actual any

starting off, or within,


and the
motor

least

institutinga
of the

mechanism have
a

body.

Very

lifelike

ideas the

large "dynamo-genetic"
of scientific tends

Here, too,
"Even

testimony
of movement the
to

psychology image
ment move-

is

the idea

to realize

itself in of

movement;

while

relation the

of the mental

particular movement
is such that the

corresponding actual
a

latter,in
The in and

voluntary

way, been

is not made
tary momen-

possiblewithout
show that in

the former.

attempt has
races

to

individuals

the

energy

of

effort is related functions. of grasp


persons
on.

to the

habitual
are

exercise

of intellectual less power

In to exert
more

general, negroes
pressure than than

said to have white


men;

have

intelligent
so

power

persons

of low

intellect; and
exercise of the

It is

even

claimed
a

that

'momentary

of intelligence
energy

provokes
knows that
to to
'

momentary

exaggeration anything
To is too

of

voluntary movements.'
think

However of
'

all this may

be, everybody
its
own

doing
in

creates

tendency
from for
a

actualization
or

doing.

think
a

of

jumping
well

bridge
persons

tower

or

bank

strong
One

temptation
cannot

some

safelyto try

to resist it.

MIND

AND

BODY

273

hold

the

idea of

kicking,striking, eating,singing,dancing, starting motor Indeed, in


conscious
a

fencing, etc.,

without

tendencies

in of
our

those
most

particular directions.

large class
of

complicated motor
idea with
or

the activities,
or no

movement

follows upon

the

little

intervention

of feelings

interest This

sign of purposeful conation."1


of ideas
over

"dynamo-genetic" influence
most

the

lar muscu-

system, although the


energy form of the of influence. The

impressive form
is

of the efficient their

ideating processes,

by

no

means

only
gross

guidance and the inhibition of


of

bodily changes by ideating states


also be taken into the
account.

consciousness
from the those

should

Aside which

early
infant

"random

automatic"

movements

human
motor

exhibits,almost
is these thus rather and end
so

all the

management

of his

organism
in

teleological. Movement plainly


than rather other than

uniformlytakes place
groups of of
some

muscles, or
The

muscles, and
lar particu-

otherwise,because
which
are

to be reached.
"

sphere of the purely physiological


are

reflexes

purposeful movements
of
sense

not

affected

by

the
"

state

consciousness,and
of

in nowise
"

cal "psychithat

in

the

being

conscious it

is, indeed, greatly


about many of

enlarged by experience.
very the

Thus

comes

complicated body
from
may be

and

seemingly purposeful movements


by the habitual
any without

controlled and

co-ordinations
ence influ-

of the mechanism ideas.

present immediate

It is in this way and


to
or

largelythat
acts

adults

walk,

talk, dress, eat,


which may may may

perform
their
serve

any

of

acquired skill
Thus of also
an

belong
march

daily employment.
their their
guns,

soldiers orchestra
has the does

members

continue

playing

parts when
the other of what

ness conscious-

nearly or

quite departed. On
of

hand,
the

it is

guiding force
upon

ideas,the dependence
influence of the
is which

body
it

the causative

qualityof impressive
230 f.

conscious because

ideatingprocesses,
1

only
18

less

and Explanatory, Psychology, Descriptive pp.

274

MIND

AND

BODY

is

much and

more

familiar do
we

and

constant feel this

experience.
influence Not when

How any

quickly
marked

strongly

change

in these

processes

occurs!
and
once

only may
of the
even

entirelynew
whole trunk the character of all the
may be
vaso

groupings
in
new

of the muscles
be
at

movements effected ; but

directions

of the
-motor

of respiration,

the

pulse and

heart-beat,

action, and

of the

secretory processes

changed.
mechanism the of inhibition which and result been the
in

The of obscure.

character physiological inhibition


to account
are

functions The

very

attempt has

made

for

the of

inhibition

of muscular

movement
But
are

solely by
this
can

contraction

antagonistic sets
entire under
account.

of muscles. For there

scarcely be the
which that in have the fall
no

certain

muscles

the

direct

influence Such

of
are

consciousness,
some

antagonistic muscles.
and face. A is that used The
motor

muscles

head

typical instance
controlled has the most of the When

of

an

"autonomous"
for
nerve,
near

muscle distances.

in accommodation

of the eye facial

muscles
nerves

by the
direct

which connection of and

of all with similar lifelike

anatomical
are more

the

motor

centres

brain,
the

instances vivid
not

autonomous

muscles. in

ideas

are

possessionof consciousness, they


in positively the

only express

themselves
but

corresponding bodily conditions,


would
occur

they
such

also inhibit

or

prevent changes which


were

if these from In

bodily conditions
conscious is
no

left

wholly

without

influence

ideation.

general,it
the

unmeaning
truly)

figure of speech which (the


as

gards re-

entire

motor-mechanism it most

most

subtile

and

impalpableparts of
the influence his of the

constantlyresponsiveto
What the
a

ideating soul.

facile servant character


actor

of
his

mind,

to

portray for observation

of !

mental how and

images, is the face of the accomplished


if difficult,
not

And cool of

is impossible, of
men

it for

even

the

most

well-controlled

to

prevent the quick response

276

MIND

AND

BODY

smile, frown
and
even

of

frown, grimace of grimace,


case

etc.

But in

here,

in the

of many much

similar of the ideas

movements

adults,it
to

is difficult to tell how the faint themselves sub-conscious and


way

result is to be and

ascribed

startingsof inchoate
in

that feelings how

express much
to

sympathetic
but
to

forms

of movement, and

complicated generic involuntarybut


channels
low

inherited conation

reflexes,

how

much

conscious of motor

findingits
A low

along the
but

well-worn

1 discharge."

form,

only a

form, of influence
for the

from

consciousness

is

necessary

to account

originand
be

character

of these imitative
at which

movements.

This

may

argued from
month

the time

they begin to child) ;


sometimes
and

appear also

(fourth to
the

seventh
that

of the life of the


savages
are even

from

fact

idiots and

most

excellent of

imitators,that certain animals


that in the

display the displaya only


on

power range

imitation, and
of movements

hypnotic subjects
same

wide

way.
over

It is

the

basis of this kind forms of

of influence

of mind

body
can

that the

lower

sympathetic feeling and


of
more
men

action

spread so
of

rapidlyover
like

multitudes
appears

indeed, this form


a

spreading oftentimes
a

like

simultaneous

explosion than
In this
same

slowly creeping fire.


reference
use

connection
and

should of the

be

made

to
"

the
gestion sug-

present extended
"

successful

of principle

in

the

of hypnotic phenomexplanation especially ena. of

The

phenomena

hypnosis,although they
scientific treatment all the three and classes

have
are

only
still
cases

recentlybeen
under

subjected to

exceedingly obscure,
now

illustrate

of

consideration.
"

Those

changed
the

conditions of
sense

of the
and

bodilyfunctions
of the the state connected of

of especially
"

end-organs
to be

nerve-centres

in

which, physiologically considered,

are hypnosis consists,

regarded

as

causally notic hyp-

with

the

peculiar mental

phenomena

of the

the changes subject. But, conversely, initiated under


1

in consciousness
are

the

psychologicalprincipleof suggestion
228.

and Explanatory,p. Psychology, Descriptive

MIND

AND

BODY

277

causallyconnected
Now is it should
not

with be

the

conditions. changed physiological the of suggestion principle In the

forgottenthat
between of

and nothing else. a, psychological principle, definitively has gone


on

conflict which all the

the

attempts
from

at

explaining
main the

complex phenomena
"

hypnotism

the two

points of view,
"

the

physical and
has
use as as
no

or physiological,

chological psythe
a

the

latter its

steadily triumphed
have these

along

entire

line.

Only by

phenomena

received The

though really scientific,


science the of

yet only partial, solution.


it is understood
and

magnetism,

pursued by
the who

has physicist, of so-called


"

little or animal

lightto

throw

upon

ena phenomattribute kind


to

magnetism."
to

Those the

the of

production of the hypnotic state

action

of any

physical causation
to those

upon

the brain and

are

obliged to
as are

resort

occult and unknown from find the

forces hypothetical

such entities, with which

entirely ought
to

physical sciences

investigators impotent
some

physical and
most

points physiological

of view

themselves

closely allied. profound


"

How upon On
one

is all

this to account

for

the

effect
"

hypnotic
secured
an mous enor-

subjects of
the clearest number

the

single word

sleep

! is

the

contrary, the

of suggestion psychologicalprinciple

that has

possible recognition
of different

as

explanatory of
classes of

subordinate

psychical
rule,of

phenomena.
The the observed facts order. other
"

in

cases some

of

hypnosis
manner
"

are,

as

following
or some

In form
an

by

word,

look,
of
an

gesture,

of

suggestive stimulation
set

end-organ
into the sensitive

of

sense

idea, or
of the

of ideas, is introduced with the


most

consciousness and of the

subject. Then,
the

of well-practised

a profound subjects,

fication modithis detail


tres cen-

bodily organs
described

speedilytakes place.
with the
exactness
as

What and

modification demanded
are

is, as

by physiological science,so far


concerned,
as we are

the

cerebral
to say.

almost
or no

wholly
science

unable

But,

then, there is

vet

little

of the most

normal

278

MIND

AND

BODY

physiology of
the

the cerebral external thrown


in

centres.

The

condition

into which

muscular,
are

sensory,

and respiratory, is of
our course

circulatory
much
on more

systems
obvious.

hypnosis
whole

But

nearly
a

the

of

knowledge

this

point emphasizes, to
of ideas And
over

truly astonishing degree, the


of the how
same even

influence

the conditions
it is discovered ;

bodily organism. stigmata


way, may be

when

produced
may at
or

by suggested ideas
be stimulated
a or

how,

in the

the secretions
to be
come

inhibited,and
time
; how

made
may

to order

particularset
latent

poisons
"

counteracted form
; how

their effects simulated powers

in in

reallydangerous (such
that imitative be
"

vellous mar-

so-called
as

organic memory," singing to worthy


various well and

or

in

the

use

of the

bodilyorgans acting
in
"

rival of
a

Lind, and
"

imitative

would

star

"

performer),or
insight and

clairvoyance
be alleviated the

forms
;

of tactful how and be

can far-sight,

brought
or

into exercise

painful sensations
incredible induced
in

can

be

wholly quenched,
can

and strength of rigidity immediate


"

motor-apparatus
an

sequence such
but
over

upon
as

plete apparently comare as

impotency,
what

when be done

facts

these them

discovered,
evidence of

remains

to

to admit

the causal the most of the than

influence

of mind

body ?

How,

indeed, could
" "

subjection dogma of the high-and-dry theological be any more emphaticallyexpressed body to the mind
by these facts ?
exists than What
coarser

it is

form these

of the current

"spiritualism"
suggest ?
But the
are

that which

hypnotic studies

same

states
our

of consciousness ideas
our

which, in

one

aspect
but not

of them, identical of

called

are, in another

related The

aspect, called
affective

or feelings

emotions. the
more

ence influof the

consciousness the The


case

upon

condition intense

bodily organism is,in


marked. particularly
even can

of all its
nature

forms,

very

of the

emotions, and sentiments,


up into

of the

aesthetical,and intellectual,

ethical

be understood

only

as

we

consider

how

they take

MIND

AND

BODY

279

themselves, as it were,

the effects in consciousness But for the

of accompanying undaunted pears ap-

bodilychanges.
student of

unprejudicedand
in

empirical psychology,the opposite conclusion


and imitative of it is necessary the muscular
has

equally justified.Indeed,
the ideo-motor

of treating scientifically
to

movements,

recognize the
Here and of the

influence

feelingover
of

system.
a

psycho-physicaltheory
for research.

physiognomy

large
to its

field interesting

Every appetitivecondition
apparatus, unless
idea. the

consciousness,every passion and strong desire,moulds


entire

expression the
it be inhibited
as

appropriate muscular restraining feelingor


as

by
of

some

Here, too,
sequence accordance is initiative of

in

the
can

case

suggested ideas, so far

events

be traced

and explained in empirically, is the mental Some


state

with 'undoubted of the for

experience,it peculiartrain
excites anger

which

of results.
;
or

insultingword,
or

example,
how

some

suggested thought
;
or

suggestive sight arouses


no

amative

passion
the

some

sound, of
"

matter

faint

stirs intensity,

feelingof fear,
of the entire

and

immediately the profoundest modifications


system result.
Nor is it in these
coarser

bodily
that
states note

forms

of

expression
over

alone

the influence is marked


and

of affective wonderful. of the tones

consciousness Let which the


are

the

bodily

appreciativelistener produced by
Those
a

the character

masterful

player on
the open of

the violin ; or, better mouth of the skilled educated

that fall into the air from still,

singer.
woody

cules vibrating molethe acter char-

strings and
muscles

fibre are, for the

of their molecular trained of the

motions, dependent upon bow-arm, and


the of hand upon with which

delicately
tive sensiis

the deft and the


can

tactual made. back And

training of
this line

spacing
be

physical
in what

sequences

traced
centres

to the educated

molecules But

of the
"

sensory-motor

of the musician's
or

brain.
"

causes," "conditions,"
you

"influences,"

use

whatever for the

word

will,
"

shall

an

explanation be

found

expressive shading

which

these

280

MIND

AND

BODY

successive that breaks other


in the

tones

at

every of

instant

receive
to

It is the
ear

mockery,
alone
and any

keeps
it not
answer

the

promise
to

explanation
but be

only

the heart

also to the

if intellect,
:
"

to this

question

given than
the
in

this

It is chiefly

educated

of feelings
as

that soul whose

actual other

life of end

sciousness con-

is inferred

standing
as own

at

of the acteristic char-

complex

causal

and series,
our

answering

its essential life.

experience to
the constant these influence

self-conscious

Without

of that life of conscious could And


not
never

artistic least

feeling,
degree
has

peculiar motor-effects
is

in the

be explained." satisfactorily been


or or

all the

science
this

that
answer.

ever

will be does the

at all disturb to where

This first The their

science

only rehearses
themselves

story as
of
a

and

how

the

responsivemolecular changes explanation in


forth.

changes
must

bodily sort

take
as

place. having
that

still be accounted of affective

for

the states

consciousness

call them More

emphatically still
to

"

if this conative

were

possible
"

are

we

compelled (or, in
in its

admit

that the

aspect of consciousness
of

highly developed form, volitions,deeds


the

will,

choices) influences
it would detail, been
add said

bodily states.
be necessary connections data taken of

To
to

enforce

this claim has ready alto

only
other

repeat what
f. ; 218

in other

(pp. 85
from the

and f.),

innumerable

empirical science
upon

of

psychology.
of the in the
exact

The

influence is

attention

the
this

tions condi-

bodily organs
earlier and of

beyond

doubt.

By

influence

they
of

are,

stages of development, made


motor

capable profound
are

more

refined the

activities. nutritive
reason

By
to

it

modifications

secretory and
even seems

functions suppose

brought

about.

There

that

through

this altered

metabolism, under
may to be

the influence caused.


to
"

of attention,

permanent
comfortable
and
nor

organic changes
safe for
any
one

It is neither the condition


a

attend

working
or

of the

bodily organs
way.

overmuch,
when

in especially

curious

anxious

And

attention

is itself

ar-

MIND

AND

BODY

281

rested

and

guided by strong feeling,or disturbances,the entire excitant, a tonic, an


most

is

accompanied

by

strong emotional
becomes
an

state

of consciousness
a

or irritant,

cause

of far of

depression of
more

the

powerful

character.
about

There the about

is effect

scientific ideas"

information the

obtainable

"fixed

upon

bodilyconditions
"

than

the effect

of brain-states It of

in the

production of

fixed

ideas." of the

is,however, when
"

the consideration

higher
the

forms
"

voluntary action
that the is most

choosing,planning,and contriving
of mind
over

is

reached

influence controlling

bodily
Nor

organism
do any

emphasized why
is

in

the

popular thought:
be
so

the subtlest valid of


reasons

of investigations

scientific
not

psychology discover
so.

this should

Here

the very of the

nature

attention of the

and selective,

determinative attention is

condition

organ
"

through
other

which
"

given;

for attention and

is both

innervating
to

of that

particular organ
like
manner,
;
no

"enervating"
for
same use.
"

of

organs

not, in

selected and the

Remember

forgetLampe,"
his

said Kant

from philosopher habitually,

paid principle,

attention he did

to the

painful feelingsin
he the
"

chest, although when


them
this

attend

to them upon

always

found

there.

All

cation edu-

depends palsied man


limits
"

recognition of

principle. The
very
narrow same

can

often his

although

it be

within will. the

control is true

trembling limbs,
frenzied
movements

if he of

The

thing
even

of the

insane, and

of the

self-rallying power
The in any

exhibited
"

by the fainting and


of will
"

the
not

dying.
be
to

question of so-called
way

freedom
are

need

involved the

here;

we

tention simply callingat-

in modifying the bodily conditions, of results, which is called


over
our

that

state

of consciousness

will. the

through voluntarycontrol Indirectly,


the
may

adjustment
this

of

bodily organism,
be

the greater part,of the


same

sense-experiences
manner

brought

under

principle. In
order of
our

the

and quality, quantity, time-rate, become

ences sense-experiin
a

dependently related,not

merely

direct

way

282

MIND

AND

BODY

to

the

brain-states

which also
our

are

produced
volitions

by external
of the mind.

and

nal inter-

stimuli, but
the
in
our

to
own

the

Indeed,

very

realityof
relations and
to

bodies, and
is

of all

physical things
connected
states

their

our

bodies,
So

dependency
no

with of in
sciousness con-

feelings
are

willings.1 simply
"

that
"

one's the

regulative

of

changes
"

his
"

body
of

they

are

also, through their


and arises of mind but also of in
on

influence,
known

constitutive the

these

bodies Thus

the

things

through
that

bodily

organs.

psychological
which
creator

science

impression
not

of the the

nature

Idealism of all

insists, as

only
of the

controller
on

the

things,

"

even

body

which

it appears

itself

peculiarly dependent.
to

And,
realm

there finally, of relations

remains upon

notice
a

that

wide form

but

vague
"

which

certain

of

mism," ani-

so-called,chiefly relies.
etc., as
and
amount

Of
"

mood,
as

perament, disposition, tem-

psychical affairs,
forms
; far

certain

characteristic
"

persistently recurring
of

of

consciousness, indeed,
be

fair the

knowledge

exists basis

more,

than
to

of

conjectural physical
to

which

may

supposed
it not

spond corre-

these soul

same

terms.

Why,
own

then, should
to at

be

held mative affir-

that

every
answer

moulds
to

its

body
seems

suit itself ? first

The
to be

this

inquiry

sight
facts
are

vating. captiwhich of the

It Materialism facts into upon


our

is,however,
and which Dualism it does

opposed by rely. rely


And that the

all those

upon
many be

Still,there
must

undoubtedly
and

taken fluence inporarily temnot true


a

total
upon
or

account.

constant

dominant

the

organic

functions

which mental

is exercised moods known

by

permanently
the the
one

existing

is, in
to

few

cases,

most

impressive thing
of

be

concerning
1
"

relations

body

and

mind.

On

this

subject
of

see

the

exceedingly
in
"

interesting chapter

of Professor

James,

The

Perception

Reality,"

The

Principles

of

Psychology,"

vol. ii.

284

MATERIALISM

AND

SPIRITUALISM

right to
a

the title

"champion
Let

of modern
men
"

science," or
like Herr

to insult

fallen

adversary.
about the

it be left to snakes

Biichner
physics meta-

to talk

"strangled
the
to

of

theology and
young fresh from

lying
modern theses science
as

"around
; and

cradle

of the
are

Hercules,"
their affirm

youngsters who
a

candidates

for

doctorate is the
we

in

philosophy to
scientific influence
it be

(for example) that


in these kind of
a

Monism for us,

only

doctrine from the


no

days.

As
"

acknowledge
"

of

"phobia

whatever,

unless, indeed,

fear

pretence of science, or
and

of the

misleading

use

of

ous ambigu-

mystical language in the


tenets

support, only apparent, of

cherished

of the it should

popular
not

faiths. that forgotten of the human


a

But, second,
human mind.

be

the present discussion

is confined We

to the
are

relations
now

body

and

the

not

seeking
in

theory
so-called

of the relations of the relations

of all so-called of all finite


to Absolute macrocosmus,

matter

to mind

general,or

being, both
or

material

and

psychical,
in the
means,

Being,
the

the

"World-Ground."
not

Monism any
one

Universe,does

by necessarily, Indeed,
Monist,
or

imply
take

Monism

in the

microeosmus, man.
the materialistic
to this

might

the

positionof
reference

of the Pantheist,

with

larger and

all-inclusive that
so

sophical philofar
as

maintain problem, and yet consistently distinct finite

beings
order

can

be

spoken of

at

all, the phenomena


the so-called than
a

of the mental connected

and

those have
a

belonging to
dual rather

body

therewith On
as

unitary
"

ground.
dualism of the

the the

other

hand,

psychological
does

dualism
two
one

or

metaphysical explanation of
man
"

the debar

orders from
struction con-

phenomena
position of
in

in the life of
a

not
a

Monist

when all

attempting
all orders

theoretical

explanation of
which includes referred

experience; that is, a system


of facts. the that

of

philosophy
The

phenomena
the

to in

previous

two

chapters
of mind
a

are

explained

in accordance

with

metaphysics

which

still earlier

chapters established, only by

dual-

MATERIALISM

AND

SPIRITUALISM

285

istic

hypothesis.
that

At

the

beginning
that taken

of

the

discussion which

it the

appeared
multitude

Dualism

is the
; and

metaphysical by

view

virtuallyadopt
must

it is also the every

ical metaphysof any all the in

position which
of the other the sciences who

be
"

student less than

particularsciences
"

psychology, no
to deal

wishes

with

the

phenomena study
on

most

scientific strictly which in

way.
a

The

detailed

of all

those

phenomena
of the

have

special bearing

the
does

lem probnot

relations

reality of body and

mind

alter

essentially this
conclusions

metaphysical position, or
which follow from
us

the

sophical philoit mental


most in

the what

survey
are

which

affords.

Psychological
; it discovers

science

tells

the

phenomena

their factors

as

known order of

by the

searching analysis, their


consciousness.

genesis
and

and

arising

Physiological
of the with their the

psycho-physical
and functions classes order of of

science

speaks
which

in
are

detail

portions

of the

body

correlated and with

different and

mental

phenomena,
the
stream

genesis
In

arising in

of consciousness.

its modern and

form

logical physioof

psychology emphasizes
the
nervous

the structure the

functions

system, and
both
as

especiallyof
the ultimate mental

higher cerebral
antecedents tants concomiIt
can
or

centres,

"

the also

ultimate
as

determining

concomitants,
or

and

determined

sequents of the

phenomena.
the
are

discloses

something
be

(but not,
of the

as

yet, a

great deal which

properly
and

called

science) of those
nervous

of peculiarities

structure

the

functions with
to

system
kinds if by

that

specifically
It
but

connected
may

the different know modest in the


more,

of mental

phenomena.
and

hope

patient

diligent
this

cautious

and increase

research

it shall

merit

reward.

Any

and conquests of psycho-physics however substitute far


a

iological physwould

psychology,
seem,

it
more

may

extend,

however, only

to

scientific dualism
relations that in

for the

popular
and mind.

dualism

respecting the
for

realityof
whole

body

Suppose,

example,

the

286

MATERIALISM

AND

SPIRITUALISM

domain
between

occupied by
these
two

the various of

classes had

of
been

correlations

kinds

phenomena

investigated
Still it result.
not

and would The have


over.
a

reduced
be
a

to formulas

in terms

of exact

science. would

dualism complete scientific


beween

which

chasm
been

the least
as

two

kinds

of

phenomena
or

would all

in
so

the much
now

degree narrowed,
a

at

bridged
to which
across

Not

stringer, or

small have

cord
been

stringer may
chasm.

be
as

attached, would
we

shot

that

Nor,

have the

repeatedly said,
have the subtile
"

would

the

metaphysical import Physiological science


and delicate functions
"

of

phenomena
still describe
most

been

altered.
ture struc-

would

bodily
texture

including the
the cerebral
as

and of in

operations of
and

mechanism
to
a

in terms

physical science,
terms

belonging
of mental and
are

physical being,
in terms

of the

metaphysics
the

physics. Psychological science phenomena


of the that
as

would have
a

still describe

unique meaning
a

and peculiar to itself,


terms

belonging to psychology.
It would and
so as

psychical being, in then, that body


and the

metaphysics
which

of

appear,

final words

science extended
to the

philosophy {unless philosophicalspeculationbe


to

consider
"

both

mind
can

in

their relations
on

Absolute be

or

World-

Ground

")

utter

this

subjectmust
a

something
of

like the material

following: The
elements of whose

human

body is

vast

collection

characteristics

and

changing
terms

relations

admit

descriptionand
other

explanation in
forms of

of chemical, It

and physiological, to

cal physi-

science. and

belongs
Its of

biology to investigateits genesis


such
as

development.
of those

realityis only
a

is characteristic
enter

elements

material and

kind

which that

into

it;
of

its the

idealityis only
word Its

formal which

in partial,

meaning
all

"ideality" unity

properly applies to only


a

physical
The
to be

beings.
mind of another

also is

formal

and

temporary.

of man,

however, is order, and


to

unique being, self-known


have

"reality," "ideality," and

MATERIALISM

AND

SPIRITUALISM

287

"

unity
in

"

in

the

meaning
It

of those

terms

which

has become
;

already
fest maniits chief that of lifeor

been

explained. sufficiently development.


sole

Its characteristics what

reallyis
of

it becomes

capacity and
running
process
a

original facultymay
course

be
"

said to
a

be

unique
time.
a

history,

progressive

in

This

unique

being called
to the

"Soul,"
in

"Mind,"
of the
two

sustains

variety of relations
determined
are

physical being
the

body.
as

Dependently
thus and
as

transactions

beings, they
be

denned,
the

constantly taking place.


which the express

What

are,

formulas of

them,

can

only just
to

known But

the

result may

requisitescientific
of
as

quiry. in-

these

relations

be spoken fitly
may

causal,
to

as

all

similar the

relations

be;

nor

is this related

the

prejudiceof
or

reality of either of these


the transactions. transactions be
l

two

beings,
as

the

realityof

Indeed, it is only
in
at

reciprocallydetermined
similar As
we

real

beings

that

relations have

can

considered

all.

elsewhere order

of the development said, the reality is called


"

of that

unique

which

the

Mind

can

be

stood under-

only if it be regarded as
consciousness its start and

the

manifestation in progressive

of the lifeof
direction,as

real

being which, although taking


from
to

it were,

the

action

of the
that

physicalelements
are

of the body,proceeds
laws

unfold powers
Yet
same

sui

generis,according to
with

of its own."
a

it is not

inconsistent when

this,but
:
"

is rather

part of the

truth,
is
a

it is also said
can

The

assumption that by
the

the mind which

real
act

which being,
on

be acted the

upon

brain, and

can

the

body through
beyond
to be

brain, is the only one

compatiblewith
on

all the which would

2 Knowledge facts of experience.'1''

this

subject

goes appear,

these had.

and

similar that

declarations is
more

is not, it

Wisdom
; it is

profound
to

or

lofty cannot
those

be

attained
terms

certainlynot
science

be

found

in
ex-

imposing
1 2

of
of

modern

which, when
632.

Elements

Psychology, p. Physiological

Ibid., p. 667.

288

MATERIALISM

AND

SPIRITUALISM

amined,
way,
and

state
as

the

same

ultimate
with

facts

in

less

intelligible
rantable unwar-

combined

certain

unintelligible or
Nor does it

metaphysical assumptions.
how behind
we are ever

yet appear
or

going
of

to

get above, beneath, around,


ultimate facts in science

the

mystery

such

and

philosophy.
Different
course,

conclusions be found
as

from rival

those

just
to

announced the

are,

of

to

claimants the

allegianceof

thoughtful minds,
and
at

both

throughout
All

historyof philosophy
of

the

present time.
real relations These
are

forms

speculativeopinion
and mind may be

regarding the
reduced monistic
agree

of man's

body

to four.

Materialism,Spiritualism(of the
and Dualism.
"

kind), Monism,
mental which
one

The the
to
a

former

pair bodily

in

referringall phenomena
to

both
"

so-called

and of
an

the so-called order

phenomena
of the

single real being


of

two

classes
as

phenomena
ground.

immediately
Materialism
nervous

and

obviously corresponds,
that
above

their

maintains
and

the

body (or
and

more

the especially
one

system,
both kinds

all the

brain) is the
to

of reality they
must

which

of

phenomena

are,

which
reverse

be referred. It claims
;

Monistic the

makes spiritualism

the
a

claim.1
istence exare

that the
a

so-called is but
a

body has
series
are

only
of

phenomenal
that

body

phenomena
such

indeed called sole in

of

special order, but


are

phenomena
to

of the

reality
their
agree

Mind, and

to

be

referred and of
one one

realityas

ground.

Both

Materialism

thus Spiritualism kind kind of real of

acknowledging
agree

the existence

being only ;
the
of
at

they
known their least

also in

this identifying

being with
In said form
to be

being

of either the

body

or

the

mind. may be

respect

metaphysical implicationsthey intelligible ; while


not

Monism

in its current is therefore theories


the
a

is

tainly cer-

There intelligible. with these


two

certain the
word

tion satisfacof
"

in
1

dealing
several know

of
of the
to

relations
"

In

spiteof
we

obvious of
no

to objections

use

spiritualism

in this way,

word equallyappropriate

employ.

MATERIALISM

AND

SPIRITUALISM

289 is

body
at

and

mind. in

The

existences
or

about

which

one

talking,
to

whether least

defending

in

controvertingeither theory,are
of
case

manageable
But third in the form

in terms

knowledge
of Monism

common

all

parties.
For the relations reserved
not
cover

here,again,the
of the

is not

so.

speculative opinion respectingthe body and


This that mind of man,
we

realityof
name

have

"Monism." the
as

does term, therefore,

simply
of

assertion real

body
of
in

and
a

mind

"

monly com-

thought
certain

two

existences
"

different

and

in
one

respects opposed order


For

are

realityonly
Materialism
as

being.

this,it has
in

justbeen
holds

seen, But

both

and is

Spiritualism agree
now as

affirming.

Monism,
both

the term and

customarily employed,
known

that

body

mind,

by perception and
of
one

are by self-consciousness,

nomena phe-

and

the Both

same

real

being,which phenomena
all human
to not

is,however,
into which

neither of the two. the

kinds

of the with
are

diremptiveprocess
the

connected
on

development
referred
to
one

separates experience
and
same

this

point

be the

being ;
Since

but this and

being is
are

body

and

is not

the mind.
one

body

mind
to
or

both

phenomena of this
of
as

being,they "aspects"

are or

thought
"faces" then

be

properlyspoken
The
"

its
or

two

"sides." of
as

inferred
"

assumed

is reality
an

spoken

two-faced

or

"

two-

sided,""

body
The their

and

"identity-root"of being, as mind, as known, both alike have


form of that
so a

it were, their and

in which

ground. body, in by
the

fourth

metaphysics
Dualism
as

of

mind

is relations,

whose
are

positions and
evinced

clusions"except con-

far of

they

further
"

critical

treatment and

rival

theories

have

already

been

defended
The in
a

discussed. reference to the


is reached
even as

positionof Materialism with


man's

relations

of reality
narrow

body
with

and

mind
or

the result of of

and

exaggerated,
the

estimate exclusive,
use

certain and

phenomena,

accompanying
It may,
19

of

naive be

uncritical

metaphysics.

therefore,best

290. refuted

MATERIALISM

AND

SPIRITUALISM

by following it along the line which


in the

is

customarily-

pursued
when
a

attempt

to establish

it.
to

It is

only, however, metaphysical


of this the

critical treatment the of

is whole

given

its crude

foundations, that
falls into truth have
to
a

superstructure of materialism
rubbish. It has
as
a

heap

unorganized
been

Glimpses
been
seen

already
establish
to

had.

how

attempt

materialism

form is

of the

phenomenalism
very

inevitably leads
idealistic
extreme

solipsism, which
from
sets

opposite
the ment argubecause

the
out.

position from
For this be found
to

which

of materialism few
avow

reason,

and

writers
and

can

in these

days

to willingconsistently

frankly to

defend

(taking
to not

themselves the
tenets

whatever of this

opprobrium
The that facts the

still attaches need

its

name)
into

theory,we speculative
upon

enter

great detail.
its conclusion those of

which of

Materialism consciousness with

builds
"

phenomena
and
" "

including
all of
nature with

self-consciousne'ss inference involves


must be
"

knowledge,
which the

metaphysical
of

or are

faith

very

knowledge
brain-states the

dependently
;

connected of the order But

the

admitted

they
last

are

presented under
even

second
to

class in the
a

chapter.

in the toward that


same

endeavor all
all

maintain

strictlyscientific
necessary

attitude
to

the the

phenomena, phenomena
In

it becomes

admit the

do.

not
an

point equally clearlyin


almost
or

tion. direcand in the


doubted un-

fact,
class

quite equally
order treated

numerous

impressive
last

(those of
in

the

as

third

chapter) point
facts,at any
to

the

opposite
us

direction.

Many

rate, warn
that the

zation against a hasty generaliof the

the

effect

being
be

brain, with
Even

its

states, is the
existence the full those known remain and

only reality to
functions

recognized.
were

if the

of the brain

sufficient to afford

metaphysical explanation (as


of consciousness whose
to be to

it

certainlyis not)
character would there of

of

states

genesis and
other facts

are

dependent
be

upon

bodily causes,

still

explained

certain

experience

292

MATERIALISM

AND

SPIRITUALISM

rience

as

determining
thus

the

sequent bodily
brain. with As

states

are

selves themmental
and

only phenomena
states, they
are

of the

known

correlated

wholly

inferential

largely conjectural brain-states.


to

This
as

is little better
I

than them
seem

say,

"I 1

need need

these them."

facts Not

proofs, and
the facts also
to
same

take

because favorable flush

only

which

to

the

hypothesis, but
unfavorable
terms

those

which declared

(at first
to

certainly)seem
that
as
a

it, are

be it

explicable solely in
would
seem

of the

hypothesis.
it is to
to be

But

the

if hypothesis itself,
even,

be entertained

at all

hypothesis
very facts.

ought
the
one

suggested by,
full

and

not

to be the

oppositeof

suggested by, a
admitted of

half of all the known But "the


it may

be

replied,Has

it not
"

just been
all
nature

that self-

phenomena
'

of consciousness and

including those
of of

consciousness inference involves And mental


are
"

knowledge,
'

with very

metaphysical knowledge
?
"

or are

faith

which

the

dependently connected
these

with

the brain-states

not

particular "ideas, feelings, volitions,


have
or
"

moods,
the

etc.," which
antecedents

the
causes

appearance of And

of

being nomena pheleast


a

themselves
"

bodily changes,
if

phenomena
of

of consciousness

too

they
be

are

consciousness,why
which

should them

it not
to

at

tenable

hypothesis
?

ascribes

the

productive

activity of the brain, in accordance


tenets

with

the

materialistic

"What, however
amount to
more

(we
than
to

urge

in

opposition),does
if you

all

this

say that it may

grant

to Materialism

all that
an

it

demands,
as

then

possiblybe

carried

to such

extent

to conjecturally

account

for all the certain these upon


out

phenomena phenomena
are as

The
seem

fact

still

remains, however, that


to

diametricallyopposed
as

it; and

that

well

assured which itself.

those

that

seem as a

to favor matter

it,and

the basis of
to establish out to

it

undoubtedly
what is

of fact sets for may

But

here

asked

turn

be

MATERIALISM

AND

SPIRITUALISM

altogethertoo implicate a
Among
the

much

to

grant, especially since

it

seems

to

whole

system of metaphysical assumptions.


of Materialism is
no

metaphysical assumptions
the but

may

readilybe
to

detected

following: (1) There


the

real

being (2)
of

be

called

mind;
organs

body,
and

with

its

nervous

system

and The

central brain

of the

brain, is the only real being.

does exist
or

really ;

(3) It
these The

is the cause,

or

atory explan-

ground,
consciousness.

accountable Each
one

agent, for the


of

phenomena
third
cannot

assumptions, however,
second and admit of

requirescritical
be be
"

examination.
as we are

granted

"

true

ready

to

them, in part, to
materialism. has of
a

without

involvingthe

refutation

The aimed

first is
to

false,as the whole


as

of the

preceding treatise
as

show,

everybody believes,and (which


unable
are

the claims in refutation their


own

ualistic spirit-

monism however

valid

of materialism,

to

establish

complete

maintain. successfully sufficiency) Hitherto it


can

has

been

assumed of the

that facts

the of

materialistic

hypothesis
however facts of the this and needs

explain some
or

consciousness,
of But other
now

insufficient
same

doubtful
must

its

explanation
to be.

general order
must

be held

apparent concession
even

be the

retracted; it is quiteuntrue
form itself of
as

in unintelligible order All


to

in which
as a

Materialism

it in

establish

tenable

working
"

hypothesis.
favorable
to it to

the

phenomena
tenet

consciousness well
as

those

to the
"

materialistic

those

able unfavorof them "mind." of them brain

are

without quite inexplicable them

reference so-called
; none

the

one

subject of
moment

all,
"

to

the

As
can

phenomena, they are phenomena


be

of the mind

for

considered these In words

as

phenomena
as

of the

in

any

sense

of

such

the

materialistic

hypothesis requires.
two

support of this general declaration


may be

main

classes

of

reasons

alleged. First,the
mental

utter

of and incomparability disparateness those

phenomena
to

and be

phenomena

which

are

known scientifically

294

MATERIALISM

AND

SPIRITUALISM

exhibited
cannot

by the brain
even

and, second, the


an

fact that

ism material-

state, in

intelligible form, its conception


mental "brain." the two and classes those of

of

the

real

relations

between the

phenomena

and

that

existence As
"

which

it calls

to the

incomparability of

phenomena
of
to the

the

phenomena
substance

of consciousness

phenomena

extension, motion, weight, inertia, etc., which


material of the
one

belong
be
no mere

brain

"

there

can

dispute.
fact of

And, in truth, no

is found

to

dispute
as

the

incomparability.
on as a

So

long, then,
who

attention

is

kept

centrated con-

this

fact,those

take
may

the materialistic

tion posimost

speculative hypothesis
on a

instantly be point
"

recalled the He

to

an

agreement

fundamental the

with

pronounced
finds of in

advocates the
"

of

view. spiritualistic and

who form

matter

promise

potency

of every

life,including the psychic life called


that he knows of
no

fesses mind, freely con"

"rudimentary
by enable
refined
us

organ to

even,

whose the

development
chasm
states

may

by and
the most

bridge

over

between and the

physical changes
fact of That
a

in brainor

simplest psychic
in the

sensation,
is to
say,

of

an

idea, arising in consciousness.

chemicoto
one

physical changes
order of in
as

nervous are

substances

belong
atomic

phenomena;
a

they thing.
to

molecular

and

ments move-

material

Correlated another and


are

ness, changes of consciousdifferent


not

such, belong

order

of and
or

phenomena;
atomic
as

they

are

mental;

they
be

molecular of
as

movements;
or as

they

cannot out

conceived

being,

becoming,
the

arising

of, molecular
any,

and would

atomic dissent of

movements.

Here, few

materialists, if
of the

from modern

following statement

most

pronounced
Lotze:
!

in philosophy,Hermann spiritualists
we

ever "How-

far the

pursue
in

the

course

of the ways
ever

sense-excitation
we

through
its form delicate

nerve,

however converted
1

many

suppose and
more

changed

and

into

finer

Microcosmus, vol. i. 148.

MATERIALISM

AND

SPIRITUALISM

295

movements,
any
movement

we so

can

never

prove
to
a

that
as

it is in the
movement
a

nature

of
own as a

produced
as

cease

of its

accord, and
sweet taste.

to

reappear chasm

bright color, as bridged


within
any
over our one

tone,
between

The

is

never

the the

last state first rise the vain will find

of the material of the sensation


at
a

elements
; and

reach will

and

scarce

cherish science is the


on

hope
a

that

higher stage
in

of
a

development
case

mysterious bridge
any
sure

where forces

it

of impossibility
us

crossing-overthat
distinctness." is almost

itself

with But
as

the most
matter

evident

of fact also there the unanswerable

as

little that of the

can tence sen-

be

urged against
which Lotze the

truthfulness adds
to

immediately
this
events

those

just quoted :
with has
states

"

On

recognition of
of the of

absolute and the for

incomparabiUty
conscious

one

another rested

physical

always
words

conviction

of

necessity of finding a psychic


laws life." These the

special ground
fact that all men, of
to the

explanation
in
an

simply state,

unnecessarily cautious
inevitable

way,

following the

of the development
states
as

ascribe self-consciousness,

conscious
to the mind

such
states

self-knowing subjectof them,


are. as

whose
can

they

But inferred

inasmuch
or

as

states

of the brain

be known order ceived per-

only

conjectured changes
distinct
to

of the from of the

to take

place in things, as
states
a

Self,they
called the

ascribe brain. This

those

particular kind
the

thing

"conviction of and

of

necessity of finding psychic life


"

special tively posi-

ground
when and

explanation
have

for

operates both
"

negatively against
regard
we

Materialism,
of
to

positively,
of that

we

to

the have

nature

self-consciousness;
the
nature

when negatively,

regard

perception through
What states states to
are.

which

knowledge
affirms
as

is

gained of the brain.


attribution of
scious con-

self-consciousness
a

is the

Self Or

their
one

subject, or
to
use

ground, whose

they

if

pleases

language

more

296

MATERIALISM

AND