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TCS0203 COMPUTER ORGANIZATION & ARCHITECTURE MAY 2013

ASSIGNMENT 1

Name Student ID Program

:Eshwaari Muniandy :012013050841 :Diploma in Computer Forensic

INTRODUCTION Information and Communication (ICT) is the technology required for information processing , in particular , the use of computers, communication devices and software application to convert ,store , protect , process ,transmit , and retrieve information from anywhere at anytime. Thus computer where created. The history of computer development is often referred to different generation of computing devices. Each generation of computer is characterized by a major technological development that fundamentally changed the way computers operate , resulting in increasingly smaller , cheaper , more powerful and more efficient and reliable devices. CONTENTS Title Introduction Computer Generations Programming Languages Conclusion Bibliography Page 2 3-5 6 6 6

COMPUTER GENERATION FIRST GENERATION COMPUTER. The first generation computers were develop in year 1940 which were use until 1956.During the first generation ,computers were with vacuum tubes. Vacuum tube is an electronic tube is made of glass used as computer components to store and process data .The main problem of vacuum tube are generates lots of heats that can damage computer and tubes can burnt out easily and frequently .ENIAC is the first generation computer ever created . It contains weight of 30 tons , 18000 vacuum tubes, 30-50 foot space and 16000 watts of power. Advantages of computer in this generation was that using of vacuum tubes can store and process more data. The example of First Genaration Computer :

SECOND GENERATION COMPUTERS The second generation computer were develop in 1956 and used until 1963. Due to the replacement of vacuum tubes in computers .Transistors are small devices that transfer electronic signal across resistor . One transistor replaced the equivalent of 40 vacuum tubes. Transistor do not produced lots of and use less power. Transistors were faster , cheaper and smaller than vacuum tubes. The new computer were faster , smaller , and more reliable than the first generation machines. Advantages of computers in this era was the use of transistors was better than vacuum tubes. The example of transistors computer :

THIRD GENERATION COMPUTER The third generation computer develop in 16964 and used until 1971. In 1964 , computer manufacturers began replacing transistors with integrated circuit . An integrated circuit (IC) is a complete electronic circuit on a small chip made of silicon . These computers were more reliable and compact than computers made with transistors, and they cost less to manufacture . Advantage of computers in this era: Integrated circuit were reliable, compact and cheaper than transistors. The example of integrated circuit:

FOURTH GENERATION COMPUTER The fourth generation computer were develop since 1971 and still being used until now.the microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers as thousands of integrated circuit were built onto a single silicon chip .What in the first generation filled an entire room could now fit in the palm of the hand . the Intel 4004 chip , developed in 1971, located all the components of the computer from the central processing unit and memory to input /output controls-on a single chip .Advantages of computers in this era :Computer are 100 times smaller than ENIAC computers in the first generation. The example of microprocessor:

FIFTH GENERATION COMPUTERS This generation is being used in present and also in beyond. Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence , are still in development , though there are some application ,such as voice recognition , that are being used today. The example of artificial intelligence :

PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE There are two type of programming language . They are Low -level language and High-level languages. These programming are divided according to the computer generation. LOW-LEVEL LANGUAGE Low-level language are programming language designed for a particular computer and reflecting its internal machine code; low-level language are therefore often described as machine-oriented language that closer to the hardware.

The first generation and second generation computer were example of computer generation that used low-level language . HIGH-LEVEL LANGUAGE High-level language programming languages allow the specification of a problem solution in term closer to those used by human beings. These languages were designed to make programming far easier , less error-prone and to remove the programmer from having to know the details of the internal structure of a particular computer . These high-level language were much closer to human language. The third ,fourth and fifth generation computers used the high-level languages as a programming language .

CONCLUSION The development of computer generation depends on the programming language. The more advance the computers generation is the higher level of language is used.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Score A-Information and Communication Technology(ICT)Fourth Edition -Ismail b. Shaari. http://www.webopedia.com/DidYouKnow/Hardware_Software/2002/FiveGenerations.asp