1919-1930_FLIGHT_Junkers_F13 | Spar (Aeronautics) | Monoplane

THE JUNKERS (GERMAN) TOURING MONOPLANE : Three-quarter front view.

This machine, which is built of metal throughout, is oi the " wireless " type, having no external lift bracing. The wings are built up of tubes and covered with corrugated aluminium sheet, as is also the fuselage. On September 13 last this machine is said to have reached an altitude of 6,750 metres (about 22,200 ft.)*with eight people on board. The engine is a 185 h.p. BJM.W. ("Bavarian Motor Works). The pilot sits in front of the cabin, immediately behind the engine

THE JUNKERS TOURING MONOPLANE : Three-quarter rear view
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The J u n k e r s Touring Monoplane : The cabin and the eight passengers with which the machine reached 22,200 ft.

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Ae. Stern stated that he the thick aerofoil forming an envelope to the curves of thin thought the best plan would be for him to confine himself sections and deeply cambered sections. Mr. as he pointed out. A number of slides were shown. Mr. the last three or four years. Handley Page the deeper meaning of a token of amiable disposition as stated that some time ago he had an opportunity of examining between nation and nation. read his paper personally as. and that. especially in view of the fact that. he rather thought that the In describing the method by which he had arrived at pictures indicated that the floats were wood. considerable amusement by stating that the first Junkers The paper had been translated into English by Mr. as they had to obtain a copy of the Aeronautical Journal for February. and being wing sections of varying camber. different angles of trail. most of which were. and the the original German manuscript the day before the lecture. He the other two types of section. Professor Junkers in his lecture attributed to the invitation As regards the statement made in the paper that the to him to read a paper before the Royal Aeronautical Society Duralumin covering did not deteriorate. He was nautical Society on January 4. and at large ' aeroplane were highly stressed. however. in replying. Stern had only received The name Junkers had been painted on its sides. equal to a thin section in efficiency. and there the covering the ties of genuine humanity and to extinguish the sad was certainly showing signs of corrosion. as the paper to tally with our results. He had. Handley Page) caused confidential secretary to the well-known German constructor. M. as Professor Junkers was of the engine of 185 h. no doubt. W. of the Air Ministry Laboratory. was sorry that so few data had been given in the paper. 7. so that when he walked he acquitted himself very creditably indeed of a very difficult around the machine to attempt to find out what it was he task. Stern had read. and the benefit of his experience.13. and hoped that from travelling to this country.13 was a B. Green said he was very interested to learn in the wind tunnels at Aachen and Dessau. thin sections and thick material. read the letters " Junk. our constructors were sections. where the tests were carried out. and at what air speed was the test run. South Kensington. in that portion of it which Mr. He (Mr. Professor Hugo Junkers would not be able to knew more than he did about constructional principles. the importance of close co-operation between research and production. until Professor Junkers had some tubes made in which Handley Page's questions. Stern. and between science and commerce. who is consulting Junkers for having agreed to come ov$r here and give us engineer at the Dessau works of Professor Junkers. He himself had thought that they were. This did not appear mainly to the matter relating to the illustrations. he was prevented He then declared the paper open for discussion. be successfully attained. but of the same pointed out that in this country we had less faith in that thickness. what was the size of the Junkers would be of interest. 1923 METAL AEROPLANES Resume of Professor Junkers' Paper read before R. and had certainly shown several things Street. it is of one time on view at the Agricultural Hall. he did not early conviction of Professor Junkers that for efficiency all think it was specifically stated in the paper that these were detrimental resistance should be suppressed. when it was announced that. over-dimensioned super-compressed mostly very large machines. Handley Page expressed his thanks to Professor his paper. He concluded by thanking Professor Junkers proceeding to the construction of all-metal machines. read the paper. he was somewhat astonished to find the curve representing In his introductory remarks. this meant that to all intents angles equal to a deeply cambered thin section. among the subjects about the use Professor Junkers had made of Duralumin. F. both to Professor metal construction and the suppression of ordinary fuselages Junkers and to Mr. owing to illness. Professor Junkers pointed out idea that. A number of suggested designs were shown. from which the forbidden by the Air Ministry to use Duralumin for any result was arrived at that a certain thick section was. as well as any discussion in writing thereof. familiar to all who follow aviation at all closely.JANUARY I I . With regard to the statement made that the climb covering. and that. could be verified. Among them was a picture of the Junkers armoured biplane. or. the tests on aerofoils were carried longitudinal corrugations reduced the tendency to secondary out by Prandtl at Gottingen.M. before opening the for the purpose of inspecting the machine should apply discussion. at Slides were shown illustrating the first Junkers all-metal any rate. the J. who also the fuselage having broken in a rather unfortunate place. preferring to use instead high-tensile steel. Professor revealed the fact that the machine had. so and purposes we were not using Duralumin in the conto speak. of the next few days. 1.Soc. J. and after a brief statement up to the crash fairly well. Stern to read his paper. Professor Junkers had a number of experiments carried out Major F. and should have been steel tube. As regards the question of the use of wood Mr. sent as many would take part in it. break had occurred just behind the k. as he also shown of loading tests of a number of tubes. special messenger with the manuscript and lantern slides of Mr. and saw in it an effort to renew some Junkers machines in America.I. In this and hoped that more data would be found in the complete machine. as a matter of fact. stated that with regard to Mr. Piccadilly. we would advise readers desiring to read the various Junkers machines. opinion that only in large sizes could the combination of allA hearty vote of thanks was then passed. and consequently read them. Herr Ingenieur Mierzinsky. Albemarle very great interest. Slides were formance. referring chiefly to the aerodynamic features. and also iron paper. at parts likely to be highly stressed. while thin-walled long tubes did not. iron tubes were used. was a record perof the translator. He more about the manner in which the result had been arrived thought.p. in chiefly owing to the activities of John Larsen in America. with six passengers. Mr. a specimen of which was at In connection with Professor Junkers' paper. and slides of Duralumin. which has become known the latest types of Junkers machines to fly to Croydon. made from patent specifications showed some rather unusual He had no doubt that Professor Junkers would be pleased to designs in which the passengers were accommodated inside furnish any additional data desired. CONSIDERABLE . disappointment was lelt at the Royal Aero. Stern and Herr Ingenieur Mierzinsky. he would like to know what engine was fitted. in the main. London. however. it was found that short thick-walled Duralumin tubes reached the theoretical figure. and he had an his all-metal aeroplane. however. machine. and he would like to know something would be published in full in the Aeronautical Journal.which were unconventional from our point of view. it was found that the Duralumin floats gave trouble owing to water leaking in between joints. Stern said. that the introductory remarks of Professor at. the figures flexure and a figure approaching the theoretical was reached. an envelope curve around the curves representing struction. and persons wishing to visit Croydon The Chairman (Professor Bairstow). stood Leonard Bairstow was in the chair. complete paper. order to give an opportunity for detailed inspection of the Similar Junkers monoplanes fitted with floats were also construction. Stern. The machine is expected to arrive in the course shown. Before and so forth. from which did not think the performance was anything out of the ordinary. Stern also quoted from the paper references to the floats on the Junkers machines in Colombia. Mr. being present called on Mr. in • been published in various journals from time to time during which the paper will be published in full. fitted with Duralumin floats. for his paper. about which he unfortunately. machine which he saw was one which had crashed in landing. which was built in six months. Thus. this was merely a slip on the part of the Junkers J. Islington. J. As the paper as read on January 4 was considerably A large number of slides were then shown. Royal Aeronautical Society. Turning to the traces of a devastating war by hoisting the flag of peaceful statement that the Junkers machines in Colombia were competition." A closer inspection. as a matter of fact. W. Presumably. Others interest to note that permission has been obtained for one of illustrated the " Annelise " type. illustrating abbreviated. The engine fitted in the the wings.W. said that the paper and illustrations had been of to the Secretary. As regards the paper there of the reasons which had prevented Professor Junkers from were one or two things in it which had surprised him. forming. he was not an expert on metal construction. As most of the parts of an small angles. Considering that Mr. however. model.

at the following rates :— ABROAD* * * * m :'.-Gen.:- s. and also on the London-Cologne air line. Kingsway.254.C. O. O. Metal aeroplane wings. By post lOd.h. H. FLIGHT The Aircraft Engineer and Airships 36. head-to-wind.M. GOLEIN. making some journeys remarkably rapid.. PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED War and Peace.. BROWN and D.15 2 I 6 .) 24." 36. Great Queen Street. J. American World's Speed Record Homologated THE speed record made by General Mitchell. J. „ . MOONEY. and. September. KINGSWAY. 8 3 6 . this time under regular service conditions. W.. W.530. January 8. Kingsway. he was unable to make any headway for half an hour. which. makes the French combine probably the biggest and most powerful in existence.966. The Editor would also greatly appreciate any items of interest or news relating to air mail services and air stamps. (169. In fact. and W.278. Festing and Col. of the American Air Service.. and making two square platforms at the head of these paths for passengers to alight on. Schillstr. (190. By G. Kingsway. and all machines make for these platforms. 2. B.) 25. E. 2. Cheques and Post Office Orders should be made payable to the Proprietors of " FLIGHT. " Phalanx " Verlag. however. September. which.. By post Is. Aeroplanes. Price 9d.M.C. Behague. Report on the Economic Conditions in Cuba. London. Flying-machines. who was flying the Marconi Co. H. J. otherwise no responsibility will be accepted. flying between London and Manchester.160. PASSENGERS Night Flying Tests IT is probable that next month the Air Ministry will carry out further night-flying experiments on the LondonParis route.A. Edwards arrived at the aerodrome. d. are now reporting—from their point-view aloft—further very evident extensions of the flooded areas. O. j 5. diving down. W.576.. SHORT. 1923 have fallen-ofl again now that the holidays are definitely over. Telephone: Gerrard 1828. The weather has interfered. On Thursday.p. 15. Telegraphic address : Truditur. and help to encourage the more general use of the air for mail carrying.601. in order to give the machine a bit more speed. 55. D. Report on the Financial and Economic Conditions of the Argentine Republic. although the personnel of the Grands Express is still giving a helping hand. with a shorter run.30 4 I 12 „ „ . The strong winds and gales are continuing to play havoc with the time-tables. R.. 1923 R. " 36. If we get much more rain.807. and.'s experimental " Avro. W. 4.046. This makes the journey to Cologne slightly longer. at the end of 30 mins. a stop is now made at Ostend for the convenience of passengers for Belgium. 6d.F. and on Tuesday the only service to be run was the Daimler line from Manchester to London— all the continental services being cancelled owing to fog at Lympne.. Post Free. Stationery Office.220.) 27. has now been homologated by the International Aeronautical Federation. = cylinder.220.C. Aeroplanes. Toy Airships. Seaplanes. (190. 2. with the regularity of the services. engine. = internal combustion .. m m m m SPECIFICATIONS AERONAUTICAL PATENT Abbreviations : cyl. and went for a flight in the all-metal German Dornier machine. By H.. UNITED KINGDOM SUBSCRIPTION RATES post free. H. • European subscriptions must be remitted in British currency Air Mail Stamps and Correspondence ^ THE Editor of FLIGHT invites correspondents throughout the world to send him letters (addressed to 36. 1923 17..H. 26 . Further additions have been made to the departure and arrival platform by pushing out a couple of concrete pathways into the sea of mud.B. and flights in the opposite direction long-drawn-out. KEITH. LEPARMENTffiR. net. by forwarding remittance a* above." which is fitted with a 90 h. but the extra mileage is insufficient to interfere to any great extent with the time-table. W.. and this week's total has fallen to quite a low level in comparison with recent weeks. APPLIED F O R I N 1921 Published January 11. I am told that the Franco-Roumanian Co. on October 18 last year.p. (190.JANUARY I I . Librairie Gauthier-Villars. when fully loaded.) 27.. R u m o u r s that Failed to Materialise THERE were persistent rumours during the week that we were to have a visit from another German all-metal machine— in this case one of Herr Junker's monoplanes. June 30. M. The B i g French Airway Combine THE amalgamation of the French firms is now complete. Stationery Office. H. Quai des Grands-Augustins. " FLIGHT " will be forwarded. Stationery Office. W. W. Hall. 3 Months.. On Friday. Pilots. In spite of the progress made in civil aviation. (190. H. .009.) NOTICE TO ADVERTISERS All Advertisement Copy and Blocks must be delivered at the Offices of " F L I G H T . by the way. By A. 1922. •• motor The numbers in brackets are tbose under vshicb the Specifications will be printed and abridged. London) by their national or local air mails.) Published January 18. air lines. GREAT QUEEN STREET.E. 1922. d.M.. 2. No. not later than 12 o'clock on Saturday in each week for the following week's~~issue. MANNING. MOONEY. Great Queen Street. Malaises des Aviateurs. are also in the amalgamation. Brig. At the time of writing. net. it was stated. This is particularly tnarked on the Manchester-London-Amsterdam route. 7id. was to fly to London in connection with Herr Junker's lecture to the Royal Aeronautical Society. l^d. E. 7 7 i 3 Months. Westcent. in place of the present engine.-. and crossed London County and Westminster Bank." :'-.579.C. Metal framework to r aircraft.A. B. he decided to alight. The German Ambassador was also in evidence.33 o These rates are subject to any alteration found necessary under abnormal conditions and to increases in postage rates.m. LTD. Price 1 fr. to some extent.) APPLIED FOR I N 1922 Published January 18.C. Post Free. In view of the fact that the aerodromes at Brussels are in such a bad state. 2.663. Maj. (190. 1923 24. In the meantime.M. we are not yet past the stage when a small patch of fog over one portion of the route shuts down the services completely—although the rest of the route may be normal from a weather point of view. Kingsway. and the entire French service is being run under the control of the C. 2. Kingsway. As usual with General Brancker. W. As the wind was increasing. EMBY. intending readers can obtain etch issue direct from the Publishing Office. and the first Press photographer arrived on the scene about 11 o'clock. net. Supporting-planes. Shaw. Price Is. he estimated that he had been blown back a distance of about 25 yards.) 25. and to enable it to get off.521. Variable-pitch screw propellers.065.. Should any difficulty be experienced in procuring " FLIGHT " from local newsvendors. 1923 LONDON TERMINAL AERODROME Monday Evening.C. C. Report on Economic and Financial Conditions in the British West Indies. (190. Chalkley. " / " 4. Paris.506. the Instone service between London and Cologne is being run entirely with De Havilland stock. for the mud around them is already like a quagmire.-Gen. H. Brancker. We understand a D. if so. BARKER.. (190.16 6 12 „ „ -. and several other notabilities. the flight was arranged for 9 a. Haggard. By Dr.) 24. m. it may be necessary to dig out the machines after they are loaded.. Price Is. . etc. while attempting to fly over Purley. Perrin de Brichambaut and P.211. Kingsway. when he attained a speed of 224 • 58 m. just in time to get pictures of the departure of the machine on its way back to Germany. Great Queen Street. 1922. Berlin. ENGLISH ELECTRIC CO. HAUPT.C. Vickers are fitting one of the Vickers " Vulcans " of the Instone Air Line with a Napier " Lion " engine. . By post Is. 9 will be used for these trials. (190. I understand that Messrs. was up in a gale of wind. Mr. D. this machine has not materialised. he succeeded in gaining enough headway to turn and alight on the aerodrome with his engine full on. O.. I. These will have special and personal acknowledgment in the Editorial columns of FLIGHT. while even the Handley Page service to Paris has not been as well patronised as is usual on this line. .

but Professor Junkers considers that the slight loss is more than made up for by the rigid structure resulting from the low position. So far as could be ascertained it was built in 1921. very similar to the present specimen. The engine used on that occasion was one of the 185 h. yet the metal nowhere appeared to have suffered from corrosion. The reasons for this arrangement were outlined in Professor Junkers' paper. but we were informed by the Junkers representatives that the original makers had nothing to do with the machines after they left the Dessau works. Certainly the metal showed no signs whatever of corrosion externally. but as the length of time during which the machine has been in actual service is not known. John Larsen. Low-Compression Engine . 1 THE JUNKERS MONOPLANE : Three-quarter rear view. but it appears that some form of aluminium paint is coated on all the parts before they are assembled. an opportunity of examining Professor Junkers' method of metal construction. having. not a single one gave any trouble. The latter machine was the one which reached an altitude of 6. and the whole structure then given one or two coats of varnish.Ae.M. this fact does not really enable one to form an opinion. Soc. Islington. The particular machine which visited Croydon was one taken from the regular service. of compiling the following notes. 1923 THE JUNKERS ALL-METAL MONOPLANE 180 H. fuselage. We were informed by the pilot that one of these machines which had been in service in Sweden for over a year had been left out in the open habitually. under the supervision of the original makers. forming one solid unit to which all the heavy loads and the wings themselves are attached. Fundamentally the Junkers monoplane is a cantilever wing machine. was illustrated in FLIGHT of October 30. at one time. and were used in that country for various the wing roots.. as mentioned in Professor Junkers' lecture. high-compression engines. of the Air Ministry Laboratory. During the War a few all-metal Junkers machines were captured. while a commercial machine.. as the high-compression type was not permitted by the Inter-Allied Commission. The armoured biplane was briefly described and illustrated in FLIGHT of November 28. THE JUNKERS MONOPLANE : Three-quarter front view. Stern. but had not been in constant use all the time since. our representatives were allowed to examine the machine in detail for the purpose purposes.M. The machine arrived on Thursday of last week (January 11). Aerodynamically this arrangement has been found to "i>e slightly inferior to the more usual arrangement in which the wing is placed above or on the top of the fuselage.JANUARY 18. Stern on behalf of Professor Junkers. B. and by permission of the Junkers representatives (and greatly assisted by Mr. They stated that of the machines used in Germany. In type the Junkers monoplane which visited Croydon is not new. We have always understood that the experience with these machines was not a very happy one. IN our issue of last week we published a brief resumd of the paper on " Metal Aeroplanes " read before the Royal Aeronautical Society by Mr. 35 . South Kensington. spent some of the time as one of many " confiscated " by the Inter-Allied Commission. and generally had been very far from receiving careful treatment. and one or two were. and in order to obtain the accompanying sketches and photographs. which maintain their power up to a height of about 15.750 metres with eight people on board. with the wing placed low on the fuselage (" tiefdecker " is the German name) in the place usually occupied by the lower plane of a biplane. The monoplane.P. etc. while others were purchased for America by Mr. overdimensioned. 1919. At the conclusion of the lecture it was announced that permission had been obtained for one of the Junkers machines to fly to this country in order to give members of the R. and that alterations were made to them. the Junkers D. in spite of the fact that it was built of Duralumin throughout.I. 1918. B. on view at the exhibition of enemy aircraft at the Agricultural Hall.p.W.W. so that the J unkers firm feel that they should not be blamed for anything that went wrong.W. who acted as interpreter). The exact treatment of the metal is not known. engines.000 ft. apparently.M. The machine at present under review is fitted with one of the low-compression B. who was prevented by illness from being present. had been in the sea (it was a seaplane). 1920. a considerable number having been in use in Germany.. was described and illustrated in our issues of April 1 and April 8.

.e. sloping outwards at the same time. view of the engine housing and undercarriage.. i. The Cantilever Wing Although the Junkers monoplane will not be a novelty to readers of FLIGHT. In this connection it is of interest to mention that the manner of " holding-up " when riveting is done by a special tool designed for this purpose. except for the bays in the plane of the covering. where they are flattened out to lie against the curve of the tubular spars. whereas in the wing end pieces the bracing is by corrugated strips. These are not braced by strips. On the right a view of the tail.e.I fighter. 36 . This illustration gives a good idea of the large span of the machine. The upper and lower spars are staggered in relation to one another. These strips are spread out towards their «nds. the diagonal members are of the same tubular form as the spars themselves. to which they are riveted. The cantilever wings are characterised by the same Thus the whole wing structure is perfectly triangulated. as it was possible. a number of tubular Duralumin spars tied together by corrugated strips triangulating the structure. built as integral parts of the fuselage and extending about three feet out from the body. At the lecture a slide construction as that employed in the D.JANUARY 18. THE JUNKERS MONOPLANE On the left. 1923 THE JUNKERS MONOPLANE : Side view. patented by Junkers. on our visit to Croydon. it is thought that a few notes dealing with the construction may not be without interest. to ascertain certain constructional features which were not published in previous articles. the tube near the upper surface is placed over the space between two consecutive lower tubes. The diagonal ties then run from lower to upper tubes and vice versa. In the wing roots. i. THE JUNKERS MONOPLANE : Rear view. the corrugated covering being evidently relied upon for this purpose as well as for covering. and we believe.

3 shows the aileron tube-andcrank control which takes the place of cables. 2. A special spanner is used for tightening up the joints. The gap between wing root and wing is covered afterwards by a Duralumin strip folded over the trailing edge and secured on the leading edge by wing nuts. The manner of attaching the wing end pieces to the wing roots has already been described both in our article on the armoured biplane and also in that dealing with the D. with 37 . The framework is then slipped into the covering. In this manner the riveting proceeds fairly rapidly. and the latter riveted to the tubular spars on top and bottom.JANUARY 18. inside the body." We were informed that in the monoplane which visited Croydon something like 85. crinkled as indicated in the two sections. a typical joint between wing root spars and the spars of the end pieces. and it is stated that with a little practice the workmen can make perfect riveted joints. THE Junkers Monoplane : Some sketches of constructional details.I single-seater fighter. The large tube runs to the elevator crank. In the wing roots the bracing members are tubular. The trimming tank is just in front of the door. One man then taps the rivet head while another slowly turns the rod so as to keep the excentric always in contact with the rivet. This rod is pushed into the tube until the excentric is opposite the hole into which the rivet is being put. the union joint in the front spar. The small inset is a diagram of the wing section. The rivet is inserted and the rod turned until the excentric bears on the end of the rivet. carrying an excentric. presumably. 1923 was shown of the manner in which this tool works. the unions have a slight cup shape. whereas in the end pieces the spars only are tubular. The wing section appears to be bi-convex. This strip has internally hooks formed of sheet aluminium which slide over the spars as the strip is^being pulled into place. The tool is essentially a long rod. 4 is a general view of the wing construction. showing approximate location of spars and bracing strips. and it is stated that the operation of detaching or attaching a wing is very quickly carried out. 6. Owing to the fact that there is a change in the direction of the spars at the point of the junction of end pieces to wing roots. steel liners being inserted in the end of the tubes to strengthen the joint. details of the fuselage construction. No longerons are used. 1 shows the inspection door in the side of the fuselage which gives access to the tail skid. forming in fact a sort of ball-and-socket joint. the corrugations of the covering taking the place of separate longitudinal members. the bracing members being made from strip metal. 5. using. the same tool for " holding-up.000 rivets are used. It is in the form of pipe unions in each tubular spar. In the actual construction of the wings the internal structure is built up on one set of jigs while the sheet covering is bent to shape on another.

) . The view downward is obstructed to a considerable extent by the large-chord wing placed low on the fuselage. is an arrangement that should be advocated. but with cooling water. so that the possibility of it blowing back during flight should be very remote. wing area. (3. 1923 a distinct " wash-out " or decrease in the angle of incidence towards the tip. as shown H H S H H m K m The J u n k e r s Monoplane : This photograph. so that. wing loading 10'7 lb. Those to the ailerons run to crank levers. power loading (180 h. The rudder controls are by foot bar and cables in the ordinary way. about 160 km. but we were informed that it is entirely satisfactory. another running from there to the elevator crank.) . The fuselage has fiat sides. 1. Junkers machines picking up the passengers and goods at Amsterdam and Cologne.d But few particulars of the Junkers monoplane are available. a slide of which w a s shown a t Professor J u n k e r s ' lecture. Undercarriage The undercarriage of the Junkers monoplane is of the Vee type.. The shock absorbers are in the form of steel springs.m. petrol is pumped. The lateral Vee serves to locate the entire chassis in a lateral sense. weight of machine empty. and liable to break in case of a crash. corresponding to a cruising speed of about 140 km.p. 1 in. The Engine The 180 h. The petrol tanks are placed one in each wing root.) . A " sofa " seat runs right across the rear wall of the cabin. . which might upset the lateral stability. corresponding to a range of about 700 miles. Owing to the French occupation of the Ruhr the arrangements have had to be postponed. A small gravity tank is placed in the pilot's cockpit. although petrol will flow from one tank to the other.p. (87 m. so that the torsion on the aileron leading edge must be considerable. and as there is no wing above the cabin to obscure the light. . 140 km. apart from its somewhat unusual shape. and there is no danger of one tank becoming empty while the other is full. owing to the fog.h. .p. while that to the elevator runs first to a crank on a lay shaft some distance back in the fuselage.200 r.JANUARY 18.M. is placed in the fuselage near the tail skid. The latter*tube can be seen in the sketch showing the inspection doors near the tail skid. with a capacity of just under two gallons.p. so that when it is raised and leaning back against the " hump ' ' of the fuselage the engine is quite exposed. to which the sheet appears to us doubtful whether the risk of having a petrol pipe running down the whole length of the fuselage. (2. A lateral Vee carries at its apex the hinges for the axles. the cabin appears to be quite well lighted. with shutters for varying the cooling. As the machine did not fly on the day of our visit to Croydon. . low-compression B. but it appears that if one wheel is knocked back by a bump. . but following are a few which are thought to be approximately correct:—Span. 17 • 1 metres (56 ft. mechanically. (100 miles) per hour . than a tail plane trimming gear. visited this country in order to try to arrange with the Daimler and Instone lines for an extension of their services into Germany. it does so very slowly. the amount carried in the water jackets and radiator being sufficient._. . fuselage is built up of formers mainly constructed of channel sections. while the two front seats are separate and are so hinged that they can be tilted forward in order to facilitate entrance to or exit from the cabin. 8 hours at cruising speed. the opposite one has to move forward. duration. one of the directors of the Junkers air lines.635 lb. Owing to the internal bracing the shape of the tanks is rather complicated.p. FundamentaHy«the. 38 . which move separately in a vertical plane. A number of catches secure the cowl in place.) .200 lb. Behind the rear seat is a compartment for luggage. In front of it is a car-type radiator.) 20-2 lbs. Windows in both sides admit light. (1.h. The cabin itself has accommodation for four passengers.540 1b. One wheel can.800 kg. on account of the all-metal construction. The two tanks are connected by a tube of very small diameter.. H E IS H Et H H a m H m H H H H H S H H B I H B H covering is riveted. The engine is covered by a bonnet which hinges along its rear end. (50 m. cruising speed. but an unusual feature is that both ailerons and elevators are controlled via large diameter tubes. . rise without the other if the movement is a vertical one./h. or with only one or two passengers. There is a door in each side. makes the ailerons extremely stiff. but together in a horizontal plane.Controls The control column itself is of orthodox type. enclosed in streamline casings. I t is of interest to note that no water tank is fitted. 645 kg. useful load. ft. .W. it in one of our sketches. a small petrol tank. but is hinged to the fuselage to allow a slight forward and aft movement. The capacity of the two main petrol tanks is about 320 litres (70 gallons). but apparently that on the starboard side is intended chiefly as an emergency exit. but it is to be hoped that later on the suggested connection will come into being. immediately aft of the engine. which is sufficient for approximately 8 hours' flight at 1./sq. we were not able to see how the undercarriage behaves in taxying and landing. into the trimming tank until the machine is in the right trim. engine is placed on metal bearers in the nose of the fuselage. and when the aileron was held in place and a lift applied at the outer end it was scarcely possible for a man to twist it to any perceptible extent. maximum speed. The fuselage of the Junkers is mainly of interest. 1. The corrugated covering however. in which no longitudinal members are used. but when the machine is flown without passengers. (87 miles) per hour.155 kg. In place of a trimming tail plane. Herr Patze. An interesting feature of the aileron control is that the single aileron crank is placed a t the extreme inner end of the aileron. A tail skid sprung and swivelled in the usual way protects the tail planes against contact with the groun.p. Normally this tank is empty. the corrugated Duralumin covering serving the purpose of longerons. The arrangement for trimming is unusual. but curved top and deeply curved bottom. 80 km. Note how bracing strips are merely riveted to sides of tube. ft. One of the accompanying sketches shows the details of the construction. as there are no steps on the wing root on that side. by a hand pump in the pilot's cockpit. maximum permissible total weight.) .-g. The Fuselage.) . which are of the open type and placed side by side. working both in tension and compression. landing speed. In front the top covering sweeps down to the cockpits for pilot and engineer. approximately 350 sq. illustrates the wing construction. but is remarkable for the fact that both front and rear struts are sprung.^7r/:-. Although simpler. such as is found on the majority of British aeroplanes.

379 G2 . The general equipment of the Junkers is very thorough indeed. maintains one for his own use. air-cooled radial. and in front of the cabin is the pilot's cockpit. A similar version to this machine. APRIL 4. Baron von Hiinefeld and Major Fitzmaurice flew from Dublin to Labrador in April.F. and when travelling in this machine so fitted there is no difficulty experienced in conversation between the passengers. Junkers machines are really too well known to need much description and. as the Hon. The F. which might possibly become fogged in bad weather. 1928. and one has the added advantage of being able to dispense with windows. the F. the chairman of N. structurally. are the agents for these machines over here. of Victoria Street. where they have been doing quite a lot of work during the last year. 13 certainly one of the most comfortable machines we have ever flown in.p. The engines fitted are either the Junkers 280-310 h. though in the luxury class as a private owner's machine. which has already been described. make the F. F. has already found one owner in this country.13.13 is a cabin machine with ample accommodation for four passengers. London. is used for freight. but so carefully has the design of the nose of the machine been carried out that there is no draught at all. and this. The pilot's cockpit is not enclosed. so that a fire can be extinguished immediately.. and it was in a machine of this type which Herr Kohl.S. The same all-metal cantilever principles are adhered to and also all the other Junkers details which have gone so far in building up this form of machine. L5 water-cooled or the Jupiter 425 h. 1930 JUNKERS F13 T HE Junkers F. There is a centralised fire-extinguisher system which has nozzles directed to vital parts of the machines.FLIGHT. but with the cabin stripped. and many extra instruments are fitted as standard. with two seats side bv side and with dual controls fitted. Trost Bros. and they keep one or two at Croydon for taxi work.13 is just the same as the Junkers Junior. The former is an exceptionally quiet running engine. E. The passengers' cockpit is extremely comfortable. Guest. added to the inherent advantages of the low wing type of machine.p. Large luggage accommodation is arranged behind the cabin in a compartment which has its own door on the side of the fuselage..

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