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Air Pollution

Example Q0: Pollutant Concentration

Concentration Estimation
(Y- and Z-directional dispersion constants)

April 22, 2011

arunku@civil.iitd.ac.in

Example Q1: Pollutant Concentration (repeat using empirical relationship for sigma y and sigma z) and compare.

Pollutant Concentration (ppm or g/m3)


g/m3 = [ppm * g mol/mass* 1000]/[L/mol]

At 0 C and 1 atm pressure (760 mm Hg), the volume of the gas is 22.4 L/mol.

Example Q3: Pollutant Concentration


A sample of air analyzed at 0deg C and 1 atm pressure is reported to contain 9 ppm of CO. Determine the equivalent CO conc. in g/m3 and mg/L?

Solution (Q3): Pollutant Concentration


gm molecular mass of CO = 12+ 16=28 g/mol At 0deg C and 1 atm pressure (i.e., 760 mm Hg), volume of gas is 22.4 Liters/mol. Conc. (g/m3 ) = 11.250 mg/m3

Example Q4: Gaseous and Particulate Emission

Air Pollution Control

A) Stationery Sources
Pre-combustion controls (improved fuel quality) Combustion controls (improved combustion process) Post-combustion controls (capture emissions after they are formed but before they are released to the air)

Example Q5: Particle removal efficiency in cyclones


An air stream with a flow rate of 7 m3/s is passed through a cyclone of standard proportions. The diameter of the cyclone is 2 and the air temperature is 77degC. Calculate (i) Removal efficiency for a particle with a density of 1500 g/m3 and a diameter of 10 g, if a bank of 64 cyclones with diameters of 24 cm are used instead of the single large unit.

Solution Q5:Particle removal efficiency in cyclones


B= D/4=0.24m/4=0.06m H=D/2=0.12m Cross section area of entrance=bh=0.06*0.12=0.072m2 As we have 64 similar units=> total entrance area
=64*0.072 m2 = 0.45 m2

Inlet velocity = (7m3/s)/(0.45m2)= 15.5 m/s Calculate d50 ??? Calculate d/d50 Use efficiency vs. (d/d50) plot to find out efficiency for calculated d/d50 value?

1) Electrostatic Precipitators
Intense electric field ionizes particles. They move under the influence of electric field to grounded collecting surface

Electrostatic Precipitator
Consists of alternating plates and wires, a large direct current potential is established between them As gas stream passes between the wire and the plate, gas molecules are ionized, ions attach to the particles, giving them a net negative charge The particulates then migrate to the plate where they stick and can later be removed

Electrostatic Precipitator
Efficiency usually > 98%, including submicron particles Uses: electric power plants, acid production facilities etc Can accommodate large flow rates, solid or liquid particles, low operation and maintenance costs, but are expensive and require a lot of space

Q6: Electrostatic Precipitator-Example Problem


We want to remove fly ash particles from stack gases flowing at 10m3/s. Drift velocity (w) can be written as w=3*105 .(dp) where dp is particle diameter in (m) Calculate plate area requirement to collect a 0.5 micron particle with 90% efficiency? Comment on effect of area increase on efficiency?

2) Filtration
Gas stream drawn or pushed through fabric that prevents particle passage Generally used for particles < 5 m

Filtration

Bag house

Filtration
Two configurations:
Deep bed filter: Used for relatively clean gases and low volumes, e.g., air conditioning systems The Baghouse: for dirty industrial gas with large volumes Many applications (e.g. cement crushing, feed and grain handling and sanding machines) Effective removal of small particles, but are large and expensive

3) Liquid Scrubber
For particulate matter that is wet, corrosive or very hot Particle pollutant can be removed by injecting water into the gas stream Particles/droplets grow and removed by cyclone

Liquid Scrubber (SO2 control)

Fine limestone (CaCO3) is mixed with water to create a slurry. SO2 is absorbed by the slurry producing CaSO3 or CaSO4 precipitate, which is removed as a sludge.

Flue Gas De-sulfurization (FGD)


Flue gas (gas that exits via a flue, which is a pipe or channel for conveying exhaust gases from a fireplace, oven, furnace, boiler or steam generator)
Or the combustion exhaust gas produced at power plants

FGD have reaction chemistries based on lime (CaO), caustic soda (NaOH), soda ash (Na2CO3) or ammonia (NH3) Limestone slurry is sprayed onto the flue gas, SO2 is absorbed by the slurry, producing calcium sulfate or calcium sulfite, which is then removed as a sludge.

4) Absorption
Transfer pollutant from a gas phase to a liquid phase (gas dissolves in the liquid) scrubbers (liquid droplets absorb the gas) towers (a thin film of liquid absorbs the gas) Process depends on: solubility of pollutant & creating a large air/liquid surface area Primarily for soluble inorganic gases, e.g. NH3, Cl2, SO2

Absorption

5) Adsorption
Gas to solid mass transfer (pollutant sticks to solid surface) Adsorbents
1. 2. 3. 4. activated carbon, molecular sieves, silica gel, activated alumina (large active surface area per unit volume)

At some point, adsorbent becomes saturated and needs regeneration Commonly used for: hydrocarbons, solvents, H2S, SO2, NO2

Adsorption

6) Combustion
Used when the contaminant in the gas stream is oxidizable to an inert gas Typically CO and hydrocarbons

B) Motor Vehicles
Cleaner gasoline Exhaust system controls (catalytic converter) Improved engines Alternative fuels

Hazardous Waste Management

Hazardous Wastes

Hazardous Wastes
A waste with properties that make it dangerous or potentially harmful to human health or the environment. Forms: Liquids, solids, contained gases, or sludges. It can be the by-products of manufacturing processes or simply discarded commercial products, like cleaning fluids or pesticides.

Characteristics
Ignitability

Corrosivity

Reactivity

Toxicity

Special Categories of Hazardous Wastes


Hazardous waste mixtures Wastes derived from the management of hazardous wastes Hazardous waste contained in a nonwaste container Low-level radioactive mixed wastes Special rules for recycling

The Cradle-to-Grave Regulatory Approach: Regulatory Requirements


1. Generators: identify, properly handle, and insure proper disposal of all wastes Transporters: Comply with Hazardous Materials Transportation Act and meet other requirements on packaging, handling, and documenting waste shipments Hazardous waste management or treatment, storage and disposal facilities: meet general and specific facility standards, groundwater monitoring, closure/post-closure activities, financial responsibility requirements

2.

3.

Hazardous Waste Management Units


Storage Units Disposal Units Container storage units Landfills Tank systems Land treatment units Surface impoundments Thermal treatment units Waste piles Chemical, physical and Containment buildings biological treatment units Underground injection wells

Waste Management Options


WASTE REDUCTION Source segregation Process modification Material Recovery WASTE TREATMENT WASTE DISPOSAL Land treatment Thermal conversion Physicochemical Biological Stabilization Ecosystem Assimilation Landfill Deep-well injection Underground storage Surface Storage

most desirable

least desirable

Pollution Prevention Incentives


1. Reduce
waste management costs raw material costs secondary costs liability

2. Increase
compliance safety margin trust by regulators

3. Enhance public image

Treatment Strategies for Hazardous Wastes


Objectives
1. 2. 3. 4. neutralize the waste; recover energy or material resources from a waste; render the waste less hazardous; or make the waste safer to transport, store, or dispose.

Treatment Technologies -1
Incineration: is the high temperature burning (rapid oxidation) of a waste, usually at 1600 to 2500 degrees F (i.e., controlled-flame combustion or calcination). It destroys organic constituents in waste materials. Waste-to-Energy Incineration: This is usually associated with municipal waste combustion where the waste is burned at a high temperature. Heat energy is recovered from the combustion process and is usually used to generate steam and or electricity.

Treatment Technologies -2
Boilers: This device is used to treat hazardous waste. Boilers use controlled flame combustion and recover thermal energy in the form of steam or heated gases. Steam stripping: This treatment technology is used to remove organic compounds from liquid waste streams and it involves direct application of stream to the liquid and subsequent condensation of the extracted organic compounds. It not only removes hazardous constituents from the waste stream but it also can have the added benefit of making the constituents less toxic.

Treatment Technologies -3
Physical removal: This process removes the hazardous constituents from waste streams by separation techniques, such as ion exchange, adsorption, reverse osmosis, chelation, solvent extraction, crystallization, precipitation, distillation, filtration, evaporation, etc. The removed hazardous constituents may require further treatment to make them less toxic. Carbon adsorption: Use of activated carbon to adsorb hazardous waste constituents (both gaseous and aqueous waste streams). Chemical oxidation: Use of strong oxidizing agents (e.g. hypochlorite, peroxides, persulfates, percholorates, permanganates, etc) to break down hazardous waste constituents to render them less toxic or mobile. Chemical reduction: Use of strong reducing agents (e.g. sulfur dioxide, alkali salts, sulfides, iron salts, etc) to break down hazardous waste constituents to render them less toxic or mobile.

Treatment Technologies -4
Deactivation: Removal of the hazardous nature of the waste by neutralizing the characteristics of ignitability, corrosivity, and/or reactivity. Neutralization: Here, low pH acidic corrosive waste streams are usually neutralized by containing bases and high pH corrosive waste streams are usually neutralized by adding acids. Extraction: Removal of hazardous constituents from either gaseous or liquid waste streams by means of settling, filtration, adsorption, absorption, solvents, or other means. Further treatment is required in this case. Stabilization: This process reduces the mobility of the hazardous constituents of a waste or that makes the waste easier to handle. The most common stabilization agents added to waste streams are Portland cement, lime, fly ash, and cement kiln dust.

Treatment Technologies -5
Treatment in tanks: mechanical settling, gravity settling, chemical oxidation, and neutralization, etc. Biological treatment: Treatment using bacteria, fungi, or algae to remove and degrade the hazardous constituents (aerobic, anaerobic treatment)

Household Hazardous Wastes

Automotive Products
Motor oil Fuel additives Carburetor and fuel injection cleaners Air conditioning refrigerants Starter fluids Automotive batteries Transmission and brake fluid Antifreeze

Indoor Pesticides
Ant sprays and baits Cockroach sprays and baits Flea repellents and shampoos Bug sprays Houseplant insecticides Moth repellents Mouse and rat poisons and baits

Workshop/Painting Supplies Lawn and Garden Products


Herbicides Insecticides Fungicides/wood preservatives Adhesives and glues Furniture strippers Oil or enamel based paint Stains and finishes Paint thinners and turpentine Paint strippers and removers Photographic chemicals Fixatives and other solvents

Cleaning Products
Oven cleaners Drain cleaners Wood and metal cleaners and polishes Toilet cleaners Tub, tile, shower cleaners Bleach (laundry) Pool chemicals

Miscellaneous
Batteries Mercury thermostats or thermometers Fluorescent light bulbs Driveway sealer