Innovative Laboratory Exercises

Using Food Science Demonstrations to Engage Students of All Ages in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM)
Shelly J. Schmidt, Dawn M. Bohn, Aaron J. Rasmussen, and Elizabeth A. Sutherland Abstract: The overarching goal of the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education Initiative is to foster effective STEM teaching and learning throughout the educational system at the local, state, and national levels, thereby producing science literate citizens and a capable STEM workforce. To contribute to achieving this goal, we have assembled six food science demonstrations for use at all educational levels and have presented these lessons to students at the elementary through higher education levels. The focus of this article is to share these food science demonstrations and our experiences using them so that others can use them for engaging students in STEM disciplines, through food science, at any educational level. Featured demonstrations include: (1) liquid nitrogen ice cream: a matter of changing phases, (2) seeing our senses work together, (3) whipping up the cream, (4) milk versus dark: what is the difference?, (5) counting calories by burning them, and (6) culinary spherification: the wonders of cross-linking. Overall, our experience with using these demonstrations has been very positive. Students appear engaged in the learning process and love to consume the demonstration end products. Downloadable handouts containing demonstration details for each demonstration are available as supporting information.

The overarching goal of the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education Initiative is to foster effective STEM teaching and learning throughout the educational system at the local, state, and national levels, thereby producing science literate citizens and a capable STEM workforce. To contribute to achieving this goal, we have assembled six food science demonstrations for use at all educational levels and have presented these lessons to students at the elementary through higher education levels. Demonstrations are an excellent means of transforming students from passive to active learners (Taylor 1988). Instead of just hearing a lecture on a topic, students are given the opportunity to participate in what is being talked about. Although there are many factors that contribute to successful student learning, transforming students from being passive to active learners is considered one of the primary factors (Chickering and Gamson 1987; Hutchings 1993; Farmer 1999; Handelsman and others 2004).
MS 20110970 Submitted 8/8/2011, Accepted 11/8/2011. Authors Schmidt, Bohn, and Sutherland are with Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 367 Bevier Hall, 905 South Goodwin Ave, Urbana, IL 61801, U.S.A. Author Rasmussen is with Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 105 Agricultural Bioprocess Laboratory, 1302 W Pennsylvania, Urbana, IL 61801, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Schmidt (E-mail:

Using food science based demonstrations to teach about STEM disciplines is advantageous for a number of reasons. First, students are familiar with food materials. This familiarity helps instructors begin with what the students already know (prior knowledge about food items, e.g., appearance, taste, and unit operation used to produce the food) to what they need to know/learn (e.g., new knowledge about STEM). Brain science research strongly emphasizes the importance of starting with prior student knowledge when attempting to add new knowledge (Zull 2002). This is not a new idea, as stated by David Ausubel in 1968 (p. vi) “If I had to reduce all of educational psychology to just one principle, I would say this: The most important single factor influencing learning is what the learner already knows. Ascertain this and teach him accordingly.” Second, there is currently a strong public interest and awareness of food and health. Young and old alike are being exposed to food and health information and issues through a wide array of media sources everyday. For example, when reading or listening to the daily news it is common to come across one or more stories about food and/or health (e.g., “Deadly E. coli outbreak linked to german sprouts,” Dempsey and Neuman 2011). Food science based demonstrations take advantage of this current abounding inquisitiveness about food and health, making food science based demonstrations not only useful and engaging, but also extremely relevant. Third, by its very nature, food science allows for an interdisciplinary approach to learning, because food science itself is a union of several disciplines, including chemistry, microbiology, engineering, nutrition, and sensory sciences (Calder
c 2012 Institute of Food Technologists® doi: 10.1111/j.1541-4329.2011.00138.x

16 Journal of Food Science Education r Vol. 11, 2012

we could at least relate the involvement of the human senses to the enhancement of learning.Food science demos.Demonstration overview Students are introduced to the six human senses and how they tween phase transitions and heat transfer and (2) explain the effect are used to probe the five major sensory properties of food maof fast freezing on frozen food quality. students can often consume the demonstration end products. 11. . and of all ages visualize phases and phase transitions and experience the colored beverages with flavor where the color does not match the fun of learning science. the flavor and color did not match would be successful in the marketplace? Why or why not? Discussion questions (1) What phase transitions take place during the making of liquid nitrogen ice cream? (2) Where does the heat come from Instructor observations This demonstration effectively illustrates that our senses influto cause the liquid nitrogen to change phases? and (3) Why does ence each other when making sensory judgments. A liquid nitrogen frozen racquetball will shatter when thrown against the floor or wall. but there quality frozen food products. as advocated by Zull (2002). bananas. If not. coldemonstration provides an excellent opportunity to help learners ored beverages with flavor where the color matches the flavor. as they observe the the flavor of each beverage.2 so if there is any liquid nitrogen left over. ice cream. Handouts are available via downloadable supporting information. racquetballs. The group where the color and flavor phases of both the ice cream mix (liquid to solid) and the liquid match has the easiest time and is the most accurate at correctly nitrogen (liquid to gas) change before their very eyes. students tended to ask a good number of questions about ice cream mix ingredients. because there is no sensory interference.1 In addition to the advantages food science demonstrations offer as a means to foster STEM teaching and learning initiatives... using these demonstrations to expose students to STEM disciplines is advantageous for both the food industry and the food science discipline. when and where possible.g. Demonstration 1: Liquid Nitrogen Ice Cream: A Matter of Exchanging Phases Student centered learning objectives Students will be able to: (1) examine the interconnection be. rather than just listening to a lecture (Lengel and Kuczala 2010). 23◦ C) to typical freezer temperature (–18◦ C). to the pleasant surprise and amazement of the students. Vol. 2 Racquetballs are bouncy and rubbery (amorphous rubbery state) at room temperature. One of the students’ favorites is submerging a blown up balloon in a bowl of liquid nitrogen. to sample the very items that they have just learned about! Perhaps we could even consider consuming the demonstration end products as a form of kinesthetic learning. Duffrin and others 2010). . a more capable STEM workforce. quite early in their science education (Figures 1a and b). but hard and brittle (amorphous glassy state) after being submerged in liquid nitrogen. Students enjoy liquid nitrogen ice cream feel so smooth in the mouth? trying to guess the flavor of the beverage and compete with fellow 1 Kinesthetic learning is where learning takes place by the student actually students. and others 2003. The fog generated by the liquid nitrogen is always exciting to the students. Heat balance Which the hardest? Explain why? (2) Can you think of any other equations can be found in a basic food engineering text. Demonstration 2: Seeing Our Senses Work Together Student centered learning objectives Students will be able to: (1) list and describe the six senses and (2) experience how the senses of sight and taste influence each other when making sensory judgments. Instructor observations Students seemed genuinely excited learning about phases and phase transitions. This demonstration can be extended is also no sensory cue either. balloons. and fresh flowers). This The three beverage groups are: clear beverages with flavor. liquid nitrogen. It is also referred to as tactile learning. the students are also able to taste the liquid vor do not matched has the hardest time and is the least accurate nitrogen ice cream and feel how smooth it is in their mouth. however when the balloon is removed from the liquid nitrogen it “magically“ returns to its original size and shape. After tasting the beverages the students are asked to identify visualize the effects of the heat transfer process. but perhaps we could include the physical act of eating as a form of kinesthetic learning.. Finally. The liquid nitrogen causes the balloon to shrink completely (gas molecules slow down and take up less volume). While doing the demonstration.g. A liquid nitrogen frozen banana can be used as a hammer to pound a nail in a board. terials (Figure 2). Usually kinesthetic learning involves physical movement (e. They at correctly identifying the flavor. which contain the “how to” details of the demonstrations described herein. such as “Physical Principles of Food Preservation” by Karel and Lund combination of senses that influence each other when making sensory judgments? (3) Do you think a food or beverage where (2003). Rowat and others 2010). Voting on the different flavors of ice cream is very popular. In this demonstration students are able to flavor. Students often comment that it is the best ice cream that they have ever tasted! It never hurts to bring a few extra items to this demonstration (e. The clear beverage group falls learn that fast freezing produces small ice crystals and yields high in the middle. whereas the group where the color and flacream mix is . Students also learn how the senses influence each other when making sensory judgments. Students are divided Demonstration overview Students are introduced to phases of matter and phase transitions into three groups and asked to taste a series of sample beverages. After the ice identifying the flavor. Students can crush into small bits fresh flowers frozen in liquid nitrogen with their bare hands. children physical acting out the role of molecules in processes such as network formation and enzymatic breakdown. People like to eat and what better teaching and learning tool than allowing students. and more students who know what food science is and can make a knowledgeable selection of food science as a college major and/or future career option. other liquid nitrogen demonstrations can be included. Students are surprised at how difficult it is to correctly carrying out a physical activity. to include calculating the amount of heat energy that needs to be removed to freeze the ice cream mix from room temperature Discussion questions (1) Which group had the easiest time deciphering the flavor? (e. because the envisioned results are increased student science literacy. 2012 r Journal of Food Science Education 17 Available on-line through ift.g. The focus of this article is to share six food science demonstrations and our experiences using them so that others can engage students in STEM-based disciplines at any educational level through the wonders of food science. and about food science in general.

place in the conversion of liquid heavy cream to aerated whipped it is difficult to whip. Denaturation is the process during which a protein unfolds.Food science demos. and lactose. 11. bowl. the mechanical shear causes the proteins to denature and adhere to the surface of the air bubbles. When a bowl of heavy cream is whipped. . 18 Journal of Food Science Education r Vol. while maintaining only its primary structure (linear sequence of amino acids). color.3 The students are asked to record their Figure 2–Illustration of how the five major sensory properties of food observations about the cream’s appearance. begins. Demonstration overview The two main changes that occur during the mechanical shear of heavy cream are partial coalescence of fat and denaturation of protein (Figure 3). mechanical shear and the air bubbles that are incorporated cause the fat globules to begin to partially coalesce in chains and clusters and get adsorbed to and spread around the air bubbles (Goff 2011b). If the cream is too warm. it Students will be able to: (1) explain the structural changes taking softens and is ineffective in stabilizing the air bubbles. Figure 1–(a) Making liquid nitrogen ice cream for a fifth grade science class. with the group their general observations of the heavy whipping 3 To obtain the largest volume of whipped cream. viscosity. aroma. the liquid heavy whipping cream is poured into a chilled mixing bowl. the cream. proteins. 2012 Available on-line through ift. materials are probed by the six primary human senses (excerpted in part and mouth-feel in a provided table. the students are asked to observe and record the physical Demonstration 3: Whipping Up the Cream Student centered learning objectives should be chilled before use. Partial coalescence is an irreversible clustering of fat globules. cream and (2) visualize and describe the key role mechanical shear plays to bring about these changes. and does it adhere identify the flavor of a beverage when the flavor and color do not to the mixing beaters. Once the whipping. The main components of heavy cream are water. fat (approximately 35%–40%). (b) Ice cream mix ingredients and phase exchange map generated by the students via class discussion. . They are also asked to share with permission from Lee and others 2006). or mechanical shear. because if the fat in the cream is too warm. held together by a combination of fat crystals and liquid fat. At the same time. how thick it is. match. losing its tertiary (long distance interactions) and secondary (short distance interactions) structure. and beaters . With students gathered around. such as what phase it is in. and the retention of identity of individual globules as long as the crystal structure is maintained (Goff 2011a).

allowing it to grow in volume and change in phase (to a semisolid). from the Theobroma cacao tree.g. They can also see how the sheared cream can “trap” air. which is typically used only as an ingredient in other chocolatebased products). (2) Which of the chocolate products melted in your mouth the fastest? The slowest? Considering the standards of identity for these products. . students can begin to visualize. This new texture results from the formation of the partially coalesced fat structure. butter. allowing for the production of a deliciously light and airy whipped topping. An extension of this demonstration is to continue to whip the cream so that the fat begins to churn and butter particles form (Goff 2011b).of food processing by discussing the processing steps necessary to ucts. While whipping. milk. dark bittersweet. the processes of fat coalescence and protein denaturation caused by mechanical shear. and solids) used in the making of chocolate. physically forcing the cream near each beater to move in opposite directions. the denatured proteins. dark bittersweet. Figure 3–Helping students begin to visualize. 2012 r Journal of Food Science Education 19 . and (3) differentiate between the main types of chocolate transform the cacao beans. dark semisweet. For an extended version Student centered learning objectives Students will be able to: (1) define key chocolate terms. try and be specific.g. changes in the heavy whipping cream. cacao. and the impact these structural changes can have on fat and protein functionality (molecular level image adapted from Goff 2011b). students are introduced to key chocolate terms (e. while at the same time evaluate the sensory properties of the different chocolate types (except for unsweetened chocolate. liquor. color. taking on a smooth texture. lactose. Instructor observations Students can watch as the beaters whip the heavy whipping cream. Difference? and melt-time for each of the chocolates. components (e. particularly children. Demonstration overview Chocolate is well liked by many different populations. . but it is often difficult to understand what makes one chocolate type different than another (Figure 4). what ingredient do you think the melting time is related to? Vol. Students then explore the different ingredient standards and processes associated with making white. etc. Federal Regulations Part 163. at both the macroscopic and molecular levels. and unsweetened chocolates. dark semisweet. to the (white. students could be introduced to the world (2) describe the concept of “Standard of Identity” for food prod. By demonstrating how to make a simple whipped topping from heavy cream. cocoa butter. at both the macroscopic (image on left-hand side) and molecular (image on right-hand side) levels..Food science demos.) and the federally regulated Standards of Identity (SOI) related to chocolate that are specified in 21 Code of Available on-line through ift. Discussion questions (1) What is fat coalescence? (2) What is protein denaturation? (3) Draw a picture of whipped cream at the molecular level showing the air bubbles. texture. During the demonstration. In this Discussion questions (1) Which was your favorite type of chocolate? Explain what you liked about the product. and unsweetened). and the partially coalesced fat molecules. and denatured proteins in the spaces around the fat-stabilized air bubbles. of this demonstration. Figure 4–An example chocolate presentation and samples for junior high and high school students visiting the Illinois campus. students are asked to Demonstration 4: Milk versus Dark: What is the record their perceptions of appearance. milk. 11.. which stabilizes the air bubbles and traps the water. the group continues to discuss how these structural changes alter the functionality of both the fat and proteins in the cream. the processes of fat coalescence and protein denaturation caused by mechanical shear and the impact these structural changes can have on fat and protein functionality. mouth-feel. and appearance. aroma. It does not take long before the whipped cream starts to become stiff and dry.

which is then converted to kcal per gram (for comparison to the kcals per gram provided on the Nutrition Facts Label. FMC BioPolymer 2010. Discuss possible reasons for any differences between the two values. The resultant spheres can either have a solid. The culinary adaptation of this process is often credited to Ferran Adri` a and his culinary team at elBulli around 2003. Demonstration 5: Counting Calories by Burning Them Student centered learning objectives Students will be able to: (1) calculate the amount of heat energy released in joules per gram when burning a Cheetos® using the data collected in the demonstration and then convert this value to kcals per gram. This initially forms as a gel shell. Instructor observations Students are often unaware of the strict standards associated with chocolate production and that the changes in raw materials and processing methods. and a liquid center. Demonstration overview In this demonstration students learn how to determine the energy content of foods by burning a Cheetos® (Figure 5). leaving a liquid . Harris 2009). a high enough concentration of calcium ions must be present. can produce products that are sensorially unique. and (2) compare the calculated kcals per gram value to the kcals per serving value given on the Nutrition Facts Label on the Cheetos® (Frito-Lay. gel-like texture throughout or have a solid. Figure 5–Burning Cheetos® demonstration setup using a homemade bomb calorimeter. Spherification was originally developed as a technique to create a matrix type encapsulation of lipid-based flavors or ingredients and was patented in 1946 by W. . Demonstration 6: Culinary Spherification: The Wonders of Cross-Linking Student centered learning objectives Students will be able to: (1) explain the chemical interaction between sodium alginate and calcium ions. as the reaction continues. Inc. Of course the students enjoy consuming the chocolate samples. is an anionic polysaccharide obtained from the cell walls of brown algae. . the reaction between calcium chloride and sodium alginate requires one free calcium ion for every two alginate molecules and yields two sodium chloride (table salt) molecules. 11. In this demonstration. The burning Cheetos® heats a known quantity of water contained in a homemade bomb calorimeter. Demonstration overview Culinary spherification (referred to herein as spherification) is a process of shaping liquid drops into spheres (Figures 6a and b). An additional beneficial aspect of this demonstration is that the students observe energy being directly derived from a food material. The spheres are created when calcium ions replace sodium ions and form cross-links between the alginate molecules. students learn to use all of their senses when evaluating a food material.Food science demos.) bag. (2) differentiate between spherification and reverse spherification processes. It is a linear copolymer composed of (1-4)-β -D-mannuronate (M) and its C-5 epimer α -L-guluronate (G). and (3) identify the by-product produced during the spherification processes. As shown later. 20 Journal of Food Science Education r Vol. Plano. Discussion questions (1) What is the definition of a calorie? (2) How is energy measured in a bomb calorimeter? (3) Compare the calculated kcal per gram value to the value given on the nutrition label on the package.S Peschardt (United States Patent Number 2403547) for the manufacture of artificial cherries (Anonymous 2009a). Alginic acid 2011). Available on-line through ift. or alternating M and G-residues (MG-blocks. In order for the cross-linking reaction to occur.. The increase in the temperature of the water and the initial and final weights of the Cheetos® are used to calculate the joules per gram content of the Cheetos® . 2NaAlg + CaCl2 CaAlg2 + 2NaCl. Since then. can be used. although other forms of calcium. creating a thermally irreversible solid gel. no matter how small. as well as gain a greater understanding for the quality measures associated with food products. also called algin or alginate. the center becomes a solid gel as well. are sodium alginate4 and calcium chloride. Alginic acid. The monomers are covalently linked together and can appear in homopolymeric blocks of consecutive Gresidues (G-blocks). Instructor observations An important aspect of this demonstration is to get as much of the heat from the burning Cheetos® directed toward heating the water in the homemade bomb calorimeter. but this demonstration allows them to truly begin their “appreciation” for chocolate and other foods.J. spherification has gained acceptance and is used in restaurant kitchens around the world to create small spheres (termed caviar or faux caviar) or large spheres (termed “ravioli”. consecutive M-residues (M-blocks). as well as other divalent ions. The formation of NaCl from the reaction is one of the key reasons you need to rinse the spheres before consuming them. gel-like outer shell. Traditional ingredients used to carry out this reaction. Loss of heat results in the calculated kcal per gram being much less than the value on the Nutrition Facts Label. Tex. 2012 4 Sodium alginate is the sodium salt of alginic acid. per reaction.

the alginate can be washed off and the reaction is stopped.Food science demos. however. In the original spherification method developed by Ferran Adri` a. By reversing the process. forming cross-links between the alginate polymer molecules. yogurt. The calcium ions replace the sodium ions. In the reverse spherification process demonstrated herein. is dropped into a sodium alginate bath. The calcium replaced sodium ions can form NaCl (table salt). Reverse spherification uses a high calcium food or calcium-fortified5 food and places it into a sodium algi5 nate bath. sodium alginate is added to cola-flavored soda and. leaving a liquid-filled thermally stable sphere. creating a thermally irreversible solid gel. where spheres are immediately formed. Adri` a developed the reverse spherification process to combat the solidification of the spheres after creation. which has a mild taste. sodium alginate is dispersed in the desired food liquid and dropped into a calcium chloride solution. in turn. but not in reverse spherification? (4) What is the by-product of the spherification reaction? Calcium gluconolactate. but a sodium ion to only one? (3) Why can the liquid center solidify in spherification. a high calcium containing food. cross-linking occurs between the calcium ions and the alginate polymer molecules. . yogurt ravioli (bottom right-hand side) are created when the calcium-containing yogurt (top left) is dropped into a sodium alginate solution (top right-hand side).org . the center of the yogurt ravioli does not become solid because the matrix formed by the alginate is not porous enough to allow the larger alginate molecules through. the continuation of the cross-linking process resulting in a solid. gel-like texture throughout the sphere. Figure 6–(a) In the spherification process. 2012 r Journal of Food Science Education 21 Available on-line through ift. In the spherification demonstration herein. rather than just on the surface (Anonymous 2009b). As with spherification (Figure 6a). . the soda-alginate mixture is dropped into a calcium chloride solution. Discussion questions (1) What type of bonding is involved in the cross linking reaction? (2) Why can a calcium ion attach to two strands of the alginate polymer. The calcium replaced sodium ions can form NaCl (table salt). were preformed for graduate students in a graduate level food Vol. as calcium chloride has an unpleasant bitter–salty taste (Anonymous 2009b). bottom left-hand side) are placed into a calcium chloride solution (top). a cross-linking reaction by-product. a cross-linking reaction by-product. 11. spheres (cola-flavored soda spheres. that is. can be used instead of calcium Instructor observations Both spherification and reverse spherification demonstrations chloride. bottom right-hand side) are created when drops of a soda–sodium alginate mixture (sodium alginate building blocks. (b) In the reverse spherification process.

Helsinki. p. discuss the molecular level events occurring during the simultaneous phase transitions). Using food as a tool to teach science to 3rd grade students in Appalachian Ohio. 603.. the yogurt spheres. gourmetologia. Ausubel D. Bruns P. the instructor can focus the explanation on the properties and changes of properties in matter (e. Anonymous. science and human nutrition course. youtube. Lee S. Modern magnetic resonance. whereas. in the example. 2011. Any queries (other than missing material) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article. Ltd. part 2: applications in medical and pharmaceutical sciences. Helsinki. Stewart J. The National Academies Press. Available from: http://www. Farmer DW. Carraway-Stage V. New York. students can be treated to a YouTube video of Ferran Adri` a producing a liquid olive (one of Adri` a’s famous appetizers) employing the reverse spherification process (Ferran Adri` a Demonstrates Alginates 2008). Manufacturing of artificial edible cherries. Berryman Supporting Information The following supporting information is available online for this article: Handout 1: Liquid nitrogen ice cream: A matter of changing phases Handout 2: Seeing our senses work together Handout 3: Whipping up the cream Handout 4: Milk versus dark: What is the difference? Handout 5: Counting calories by burning them Handout 6: Culinary Spherification: The wonders of cross-linking Please note: Blackwell Publishing is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting materials supplied by the authors. Scientific teaching. Harris W. Gourmetologia on syntynyt maaliskuussa. Accessed Jan 1. Karel M. Lauffer S.fmcbiopolymer. Accessed Jun 25. Atlanta. 1968. The kinesthetic classroom: teaching and learning through movement. Accessed Jun 15. foodsci. Duffrin MW.. In: Webb GA. Available from: http://www. Beichner R. Rosenberg 2010. United States Patent Number 2403547.Y. Available from: http://www. National Science Foundation graduate teaching fellows promote food science education in K-12 schools in Maine. bread. and the like. National Science Education Standards.. Hovland J. Spherification.I. The National Academy of Science. How molecular gastronomy works. 2nd ed. New Delhi. 2010. 2009b. Saum D. Suomi. Neuman W.: How Stuff Works. For the 9th to 12th grade audiences. 2010. biological and marine sciences. N. Accessed Jul 27. . 1987. Graham A. J Food Sci Educ 9:106–12. Available from: http://www. for K to 4th grade audiences the instructor can focus the explanation on the properties of the materials (e. For example. Bosse M.: Springer. selected Physical Science Standards are given in italics later) for audiences at difference grade levels. 2011. Available from: http://en. Ebert-May New York Times. This can be achieved by employing the age appropriate science content standards from the National Science Education Standards (National Science Education Standards 1996. acid.nytimes. 2011a. N. The art of changing the brain. Rinehart. Principles of good practice for assessing student learning. Educational psychology: a cognitive view. Alginates/PGA/Introduction. Program Organ Dev 16(4): 199–211..aspx. 1988. p. Phillips S. N. part 1: applications in chemistry.g. and Winston. Puh.html. Lee Y. Peschardt WJS. Accessed Jun 25. Rowat AC. The art and science of lecture demonstration. Schmidt SJ. Calif. Adapting the Demonstrations to Learners of All Ages Using the National Science Education Standards The demonstrations presented herein can be adapted to learners of all ages by using age appropriate language and explanations. Accessed Jul 27. Students were able to sample the soda spheres over time and experience the hardening described in the demonstration overview. Lee T. Available from: http://www. while the liquid water in the ice cream mix transitions to the solid or ice state [heat is released]). Assess Update 5(1):6–7. Accessed Jul /techniques/spherification.g. June 5. References Alginic acid. New York: Holt. 263 pp. Kuczala MS. 39(7):3–7.html#destab. Available from: http://www. Lund .htm. Hutchings P. New York. The adjustments employed to adapt the level of the liquid nitrogen ice cream demonstrations earlier can be applied to the other demonstrations. J Food Sci Educ 9:41–6. FMC BioPolymer. and digestion using interactive activities for the general public. Stone HA. Course-embedded assessment: a catalyst for realizing the paradigm shift from teaching to learning. Wood WB. coli outbreak linked to german sprouts. Bagley M. 2009a. in the case of the liquid nitrogen ice cream demonstration. Anonymous. Duffrin C. Gamson ZF. 2010. Deadly E. soft sheets. Ga. Europe.gourmetologia. For 4th to 8th grade audiences. uoguelph. editor.howstuffworks. Goff HD. Chickering AW. Sterling. (a joint publication). New York.: Taylor & Francis. Suomi. 2009. 2011. To enrich this demonstration. Zull JE. Seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education. Dempsey J. 2003. Physical principles of food preservation. 196 pp. 2011. Available from: http://science. flavor-filled -gastronomy3. Tilghman SM. McLeod S. 2011. 685 + xviii.: Stylus Publishing LLC. India: Saga Pvt. 2012 Available on-line through ift. 159. The science of pizza: the molecular origins of Dairy chemistry and physics. Accessed Jul 27. Calder B. 2011.php?record_id=4962&page=1..Y. Accessed Oct Introduction. 1993.Y. whereas.html. Lengel T.uoguelph. the liquid nitrogen transitions to the gas state [heat is required]. D. Handelsman J. 2011b. Available from: http:// www.: Corwin and Mathura Road. made using the reverse spherification process. Chang A. Ferran Adri` a Demonstrates Alginates. p. Gourmetologia on syntynyt maaliskuussa. retained their liquid center. 2006. the burst of the spheres in the mouth is a delightful. Brawley SH. 2004. Thousand Oaks. DeHaan R. the liquid nitrogen is very cold. J Food Sci Educ 2(4):58–60. 2012. Gentile J. Available from: http://www. Probing the sensory properties of food materials with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging. Student commented that when the center remains a liquid. part 3: applications in materials science and food science. 2002. 1999. Hollar KA.foodsci. . 22 Journal of Food Science Education r Vol. V. the instructor can focus the explanation on the structure and properties of matter at the atomic or molecular level ( science demos.: Marcel Dekker. Taylor C. 2008. 2011. nap. Accessed Oct 23. Rivera D. 2011. 2011. Puh. Science 304:521–2. Goff 1889–94. AAHE Bull. 11. the ice cream mix is at room temperature). Inc. Inc. 2003. 2011. 2011. 2011. Johanson G. p. Reverse spherification. Whipped cream.

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