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AND PROJECT REALIZATION EXAMPLE OF AN INTERNATIONALLY FINANCED WWTP ECI-Sinotrust Business Consulting Co., Ltd . Tel: 86-10-6773 8115/6/7 Fax: 86-10-6773 8119 E-mail:

Table of Contents
Project Introduction Tendering Conditions Bid Consortium Process and Plant Design Equipment List Bid Price Internal Evaluation Result

Project Introduction
Project: Dairy Waste Water Treatment Financing: European Community Eligible Companies: European and Chinese Consultant: Danish Project Owner: Ministry of Agriculture Project Location: Five Different Sites in Different Provinces

Tendering Conditions
Complete Design Equipment Procurement Turnkey Supply, Erection and Startup

Bid Consortium
Due to the tenders character and related competition structure a German-Chinese consortium between the following parties has been set up:
General Machinery Engineering Co., Ltd.: Leader IfU Dr. Bernd Diering GmbH: Design ECI Sinotrust Co., Ltd.: Project Management

Bid Price
ECI used all available relationships to research and verify the likely successful bid price. It turned out that the price was dominated by Chinese procurement prices. Simultaneously it could be established that no references for Chinese competitors are existing. The Chinese competition seemed to be decisive but not ideally equipped to do the job.

Internal Evaluation Result

Bidding Participants: 26 among them 4 Europeans, 2 Joint Ventures First Ten Companies: All Chinese European Companies: 14th, 16th and 17th ECI Position: 13th bef. evaluation 1st aft. evaluation

Waste Water Treatment Plants

Principle Design Features and Comments
1. 2. 3. 4.

The Dairy Waste Water The Treatment Process Sludge Treatment Plant Design
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Storage Basin Adsorption Stage (A-stage) Activated-Sludge-Stage (B-Stage) Sludge Treatment Dosing Plant

5. Operation Costs Price Sheet Design Drawing

1. The Dairy Waste Water

For treatment and purification of the waste water the following aspects generally should be taken into account: 1). Rainwater and cooling water should be discharged through separate drainage systems. 2). An equalising storage tank is definitely to be recommended. This facilitates biological treatment. 3). Fat and other floatable solids should be separated in a first step before further biological treatment.

2. The Treatment Process

The treatment is designed as a two stage activated sludge process generally known as AB-process. Its basic function is as follows:
- In the first high-load stage (A-stage) pollutants are predominantly bound into the activated sludge by adsorption. - In the second low-load stage (B-stage) the waste water is purified by biological degradation.

Typical for the AB-process are the following principles:

- observance of a high sludge range in the A-stage (maximum load activation) with SR greater than 2 kg BOD/(kg MLSS x d) - separation of the biocenosis of the respective stage - possible varying operational methods in the A-stage, i.e. aerobic or facultative anaerobic operational methods adapted to the sewage water ingredients - process engineering generally without preliminary treatment in order to maintain better utilization of the microbiological reaction mechanism.

Advantages of AB Process Compared With Other Process

Investment savings Energy savings Space reduction > 30 % up to 50 % up to 50%

Less sensitive to peak loads such as pH, COD, BOD5, nitrogen, etc. The high-load A-stage receives a 50 to 100 x higher organic load than a conventional activated sludge stage. Better and more balanced results can be reached with a multistage process system than with a one stage system. A continuously operating system that is constantly supported and inoculated externally shows a high process stability.

3. The Sludge Treatment

Two treatment methods are planned:
After dewatering by sedimentation in a prethickener to reduce volume, the thickened sludge can be treated aerobically or anaerobically.
Normally aerobic sludge treatment is used for small plants with small amounts of sludge. Regarding the energy demand in case of bigger plants with corresponding high amounts of sludge anaerobic sludge treatment with gas generation in a digester is recommended. Organic sludge components are reduced 50% leading to a sludge mass reduction of up to 35 % after aerobic or unaerobic treatment. The treated sludge flows into the post-thickening tank, also used as storage tank with a storage time of more than 10 days.

4. Plant Design
4.1 Storage Basin
The dairys waste water is discharged discontinuously. Hence incoming water is stored in an equalizing basin and storage tank. From here the treatment stages A and B are fed continuously by a pumping station. The installed stirrers insure mixing of incoming waste water. The storage basin can be operated in the following ways:
- Storage of waste water up to 12 hours - Pretreatment under anaerobic conditions by adding excess sludge from A- and B-stage - Usage as a flocculation and flotation tank - Regulation of pH-value - Storage of the process water from sludge treatment


Adsorption Stage (A-stage)

The A-stage is a high load biological actived sludge stage with an anoxicoxic-tank and intermediate sedimentation tank. The pollutants are adsorbed to the actived sludge and removed by taking off excess sludge. In addition to that the effect can be intensified with precipitation dosing.

4.2.1 High-loaded-stage (Anoxic-oxic-tank)

The high-loaded-stage is calculated with contents of MLSS = 2.5 kg m On the bottom of the activated sludge basin a fine bubble aeration and oxygen sensor is constructed with membrane plate diffusers.

4.2.2 Intermediate Sedimentation

The intermediate sedimentation tank is a hopper-bottomed-tank without scraper bridge. The intermediate sedimentation-tank has a low surface load of less than 1.8 m/h. That insures are very good sedimentation. The purified water flows through an outlet trough. The activated sludge sinks down and is collected in the cone. The return-sludge is conveyed continuously back into the anoxic-oxic-tank. The excess activated sludge of the A-stage is pumped to the prethickening tank.

4.3 Activated-Sludge-Stage (B-Stage)

4.3.1 Activated-sludge-tank
The activated-sludge-stage is designed for biological removing of pollutants as substrate and get nearly mineralised. The tank volume of the activated-sludgestage therefore is much bigger than the volume of the A-stage. The low sludge load ratio is absolutely necessary to avoid bulking sludge and filamentous bacteria. In the activated sludge stage carbon compounds are oxydised completely. The nitrogen compounds are mostly nitrified to nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N). To avoid disturbance by scum the aeration in the low-loaded-stage is switched off from time to time for denitrification. In the activated-sludge-tank a fine bubble membrane aeration and oxygen tube measuring is installed.

4.3.2 Final Sedimentation Tank

The final sedimentation tanks are designed like the intermediate sedimentation tank. Only the return sludge pump is a bigger one. The excess sludge will be conveyed to the storage tank by opening a valve or by pumping it directly to the prethickening tank.


Sludge Treatment

4.4.1 Static Dewatering of Excess Sludge (Prethickening Tank)

The excess sludge of the B-stage is normally pumped to the storage tank and flows together with the raw waste water into the A-stage. Alternatively it is possible to pump the excess sludge directly into the prethickening tank. After prethickening the DS-content is about 35 kg/m

4.4.2 Additional Sludge Treatment

Sludge Digestion Dewatered sludge is conveyed into the digesters. Additionally sludge inside the digester is recycled from bottom to top and heated by a heat exchanger up to temperatures of 37C so as to guarantee best conditions for digestion. The process is monitored by temperature check and pH-sensor. Aerobic Sludge Treatment In the tank a fine bubble membrane aeration is installed as well as 2 stirrers to insure circulation while aeration is turned off.

4.4.3 Treated Sludge Dewatering and Storage Tank (Post-Thickening Tank)

The digested sludge flows directly into the post-thickening and storage tank. After dewatering by sedimentation the DS-content is about 40 kg/m

4.4.4 Mechanical Thickening

The mechanical thickening process consists of one centrifuge including charging pumps and coagulant dosing station. Coagulants for sludge conditioning are supplied dry and processed with water. The coagulant agents are fed with a dosing pump into the charging pipe to the dewatering station. The extracted water is recycled into the waste water storage tank. The dewatered sludge will be stored in containers and discharged fore agricultural utilization.


Dosing Plant

Generally speaking the treatment plant works without any dosing of chemicals. Temporarily it can be useful to support biological processes. The dosing plant contains an equipment for adding of
Iron chloride (FeCl 3) Iron chloride is kept in liquid form and may be added into the storage tank ; inlet pipe to the A-Stage ; inlet pipe to the BStage Acid: Acid is used in small amounts in case of very high pH-values in the raw waste water-inlet of the storage tank. Flocculates: Flocculates support the biological treatment and improve the sedimentation of activated sludge- storage tank or inlet to the B-Stage.


Operation Costs

Energy costs are mainly expenditures for electricity supply. Costs for additives are minimal due to the characteristics of the AB-process. Small amounts of acid might be added temporarily for the regulation of the pH-value. Additionally iron compounds or flocculates might be added from time to time. Occuring costs are minimal and therefor irrelevant. Service/Maintenance costs are minimized by the reduction of mechanical installations. For the plant operation not more than one or two staff are sufficient.

Specification for the project of Heilongjiang (civil works)

pos. description WWTP and engine house amount flat price total

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 20 20 20 21

excavation subconcrete filler concrete concrete for bottom, incl. form work, d = 0.40 m strip foundation, incl. form work concrete for walls, incl. form work roof covering, incl. form work roof balustrade gangway incl. balustrade steel and reinforcement floor covering, d approx. 10 cm industrial coating, floor structure of roof incl. covering.. partition walls, h=3.90m foundation grounding foundations for pumps expansion joints expansion joints high windows, h=1.00 m, l ca. 65.00 m outside door, 2.25 x 1.01 double door, 3.00 x 1.50 double door, 4.00 x 3.50 roll-fronted door, 3.50 x 3.50 interior doors 0.75x2.25 0.88x2.25 wall coating, h = 3.90 m

3,925.00 1520.00 150.00 610.00 40.00 950.00 190.00 38.00 901.00 235.00 67.10 671.00 671.00

m m m m m m m m m to m m m

180.00 m 380.00 m 8.00 m 100.00 240.00 65.00 4.00 1.00 m m m pieces piece

1.00 piece 1.00 piece 2.00 pieces 4.00 pieces 625.00 m


Specification for the project of Heilongjiang (technical equipment)

pos. description WWTP and engine house amount flat price total

sewage pumps Q = 50 - 70 m / h gate valve DN 100 backflow trap DN 100 emptying nozzle 2'' with ball valve flexible joint assembly DN 100 flange couplings DN 100 fixed flange DN 100 lapped welding flange DN 100 flange connection pipeline, DN 100 arc, 90 branch, 100 / 100 pressure gauge return sludge pump A-stage 30-50m/h gate valve DN 100 backflow trap DN 100 flexible joint assembly DN 100 fixed flange DN 100 flange couplings DN 100 flange connection DN 100 lapped welding flange DN 100 emptying nozzle 2'' with ball valve pressure gauge pipeline, DN 100 Arc, 90 DN 100 return sludge pump B-stage 50-100 m/h

2.00 4.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 4.00 2.00 8.00 6.00 20.00 6.00 2.00 2.00 1.00 2.00 1.00 2.00 2.00

pieces pieces pieces pieces pieces pieces pieces pieces pieces m pieces pieces pieces piece pieces piece pieces pieces

1.00 piece 1.00 piece 2.00 pieces 1.00 1.00 25.00 6.00 2.00 pieces piece m pieces pieces

Specification for the project of Heilongjiang (electronical tech)

pos. description WWTP and engine house amount flat price total

control cabinet oxygen measurement pH measurement temperature measurement pressure measurement level measurement indoor lighting outdoor lighting flow meter, DN 100 on-site control incl. outdoor Box pilot and control cable PVC-insulated power cables switches, 220V power point combination power point outdoor terminal box communication center fault indicator light and horn hooter cable canal, b = 0.30 m main wire automation technology for blowers and pump (SPS) visual process guiding system heating 170 kW, gas

ca. 25.00 3.00 1.00 3.00 4.00 4.00 30.00 20.00 3.00 35.00 5,000.00 4,000.00 30.00 40.00 10.00 35.00 1.00 2.00 60.00 10.00 1.00 1.00 1.00

pieces pieces piece pieces pieces pieces pieces pieces pieces pieces m m pieces pieces pieces pieces piece pieces m m psch piece piece


Process Flow chart


Pipe and Instrumentation Diagram


Ground Plan and Section


Digester Ground Plan and Section


Pre-Thickening and Post-Thickening Tank