Teaching Digital Citizenship in a Global Academy
by Marxan Pescetta email@example.com
A dissertation report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Computing Technology in Education
Graduate School of Computer and Information Sciences Nova Southeastern University 2011
UMI Number: 3482755
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Teachers shared examples of how culture affected students’ use and misuse of technology. It can be used to address the fundamentals of digital citizenship and provide insight into the role culture plays in the use of technology in education. In the final phase. provides educators with the knowledge. To determine what experienced teachers find missing in their instruction and what should be included in a teachers’ instructional guide. The culturally diverse student population at the investigation site made it possible to generalize instructional sets that will be of value to teachers everywhere. The guide. teachers need to prepare their students for digital literacy and competencies in their adulthood. In the second phase. includes closing comments made by participating teachers. a panel of subject-matter experts reviewed the guide draft to identify the instructional goals and validate the survey instrument. who work in international boarding schools.An Abstract of a Dissertation Submitted to Nova Southeastern University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Teaching Digital Citizenship in a Global Academy by Marxan Pescetta November 2011 As technology continues to change the way society communicates. Specific training is necessary for educators in the appropriate and effective methods for incorporating technologies such as smart phones and hand-held devices. a teacher's workshop was conducted and provided in-depth discussions on how they use technology in the classroom. presented in this document. The final revision. are more effective in their use of technology when they understand the classroom cultural differences and are able to clarify any misconceptions. observations were conducted as teachers used the lessons and resources in their instruction. and examples necessary to teach students how these technologies can be used in a multicultural learning environment. Teachers. The goal was to develop a digital citizenship guide for teachers in international boarding schools that reflected best practices from the literature and the input from experts and teachers. a guide was developed based upon the existing literature. tools. the guide was tested and revised under three conditions.
. The results identified the specific skills and competencies that are required to teach students how to communicate in the digital world and become good digital citizens. developed through the dissertation initiative. In the first phase.
and Michael Dziura. Thanks to my girlfriends Michelle. Thank you Josh Bain for letting me use your photo in my guide. and encouragement has motivated me to do my best and complete my dissertation. Kathleen Gorski.Acknowledgements
I would like to acknowledge and give thanks to my husband Kevin and daughter Michelle for their unwavering love and support. Paul Ekness. My ability to complete this study and develop the Digital Citizenship Guide was only made possible by the generous individuals at Wilbraham & Monson Academy. for being my personal editor. Thank you. Deb Levheim. thank you very much for taking time from your very busy schedule and attending my Sunday afternoon workshop. Meg Hutchinson. I thank you all so very much. Fredrick Gao. special thanks go to Dr. Jessica Feldheim. To the panel of experts: Dr. but I am working on my paper". To my sisters Sherry and Laurie Dee. Jessica Feldheim. I will never forget the time. Marlyn Littman for their support and valuable input. I have worked with Trudy for so many years. From the individuals who attended the workshop. Melissa Donahue. I thank you. Danica Messerli. Trudy Abramson. thank you. To my father. Dr. Associate Head of School. Rodney LaBrecque. To my delightful granddaughter Gabriella. Melissa Donahue. I love you GG!
. I have always looked up to you and wanted to be just like you. Special thanks to Sue. They have been on the front lines throughout my adventure in higher education and as I completed my doctorate. No words can describe my gratitude. Doc Lataille. "I am sorry. I am still working on it! Thank you for being such wonderful big sisters. Kim. Her support. Gayle Hsiao. for allowing me to conduct this investigation and for providing the necessary resources. Brian Easler. Deb Levheim. I could fill another hundred pages describing my wonderful family and how they have been supportive in my education. I thank Dr. Brian Lautenschleger. Steven Terrell and Dr. and Donald Kelly. Head of School. I feel as if she is a member of my extended family. To Betty. To the workshop participants: Dr. Sue Cole. and Michael Dziura. To my colleagues Janet Murphy and Gail Chesworth-Taylor. I would like to thank you for always encouraging me to finish and reminding me that there was an end in sight. and Sue who always understood when I was not able to go out and play and accepted hearing. and Walter Swanson. MOM! Thank you for giving me the patience and the tenacity to survive seven years of doctor school. many thanks! I wish to express my sincere thanks to Dr. who tested the revised guide in their classroom instruction. always listen to your mother. Your comments and assessments of the guide were essential. energy and thoughtfulness you provided in helping me to achieve my dissertation. I am so glad to have inherited some of your strength and perseverance. Paul Bloomfield. thank you for your thoughtful comments in the evaluation of the guide. Dean of Faculty. Special thanks go to the administrative team. who not only corrected my grammar but adjusted my flow. Lori Chesky.
Results Introduction 43 Needs Analysis 44 Phase 1. Classrooms Observation 54 Observation 1. Writing Workshop 62 Interview with Classroom Observation Participants 65
.0 Technologies in Education 13 Multicultural Education 19 Professional Development for the Digital Educator 25 Summary 32 3. Review of Literature Introduction 12 Web 2. Financial Markets: Global Dimensions 54 Observation 2.Table of Contents
Abstract ii Acknowledgments iv List of Tables vii 1. Ceramics 57 Observation 3. Methodology Research Design 34 Instrument Development Approach or Procedures Data Collection 40 Resources 41 Summary 41
4. Professional Development Workshop Participants 47 Implementation 54 Phase 3. Introduction Context 1 Problem Statement 2 Goal 4 Relevance and Significance 5 Research Questions 8 Definitions and Acronyms 8 Summary 11
2. Global Literature 59 Observation 4. Panel of Experts 45 Design and Development 47 Phase 2.
Email to the Panel of Experts 104 Appendix J. Phase 2. Professional Development Workshop. Summary from 12 Question Survey 68 Phase 3. Conclusion. Recommendations. Complete Survey Results 123 Appendix R. Phase 2 92 Appendix F. The Panel of Experts. Teachers Results Appendix O. Panel of Experts. Classroom Observations. Request and Consent Permission to Use Computer Facilities 90 Appendix D. Phase 1 87 Appendix C. Consent Form. Phase 1. Common Sense Media Students Media Survey 118 Appendix Q. Classroom Observations 70 Summary of Results 72 5. 12 Question Survey for all Phases of the Study 98 Appendix H. The Workshop Participants. Final Interview Questions Results 125 Appendix S. Invitation to One-On-One Digital Citizenship Workshop Phase 2 Appendix N. and Summary Conclusions 74 Implications 80 Recommendations 81 Summary 81 Appendixes Appendix A. Phase 3 Class Observation. Phase 1 95 Appendix G. Email to Teacher Participants 105 Appendix K. Email to the Final Teacher Participants 106 Appendix L. Technology and 21st Century Skills Rubric. Technology and 21st Century Skills Rubric for Teachers 101 Appendix I. Implications. Biographies of Contributing Experts 86 Appendix B. Digital Citizenship Guide 130 Reference List 160
. Consent Form. Complete Survey Results 107 Appendix M. Participants Complete Survey Results 111 Appendix P.Evaluation 66 Phase 1. Panel of Experts 66 Phase 2. IRB Approval 91 Appendix E. Consent Form.
Summary from 12 Question Survey 69 67 21
. Panel of Expert’s. Technology and 21st Century Skills Rubric.2. Professional Development Workshop. Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions as related to Dynamics of New Media 4.3.4. Summary from 12 Question Survey 64 4.List of Tables
Tables 2. Classroom Observations. Summary 48 4. Summary from 12 Question Survey 4.5.1.
At present. It was not until 1971 that the two academies merged. The faculty is made up of 67 men and women. The CEGS curriculum offers a comprehensive introduction to the world of global citizenship. The Academy's population includes 170 boarding students and 192 day students. the Academy has over 362 students from 22 countries and 11 states. Traditions of acceptance and diversity date back to 1847 when Monson Academy became the first American school to enroll Chinese students. WMA's Center for Entrepreneurial & Global Studies (CEGS) program was founded in 2004. the Wesleyan (Wilbraham) Academy was instituted. share. grade six through postgraduate (PG) level. and finance. entrepreneurship. 2005). 33 residential and 34 commuters. In continuing the tradition of firsts. The CEGS curriculum is an example of how WMA prepares its students for success in a variety of arenas in the global economy. Monson Academy was one of the first academies to open its doors to 21 co-educational boarding students. students from across the world come together to learn. Massachusetts granted several charters to fill the gap between grammar school and college.1
Chapter 1 Introduction
Context At Wilbraham & Monson Academy (WMA). and exchange ideas. In 1804. In 1817. In 1806. combining their names to form what is known today as WMA (Mazzaferro. Its history is rich in culture and tradition.
students agree to follow the rules and regulations set forth in the Academy's Responsible Access Policy (RAP). such as iTouch. They offer expectations of students' behavior not guidance on how to achieve success. but also as tools to develop students' digital competencies. During the WMA's new student matriculation ceremony. digital society. Before teachers can instruct their students to be fair. However. Zhao (2009) and Palfrey and Glaser (2008) refer to Prensky (2001) who coined the terms digital immigrants and digital natives. with or without the involvement of educators". The problem identified was that teachers needed specific guidance to help students become safe and effective communicators in today’s multicultural.
Problem Statement With the incorporation of handheld technologies. educators are offered the opportunity to learn and understand the needs of their multicultural student body.2 Teaching at an international boarding and day school. p. educators will need guidance. The
. not just as tools for improving test scores.195) warns. ethical. and honest digital communicators. 2009). Blackberry. the importance of having a framework for teaching students how to use them in an academic setting becomes relevant (Deubel. Teachers must be instructed in the use of technologies. A developmental study with qualitative and quantitative measures was undertaken to develop a digital citizenship guide for teachers. these regulations do not teach students how to be safe and effective communicators in a digital society. Zhao (2009. and iPad into classroom activities and curriculum. "Schools can no longer ignore the importance of digital competencies or what our children are already doing in the virtual world.
the ability to learn and work collaboratively. indicators of Web 2. If the digital immigrants want to connect with the digital natives. The natives are those for whom electronic communications have been natural parts of their environments practically from birth. Robelia. wikis. Students feel a digital disconnect with their school "… claiming their teachers had not yet shifted their teaching to respond to the new ways students communicate and use the Web beyond their classrooms" (p. and Hughes (2009) explain that 21st century students use interactive multimedia in their everyday activities and advocate the use of more Web 2.0 technologies in the classroom to increase engagement.
. As research continues in the area of technology competencies. Zhao observed that the immigrants are not teaching the natives in a manner that engages them or that facilitates learning. students master a language when they have learned the cultural context in which a language occurs. In the pedagogy of world languages.247). Cutshall (2009) states for a student to be considered a savvy citizen they will need to possess skills. Greenhow. they will have to change the way they teach. which include global awareness.3 immigrants are people born before 1980 who were not raised in an online world. and other conversational tools make in-depth learning possible.0 activities are being revealed as having an educational value. Online classroom activities breakdown the physical borders and engage students in cultural exchange. and respect for culture of others. Today's technologies such as Skype.
These standards or elements of digital citizenship can provide any community with appropriate and responsible ways to use technology to be productive individuals (Ribble. effectively. In the development of the framework for a global community. How should it be taught in schools? 3. 1. and administrative ideas and concerns to develop a common understanding of how to communicate safely. faculty. intellectual. What are the observable outcomes of students' mastery?
. 2009). 2007). it is important to understand an individual's educational. Ribble and Bailey (2007) suggests collecting student. then what are the characteristics of a digital citizen at a global academy? When developing a framework for teaching digital citizenship.4
Goal As communities come together to share their ideas in the 21st century. and cultural beliefs. Technology leaders need to address three important questions to understand the significance of preparing students to be good citizens in a digital world. Since one's cultural upbringing and societal issues can influence their actions and the way they communicate digitally. and equally. a common understanding needs to be created within the new community (Kurubacak. If a citizen is defined as an individual that is legally recognized as a member of a community with associated rights and obligations and a digital citizen is an individual who demonstrates the norms of behavior with regard to the use of technology. What is digital citizenship and why is it important for students to learn? 2. it is important to include the international students' thoughts and take into account their perspectives.
and McNeal (2008) reported that citizens of the 21st century need quality education combined with universal access to the Internet. the natives and the settlers.0 technologies have changed the way citizens of the 21st-century communicate and collaborate within our society. Most technology users are oblivious to their surroundings and how their use of technology affects others. Citizenship in the digital world is not any different from any other rule of conduct in society.e. or walk through a crowded airport. As technologies continue to advance and dictate how societies communicate.
Relevance and Significance The Internet and the development of Web 2. The goal of this dissertation was to develop and test a guide for teaching digital citizenship to global learners. Bauerlein (2008) comments that digital natives have the ability to use a variety of technologies but have not learned how to synthesize data and be critical thinkers. The culturally diverse student population at WMA made it possible to generalize instruction sets that will be of value to teachers everywhere. Today's digital society is made up of a variety of digital communicators (i. These digital citizens need to be educated in the capabilities of technology to enjoy the rights and fulfill the duties of their membership in our ever-changing digital society. one only has to go to a movie theater. Tolbert. Technology use has increased.5 Mossberger. (Palfrey & Gasser. drive down the highway. Citizenship in a digital society demands respect for responsibilities of proper use of technology and ethical behavior in its use. To answer the first of these questions. there will be times where technology will be used inappropriately and educators will need to hold their students
. the digital immigrants. 2008)).
This organization has provided students. Do students know and understand to what they are agreeing? Having an AUP in place is not enough in educating a community. 2009). At some schools. businesses. teachers. educators. Jamison. Educational communities look to the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) for guidance in the areas of technology use in the digital world. 2005). The performance indicators have guided the education community into the global realm of the digital world. As with any change in a society.6 accountable for their digital interactions (Nebel. 2008. an AUP is in place and students are required to sign an agreement to follow the rules and regulations set forth in the document. Additional teaching and learning is needed to provide students with understanding of issues ranging from how to protect their identity to understanding the consequences of inappropriate technology use (Berson.
. & Berson. and 2009 NETS for students. 2009). AUPs are common in many schools. 2003). and even in residences. the citizens of a community have to be aware of what is appropriate behavior and what is acceptable. benefiting members by outlining acceptable technology use and providing guidelines to maintain the balance within the digital society (Kinnaman. and administrators with the National Education Technology Standards (NETS) since 1990. & Bennett. Acceptable Use Policies (AUP) provides members of a community with an overview of what is deemed appropriate behavior. and administrators (ISTE. The significance of teaching digital citizenship became more evident when ISTE included a category on digital citizenship in the refreshed 2007. Ribble (2006) produced a technology leader's guide for the implementation of digital citizenship in schools. The misuse and abuse in communication disrupts the balance of the digital society.
For a student to be considered a good digital citizen. He goes on to say that parents will need to do more then install software for blocking inappropriate websites. digital citizens have to discern the appropriate conduct and learn the laws of its community. and used in the workplace. reinforced at home. their needs for teaching digital citizenship (Ribble. 2010). in most cases. To address how digital citizenship is taught in schools. and at what grade level. digital citizenship should be taught. which would include his ability to analyze data from the Internet and correctly cite his research • Caution and honesty in his representation of himself when sharing his personal information on the Internet • Physical well being by using basic ergonomic guidelines
. it is hard to determine when.7 Digital citizenship is an ongoing teaching-learning experience. the likelihood of young people misusing technology is lessened. As within any society.11). A good digital citizen understands the social reasons for following the policies that pertain to the use of technology within their community. Ribble (2009) notes that parents are taking precautions to protect their children more now than in the past. Ribble writes. Educators at every grade level have opportunities to include communication technologies in their curriculum and provide students with the examples of good citizenship in a digital world (Camhi. "We need to teach our children how to live and work in this new digital society" (p. 2004). When digital citizenship is taught in schools. & Bailey. With frequent changes in new and existing technology. he would need to demonstrate: • Critical thinking skills. one first looks at how schools and districts use their technology and.
8 • Ethical use of technology by not downloading illegally or plagiarizing others' works • Effective consumerism by understanding and demonstrating safe buying and selling procedures on the Internet • Commitment to the idea of equal digital access for all individuals • Appropriate decisions about how and when to use technologies. 2007). CEGS: Center for Entrepreneurial & Global Studies (CEGS) program founded in 2004 at Wilbraham & Monson Academy with curriculum offering a comprehensive
. when faced with the many different digital communication options available on the Internet
Research Questions The guiding questions were: 1. What considerations need to be taken when planning lesson content for a digital citizenship guide for global learners?
Definitions and Acronyms AUP: Acceptable use policy (APU) is a policy set up by an intuitions' administration to outline rights and responsibilities as well as proved guidelines for using technology appropriately (Ribble & Bailey. What do experienced teachers find missing in their instruction when teaching digital citizenship in a multicultural classroom? 2. What should be included in a digital citizenship guide to prepare and support instructors for teaching students to be safe and effective digital communicators? 3.
9 introduction to the world of global citizenship, entrepreneurship, and finance (www.wma.us/page.cfm?p=95). Culture: societies shared values and common knowledge (Author). Cultural affairs: the lens through which a society sees and understands their own habits and customs as well as others (http://www.ica-international.org/aboutus.htm). Citizen: a native or naturalized member of a specified social, political, or national community (Author). Digital citizenship: are the norms of behavior with regard to the use of technology (Ribble, Bailey & Ross 2004). Digital competencies: determining what students knows and understands about the virtual world and how they use the tools of technology (Zhao, 2009). Digital disconnect: When students feel the educational system does not use technology in a manner that they use technology outside the classroom (Greenhow, Robelia, & Hughes, 2009). Digital Footprint: Information about an individual that can be found on the Internet (Author). Digital immigrant: one who grew up in an analog world and has learned to communicate digitally (Gasser, 2008). Digital native: one who was born after 1980 and has grown up in the digital society (Gasser, 2008). Digital settler: an individual who are not native to the digital world, but because of their age, they are sophisticated in the use of technology (Gasser, 2008).
10 Digital society: a society comprised of digital immigrates, natives, and settlers (Gasser, 2008). Electronic portfolios: a new ways of organizing, summarizing, sharing artifacts and information using Internet technologies (Rollett, Mathias, Strohmaier, Dosinger, & Tochermann, 2007). Facebook: a social networking website where individuals create a profile and share information about themselves with other members of Facebook (Author). Global competency: the ability to understand global events and participate appropriately (Reimers, 2009). Hand held devices: pocket-sized computing mechanisms that individuals use to communicate electricity through voice or data exchange (i.e., cell phones, iTouch, PDA, iPad) (Author). Interactive multimedia: a system in which information is connected and presented together through various media in which the user is able to communicate with the data (Author). ISTE: International Society for Technology in Education, an association for educators and education leaders with the goal to improve learning and teaching by advancing the effective use of technology in PK-12 and higher education (www.iste.org). Mobile technology: devices that can move with the learner, such as laptops, PDA's, and Smartphones (Passey, 2010). NETS: National Educational Technology Standards, a set of standards published by ISTE to provide students and teachers knowledge, experience, and to learn effectively
11 and live productively in an increasingly digital society (http://www.iste.org/AM/Template.cfm?Section=NETS). RAP: Wilbraham & Monson Academy’s acceptable use policy (www.wma.us/page.cfm?p=189). Web 2.0 technologies: user-centered collaboration tools and Internet applications, which facilitate the sharing of interactive information (i.e., blogging, podcasting, and wikis) (Author). Web conferencing tools: technologies used to communicate via the Internet (i.e. software applications such as Skype are used to collaborate by video or audio) (Author). WMA: Wilbraham & Monson Academy, a college preparatory school located in Western Massachusetts housing 150 international and domestic students (http://www.wma.us/page.cfm?p=2). Summary Technology continues to change the way society communicates. A challenge for educators is to determine how technology, such as smart phones and hand-held devices, can be used in a multicultural learning environment. To prepare students for digital literacy and competencies in their adulthood, specific training for educators in the appropriate and effective methods for incorporating these technologies is necessary. The goal of this study was to develop a digital citizenship guide for WMA teachers that reflects the findings of the expert panel and the professional development workshop. The results identified the specific skills and competencies that are required to teach students how to communicate in the digital world and become good digital citizens.
2006). they will need new methods to engage and motivate this very different type of learner. teachers. develop. an extensive review of literature was explored in these related subjects (i. multicultural education. and validate a digital citizenship instructional guide for global academy teachers. and professional development). Larson.. These three areas affect how technology is used and how digital citizenship is integrated across the curriculum.e.
Chapter 2 Literature Review
Introduction The concept of digital citizenship is relatively new to the educational community (Ribble. Ultimately. The subject areas explored in the development of this guide included investigating how teachers can use Web 2. and technology leaders integrate technology across the curricula and into all aspects of learning and teaching. Web 2. For teachers to connect to their students' digital worlds. In order to research.0 technologies. the digital citizenship guide will provide teachers with the necessary skills and resources to teach students to be safe and effective communicators in today’s multicultural digital society.0 technologies in their multicultural classrooms. Educational institutions need to prepare students with 21st century skills and focus on instruction that combines the use of technology with pedagogy and addresses the many issues of the multicultural classroom. This literature review provides the foundation for the development of a digital citizenship guide for teachers. and Ribble (200910) recommend administrators.
it encourages them to assist each other and to report any serious concerns to a responsible adult.0 tools have relevance in school curriculum and. Solomon and Schrum (2007) warn that if teachers are to prepare students with 21st century skills. citizenship. and literacy competencies skills. share. educators must establish a learning environment that infuses Web 2.0
. cell phones. Richardson (2009) believes that Web 2. In many schools. and play (Richardson.0 technology into its curriculum. Filtering and monitoring does not replace the need for teaching students how to be a good digital citizen. The educational community has been slow to incorporate these new technologies into their instruction. and other eDevices).0 technologies. 2009). Web 2. they will have to focus less on standardized testing and move away from teacher-directed instruction by combining the use of technology with pedagogy. Willard (2010) reports that a major barrier for moving schools forward in embracing 21st century learning environments is the ineffective ways of managing and or controlling the Internet.13 Web 2. MP3 players.e. students are finding more ways to communicate. When schools develop effective peer leadership and establish school social norms then educators have the tools to reduce student's digital mistakes. students are prepared for life in the digital world. By increasing the student's ability to determine and respond to digital incidents. students are not allowed to use their personal technologies (i.0 Technologies in Education Technology has advanced in its complexity in the past decade. With the development of Web 2. with the implementation of such technologies students will be prepared for digital literacy and competencies in their adulthood. By teaching students digital media safety. To create a true 21st-century school.
Robelia. Schwartz (2010) addresses the question regarding Facebook's use as a
. Take a risk and try something new. He offers some suggestions. Greenhow.0 technologies in their everyday activities. apply.14 technologies are a tool for teaching students ways to evaluate. it is about finding the tools to better serve your students. Web 2.0 technologies have not been widely integrated into K-12 education because of the teachers' lack of modeling in their use. cell phone. and don’t abandon what has worked in the past. Since many students already use these tools. These applications fill the gap the digital disconnect students feel they have with their schools. understand. He offers a checklist of tech tools (laptop. Donohue (2010) addresses the question what’s in your toolbox? and he suggests that the educational professionals explore how technology impacts their everyday life. use social media to share best practices. participate in social computing. He suggests that teacher’s review how they use technology for personal use and determine if there are any benefits as a professional tool. and synthesize data. digital camera. Donohue reaffirms the theme that is it’s not about the technology. learn to use tech tools personally so you can decide how to use them professionally. teachers need only a framework for incorporating the use of technology into their curriculum. Because students communicate using Web 2. they find that transitioning these technologies into their schoolwork increases their preparation and engagement. mobile wireless devices…) to determine how you use these devices both personally and professionally. and Hughes (2009) suggest that teachers become more acquainted with social networks like Facebook and bookmarking services such as Delicious. These technologies have potential to change the way the educational systems engage learning.
report that mobile devices offer individualized guidance and support during the learning process. investigate context-aware ubiquitous learning (u-learning). and portable computers. PDA's. Kolb (2011) describes the cell phone as a Swiss army knife of digital learning. Chu. This is a 27% increase since 2004. With the significant development and growth of wireless and mobile technologies. teachers need to set clear boundaries. Educators are exploring ways to use mobile devices in their instruction. Engel and Green (2011) reported that cell phone ownership and use is increasing. Among K-12 students.000 student surveyed indicated they owned a cell phone. Students can actively explore their learning environment and gain more experience in collaboration and problem solving while using these technologies. Shih. Google voice. students are using these resources to learn any time and anywhere. and replace the one-size-fits-all receptive style of learning. High school students are highest among cell phone users at 84% compared to 60% middle
. 66% of the 2. such as cell phones. Schwartz suggests that there are advantages to using such technologies but before using such technologies as a mentoring tool in the educational environment. Teachers are using resources such as Poll Everywhere. share. and poll student's opinions. She investigates how teachers and students use social networks as an extension of classroom time. Hwang and Kinshuk (2011) address the adaptation of e-learning to m-learning. With the use of mobile devices. mobile and context awareness technologies to provide learners with adaptive support throughout the learning process.15 communication tool in the classroom. and Mobile Geotagging to interact. students are able to interact with each other and learn content both in the real world and in the virtual world. which integrates wireless. Shih et al. Shih et al.
that more. develop consequences for inappropriate use of cell phones while in and out of the classroom. rural. personal safety.47) are more engaged than their advantaged peers. Next. Students need to understand and agree on what is deemed appropriate. first. keep parents and community members informed of cell phone projects and activities. In the past. once considered have-nots. McCollum reports that the opposite is true. There still remains the issue that some students are not learning the necessary digital skills and for many of these students. have found methods to break the technological barrier and are reported as being twice as likely to use Twitter then the white Internet users. Kolb (2011) offers suggestions when using cell phones in the classroom. The young black and Latino students. 2011). and user responsibility) vary among countries. and minority individuals have been labeled as the technological have-nots. legal and safe for cell phone use in the classroom. Last.
. which frees up class time to focus on learning content. low-income. Greenhow (2010) suggests that the definition of proper online behaviors and citizenship (ethical use. have discussions with the students on how to stay safe in the mobile world. When teachers embrace cell phone technology they find minimal class time is spent on instructional hardware and software. Many technology-based activities can occur outside the classroom and findings can be brought back for review and discussion.16 school students. There are concerns to address before hand held devices can be effective in the classroom. school is the only place they will have an opportunity to learn to be good digital citizens. During the past 10 years the term digital divide as been the catchall phrase to describe the disparity in technology resources and the user (McCollum. low income and those considered "the underserved side of the digital divide" (p.
The inherent dangers and misuse of social networks and Internet filtering systems can cripple the development of democratic citizenship.0 tools have provided students with the means to vote. students make connections with individuals who read.17 cultures. Students today are able to develop their awareness of social and political issues as well as interact and participate with individuals across the globe. The Internet has not only opened the possibilities for students to become mindful citizens it encourages their participation in civic life. where individuals only share experiences with those of similar interests. Richardson offers four steps for teachers to encourage their students to participate online. Richardson (2011) feels educators need to help their students understand more than just the safety and ethics of participating online. as well as how technology is being used to promote and develop participatory democratic citizenship. First. as a tool for communicating through various mediums. Students need to learn the potentials and the pitfalls of interacting online. Experience the implications of having
. respond. Schools need to develop a culture where teachers regularly share ideas. become Googleable yourself. lessons. but technology must be used for what it's attended. He cautions communities to not become a Digital Island. and schools systems. and interact with their ideas. lobby and campaign via the Internet. and ignores other issues within the global pluralistic society. Ultimately. with the world and model how to interact with others online. Teachers would have to develop their curriculum to encourage students to follow their passion and publish meaningful work. Gozálvex (2011) expresses the importance of teaching media literacy in the classroom. Web 2. Education that blends technology provides an opportunity for enriched learning.
e. With carefully designed tasks and effective strategies.18 personal content on the Internet first hand. Second. they need to know how to protect themselves (i. teach students how to continually monitor their lives on the Internet. by adjusting their privacy settings). With great technology. understand and adhere to the digital laws (i. such as blogs. producing oral recordings... For students to become strong digital leaders. when downloading music and other media files). and exchanging ideas with their intercultural partners. comes great responsibility. by encouraging and holding others responsible for their online behaviors (Greenhow. Third. not only what they are posting. Students gained invaluable experience as they worked collaboratively writing blogs. are respectful when posting messages to the online community. Last. but what others are posting and sharing about them. student's use of digital technology can enhance their cross-cultural understanding and
.e. An issue many schools have is providing students with opportunities to interact with native speakers and to learn about the target culture. Teachers need to show students the values of an audience. each web tool has unique technical features and pedagogical values. Students indicated a higher level of engagement when using web tools. create a classroom web site. not just in a social sense but also in a participatory learning sense (Richardson 2011). 2010). and lead. where student’s work is regularly shared. and message boards. Students need to know the good and the bad consequences of online participation. share relevant and appropriate online interactions you have experienced with your students. Lee (2009) explores the use of social networking tools for the development of intercultural communication and awareness. Online participation must demonstrate respect for the rights and responsibility of self and others within the digital communities. Lee states. podcasts.
and skills necessary for students to be world citizens. state
. To develop the knowledge. Online collaboration between teachers and students are essential in boosting technology-enhanced learning and provides teachers with meaningful tools to use with their students. they must be able to collaborate. With the use of technology and the capability of the Internet. uncertainty. attitudes. Cultural differences exist with regard to values about power. masculinity. For students to be prepared to take their place in the complex global community and the challenges global communications offer. nesting itself in their minds” (p.19 awareness. Multicultural Education The 21st century's definition of the workplace has changed. and long-term orientation. Gibson. Hofstede and Hofstede (2005) describe culture as an “…unwritten book with rules of the social game that is passed on to newcomers by its members. and Landwehr-Brown (2008) believe global learning should incorporate technological student-centered activities. This not only changes the setting of the workplace but also brings many different cultures together in a working environment. think critically. These endeavors would include learners of different cultures using technology to improve their global perspectives while remaining in their home countries. Rimmington. One culture may differ from another. 36). individualism. This cultural programming continues on in schools as well as the workplace. negotiate. People around the world are working together from various locations. Gibson et al. individuals no longer have to be in a specified place to do their work. and understand multiple perspectives through dialogs with individuals from various cultures. The rules of the social game begin when families model and teach their children how to behave within their community.
Kurubacak (2007) explored how Hofstede's cultural dimensions pertain to being a digital citizen and the dynamics of new media. By fostering a relationship between culture and new media. Specialized handheld tools are being used in student instruction for science classes. with the change in how individuals communicate.13). These learning experiences allow students to examine different cultures. She explains that.20 "…educators need to consider global learning in terms of the conditions necessary for it to emerge…" (p. She
. They improve their critical thinking skills while sharing their feelings and ideas while accomplishing course requirements. this creates an online global map of pollution hotspots. Druin (2009) explores how mobile technologies are used and lessons are designed for children to interact with and learn from. there is a rising need for greater understanding of how multicultural knowledge-based societies collaborate. Technology driven global-learning activities will not replace student exchange programs. Kurubacak cites Hofstede (2007) to correlate the importance of culture and the responsibilities of new media in supporting digital communities. digital citizens can strengthen their communication skills and develop their ability to transfer knowledge within a new context as shown in Table 2.1. With the use of hand held technologies the emissions from the vehicles are uploaded then compared it to similar types of data collection from children around the world. but offers the advantage in lower travel cost and reduces complex logistics. Ultimately. Students measure the level of carbon monoxide in their environment. She affirms that online communication should build multicultural learning situations dealing with real life issues.
Another example of how hand held devices are being used as educational tools is the Sesame Street free podcast workshops. The relationship between culture and new media and how digital citizens can strengthen communication skills.14. p." by Kurubacak. Muppet characters teach young children the essentials of reading and language skills. educators are taking advantage of children’s interest in mobile devices and teaching them English vocabulary.21 offers many examples of how mobile technologies are being used to increase students learning and global literacy. These lessons also provide students with
. 2007. Mobile technologies allows for a more immersive language-learning experience by providing anytime access to a vast amount of resources. In China. Adapted from "Transformative power of digital citizenship: Critical perspectives on culture. new media and pedagogy. Journal of Educational Technology.1 Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions as Related to Dynamics of New Media
Kim. computer technology use begins at age eight. Second. Passey also warns that the exclusion of political and cultural factors from the start of any mobile technology framework will limit important learning activities. the Internet enhances their civic engagement possibilities. the percentage of Internet and computer technologies use in their homes is currently 97%. and kinesthetic learning. should be encouraged. economic. including home-to-school elements. and cultures. languages.22 different perspectives and new ways of viewing the world. As well. and international issues over the Internet. For success in the implementation of a mobile technologies framework. auditory. Last. Their findings suggest that this increase is due in part to three factors. Passey (2010) reports that there are various studies that indicate certain learning activities are supported using mobile technologies. mobile technologies have potential to affect areas of learning. From the cognitive learning perspective. Cheong. voting. He concludes by stating. Lin. Using eDevices broadens student's knowledge by digitally connecting world regions. Activities such as reading online news. and Jung.
. For students who are civic-minded and interested in politics. but teachers cannot make the implementation alone. these technologies grasp the attention of many students and engage them in visual. (2010) report that Asian students continue to use the Internet for entertainment-related activities. the use of mobile phones with Internet capability has increased the rate of student interactivity from 45% to 62%. and signing online petitions has increased. First. Teachers need support from all stakeholders. they found an increase in student’s participation in discussing political. appropriate practices.
individualistic and collectivistic frameworks. their students. 2008). classroom activities. Educators will be responsible for transforming their curriculum and pedagogy to guide their students in the understanding that their own survival will be directly related to their ability to deal responsibly and effectively with a variety of nations and issues (Zong.. 2008). power structure) and micro properties (i. technology. Teachers must comprehend the role culture plays both in their students' lives and within their school. assessments). RothsteinFisch and Trumbull present a framework for managing diverse classrooms that builds on students' cultural strengths. They explore the fundamental differences between two types of cultural orientations. and embrace global citizenship. This framework will reflect desired changes as well as manage any challenges and conflicts.e. social values.23 Zhang (2010) explains that learning culture includes complex system of social practices made up of macro properties (i. It can be a daunting task for teachers to manage a class of culturally diverse students. They investigate how teachers use these frameworks to understand their own cultural values. they can begin to develop a classroom environment that bridges cultural differences (Rothstein-Fisch & Trumbull.. be thoughtful critical thinkers. demonstrate awareness and acceptance. epistemological beliefs. When teachers determine that home values may conflict with school values.e. Teachers will need to engage in deep reflection across the macro and micro properties to develop a framework. they can address a student's confusion as to what is appropriate behavior in the classroom. curriculum. Once this is accomplished. Igoche and Branch (2009) see cultural values as diverse and as
. and students' families. Dumas (2008) explain that students will need to be skilled in cultural affairs. their school.
24 an important factor when creating instructional products. They warn that diversity should not raise resistance to change but apply notions of equity, equality, and processes that build pluralistic learning communities. Igoche and Branch state that cultural values should complement students’ performance and that their work should be valued for its demonstration of certain knowledge and skills even if it may appear contrary to community norms. Reimers (2009) addresses the need for students to have global competency, "the knowledge and skills that help them cross disciplinary domains to comprehend global events and respond to them effectively" (p. 29). He provides an example of the three interdependent dimensions of global competency: a positive approach toward cultural differences and a willingness to engage those differences, an ability to speak, understand, and think in several critical languages such as English, Mandarin, and Spanish, and a global educational system that helps discern what works well, with what effects, and at what cost. Rothstein-Fisch and Trumbull (2008) outline the importance of acknowledging students' cultural values and perspectives. A single cultural point of view will not provide diverse students with an equitable opportunity for learning. It is essential that learning include one's own culture, the culture of school, and the culture of the community. Educators share in the task of preparing their students to function within and contribute to the global society. Before teachers can teach, they need to have or develop their own global perspectives in order to foster global awareness in their students (Crawford & Kirby, 2008). Gallavan (2008) reports that most teacher candidates tend to be only moderately world-minded and appear less worldly, less well-read, less experienced, and less traveled than teacher candidates in the past. Forrester (2009) offers
25 one possible solution for educators is to make global connections using Internet technologies. He explores the use of web conferencing tools, which make sharing content more accessible and useful, allowing teachers to communicate in real time, anytime, anywhere, and with anyone. As a part of professional development, cultural awareness needs to be addressed to avoid student confusion. An example of the importance of teachers recognizing the classroom culture was evident when web assignments (i.e. wiki, Google docs) were given to Chinese students and was met with resistance. The teacher asked their students to publicly share and critique each other's work. For these students, this new process was against their cultural norm to be more passive, noncritical, and obedient in instruction. This teacher needed to know that in some countries, students fear government retaliation for publicly sharing their opinions (Young, 2010). Professional Development for the Digital Educator The 21st century educator needs to reach beyond curriculum and the walls of their institutions to learn how technology can be used to educate students who are digital natives (Honigsfeld, Giouroukakis, Cohan, & Walsh, 2009). Teachers who have shown interest in these advances have begun experimenting with the use of Internet technologies such as blogs, wikis, and podcasts in practical ways for incorporating technology into their curriculum (Solomon & Schrum, 2007). The need for teachers to become proficient in the use of web technologies has increased the demand for professional development. With the increase of information and communication technologies available over the Internet, the increase of online professional development courses and workshops has risen as well (Dede, 2006).
26 Digital communication and collaboration technologies offer potential ways to foster global awareness among teachers. As the role of the 21st century teacher changes, the conventional methods of disseminating information also change. Teachers need to be creative in designing and modeling effective participatory instruction, such as using the web as a way to write, reflect, and participate (Richardson, 2008-09). The National Technology Goals have been developed to provide educators and their institutions with the necessary resources to provide digital literacy for the 21st century student. The U.S. Department of Education, office of Educational technology (2010) have three suggestions for improving technology use in schools, provide broadband everywhere, have a computing device in the hands of every student, and make connectedness the trademark for effective teaching. Schrum, Galizio, and Ledesma (2011) reported that significant funding has been spent on educating teachers in technology use for classroom instruction. However, it does not appear that administrators have received that same level of instruction to support their teachers in effective use of technology and overcome the challenges that arise in supporting technology integration. Regrettably, no matter how much training teachers receive, unless they have the support and leadership of their administrators, technology use in the classroom will ultimately be ineffective and unsuccessful. Embracing digital literacy skills helps education thrive in this new digital world. The standard teacher-centric classroom is making way for the student-centric classroom; where the teacher is the student's individual learning coach, mentor, problem solver, and support person. The focus is on students learning at their own pace and in their preferred style (Christensen & Horn, 2008). Friedman (2005) cites technology as a method for
If teachers are successful in refocusing education.. Robison & Weigel.
.e. Educators need to tap into the students love for technology and use technology to convey content more powerfully and efficiently. find. Purushotma. Scherer (2011) describes a definition for digital literacy as having three components. just as they would as a citizen. digital literacy develops the concept of digital citizenship. their love of electronics. Last. The “I” is correlated to the devices used (iPhone. iTunes…) the iGeneration is defined by their technology use. analyze and use it to solve a problem). Often. consume. The Web and the technologies used to interact within it are a world-changing phenomenon. 2008). Students were raised using electronics and many demonstrate an extended knowledge of Internet skills (Clinton. and society. students have more experience in social networks and blogging than many of their teachers (Lambert & Cuper. where individuals have a sense of personal behavior and responsibility online. First. iPad. In today's classrooms. the users must be able to employ information (i.27 transforming every aspect of business. and classroom activities will offer more in depth investigation of the subject content.e. offline. 2006). and their need to multitask. communicating your story using different media.. The iGeneration. Second part defines the individual’s ability to use media and digital technologies to communicate and collaborate effectively (i. changing our global structure from a command and control to a connect and collaborate universe. and organizing and collaborating in and outside of your personal network). knowing best practices for publishing online. students will become more involved in their learning. as defined by Rosen (2011) is a new generation of media users born 1990 and beyond. teachers are met with the added challenge that many of their students are already comfortable in this new digital environment. life.
To do this. Monsour. students need teachers to guide them in tailoring their Internet skills into ones that employ critical thinking. monitor for potential cognitive overload. With the use of portable devices such as cell phones. synthesize. Meager. suggest when planning for optimum learning with technology. and communication (Burkhardt. watched. Students will need to take these new skills and learn to appropriately employ technology as they work collaboratively with others across the world (Hargadon. To be considered successful in today's global community. and post their lectures to YouTube. Bell and Bull (2010) suggest that if educators are to use digital video in their instruction. teachers not only need technological knowledge but they also need time to reflect on how these technological capabilities will help their students' learn. students need to transform their social networking. and chatting skills into the ability to gather. Thadani & Martin. and Content Knowledge (TPACK) model can be beneficial when evaluating teachers' professional growth and is a valuable tool for teachers to reflect on their own development. process. Dawson. Teachers will need to give students prior instruction in what to look for in the video. and analyze data. Pedagogical. They can record. they will need effective pedagogy.
. cross-cultural awareness. Coughlin. and provide dialogue to ensure the targeted information has been addressed. edit. Ozgiln-Koca et al. and shared has made using digital video easier in the classroom then traditional film. This dramatic change in how video is recorded. 2003). 2007). blogging. and Edwards (2011) showed that the Technological. and upload movies to websites like YouTube instantly sharing their experiences. Valdez. edit clips. students are able to shoot video. Teachers can easily isolate and control clips within a digital video. team building. Lemke.28 Ozgiln-Koca. Gunn.
It is important to understand the limitations/consequences of extensive connectedness and how it can hamper one’s mental. and thinking about how to provide better learning for their students. and integrating technology standards. answer related questions. parents. Hofer and Moore (2010) reports that today’s technology has enabled students to be more connected to their parents. larger class size. and social wellbeing. This “iConnected Parent” phenomenon is changing how students learn to be independent and grow into their adulthood. and students should strive to be good digital citizens. Taranto and Abbondanza (2009) report that communication tools are a part of most students’ lives outside of school. and interpret the video's message. With all the challenges of standardized testing. helping their children make everyday decisions.42). Furthermore. evaluating. and disseminate information. synthesizing and communicating what they have learned. physical. teachers. educators are now faced with reaching beyond their current practices to find ways to communicate. budget cuts. Parents are digitally staying linked to their children throughout high school and into their college career. they will be more likely to use
. students can create their own video as a form of knowledge. The entire community. Schools have the added responsibility to ensure that the technology is being used responsibly and teachers are making constructive use of these tools in the classroom. Taranto and Abbondanza write. “…learning leaders can provide the necessary 21st century learning experiences to ensure that students and teachers are not only good citizens but good digital citizens as well” (p. collaborate.29 Teachers can actively engage their students using video technology by having them observe. If educators are afforded the opportunity to focus on developing.
Dosinger. The new technology Reflect (http://www. and evaluating content).. Teachers may find these technologies influential in their practice (Rollett. social studies. display. The second section was designed to provide an opportunity to refine. developed Internet workshops to provide opportunities for teachers to learn instructional technology and manage Internet resources. it provides teachers with a self-reflection tool. and virtual reality environments. reading. to connect widely. & Koppenhaver. searching. The workshops were structured into two sections. and technology integration. 2007). Waters (2011) explores the development of a new technology that is taking the teacher evaluation process to the next level. gathering. Mathias.teachscape. Even with the use of video recording it is difficult to capture the activity of an entire classroom. and share content with others. & Tochermann. Trathen.e. electronic portfolios.html) that is being developed focuses on the teacher's instruction and at the same
. but prepares students for effective citizenship (Frye. Not only can this technology be used to help administrators evaluate classroom instruction.30 technology as an effective/creative method in their teaching (Sandholtz & Reilly. publish. 2010). social networks. Frye et al. and to participate in real life applications of literacy. Internet technologies offer individuals the ability to connect and interact in a social environment using online discussion tools. To achieve this charge. The first was designed to assist meaningful experiences with Internet resources (i. Strohmaier. The National Council for Social Studies encourages teachers to design technology–enhanced lessons that not only address social studies content. The Internet workshops were successful in providing teachers with the technological tools (blogs) used to research and publish instantly.com/reflect/researchresults. 2004).
students can create original music and video. In today's Information Age. student netiquette. safe use
. An important part of literacy and communication education includes how copyright laws and intellectual property issues affect online communication (McGrail. It is easier to type out hateful comments about someone.0 tools.31 time provides a 360-degree panoramic view of the classroom activity. Reflect records the classroom activities to a password protected website..0 tools and anytime anywhere Internet access. This eliminates the need for citing sources and produces original work providing students with in-depth learning and pride of ownership. design digital citizenship curricula for the classroom and school (i. rather than say it to their face. it is no wonder that many students have experienced cyberbullying. With the availability of Web 2. kids are susceptible to victimization. develop student leadership mentors. With the use of Web 2. To prepare students to be creative in their expression. develop a clear policy for on and off campus acceptable use. Levy (2011) offers best practices guidelines for helping educators to identify. With digital access around the clock. Hindujn and Patchin (2011) report the use of digital technology may have changed the method for bullying but not how it affects the individual.e. Begin by assess your schools cyberbullying issues. McGrail and McGrail recommend students not only have a good understanding of copyright and fair use principles. and prevent cyberbullying. & McGrail. address. students are not only media content consumers but also content creators. but also explore the possibility of creating their own original digital work. provide teacher training on prevention and responding to cyberbullying. where teachers can go back and review their lessons and evaluate their students' progress. 2010).
posture etc. For ergonomics to become second nature to students (i.). mental. how to monitor their online reputation). and play using their technology. reinforce the consistent message of responsible and ethical use of technology by soliciting support from parents and the community.
Summary Technology advances have changed the way students communicate.e. For the educator. and finely. proper lighting. these technological advances have revealed the need for more creativity and imagination in curriculum development. With the growing number of handheld eDevices and the extended amount of time individuals sit. These technology advances
. Students are entering the workplace with chronic repetitive strain injury problems (Grayson. it becomes the responsibility of the teachers and administrators to provide guidance in the correct ways to use technology (Kennedy. school administrators will have to support the funding for ergonomic workstations and provide training for teachers to model the correct use of technology in their environment. it is not surprising that the concern about students proper ergonomics is becoming a popular topic in education. musculoskeletal injuries.32 of social media. and physical discomfort. 2009). When students are required to use digital technology for communicating within the school's community. stand. share. Educators have to focus on teaching proper ergonomics and what the physical. Appropriate ergonomics has been crucial in the workplace for avoiding visual. and social ramifications are. and play digitally. 2009). when eDevices are used improperly.
safe. working collaboratively. the need to educate students to be global digital citizens and leaders becomes more apparent. The digital citizenship guide provides a foundation for teachers to educate their students in effective methods to communicate and understand the importance of being an effective. and sharing political issues around the world. Across the various curriculums this single source of information will guide teachers to promote digital citizenship discussions. explore valuable resources. As the development of new digital technology continues to evolve. in and out of the classroom.
.33 offer educators the resources and skills to engage with their students digitally and provide them with options for communicating. and provide methods to assess their student’s digital health. and responsible digital consumer.
Chapter 3 Methodology
Research Design For research to be effective in the educational community. and evaluation of instructional products (Richey & Klein. and well written. Individuals are selected that can best help in the understanding of the central phenomenon (Creswell. quantitative data was collected in the form of an online survey. The measure of central tendency was used to determine the mode of the 12 Question Survey
. while qualitative data aids in the development of an in-depth exploration of a central phenomenon. Out of the many types of research methods.15). it must be clear in its intent. At the end of each phase. 2005). based on reliable data. This research design included three phases. Quantitative data are useful for describing trends and explaining the relationship among variables found in the literature. These data provided valuable information for the further development of the guide. processes. 2008). consistent. and models for producing reliable and usable information. Creswell (2008) substantiates by adding. This developmental study blended qualitative and quantitative measures to aid in the content design of the digital citizenship guide. developmental research is a unique process for the design. Developmental research systematically examines products. "Research involves asking a question. and analyzing data to determine the answer to the question" (p. development. collecting data. tools.
Considering the audiences’ beliefs. In the first phase. Ross. These data generated a broad theory about the qualitative central phenomenon “grounded” in the data (Creswell. traditions. and the benefit of the resources. four teachers used the revised digital citizenship guide in their instruction.
Instrument Development Survey research is a form of quantitative research in which the investigator identifies a population. collects data using questionnaires or interviews. Four participants used the initial draft Digital Citizenship Guide in their respective classrooms and each were observed allowing raw data to be collected. In the second phase. & Kemp. For the final phase.35 when evaluating the Digital Citizenship Guide for readability. 2004). and past experiences and the roles these play in their learning process creates a cultural pluralism in formal education (Igoche & Branch. and draws
. 11 teachers attended a professional development seminar to learn how to use the digital citizenship guide. four members of the panel of experts reviewed the digital citizenship guide and the online survey. Designing and implementing a product requires defining teaching strategies to be incorporated in the lessons or training units (Morrison. value of the lessons. 2008). The generic ADDIE approach offers the instructional designer the opportunity to incorporate cultural values in the development of the instructional design process. 2009). Using grounded theory techniques to analyze participant’s experiences as they used the Digital Citizenship Guide in their instruction resulted in rich descriptions of not only each participants experience but the classroom experience as well.
In the first phase. During the second phase (the professional development workshop). Teachers' feedback was gathered at the end of this phase by an open-ended questionnaire and follow up interview. a Technology and 21st Century Skill Rubric for Teachers (2008) was administered. questions were drafted and SurveyMonkey was used to generate the survey. This rubric is based on the new International Society for Technology in Education 2008 teacher technology standard and was used as a self-evaluation instrument providing teachers instant data as to the their skill level (ISTE. Classroom observations were conducted and qualitative data was recorded to obtain descriptions of activities and interpersonal interactions. Based on the feedback from the panel of experts and the current literature. the 12 Question Survey instrument was developed to help determine the training needs. For phase three. 2008). These data provided a baseline of skill levels. This survey contained both open-ended response and preset questions and responses. The cost of the account was minimal and generated data were secured. 2009). Teachers were given opportunities to ask questions and clarification was provided during the presentation.36 conclusions about a population (Creswell. the four participating teachers used the revised guide in their instruction as a project based lesson.
Approach or Procedures 1. What do experienced teachers find missing in their instruction when teaching digital citizenship in a multicultural classroom?
As per Dick.. The literature review revealed a gap between what teachers know about teaching digital citizenship and how their students are using technology in and outside of the classroom. Their evaluation addressed reliability. Teachers would need specific guidance in how to teach safe and effective methods for communicating in the digital world. Permission was requested and granted by WMA to use the computer facilities (Appendix C). validity and completeness. subject matter experts reviewed and offered feedback. lessons. validated the 12 Question Survey instrument and reviewed the draft of the digital citizenship guide for teachers (Appendix A). Based upon the literature. competencies. and Carey (2001).37 A needs analysis (Morrison. Through an examination of current literature. 2004) was conducted to define the problem and a substantive need for training was determined based upon reporting in the literature. This step was based upon Morrison. they drew on their experience and helped to identify instructional goals for the digital citizenship guide. To validate these finding. IRB permission was required and obtained from NSU (Appendix D) in
. it appears as Appendix B. findings determined that before teachers could facilitate student's universal understanding of digital citizenship. (2004) who prescribed that during the design and development phases the instructional designer identifies the strategies and activities needed to reach the instructional goals. an outline of the skills. et al. Carey. The panel was comprised of WMA teachers who are knowledgeable about the culture of the students and the school. et al. and assessment procedures a digital citizen guide would need to include was developed.
a 12 Question Survey was administered to each participant (Appendix G). The seminar was conducted on April 3. firsthand experiences from the teachers as they learned about digital citizenship and teaching in a multicultural classroom. 2005). The workshop provided an opportunity to gather in-depth. a professional development workshop was offered to teachers. The questions addressed: 1. 2. Each participant in the workshop was emailed an informed consent form. The depth of benefit as a teaching resource
. these forms appear in Appendix E and F. Prior to the instructional workshop and classroom observations. At the end of the seminar. What should be included in a digital citizenship guide to prepare and support instructors for teaching students to be safe and effective digital communicators? A professional development workshop was taught to gather in-depth. The value of each lesson. participants signed consent forms. The implementation phase of instructional design focuses on the actual instruction (Igoche & Branch. 2009). 2011 and required three hours to complete. The criteria for choosing these teachers was based on a cross sampling of members from different departments. and technological backgrounds. The content in each unit for clarity and ease of presentation. 3.38 order to collect data from participants. care can be taken to insure objectivity by using systematic data collection techniques (Richey & Klein. their multicultural experiences. firsthand experiences from the teachers. To implement the digital citizenship guide. Although this situation is not preferable.
2. The number of computer stations limited the workshop to 10 participants.
Each participant in the instructional classroom observation was emailed an informed consent form. Do you feel your students benefited from the lessons and activities? 3. three individuals were invited to use the revised guide in their classroom instruction. 2009). for recommendations and improvements. A classroom observation was conducted to obtain descriptions of activities and interpersonal interactions. Did you feel the time and effort you spent preparing for the lessons and activities.39 4. What considerations need to be taken when planning lesson content for a digital citizenship guide for global learners? The evaluation phase of instructional design was to determine if the instruction is effective as well as to compose a plan for evaluating the instructional products and processes (Igoche & Branch. Written reflection of each unit. The evaluation of these data was used in the revision of the teacher’s guide for the next phase. From the 10 teachers who attended the workshop. Do you feel the students were engaged in the lessons and activities? 2. Each questions provided an area for the participants to offer further comments and reflect on the questions as well as their experiences. The follow up interview asked: 1. was time well spent? 4. The criteria for choosing these individuals was based on their willingness to use the guide in a curriculum based project. Is there any other topic or issue you would have this guide address?
3. Feedback was obtained via an open-ended questionnaire that allowed participants to compose their own responses.
At the beginning of the professional development workshop. The
. This pre-established instrument was used as an introduction to the workshop and to provide the teachers with an overview of their technological skills. the researcher develops his or her instruments asking questions to learn specific information from the participants (Creswell.40 5. The 12 Question Survey was administered in all three phases. participants were not random but rather chosen for their particular instructional expertise.
Data Collection Purposeful sampling was used. Do you think the guide accomplished its goal to provide you with an introduction to digital citizenship and provide examples of how to be safe and effective communicators in the digital world? The evaluation of these data was used in the final revision of the teacher’s guide for teaching digital citizenship at a global academy. the professional development workshop participants were given a 21st Century Skill Survey (Appendix H). During phase three. as well as the 12 Questions Survey proved the revisions of the Digital Citizenship Guide for the third phase. For this investigation. phase two. a 12-question Likert scale survey. the data collection used a quantitative measure. the four volunteer teachers used the revised guide and the researcher observed and evaluated the guide and the participant’s interactions. Instead of using a pre-established instrument. After reviewing the guide and offering their recommendations for improvements. the panel concluded by taking the 12 Question Survey. The panel of experts evaluated the questionnaire for clarity and validity. 2008). The qualitative data gathered from the workshop interactions.
Creswell (2008) states that a criterion for choosing individuals is based on what they know. The main resource required was time for participation. and their experience in using technology in their instruction. The experts had the necessary resources for viewing email and accessing the Internet to view the 12 Question Survey. was equipped with the technology needed to administer instruction of the digital citizenship guide. For phase three. the number of years they have worked at WMA. It created a common ground for using technology in their classroom. The faculty members were chosen for their years of experience as educators. as well as the 12 Questions Survey findings were used in the final revision of the digital citizenship guide.
Summary The goal was to develop an instructional guide that teaches educators methods for opening digital communication with their students. The faculty members at WMA have email accounts and have access to the Internet on campus throughout the academic day and evening.41 qualitative data gathered from these observations. A desired result was to determine the classroom cultural differences and clarify any misconceptions so educators can be more effective in their use
. which was used for the professional development seminar.
Resources The participants for this study were members of the WMA faculty. The computer lab at WMA. the teachers used the guide in their instruction and their classrooms were equipped with the necessary resources to instruct a unit from the digital citizenship guide.
.42 of technology. This digital citizenship guide can be used in any learning environment to address the fundamentals of digital citizenship and provide insight into the role culture plays in the use of technology in the classroom.
and classroom observations from the four participants using the guide in their instruction (Phase 3). Results from their 12 Question Survey were included in these findings. Multicultural Education. This chapter contains the results from three phases. and the evaluation. Teachers attended a workshop to learn how to use the digital citizenship guide in their instruction. These findings summarize the process as previously described in the methodology chapter the Digital Citizenship Guide underwent in its development. A panel of four subject-matter experts (Appendix I) helped to identify the instructional goals and to further the development of the Digital Citizenship Guide. The original draft was pieced together by infusing the literature referencing Web 2. The final phase includes four volunteers who participated in the workshop and agreed to use
Chapter 4 Results
Introduction The goal of the investigation was to develop a guide to teach digital citizenship based on the need derived from the gap in the literature. The instructional design followed the ADDIE system approach for needs analysis.0 technologies in Education. The second phase includes the findings from the participants of the instructional workshop (Appendix J). design. and Professional Development for Digital Educators. feedback from workshop participants (Phase 2). reviews from a panel of experts (Phase 1). implementation. development.
These categories included: instructional needs. multicultural considerations. For the analysis of the written comments collected during the three phases of this investigation (i. examined how these factors influence the phenomenon. This developmental study blended qualitative and quantitative measures. The central category. selecting one category as the core phenomenon. multicultural classroom. The content of the Digital Citizenship Guide was provided by the information within the categories and emerged from analyzing the data collected during the three phases of investigation.44 the guide in their classroom instruction (Appendix K). Analyzing qualitative research is an interpretive process that requires making sense of the data collected (Creswell. and providing an explanation for the interrelationship of the categories as per the recommendation of Creswell (2008). These findings included classroom observations. reviews of the digital guide. and the 12 Question Survey results. classroom observations. and timely discussion topics. Analyzing the data and placing them into themes revealed broad categories. a three-step approach to qualitative research data analysis was used.. 2008).
Needs Analysis A need for developing a Digital Citizenship Guide for teachers was revealed in the current literature. This approach included determining initial categories of information about the phenomenon. valuable resources. and participant interviews). professional development. the development of the Digital Citizenship Guide. The collection of data provided broad factors that influence the core phenomenon. lesson plans.e. which led to the specific strategies used in the final revision of the guide. interview questions.
how students should use technology to communicate in a global.com). An additional recommendation was to introduce students to the Wayback Machine (http://www. while others chose to email their findings. and completeness. These search engines and archive websites reveal ones digital footprints on the Internet. digital society).e.archive. The panel of experts helped in the analysis by evaluating the initial Digital Citizenship Guide for reliability. such as edmodo. The panel of experts offered various forms of feedback.ca/). such as written notes made directly to their copy of the guide. and references to the lesson areas of the guide. The panel of experts found the resources offered in the guide as “very relevant and helpful”.45 Phase 1. An example was offered to introduce a digital community for classroom projects. validity.com (http://edmodo. resources. Panel of Experts As discussed in chapter two a large gap was noted in the current literature regarding digital citizenship and how it should be taught (i.php) and the Digital Tattoo (http://digitaltattoo..org/web/web. These resources can be an eye opening experience for
.ubc. The Digital Citizenship Guide was created to fill this gap. Another area that the experts felt an addition was warranted was the inclusion of a component on plagiarism as many cultures view this topic differently. This is a social media tool that mimics the look and feel of Facebook without breaching safety concerns or sharing personal data. Their comments reinforced the validity of the guide’s content by stating: “One daily challenge teachers live with are understanding and managing student’s use of technology. Suggestions included providing more Internet links. Unit one lessons provide a good foundation for the conversation in the classroom”.
particularly in a global classroom". that student lack of English skills might hinder their ability (or comfort) to offer feedback when asked to discuss various topics addressed in the guide. Some of the findings uncovered areas where English as a Second Language (ESL) students may not understand some terms used. “Students coming from cultures that do not honor Intellectual Property (IP) are having difficulty understanding what all the fuss is about in our classrooms”. “a piece about plagiarism.46 many students as they realize what their digital dossier is and what the implications can be. Comments regarding the multicultural classroom supported the need for considerations when teaching digital citizenship at a global school. "One of the best ways to breakdown the barriers of cross-cultural miscommunication are to understand where everyone is coming from. Recommendations were given for adding bullets under the discussion topic area for readability and labeling lessons more clearly. if any. since this is viewed so differently in other cultures..
.. Another suggestion was to include.” The Experts offered comments for formatting and correcting minor typographical errors throughout the guide and corrections were made. “It is helpful for teachers to know what to expect as they move from one unit to the next" reinforced the basic structure of the format. An expert in ESL warned. The expert offered. It's a good topic. Areas where concepts were deemed confusing were clarified. An expert felt the Digital Citizenship Guide's topics provide international students an opportunity to speak out in class and be considered an “expert” on the differences within their cultures. Positive feedback was given on the use of topic heading. Comments such as.
society norms to the discussion topics and to include where and when in curriculum this topic should be addressed.
Design and Development Phase 2.
. “With rising digital divide between haves and have-nots. To reach the desired number of participants (10). The revised guide was then used in phase 2. such as the exclusion of equal digital access issues. The workshop participants provided written and survey responses that were completed by two separate groups. Both groups took the same 12 Question Survey and were given an opportunity to address any comments or concerns related to the guide. professional development workshop. Another suggestion included adding digital laws vs. how does a true global digital citizen address the huge groups without access?” This discussion topic was added addressing digital divide issues and how teachers can address this in their classroom. but rather were given the guide for reviewing and asked to discuss their findings. From this request 11 volunteers participated as guide review members. One expert commented. Originally. six more individuals were invited to participate (Appendix M). The four new members in the second group did not meet at a formal workshop. Only seven were able to attend and participate in the formal workshop and presentation of the guide.47 Some important details were uncovered by the panel of experts. Professional Development Workshop Participants Feedback from the panel of experts offered corrections for the revision of the guide and the workshop was scheduled. These recommendations were offered and corrections were made to the Digital Citizenship Guide. 19 teachers were invited to attend the workshop.
0 1. and Academic Services Departments. Several minutes were spent discussing the value of the teacher’s skills rubric and how individuals could use these findings to gauge their personal growth. Art. Promote and Model Digital Citizenship and Responsibility 5. 4 3
Total Composite Score Guidelines Outstanding.48 The workshop participants were comprised of five academic chairs from the English. Engage in Professional Growth and Leadership
Total Mean Median Mode
30 14 26 26 28
3 1 3
0. Most of the time. Summary
Questions 1. Proficient
.6 2. Library Services. Facilitate and Inspire Student Learning and Creativity 2. ESL.2 Technology and 21st Century Skills Rubric. Design and Develop Digital-Age Learning Experiences and Assessments 3. Model Digital-Age Work and Learning 4. Table 2 represents a summary of the results. 3
3 3. The rubric is a self-assessment tool used to gauge the participant’s level of technology use and provide a baseline for future assessments. Purposeful. At the start of the workshop the teachers were given a 21st Century Skills Rubric to outline their use of technology and their various skill levels. A complete version of these findings can be found in Appendix N.6 2. Intentionally. Math. The other representatives were members of the World Languages.1. Consistently.4 2. with a mode from 3 to 4 for each question. Table 4. and CEGS “History” Departments. Advanced Great. representing all the major departments at WMA and 113 years teaching and leadership experience lending credence to this important step toward achieving excellence in digital citizenship. The overall findings of this assessment were good to great as shown in Table 2.
During the workshop. and plagiarism. Basic Fair. Unit 1: Digital Citizenship.49
Good. In Unit 1. teachers explored how their students communicate digitally. Limited Not at this time. Clarification of terms would help to facilitate a
. Intellectual property and public domain were topics that were discussed in full detail. such as fair use. Inconsistent.4. Need training and/or to Investigate Further =2 =1 =0
Overall. Teachers were provided with discussion topics to determine what students perceive as their digital rights and responsibilities in and out of the classroom. public domain. the findings indicate a good sampling of participants from WMA. copyright. out of the 11 participants. Note. Planned. Educators at WMA would benefit from the type of instructional workshop denoted in question 2. In Unit 1: Lesson 1. each unit was introduced and content was discussed. It was suggested a list of definitions and acronyms be added to the introduction section of the guide. Spontaneous. The workshop continued with an introduction to digital citizenship at a global academy. Introductory. A weakness can be found in the design and development of digital age learning (question 2) as indicated by mean 1. An overview on how to use the guide was given. It was explained how the guide was divided into three units. one teacher chose not to complete the skills rubric. the discussion centered on the need for more examples and definitions of terms. The discussion began with the definition of digital citizenship and the group explored the various ways digital citizenship has been addressed in their classrooms as well as in the dorms. Unit 2: Role of Culture. The participants made suggestions to add more examples and references in the resources section. intellectual property. and Unit 3: Digital Safety and Security.
com). Teachers will need to determine how it would best meet their instructional needs. the faculty discussion on Unit 1 was positive and the constructive feedback was beneficial in the continued development of the unit.50 teacher’s better understanding of the topic and help discern differences in cultures. A faculty member commented on Lesson 1/1 stating that the digital rights and responsibilities exercise would be a great way to introduce proper citation to ESL students. An overview of Unit 2 began with an introduction as to the role culture plays in the use of technology. The discussion then went on to address the importance of the guide’s design in its flexibility to work within many curriculums. "I think the topics covered are very relevant to what we are doing and should be doing at WMA" and "The guide was straightforward and gave examples of projects that would be useful in the classroom"). This unit provides teachers with the tools needed to create very clear expectations for technology use in the classroom. She noted this adjustment was for ESL students that needed to fully understand the concept of citations. Faculty discussions centered on the need to add more flexibility in choosing lessons and time to test various options before using the lesson in classroom instruction. Overall. confirms that the guide covers the subjects that are necessary in the 21-century classroom. Participant's offered comments (i. Having access to lessons that have been tested provides teachers with resources and frees up their time to apply their content.e. The Instructor felt she would have to make adjustments to the lesson before using the online resource such as EasyBib (http://easybib.. An example of an academic digital contract was offered as a guideline to determine how technology will be used in each classroom. This led to a discussion on the importance of determining the different
An overview began
. Students would then interpret their findings and share them with the class. The majority expressed the desire to know more about the different cultures at our school and how culture affects a student’s understanding of the effectiveness of technology use. the comments and discussions on Unit 2 were very informative and added significant improvements to the teacher’s guide. Unit 3 investigates the precautions that students need to take to protect their physical safety and personal security on the Internet and intranets. Discussions explored how to enhance student's critical thinking skills as it pertains to plagiarism. Many felt this would be a “welcome change”. It became apparent through group discussion that perhaps each classroom might need to develop its own Academic Digital Contract (ADC) for technological needs differ from course to course. An interesting point was brought to the group’s attention when discussing the school’s AUP. The participants provided thoughtful examples of the various ways in which they use technology in their curriculum. “Especially in an ESL classroom where the specifics may be the most interesting to students. One teacher noted. One idea was to have students investigate copyright laws in their own countries and to allow students to accomplish this research in their own language.51 cultures within the classroom and what students perceive as acceptable use of technology in and outside of the classroom. WMA has an AUP that does not include digital media and handheld devices in instruction. In general. This discussion reinforced the need for a lesson in Unit 2 to provide the teacher with instructions on how to facilitate the process of creating an ADC for their classroom. it best enables them to give their opinions”.
the above conversation suggests segregating the two topics would improve the unit’s readability and flow. Another area that prompted a lively discussion was student’s digital safety. Many valid points were raised in the discussions about ergonomics. Discussions centered on the changing Internet and how it affects the ways individuals interact making yesterday’s concerns either obsolete or less important. One instructor thought Lesson 3/3 would be a good group building and confidence boosting assignment.52 with a discussion on topics of personal safety and security. international students could evaluate their dorm rooms. Clearly. Using OSHA standards. A discussion evolved into questioning why the two equally important. digital safety and into its own unit physical wellness was suggested. This would be a great language practice and proficiency skill builder. One was to include links or
. These conversations reflect the agreement that there is just the right amount of information in Unit 3. Members noted a significant difference in the two topics: physical safety and personal security. There were two notable suggestions made for the improvement of Unit 3. It was determined that the need for a visual of proper ergonomics at a computer workstation would be useful as an overview in the background information section. Other members of the group felt that protecting one’s personal information on the Internet is a lesson that teenagers definitely need to experience. Some members felt that the unit was somewhat of a cautionary tale and old fashioned. but uniquely different topics were joined together. The idea of splitting the unit into two. This is demonstrated in decreased warnings about not publishing personal videos and pictures and or buying products on the Internet.
Five individuals were invited to participate in the final phase. the revisions were made to the Digital Citizenship Guide. four replied that they would use the guide during a classroom observation. Implementation Phase 3. Out of the five teachers who were invited. contributed to the final revision of the guide. These individuals had indicated at the end of the workshop that they might be interested in using the guide in their instruction. This extra time provided them with an opportunity to reflect on the experience and think about their responses. and participants were asked to complete the survey on their own. All projects and assignments had a date and time determined by the classroom teacher for an observation. After the workshop concluded and data were analyzed. The workshop ended at 3 p. They were asked to return their feedback by the end of the school week.m. Classroom Observations Classroom observations proved the implementation of the guide to be observed firsthand along with follow up interview questions and the 12 Question Survey responses. The teachers were asked to choose which unit(s) they would like to use as a project or assignment.53 names of documentaries that illustrate proper ergonomics and the other was to provide an assessment for Lesson 3/3 concerning the protection of privacy. Many teachers in the group had afternoon dorm responsibilities and family obligations and needed to leave. The revised Digital Citizenship Guide was then given to the volunteers who agreed to use the guide in their classroom instruction. The second revision of the Digital Citizenship Guide combined the feedback from the 12 Question Survey and the workshop participants written responses.
Even though the Student Media and Technology Survey (Digital Citizenship Guide p.com) while another added they also went to YouTube (http://youtube. Most students said they only watched while one individual said they had posted
. the instructor felt the information would be beneficial to her understanding of what her students knew about technology use. but all reported that they were aware that it occurs. The instructor began by introducing the topic and the reason for including this information in their lesson. 2011 at 10:05 am during a 45minute block.13) was not a resource in this unit.com). The instructor chose Unit 3’s Digital safety and physical wellness as an introduction to a digital security lesson. A lively discussion began when the question was asked as to whether they used social media sites? Most of the students responded that they used Facebook (http://facebook. the instructor began the discussion by asking the students what type of activities they chose to do on the Internet? Did they buy products online? Download music? Play games? The majority of the students replied they did all of the above.54 Observation 1. Financial Markets: Global Dimensions The first classroom observation was on May 13.com). three seniors and three juniors. A discussion on Internet fraud began when they were asked if anyone had his or her identity stolen. No one in the room had any incidents. In attendance were six out of seven male students. to buy items and did not worry that their personal information was at risk. Many students felt it was safe to go to websites such as Amazon (http://amazon. The teacher asked if they posted to YouTube or mostly watched the videos. The teacher administered the survey and when the students were done. Three students were international boarding and three were day students.
“With all that time you are spending buying. and playing games on the Internet. The teacher asked the students how much time they spent daily at social media sites. after viewing the video he had a better understanding of how to protect his personal information on the Internet. Halfway through the presentation.” Another student reported that he used his Smartphone to access the Internet. The majority of the students replied that they were aware and most of them had chosen settings to fit their needs. They stated that they only allowed friends to view their information.18). and could stay connected all day and night. “If we were allowed to use Facebook during the academic day. The instructor asked if the students felt their personal information was safe on social media sites. One student stated he did not know if his information was safe. Most of the responses were positive but qualified by the fact that they did not have much information out there. do you ever feel any physical discomfort?” “Do you experience any numbing in your hands or fingers from holding a phone for extended periods or do your eyes feel strained after extensive computer use?” “Does anyone know
. Some students responded with only a few times a day. One individual noted that he did not know where the settings were located. This conversation was a good segue into the video. He stated. communicating. With only a few minutes left to the class. the instructor wanted to know what the students knew about ergonomics. the instructor stopped the video and asked the students if they were aware of the privacy setting in their preference panel in their Facebook account. One student said. The instructor began the discussion by asking several questions. “Protecting Your Privacy on Facebook” (Digital Citizenship Guide. p.55 videos. I would probably use it more often. The instructor began the video and students seemed to watch attentively. downloading.
three of whom were international boarding and two day students.56 what ergonomic are?” Students responded that they were not knowledgeable in this area. as an introduction of how to cite sources correctly. Digital rights and responsibilities. The instructor chose Unit 1: Lesson 1. they did not realize the depth of the physical. 2011 at 10:05 am. and remembering to be safe and responsible when using technology. Although the teacher was not assigning her students Lesson 1’s digital book review. In attendance were five students. This included tips on proper overhead lighting. Observation 2. Due to scheduling restraints. The teacher concluded the class by reviewing some tips for remaining physically safe while using technology.” “I know when you get older you can get carpel tunnel syndrome from using the computer too much” “When my hand gets tired. you can get chairs that are ergonomic. working in excess at a computer screen for an extended amount of time. I switch my phone over to the other hand. Ceramics The second classroom observation was on May 17. Three were seniors and the others were juniors. mental.” Although some of the students were aware of the term and its application to technology.
. Responses included “Yes. the teacher asked if she could use the first 20 minutes of her 45minute class time to introduce the topic for discussion. Many of the students were aware of the details of ergonomics in general. The instructor felt that the content of Lesson 1 fit nicely into what she had previously assigned her students. she did ask them to conduct research for a digital presentation. and social issues associated with using technology. three males and two females. the importance of taking frequent breaks when writing long papers.
When no one in class offered a definition. At this point in the discussion. Although the instructor felt her students understood the general concept of copyright.57 The teacher wanted to be sure her students understood the concepts of copyright and how to cite sources correctly including knowing what their responsibility are when citing digital work of others. The class began with the students gathered around one of the sculpting tables. they might need to know how to correctly copyright their creations. The teacher confirmed that fair use offers some exceptions for educational use. The teacher asked her students to define copyright. and images all used in commerce. symbols. but suggested it had something to do with copyrighted material. she provided them with a more formal definition. as well as in certain circumstances. She referred to the resources within Unit 1 under the topic of IP and explained that IP refers to creations of the mind. Next. she asked if anyone had questions about IP or any other topic discussed. she stated that she had to look it up to be sure she understood the term. The instructor explained that as future artists. “When using copyrighted information for schoolwork that is ok”. names. The students described copyright as “laws that protect people who create stuff” and “like when you write books or songs”. The instructor introduced the topic and the reason for including this information in their lesson. No one offered
. A student remarked. She also wanted to be sure that her students knew that digital media had to be cited. This includes inventions. The discussion started with an overview of what copyrighted materials are. literary and artistic works. she asked if they knew the difference in fair use and copyright? Students offered no exact definitions. A brief discussion about intellectual property (IP) began when the teacher asked the students if they could define the term.
She noted four stipulations for works that are considered PD. all seniors and Post Graduates (PG). The instructor chose Unit 1’s Lesson 2. 2011 at 8:50 am during a 45minute block. The instructor explained that her students liked to have something in their hands to work from and refer to as they discussed information. The instructor chose to design her own question survey and administer it to her students. and works dedicated to the public domain.58 any questions so she moved on to the final topic. The teacher concluded the discussion by reiterating that it is the student’s responsibility to be aware of copyright laws and issues. The questions that were included in her survey followed the discussion topics found in Lesson 2. In attendance were seven students. Observation 3. Digital Etiquette. Digital Etiquette. She hoped that her introduction or review of these topics would be beneficial to the students’ upcoming presentations as well as for the students who were planning to go to college. works created before the laws (1989). works that never had copyright protections.
. four were international boarding and three were day students. The instructor provided the students with a definition of public domain. four males and three females. public domain (PD). works that have an expired copyright protection. works not owned by someone and therefore are not protected by copyright laws. The instructor began by introducing the topic and the reason for including this information in their lesson. Global Literature The third classroom observation was on May 23. as an introduction to digital communication and citizenship. Of these students.
they did think that all teenagers had one. she gave pause to her assumptions and asked if anyone knew of a student who did not have a cell phone? The majority of students reported that most of their friends had cell phones. The teacher suggested that there were issues and concerns about students being distracted in class and using phones for sharing answers to tests. The majority of students felt it was unfair not to be able to use cell phones during the day. The teacher seemed to find the student responses interesting. The students expressed that they found it strange for a student not to have a cell phone. the teacher offered some assumptions: “Would I be correct to say that you all have used the Internet and you all have cell phones and have texted messages?” At this point.59 The students used the first 10 minutes of class time to fill out the questions on the general technology usage. The teacher speculated on the possibility of developing an agreed-upon contract within the class where cell phone use might be allowed. but they also felt that some users would have to be held accountable for misuse.
. “Sometimes when I don’t understand a term. The students agreed that there were some legitimate reasons for using handheld devices during the school day. teacher-supplied. One student offered a name of an individual who did not have one. I ask my teacher if I can use my phone to look up the definition”. Some were not convinced that all students would follow the rules of the agreement stipulated in the contract. The teacher offered a revision on the question. She said she should have asked whether they believed that every high school student had a cell phone. Once completed. Student responses were mostly positive. A student shared. survey. A lively discussion centered on how students use their cell phones during the academic day. The instructor noted that the students reported that although they did not think everyone had a cell phone.
“Wow. a student agreed that she would take on the part of a person using her phone in a crowded restaurant. Someone added that
. the phone rang and she was speaking loudly about the blind date she had the previous night. Some students said that would never occur because they have their phone on vibrate. They spoke of being embarrassed hearing her personal conversation. The teachers asked if there was a time when it may be appropriate to answer the phone such as a doctor on call or a call from a babysitter. They added that they felt it was their choice to have them on or not on. The teacher asked for some examples of more appropriate ways to handle a cell phone ringing loudly in a crowded restaurant. the teacher said. Another topic discussed included whether phones be allowed in buildings in general. A question was raised as to whether it was okay to use the phone in the school locker room. After much debate. Some felt that they should take their call outside where they would not disturb anyone.60 The instructor asked for a volunteer to participate in the assessment portion of Unit1. Some students stated they should always be able to have their phones with them. After the student’s delivery of the scenario. Within a minute. what was that all about? Did anyone find that inappropriate?” A lively discussion began as students offered their opinions as to why they felt the person on the phone was being inconsiderate of the others around her. Some thought it was funny to eavesdrop on someone’s blind date until they considered that “they” could have been the person being talked about. Others said they don’t answer their phone when they are busy doing something else with someone else. The crowded restaurant scenario. This sparked the discussion of who should be able to have their phones on at all times and who should not be allowed.
10th and 11th graders. Student Media and Technology Survey (Appendix P) was handed out at the beginning of the class and the teacher
. There was a poignant pause in their conversation. 2011 at 12:40 p.” Observation 4. The Common Sense. In attendance. The teacher concluded by stating. of these students six were international boarding and one was a day student. Conversations have to take place so we can all understand the consequences of using technology and how it affects others around us. during a 45-minute block. The instructor began by introducing the topic and the reason for using the digital citizenship guide in their lesson. technology issues were found everywhere. “Do you see similar situations occurring in crowded restaurants and movie theaters in other countries?” Many acknowledged it was “different but similar” and “depended on who you were with and where you were”. At the end of the session.m. p. The second meeting was June 3.61 many phones have cameras and this would present a problem. The instructor chose Unit 2’s The Role Culture Plays in the Use of Technology (Digital Citizenship Guide.12) as an introduction on technology use and how differences in culture determine digital communication and citizenship. Writing Workshop The fourth classroom observation was on May 31. “There is no one correct answer to any of these questions. The idea of one’s culture came into the conversation when someone asked whether using technology in other countries differs. 2011 at 12:40 p. the teacher requested an additional day to continue with the class discussion.m. The teacher asked. They did agree that although the cultures of different countries were different. Five males and two females. during a 45-minute block. were seven.
” (WMA limits the daily amount of megabytes for downloading to 500 mb. A student said. After a short time. “I can’t even watch TV shows from China and Skype in the same day because I go over the 500 mb a day rule. students would respond with the answer off their given survey and add how they would agree or disagree. the topic of Internet speed and access on campus was cause for much debate. it soon became clear that the process was confusing to students.) Another student expressed that “at home I don’t think about the amount I am downloading or how much time I spend watching movies”. Only three individuals who reported owning a phone said the phone did not have Internet access. Although.62 provided explanations as needed. The teacher asked them to read the answers from the survey on hand. it appeared the topic became more relevant. When discussing the types of media students use. Some of the responses on the survey were in line with what are becoming high school student’s norms. These conversations led the class to talk about how they were or were not monitored by their parents. such as owning a cell phone. Students were not clear if they should read from the answers on the survey or if they should address the questions as if they were being asked directly. the majority of the class found having limited download permissions very different from home. They appeared to feel it important to make a distinction from what they read and how they felt about the topic. Students took several minutes to complete the survey and the teacher redistributed it so everyone had another person's survey. the teacher took the time to go through each of the questions prompting students to get engaged in the discussion. As international students. Later. Some students reported that their
. he explained that he would consider not redistributing the surveys in future classes. When they added their own feelings.
“If my country had laws. When the instructor asked the students why they might post negative comments on someone’s Facebook wall. A discussion on how people perceive things came about when a student brought up the idea that different cultures may not understand subtleties or sarcasm. the people are not adhering to them. they suggested it might be because they are bored. The teacher explained that there are times when communication can be misinterpreted because some things do not translate to other cultures the way they are meant. The teacher asked for a definition of cyberbullying. The teacher defined the term intellectual property as property created from your mind. People all the
.63 parents knew what they were doing but rarely checked up on them. “posting something negative on someone’s Facebook wall”. Comments ranged from “making fun of someone”. IP is divided into two categories. This resulted from a request from a few students from the previous class. the teacher said the class would meet again on Friday and continue the discussion. They told them and found that sometimes they checked to be sure. He asked the question. “Do you know what your copyright law or guidelines are in your country?” One student said. industrial property and copyright. to “texting about someone then sharing it with others to intentionally hurt feelings”. especially when they are being communicated digitally. Personal feelings are hard to interpret sometimes. At this time. Others reported that their parents asked them what they were doing. The second Writing Workshop’s class discussion began with the topic of cyberbullying and intellectual property. People from different cultures may not realize that someone is making fun of them or using them as an example in their joke.
He highlighted how this was a valuable and enlightening experience. He continued to say that laws may not be reinforced. work together. and be tolerant of each other’s differences. but there are regulations for digital media that everyone should be made aware. The interviews collected the instructors’ impressions of how the digital citizenship guide preformed as an instructional tool. one should learn to respect one another. The teachers who participated in the workshops and classroom observations exhibited a genuine interest in the topic of digital citizenship. See the complete interview responses from teachers in Appendix R. The continued support of
. Interviews were conducted with the teachers after the class presentations and observations were performed. The teacher concluded by thanking the students for the opportunity to have these in-depth conversations about how culture affects their digital communication with them. Interview with Classroom Observation Participants The findings from the classroom observations provide an opportunity to view firsthand how the Digital Citizenship Guide performs in its intended environment. He emphasized that in order to be a good digital citizen.64 time are downloading and sharing files”. Their feedback provided an opportunity to discus the observations firsthand and to determine if there were issues that still needed to be addressed in the final revision of the guide. Five open-ended questions were asked during the interview process to collect qualitative feedback regarding the guide’s effectiveness in accomplishing its goals. The teacher noted that Peer-2-Peer file sharing was not legal anywhere. to provide teachers with an introduction to digital citizenship and provide examples of how to be safe and effective communicators in the digital world.
.65 the teachers was essential in the guide’s growth. An average score is expressed as the mean. One member expressed this in his commentary “…the guide is comprehensive and thorough.3 below summarizes the data collected from Units 1. the middle of the set of scores. and the most frequently occurring score. Phase 1. Feedback such as this added to the depth and breadth of the development of the digital citizenship guide and to this study. All of the topics are given proper consideration and can only act as springboards for further discussion. and 3. as an indicator of the participants findings as they evaluated the Digital Citizenship Guide for clarity. and its benefit in a multicultural classroom. …adding too much could take away from the process of group discovery”. validity. 2. Each member of the panel is represented in the response count and the bold numbers indicate the mode with the coordinating percentages. is the mode.
Evaluation Analyzing quantitative data differs from that of the qualitative data in that it summarizes numbers that represent a single value in a distribution of scores. Panel of Experts The participants in phase 1 took the survey and their complete findings are included in Appendix L. is the median. The 12 Question Survey used in this investigation reported the most frequently occurring score. Table 4.
I found the amount of information in Unit 2: Role of Culture to be: 7. When asked about the overall findings of the guide’s clarity of content and ease of use.
Strongly Agree = 5 Somewhat Agree = 4 Of Much Value Strongly Agree = 5
Response Count 3 1 4 4
Response Percent 75.0% 25.0% 25.
The panel of expert’s survey findings offered constructive feedback for making improvements to the Digital Citizenship Guide. 12. a majority of experts (91%) found the “amount” and “value” of the information in each unit to be “just the right amount” and “of much value”. Unit 2’s content was easy to read and understand. This unit was easy to read and understand. Please take a moment to reflect on Unit 2: Role of Culture and offer recommendations for its improvement. Although. it indicated a need for continued investigation to improve the readability and clarity.0% 25. several comments indicated a need for improving and making additions to the content. 2. Overall.0%
Questions for Unit 3: Digital Safety
9. I have found the information in Unit 3: Digital Safety useful.3 Panel of Expert’s. the majority (83%) strongly agreed. I found the value of lessons in Unit 1 to be: 3. Overall. Although this was positive. I have found the information in Unit 2: Role of Culture useful.
Strongly Agree= 5 Just the right amount information Strongly Agree= 5 Somewhat Agree= 4
Response Count 4 4 3 1 4
Response Percent 100 % 100 % 75. I have found the information in Unit 1 beneficial to my instruction. Unit 1’s content was clear in its presentation and easy to follow. Please take a moment to reflect on Unit 3: Digital Safety and offer recommendations for its improvement. Please take a moment to reflect on Unit 1: Digital Citizenship and offer recommendations for its improvement. 10.66 Table 4.
. 6. As a teaching resource. 4.0% 25. Summary from 12 Question Survey
Questions for Unit 1: Digital Citizenship
1.0% 75. The Bold numbers above indicate the mode from the results of the panel of expert’s survey. I found the amount of information in Unit 3: Digital Safety to be: 11.0%
Note.0% 75.0% 100 % 100 %
Questions for Unit 2: Role of Culture
Strongly Agree = 5 Somewhat Agree = 4 Just the right amount information Too little information Strongly Agree = 5 Somewhat Agree = 4
Response Count 3 1 3 1 3 1 4
Response Percent 75. 8.
Table 4.2 % 63.5 % 45. As a teaching resource. Table 4. 2.3 %
. Unit 1’s content was clear in its presentation and easy to follow.6 % 9. These findings reinforced the need for the proposed digital citizenship guide. I have found the information in Unit 1 beneficial to my instruction.9 % 9. and safety concerns. I found the value of lessons in Unit 1 to be: 3.09 % 54. the experts agreed that the teachers' guide covered most of the important aspects of technology use.4 Professional Development Workshop. the cultural issues. Summary from 12 Question Survey
Questions for Unit 1: Digital Citizenship
1. and 3. Clearly. These include the norms and regulations practiced in technological communities. See complete results from surveys in Appendix O. Phase 2. Generally.4 below summarizes data collected for Units 1. 4.
Strongly Agree = 5 Somewhat Agree = 4 Of much value Of some value Strongly Agree = 5 Somewhat Agree = 4 Neither Agree Disagree = 3
Response Count 10 1 6 5 3 7 1 11
Response Percent 90.6 % 36. Please take a moment to reflect on Unit 1: Digital Citizenship and offer recommendations for its improvement. 2.09%
Questions for Unit 2: Role of Culture
5. Summary from 12 Questions Survey At the end of the professional development workshop. Professional Development Workshop. Unit 2’s content was easy to read and understand.67 As a teaching resource 83% of the experts “strongly agree” that the information in each unit was “useful” and “beneficial” to their instruction. participants completed a survey.4 % 27. Each member of the workshop (11) is represented in the response count and bold indicators show the preferred choice mode with the coordinating percentages.
Strongly Agree = 5 Somewhat Agree = 4
Response Count 7 4
Response Percent 63. there is room for continued development in this area. The panel of experts’ recommendations and reflections were paramount in the continued development of the guide.
I have found the information in Unit 2: Role of Culture useful.1 % 63. the Social Network Contract.6 % 36. I found the amount of information in Unit 2: Role of Culture to be: Too much Information Just the right amount information Too little information Strongly Agree = 5 Somewhat Agree = 4 1 8 2 7 4 11 Response Count 9 2 11 9 2 11 Response Percent 81. the majority of the group (63.
6. Although many (66.
Strongly Agree = 5 Somewhat Agree = 4 Just the right amount information Strongly Agree = 5 Somewhat Agree = 4
Note. Others questioned the example of an ADC.6%) found that Unit 1 was somewhat beneficial to their instruction while only 27. although the workshop debates uncovered a need for more description of terms. As a teaching resource. Overall.4% reported them to be of some value.1 % 9.2% strongly agreed. I have found the information in Unit 3 (Digital Safety) useful. 10. The majority of members (90%) strongly agreed that Unit 1’s content was clear and was easy to follow. The bold numbers above indicate the mode from the results of the workshop participant's survey. 12. 8.3 %
7. Suggestions for adding more scenarios or role playing activities for the digital etiquette section were offered.8 % 18.
Questions for Unit 3: Digital Safety
9. Because little time was taken to discuss the topic. some faculty felt that the material presented in the example of Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions as related to Dynamics of New Media was dense and too confusing. This reinforces the need to make improvements on the unit’s instructional resources.1 % 100 % 81. Stating that having more resources to offer teachers and more options will improve the flexibility of the guide. I found the amount of information in Unit 3: Digital Safety to be: 11. They stated they found this contract too vague. Overall.5 % found the lessons to be of much value while 45. Please take a moment to reflect on Unit 2: Role of Culture and offer recommendations for its improvement.8 % 18. Please take a moment to reflect on Unit 3: Digital Safety and offer recommendations for its improvement. it was suggested placing the chart in the appendix of the guide would be preferable.6%) of the participants strongly agree that the information in Unit 2 is useful.09 % 72. 54. This unit was easy to read and understand.
The teachers’ assessments of the value of the lessons in Unit 1 were split.7 % 18.
81." reinforces the unanimous finding that this unit has just the right amount of information. Phase 3. The comment.1% somewhat agreed and suggested adding definition of terms. Example of country’s policies and law regarding technology as a research project (Digital Citizenship Guide p. thorough. Classroom Observations The final evaluation of the Digital Citizenship Guide combined teacher interviews and the results from the12 Question Survey. and comprehensive.13). a suggestion was made for adding an assessment tools to Lesson 3/1 Protecting Your Privacy.69 Moving this to the appendix and providing more information regarding its content would be more beneficial to the reader. "This unit highlighted the importance of securing all personal information to guard against any abuse and/or misuse." while 18. Suggestions were made for adding more discussion topic on multicultural issues. The majority of participants agreed that Unit 3's material was valuable. "The guide was straightforward and gave examples of projects that would be useful in the classroom. Workshop participants responded 72.8%. Another idea that would work nicely with the assessment for Lesson 2/1 was to have an AP Statistics class compile data and make statistical findings available to the classroom teachers from Table 1. The teachers that participated in the
. 81% strongly agreed that the Unit 3's information was useful. One participant stated. Participants reported that Unit 3's content was easy to read and understand. While. The findings regarding the content of Unit 2 showed that 63.2% felt there was "Just the right amount of information" in Unit 2.6% strongly agrees that it was easy to read and understand.
Unit 1’s content was clear in its presentation and easy to follow. 12. Table 4. I found the amount of information in Unit 3: Digital Safety to be: 11. The bold numbers indicate the mode from the classroom observations participant's survey. 4.3% 66.
Strong Agree= 5 Just the right amount information Strongly Agree= 5
Response Percent 100 % 100 % 100 %
Response Count 3 3 3 0
Note. This unit was easy to read and understand. I found the amount of information in Unit 2: Role of Culture to be: 7.7% 33.7%
Respons e Count 3 2 1 2 0
Questions for Unit 3: Digital Safety
9.7% 33. Each participant of the classroom observation is represented in the response count and bold indicators show the preferred choice mode with the coordinating percentages. I have found the information in Unit 1 beneficial to my instruction. Unit 2’s content was easy to read and understand.7% 33.3% 66. 6. Overall.70 classroom observations were given the option of addressing only the unit that they used in their instruction.3% 66.5 Classroom Observations. 2. 2. I found the value of lessons in Unit 1 to be: 3.
Strong Agree= 5 Somewhat Agree= 4 Of much value Of some value Strong Agree= 5 Somewhat Agree= 4
Response Percent 66.
Strong Agree= 5 Just the right amount information Strongly Agree= 5 Somewhat Agree= 4
Response Percent 100 % 66. Overall. I have found the information in Unit 2: Role of Culture useful. Please take a moment to reflect on Unit 2: Role of Culture and offer recommendations for its improvement.7% 33. Please take a moment to reflect on Unit 3: Digital Safety and offer recommendations for its improvement. Summary from 12 Question Survey
Questions for Unit1: Digital Citizenship
1. Please take a moment to reflect on Unit 1: Digital Citizenship and offer recommendations for its improvement. As a teaching resource.
. and 3. 10.5 below summarizes data collected for Units 1. 8. See complete results from surveys in Appendix Q.3%
Respons e Count 2 1 2 1 2 1 0
Questions for Unit 2: Role of Culture
5. Table 4. I have found the information in Unit 3: Digital Safety useful.
The qualitative data collected during the three phases of this investigation provided examples of how culture affects student’s use and misuse of technology in and out of the classroom. These participants suggested improvements in the content and the resource areas of the guide. in both content and volume of information. The classroom observations and the findings from the participant’s written responses provided rich and dense descriptions of how the guide performed in an instructional environment. A participant suggested they would " … have liked more in the area of creative commons licensing" added to the content of the guide. and concerns regarding the use of technology in a multicultural classroom. Obtained from these observations were descriptions of how the students interacted with the teachers and each other as they engaged in the topics of the discussion. As a blended study using qualitative and quantitative methodologies.
. The workshop presentation provided an opportunity to flush out the lessons and resources offered in the guide. from the earlier revision. The concluding interviews with the teachers added the finishing touches.71 The teachers’ 12 Question Survey results for the classroom observations indicate the teachers felt that the guide had made significant improvements. Summary of Results As this developmental research began the panel of subject-matter experts identified instructional goals. raw data was collected and analyzed through each of these lenses. comments. These experiences coupled with the interviews questions and the 12 Question Survey results proved invaluable for a final revision of the Digital Citizenship Guide. The workshop discussions provided valuable feedback in the form of questions. furthering the Digital Citizenship Guide’s development.
Together with the qualitative data. The Digital Citizenship Guide is provided in Appendix S. The data suggested that educators benefit from in-depth discussion that took place in the faculty development workshops. resources. The teacher’s 21st Century Skill Rubric provided conformation that a good sampling from WMA faculty was involved in the investigation. the teacher’s feedback offered suggestions. and asked valuable questions that. led to the significant improvements in the final revision of the Digital citizenship Guide.72 The surveys distributed during the three phases of this investigation provided quantitative data that verified how dispersed the responses are to the items on the instrument.
safe. The culturally diverse student population at WMA made it possible to generalize instruction sets that would be of value to teachers everywhere. Miller. Implications. the guide will help teachers promote discussions. Larson. The question was answered initially through the literature.
What do experienced teachers find missing in their instruction when teaching digital citizenship in a multicultural classroom?
A common response to this question was the lack of training in technology. Recommendations. Below are the research questions and the answers derived from the findings of this study. provide examples. and assess their students’ digital health. and Summary
Conclusions The goal was to develop a guide for teaching digital citizenship at a global academy.73
Chapter 5 Conclusions. It was confirmed through the survey results presented by the expert panel and reiterated by survey findings in all three
. Digital Citizenship Guide (Appendix S) provides a foundation for teachers to educate their students in effective methods to communicate and understand the importance of being an effective. and Ribble (2009-10) suggest integrating technology across curriculum will connect teachers to students’ digital worlds. and responsible digital consumer in and out of the classroom. Across the various curricula.
and Grunwald (2011) offer that instructors lack guidance in how to promote students self control when surfing the Internet. Instructors need to know more about the various cultures and how culture plays a role in technology use (Young. 2010). 2010). Pitler. Teachers are charged with the daunting task of instructing students in new technologies. 2009). Teachers surveyed. An example is introducing a topic like intellectual property in a multicultural classroom where the instructor lacks effective lessons to assists their students who might not understand the concept or its importance. expressed a lack of training in new technologies such as Web 2. Instructors require resources that are easy to access and do not take time away from their content preparation.74 phases of investigation. teachers reported a need for methods to break down the barriers of cross-cultural miscommunication. using handheld devices. Teachers requested examples and resources for promoting in-depth conversations about culture and technology use. Teachers need to know how to manage their students’ use of technology in their classroom and be able to address possible digital divide issues (McCollum. 2010).
. Lippincott. the very area of which they report themselves ignorant. and communicating digitally in and out of the classroom. Teachers need specific lesson plans to incorporate Internet technology to which the digital student can relate (Rosen. As educators at a global academy. Educators are overwhelmed with an abundance of technological information and need strategies and/or means to prioritize subject matter (Willard. A lack of training in the use of appropriate technologies was the most important item found missing. 2011). Educators need to understand the dynamics of the digital classroom and determine how best to address digital citizenship (Richardson.0 tools and incorporating them into their instruction.
and interviews conducted with phase three teachers. Levy (2011) offers best practice guidelines for instructors who need to understand the correct terminology that defines and clarifies such topics as cyberbullying and digital media. However. manage. Richardson (2008-09) suggests teachers should model correct methods for using technology as a positive reinforcement for students. Kolb (2011) suggests instructors need discussion points to discern if their students are digitally safe and aware of their digital rights and responsibilities.
What should be included in a digital citizenship guide to prepare and support instructors for teaching students to be safe and effective digital communicators?
Teachers realized there is an abundance of digital information and resources available. This question was answered by in-depth group discussions with the instructional workshop participants.75 Teachers report a deficiency in digital security and safety training. and develop digital media can be a daunting task. their survey results. Instructors need resources and information to guide students in safe practices on the Internet. A digital citizenship guide should provide resources for teachers in
. Students physical health was another area teachers reported a need for more training. teachers are not always aware of how or what to model. Instructors reported helping students identify ways to protect privacy in digital communities such as Facebook are missing in their instruction. Educators lack examples of what correct ergonomics are and the best way to model technology use in the classroom. Knowing how to organize. An example for teaching safety and security demonstrates for students how to assess their digital footprints.
This requires a guide that can meet those demands. They qualified the need for the guide in their curriculum and offered content suggestions. 2010). Background information on each topic provides insight to the topic and offers resources for teachers to begin in depth discussion. It was suggested that a list of definitions and acronyms be added to the teachers guide in order to provide an explanation of digital terms and concepts. Academy teachers expressed a concerned that the school’s AUP would not allow for such activities as incorporating mobile devices into their instruction. The teachers guide should include a format that is easy to follow. Teachers requested lessons that provide relevant discussion topics. and clear assessment options. 2011). offers teachers a method for organizing information and discussion topics. background.76 how to teach their students to be safe and effective digital communicators (Ribble. Teachers and administrators need to review their AUPs to make sure they allow for continued growth and support of technology in
. knowledge and skill. and informative. Provided lessons and assessments in the guide ensure group discussion is clear. On a broader scale. faculties require lessons in how to develop and incorporate digital media skills in their schools (Scherer. timely. Teachers have disparity in personality. Prioritizing discussion topics helps teachers flush out the concepts and have in depth conversations with their students on the desired subject. well-constructed lesson plans. Teachers were enthusiastic in the development of the digital citizenship guide. Most educators realize the importance of digital rights. 2009). They would like to support students in their use of digital media as a presentation method. and proper digital etiquette (Greenhow. and contains timely lessons and assessments. responsibilities. provides relevant examples and resources.
Teachers need ways to make their students receptive to new ideas in technology. In this practical application.77 classroom instruction (Kinnaman. instructors can demonstrate practical methods for protecting a student’s digital identity. Providing results of these investigations shows the affect culture plays in their students’ interactions. This outline allows teachers to investigate cultural differences within their classroom. Topics that are first defined and then explained with supporting data prove useful for both constructing good research skills and opening discussions about appropriate technology use. Lessons on digital safety would be beneficial to show the students what they might not realize. understand and synthesize data.
. Teachers cannot assume that students know how to take steps to protect their privacy. 2010).0 technologies with pedagogy will help students evaluate. Discussions on understanding individual differences can help the classroom dynamics (Zhang. By using examples that students can relate to. Students think they know everything about using technology (Rosen. apply. Solomon and Schrum (2007) recommend combining the use of web 2. 2005). Teachers require resources such as websites or podcasts that demonstrate the digital tattoo students leave behind. 2011). Educators teaching diverse cultures cannot ignore there are differences in how individual members use technology. teachers can assess student learning and uncover potential privacy issues of which students are unaware. Rothstein-Fisch and Trumbull (2008) offer a framework for teachers to use lessons that include social media tools. Lessons with practical outcomes that chart approaches used in different cultures give each student a better understanding of the differences within a given community.
and the community. The 21st century learner is the first generation to grow up using technology from toddlerhood. teachers need to know when and where in the curriculum digital citizenship should be taught. many teachers might not consider the physical harm technology can have on students. Lessons offering examples of ergonomic workstations. Because of this. Careful consideration when choosing resources and hyperlinks for inclusion in the guide must be taken. To accomplish this. teachers.78 As mobile technology and eDevices continue to evolve. Another relevant factor when planning lessons for this guide is how to reach the targeted audience. and encouragement to use self-control when using technology will benefit students. the issues of ergonomics will need to be investigated more thoroughly. Limited research is available on how these new technologies affect physical health. As proposed by Ribble and Bailey (2007) a curriculum director or department chair would be helpful in assisting teachers how to determine when and where the guide would best fit the instruction. surveys completed by the teachers observe and interviews conducted with teachers. A guide that provides lessons that are governed by the use of technology needs to be updated and edited regularly. As a school’s culture
. The Internet is evolving and changes are made daily.
What considerations need to be taken when planning lesson content for a digital citizenship guide for global learners?
The question was answered by in-person observations. discussions on proper lighting during classroom instruction. This use impacts physical ramifications that are yet to be identified.
Another timesaver for teachers is to eliminate formal workshops. Second. The Digital Citizenship Guide (Appendix S) is a valuable resource for classroom teachers. relevant topics. Teachers cannot be expected to use the new technologies to best advantage without scheduled training and the availability of immediate assistance in the classroom. A teacher’s time during the academic year is hectic. First. Two major implications are readily derived from the investigation. particularly those who teach in multi-cultural environments. retrieving any related resources. there is a need for on-going technology guidance and support. digital citizenship must be taught and monitored by the classroom teacher. and incorporating the desired lesson(s) into their curriculum. Time is an enormous consideration when planning lessons with the digital citizenship guide. the school’s diverse culture. suitable discussion points. how these cultures affect technology use. Formal workshops will not be necessary since the guide provides clear instructions. and teaching students how to be safe and healthy digital citizens. The guide should reduce time planning technical lessons yet be flexible.
Implications The results indicated that teachers welcome the opportunity to learn about digital citizenship.79 changes (staff and students) consideration to the relevant material in the guide might need a review and or an update. The only time demands that remain for the teacher are using the guide in determining what lesson(s) best fit their needs. Flexible lessons need to be broad enough to be used in any curriculum but narrow enough to cover relevant topics for in depth discussions. and valid resources.
“We must realize that all of us are world citizens. The guide could be digitized and housed on a website. A recommendation for providing teachers with better access to the guide would be to transform the guide into an interactive digital citizenship site. Podcast or video tutorials could be accessed on YouTube. become active participants. timely..80 Recommendations The role of education is forever changing as does the role technology plays in instruction. Recommendations were made for exploring how cultural and global issues influenced the development and use of digital technology. and easy to use. Gallavan (2008) reports teachers learn about a given student’s culture by observing interactions while working with them in and out of the classroom. the information would need to be continuously updated. Without regard to the method used for delivering the message of the guide.” (p.
Summary The guide. Lessons and resources need to be reliable and obtainable. The three phases of data collection provided an evaluation process by a cross sampling of experienced teachers that insured the guide’s material would be relevant. one following each phase of the investigation. has been through three revisions. and use technology will produce valuable resources for teachers who work in culturally diverse settings. The majority of the teacher’s
. then as teachers we must acquire knowledge about all cultures. Obtaining a deeper understanding of how various cultures interact. If the saying “to teach is to touch the future” has merit.252).. experience. and care about our shared space called Earth. in its current state. More teachers need to be trained in cultural studies.
scenarios. some more effective than others. overwhelming. At times. Faculty obtains guidance in technology from many sources. and discussion topics in the three units of the guide would increase flexibility and reach a wider audience. Providing more lessons. This guide will fill the gap noted in current literature regarding teaching digital citizenship to global learners. Several questions needed to be addressed in creating this guide. frustrating and unreliable. Some recommendations by the participating teachers included adding additional lessons with more resource options. and assessment tools would make this process more efficient and less stressful. lessons.81 responses were positive providing constructive criticisms to better the guide material. a developmental study was undertaken to create a viable digital citizenship guide for teachers. Finding reliable sources is time consuming. What do teachers find missing in their instruction? What should be included in the digital citizenship guide? What considerations need to be taken when planning the lessons for the guide? To determine answers to these questions. Teachers wanted lessons plans to fit into their classroom needs but are flexible enough to use across curriculums. Time would be saved with the creation of more readymade lessons that fit into a given curriculum. discussion topics.
. teachers struggle with incorporating the use of technology in their instruction in this multicultural environment. The goal was to develop an instructional guide to aid teachers in incorporating digital citizenship into their pedagogy. Having a teacher’s guide that provides resources. Many teachers need specific guidance in using and modeling technology as they teach their students how to be safe and responsible digital communicators. resources.
a survey was administered to these individuals and these data were incorporated into the second revised teachers guide. and information in background areas for each unit were created. A total of 11 participants provided useful experiences of classroom encounters and suggestions for advancing the guide’s content. but group discussions did not take place. The panel of experts concluded their portion of this investigation by taking the online survey instrument and provided their final comments for the guide’s continued development. The discussions on technology use and how these teachers envisioned its future use were an exceptional opportunity to better understand these global teachers. lively discussions. suggestions. The workshop was held for experienced teachers and collected their impressions of the guide and discussed the issues they faced while working at this global school. supplemental resources. The findings were constructive in both groups in that they provided valid resources. Subject matter experts reviewed the guide and offered comments on the completeness and validity of its content. As a result of their suggestions and feedback. and suggestions for advancing the guide’s content. The four participants provided equally relevant feedback. a draft of the guide was created and put through a three-phase development process.
. and constructive feedback. Upon conclusion of phase two of this study. a second workshop was not possible.82 After an extensive examination of current literature. The request for workshop participants generated only seven acceptances. scenarios. With limited time left in the term. The initial workshop provided invaluable information of classroom experiences. Four more teachers agreed to review the guide and provide their feedback. These individuals were crucial in the initial review of the guide and validation of the survey instrument.
the lessons had value. During this process. In the global school. The findings revealed that experienced teachers lack specific digital technology lesson plans that are easy to access. Possible solutions could include digital options for accessibility. and provide valuable resources for classroom instruction. The three phases of this developmental study provided for constructive feedback and suggestions that were incorporated into the final revision of the teacher’s guide. These interactions offered practical experiences of the students as they interacted within the classroom. digital
. Resources and hyperlinks should be carefully chosen and must be frequently updated. Teacher observations confirmed that the topics were clear and easy to address. When examining complicated issues such as digital citizenship. The need for a teachers guide on digital citizenship was clearly identified. provide timely discussion topics. Students were willing to discuss technology issues and were receptive to addressing these issues as users responsibility. Planning lessons for a teacher’s guide is hampered by the fact that technology and the Internet are constantly evolving. and timely resources were provided.83 Firsthand student experiences were obtained from classroom observations as teachers used the guide in their instruction. Cultural implications are found in multicultural schools that require technology in their curriculum. Student reactions to these discussions and activities confirmed their desire to further their instruction in technology use. these issues are magnified for many students are international. It was determined that the task of creating such a resource is fraught with complications. cultural issues relating to technology use were explored.
lessons. and assessment tools making instruction with technology more efficient and less stressful.
. The Digital Citizenship Guide will be a reliable resource that will save time and condenses a vast sum of information. digital etiquette. The final teachers digital citizenship guide was determined an invaluable resource. discussion topics. It will provide many teachers specific guidance in teaching their students how to be safe and responsible digital communicators. This teacher’s guide provides resources. digital security and safety.84 communication. culture plays a substantial role in all of these areas.
Kathleen Gorski has taught Advanced Placement and regular chemistry classes at WMA for three years. oversees the wellbeing of international students at WMA. Gao holds a M. from the University of Massachusetts in Amherst. Walter Swanson has been the Director of Center for Entrepreneurial & Global Studies as well as the Director of International Travel Programs at WMA for six years. Mrs.S. Swanson holds a B. from the University of Massachusetts in Amherst. Connecticut and at the Nativity School in Worcester. West Africa.A. from Fitchburg State College in Fitchburg. Dr. Dr. Mrs. Hsiao organized students in the production. and M. and Ph. Gorski was an Albert Einstein Distinguished Educator Fellow at the National Science Foundation in Arlington. Virginia. from Middlebury College in Middlebury. Before coming to WMA in 2007. Gorski holds a B. Swanson began his career in international education as a Peace Corps Volunteer in Cape Verde. Mr. Gao is a translator for the Comparative Literature Department at the University of Massachusetts. from Western New England College and a M.S. and sales of wood projects harvested from WMA woodlands. Gayle Hsiao. Massachusetts.A.85
Appendix A Biographies of Contributing Experts
Dr. Swanson was a Project Manager for Boston Partners in Education serving secondary schools and bilingual communities in the Boston Public School System. from Bay Path College in Longmeadow. China. Massachusetts. and a Ph. Dr.D. Massachusetts. Mr. Mr. Vermont and an Ed. A native of China. Massachusetts.B. Hsiao holds a B. Massachusetts. Dr. Mrs. Massachusetts.S. As the co-developer of The Global EcoLearn Project. from the University of Massachusetts in Amherst. Mr.Ed. Fredrick Gao is a member of the World Languages Department as a Mandarin teacher. and a M.A. She previously taught at the Kingswood-Oxford School in West Hartford.D. marketing.M.
. Massachusetts. Director of the International Student Program. Dr. Her extensive background in entrepreneurial education provides students with courses in entrepreneurial studies and marketing through the CEGS Department. from Harvard Graduate School of Education in Boston. he was a visiting lecturer at the Northwest Poly-Technical University in Xian.
. IRB protocol # Principal investigator Marxan Pescetta. Phase I Funding Source: None. Ma 01151 (413) 315-0999 Co-investigator Gertrude (Trudy) Abramson. and classroom observations. 01095 (413) 596-6811 What is the study about? You have been asked to participate in this research study to develop and test an instructional guide for teaching digital citizenship to global learners. This guide is designed to teach educators methods for opening digital communication with their students and create a common ground for using technology in their classroom.edu Site Information Wilbraham & Monson Academy 423 Main St. The results will identify the specific skills and competencies that are required to teach students how to communicate in the digital world and become good digital citizens. Wilbraham Ma. Why are you asking me? You have been invited to participate as a member of the panel of experts because you have extensive experience in educational.nova. contact: Human Research Oversight Board (Institutional Review Board or IRB) Nova Southeastern University (954) 262-5369/Toll Free: 866-499-0790 IRB@nsu. FL 33314 (954) 262-2070
For questions/concerns about your research rights. and multicultural considerations within the educational system. Ed.86
Consent Form for Participation in the Research Study Digital Citizenship in a Global Academy The Panel of Experts.D 3301 College Avenue Fort Lauderdale. There will be four participants in this phase of the research study. technological. The guide will reflect the findings of the expert panel and the professional development seminar.S 152 Lake Drive Indian Orchard. Ed.
you will not experience any penalty or loss of services you have a right to receive. If you do decide to leave or you decide not to participate.87 What will I be doing if I agree to be in the study? As a member of the panel of experts you will be asked to review and evaluate the digital citizenship guide and the survey instrument for reliability. any information collected about you before the date you leave the study will be kept in the research records for 36 months from the conclusion of the study and may be used as a part of the research. you will be asked to offer any changes. you will be asked to review the survey instrument to provide any feedback as to the effectiveness of the questions being asked. Are there any benefits to me for taking part in this research study? By participating in this study you will be helping to improve the instructional guide.
. you will be given a revised copy of the Digital Citizenship Guide for your own use. Is there any audio or video recording? There will be no recording of audio or video during this study. Will I get paid for being in the study? Will it cost me anything? There are no costs to you or payments made for participating in this study. If you choose to withdraw. and or retractions to the guide. To facilitate communication during the study you are being asked to provide some private information such as your name and email address. Upon the completion of the guide. your research rights. After your examination of the guide. This information will be kept confidential and your name will not be connected with the results. As well. What are the dangers to me? Risks to you are minimal. additions. How will you keep my information private? The questionnaire will not ask you for any information that could be linked to you. and completeness. You may also contact the IRB at the numbers indicated above with questions about your research rights. Survey results will be maintained for a minimum of five years and may be reviewed by the Internal Review Board (IRB). meaning they are not thought to be greater than other risks you experience everyday. All information obtained in this study is strictly confidential unless law requires disclosure. or if you experience an injury because of the research please contact Marxan Pescetta at (413) 315-0999. If you have questions about the research. All of the data will be maintained on the investigators computer. What if I do not want to participate or I want to leave the study? You have the right to leave this study at any time or refuse to participate. validity.
you indicate that • this study has been explained to you • you have read this document or it has been read to you • your questions about this research study have been answered • you have been told that you may ask the researchers any study related questions in the future or contact them in the event of a research-related injury • you have been told that you may ask Institutional Review Board (IRB) personnel questions about your study rights • you are entitled to a copy of this form after you have read and signed it • you voluntarily agree to participate in the study entitled The Opinions of Patients on their Treatment
Participant's Signature: ________________________Date: ________________ Participant’s Name: ___________________________Date: ________________ Signature of Person Obtaining Consent: _____________________________ Date: ___________________________
. which might change your mind about being involved. you will be told of this information.88 Other Considerations: If the researchers learn anything. Voluntary Consent by Participant: By signing below.
Academic Computing Department Wilbraham & Monson Academy Dear Mr. From the 10 participants. I am now ready to move forward with my dissertation.
. March 27th or Sunday. I will need an official response to this email at your earliest convenience. To complete the IRB process. Marxan Pescetta P. LaBrecque. I am Cc: Janet Murphy this request for review and placement in the Facilities Calendar. This email is an official request to use our computer facilities for my doctoral study. As a follow up to our earlier conversations. three individuals will be asked to use the guide in their classrooms where I will observe and document the outcome. April 3rd (these dates are dependent on the approval off my proposal and the IRB processes).89
Appendix C Request for Permission and Consent to Use Computer Facilities
Marxan Pescetta Chair. It is my intention to request 10 teachers from our community to take part in my study on Sunday. Sincerely.s. Digital Citizenship in a Global Academy.
Appendix D IRB Approval
and your experience using technology in your instruction. The results will identify the specific skills and competencies that are required to teach students how to communicate in the digital world and become good digital citizens. and classroom observations. Phase II Funding Source: None. Ma 01151 (413) 315-0999 Co-investigator Gertrude (Trudy) Abramson. your experience in education.S 152 Lake Drive Indian Orchard. The guide will reflect the findings of the expert panel and the professional development seminar. Why are you asking me? You have been invited to participate because of the academic department you work in. Ed. This guide is designed to teach educators methods for opening digital communication with their students and create a common ground for using technology in their classroom. contact: Human Research Oversight Board (Institutional Review Board or IRB) Nova Southeastern University (954) 262-5369/Toll Free: 866-499-0790 IRB@nsu.edu Site Information Wilbraham & Monson Academy 423 Main St. Ed.91
Consent Form for Participation in the Research Study Digital Citizenship in a Global Academy The Professional Development Seminar.nova.
. There will be ten participants in this phase of the research study who have worked at WMA for a minimum of three years. 01095 (413) 596-6811 What is the study about? You have been asked to participate in this research study to develop and test an instructional guide for teaching digital citizenship to global learners.D 3301 College Avenue Fort Lauderdale. IRB protocol # Principal investigator Marxan Pescetta. Wilbraham Ma. FL 33314 (954) 262-2070
For questions/concerns about your research rights.
92 What will I be doing if I agree to be in the study? As a participating member of the professional development seminar, you will be asked to attend a 5-hour instructional session where you will be introduced to the digital citizenship guide. During this time, you will explore the three units: digital communication, the role culture plays in the use of technology, and digital safety. Time will be provided for your questions throughout the presentation. At the end of the seminar, you will be asked to complete a 12 questions survey. Your feedback will allow the researcher to continue the development of the digital citizenship guide. Is there any audio or video recording? There will be no recording of audio or video during this study. What are the dangers to me? Risks to you are minimal, meaning they are not thought to be greater than other risks you experience everyday. If you have questions about the research, your research rights, or if you experience an injury because of the research please contact Marxan Pescetta at (413) 315-0999. You may also contact the IRB at the numbers indicated above with questions about your research rights. Are there any benefits to me for taking part in this research study? By participating in this study you will be helping to improve the instructional guide. Upon the completion of the guide, you will be given a revised copy of the Digital Citizenship Guide for your own use. Will I get paid for being in the study? Will it cost me anything? There are no costs to you or payments made for participating in this study. How will you keep my information private? The questionnaire will not ask you for any information that could be linked to you. To facilitate communication during the study you are being asked to provide some private information such as your name and email address. This information will be kept confidential and your name will not be connected with the results. All information obtained in this study is strictly confidential unless law requires disclosure. All of the data will be maintained on the investigators computer. Survey results will be maintained for a minimum of five years and may be reviewed by the Internal Review Board (IRB). What if I do not want to participate or I want to leave the study? You have the right to leave this study at any time or refuse to participate. If you do decide to leave or you decide not to participate, you will not experience any penalty or loss of services you have a right to receive. If you choose to withdraw, any information collected about you before the date you leave the study will be kept in the research records for 36 months from the conclusion of the study and may be used as a part of the research. Other Considerations:
93 If the researchers learn anything, which might change your mind about being involved, you will be told of this information. Voluntary Consent by Participant: By signing below, you indicate that • this study has been explained to you • you have read this document or it has been read to you • your questions about this research study have been answered • you have been told that you may ask the researchers any study related questions in the future or contact them in the event of a research-related injury • you have been told that you may ask Institutional Review Board (IRB) personnel questions about your study rights • you are entitled to a copy of this form after you have read and signed it • you voluntarily agree to participate in the study entitled The Opinions of Patients on their Treatment
Participant's Signature: _______________________ Date: ________________ Participant’s Name: ___________________________Date: ________________ Signature of Person Obtaining Consent: _____________________________ Date: ___________________________
Consent Form for Participation in the Research Study Digital Citizenship in a Global Academy The Classroom Instruction and Observation, Phase III Funding Source: None. IRB protocol # Principal investigator Marxan Pescetta, Ed.S 152 Lake Drive Indian Orchard, Ma 01151 (413) 315-0999 Co-investigator Gertrude (Trudy) Abramson, Ed.D 3301 College Avenue Fort Lauderdale, FL 33314 (954) 262-2070
For questions/concerns about your research rights, contact: Human Research Oversight Board (Institutional Review Board or IRB) Nova Southeastern University (954) 262-5369/Toll Free: 866-499-0790 IRB@nsu.nova.edu Site Information Wilbraham & Monson Academy 423 Main St. Wilbraham Ma, 01095 (413) 596-6811 What is the study about? You have been asked to participate in this research study to develop and test an instructional guide for teaching digital citizenship to global learners. This guide is designed to teach educators methods for opening digital communication with their students and create a common ground for using technology in their classroom. The guide will reflect the findings of the expert panel and the professional development seminar, and classroom observations. The results will identify the specific skills and competencies that are required to teach students how to communicate in the digital world and become good digital citizens. Why are you asking me? You have been invited to participate because you have completed the professional development seminar and have indicated you would be willing to use the guide as a class project. There will be three participants in this phase of the research study.
The researcher will also interview you. any information collected about you before the date you leave the study will be kept in the research records for 36 months from the conclusion of the study and may be used as a part of the research. What are the dangers to me? Risks to you are minimal. If you choose to withdraw. If you do decide to leave or you decide not to participate. What if I do not want to participate or I want to leave the study? You have the right to leave this study at any time or refuse to participate. This information will be kept confidential and your name will not be connected with the results. or if you experience an injury because of the research please contact Marxan Pescetta at (413) 315-0999.95 What will I be doing if I agree to be in the study? During the first few weeks of the trimester. The researcher will observe the class to obtain descriptions of activities and interpersonal interactions. To facilitate communication during the study you are being asked to provide some private information such as your name and email address. you will not experience any penalty or loss of services you have a right to receive. You will be asked questions about your satisfaction with treatment. Upon the completion of the guide. All information obtained in this study is strictly confidential unless law requires disclosure. Are there any benefits to me for taking part in this research study? By participating in this study you will be helping to improve the instructional guide. Survey results will be maintained for a minimum of five years and may be reviewed by the Internal Review Board (IRB). You may also contact the IRB at the numbers indicated above with questions about your research rights. How will you keep my information private? The questionnaire will not ask you for any information that could be linked to you. you will be asked to use a unit(s) from the digital citizenship guide as a project in your class. Is there any audio or video recording? There will be no recording of audio or video during this study. The interview will last no more than 30 minutes. If you have questions about the research. you will be given a revised copy of the Digital Citizenship Guide for your own use. your research rights. The survey should take you no more than 15 minutes to complete. meaning they are not thought to be greater than other risks you experience everyday.
. All of the data will be maintained on the investigators computer. you will answer a 12 question survey.. Will I get paid for being in the study? Will it cost me anything? There are no costs to you or payments made for participating in this study. At the end of the class observation.
you will be told of this information. which might change your mind about being involved.96 Other Considerations: If the researchers learn anything. you indicate that • this study has been explained to you • you have read this document or it has been read to you • your questions about this research study have been answered • you have been told that you may ask the researchers any study related questions in the future or contact them in the event of a research-related injury • you have been told that you may ask Institutional Review Board (IRB) personnel questions about your study rights • you are entitled to a copy of this form after you have read and signed it • you voluntarily agree to participate in the study entitled The Opinions of Patients on their Treatment
Participant's Signature: ________________________Date: ________________ Participant’s Name: ___________________________Date: ________________ Signature of Person Obtaining Consent: _____________________________ Date: ___________________________
. Voluntary Consent by Participant: By signing below.
Unit 1. Each phase will use this survey for data collection.Digital Citizenship:
Appendix G 12 Question Survey for All 3 Phases of the Study
This is an example of the 12 Question Survey.
Unit 2. Role of Culture:
Appendix I Email to the Panel of Experts
Marxan Pescetta Chair, Academic Computing Department Wilbraham & Monson Academy Doctoral Candidate, Nova Southeastern University Computing Technology in Education Good-day Colleagues, As part of my doctoral dissertation, I am developing a guide on teaching digital citizenship to global learners. This guide will offer teachers descriptions of digital citizenship, provide discussion topics to flush out multicultural issues, and resources that will further teachers knowledge in this area. This email is a formal communication requesting you to be a member of the panel of experts. Your participation in this study would include reviewing the guide and offering recommendations for its improvement, as well as evaluating the 12-question Likert scale survey for clarity and validity. After I have received your comments and made the necessary improvements, it is my intention to invite 10 teachers from our community to take part in my study. These teachers will participate in a professional development seminar and is scheduled for March 27th or April 3rd. From this group, three individuals will be asked to use the guide in their classes. I would like to observe and document the outcome. The criteria for selecting these individuals will be based on their willingness, experience as an educator, and the academic area they teach. Your feedback will help to make this guide a useful tool for teaching digital citizenship to global learners. Thank you for your consideration, Marxan Pescetta
Attached to this email is the informed consent document. Please take a moment to read over its content. If you are interested in being a member of my study, please email me your intentions. I will have a printed copy of the informed consent document for you to sign when you have agree to be a member of the expert panel. At that time, I will provide you with a printed copy of the digital citizenship guide and the survey instrument. If you have any questions before this time, please feel free to phone me directly at (413) 315-0999 or by email, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Appendix J Email to Teacher Participants
Marxan Pescetta Chair, Academic Computing Department Wilbraham & Monson Academy Doctoral Candidate, Nova Southeastern University Computing Technology in Education Good-day Colleagues, As part of my doctoral dissertation, I am developing a guide on teaching digital citizenship to global learners. It will include descriptions, discussion topics, and resources. It is my intention to invite 10 teachers from our community to take part in my study. These teachers will participate in a professional development seminar on April 3rd. From this group, three individuals will be asked to use the guide in their classes. I would like to observe and document the outcome. The criteria for selecting these individuals will be based on their willingness, experience as an educator, and the academic area they teach. Your feedback will help to make this guide a useful tool for teaching digital citizenship to global learners. Thank you for your consideration, Marxan Pescetta
Attached to this email is the informed consent document. Please take a moment to read over its content. If you are interested in being a member of my study please email me your intentions. At the beginning of the professional development seminar, I will have a printed copy of the informed consent document for you to sign. If you have any questions before the seminar, please feel free to phone me directly at (413) 315-0999 or by email, email@example.com.
Appendix K Email to the Final Teacher Participants
Marxan Pescetta Chair, Academic Computing Department Wilbraham & Monson Academy Doctoral Candidate, Nova Southeastern University Computing Technology in Education Good-day Colleagues, Now that you have completed the professional development seminar I would like to invite you to participate in the second half of my study. You will be asked to use the guide in their instruction as a project base assignment and I would like to observe and document the outcome of your instruction. Your continued feedback will help in the final revision of the guide to make it a useful tool for teaching digital citizenship to global learners. Thank you for your consideration, Marxan Pescetta
Attached to this email is a second informed consent document. Please take a moment to read over its content. If you are interested in being a member of the final phase of my study please email me your intentions. At that time I will have a printed copy of the informed consent document for you to sign. If you have any questions before this phase of the study begins, please feel free to phone me directly at (413) 315-0999 or by email, firstname.lastname@example.org.
0% 0. I found the value of the lessons in Unit 1 to be:
Of much value Of some value Of no value
4 0 0 0 0
4. especially in a multi-cultural classroom. chairs or principals or curriculum folks that directs them to where they could most easily insert this
.. and noted that we might go deeper in discussion.
I would suggest a one pager for dept.0% 0.0% 0.
Strongly Agree= 5 Somewhat Agree= 4 Neither Agree Disagree= 3 Somewhat Disagree= 2 Strongly Disagree= 1
75.. Panel of Experts. 3/27/11 10:18AM As someone who teaches basic research skills.106
Appendix L Phase 1.0% 0. I found this very relevant and helpful 3/30/11 8:21AM :) They have been useful for both constructing good research skills and opening discussions about appropriate use (that would make educators less likely to ban rather than utilize) 3/28/11 2:33PM Yes. I have found the information in Unit 1 beneficial to my instruction. 12 Question Survey Results
Questions for Unit 1: Digital Citizenship
1.0% 25. 3/28/11 2:33PM I liked the way the topic was first defined and then explained with supporting data.0%
3 1 0 0 0
Easy to follow yet some suggestions for where this could be used (which disciplines) might lend itself to it being more quickly adopted 3/30/11 8:21AM There's so much to discuss.0% 0.including suggesting additional readings offered in the event I needed them. Unit 1's lessons provide a good foundation for the conversation in the classroom. Students coming from cultures that do not honor IP are having difficulty understanding what all the fuss is about in our classrooms. that I liked that it focused on some priorities. Unit 1’s content was clear in its presentation and easy to follow.0%
4 0 0
One daily challenge teachers live with is trying to understand and manage student’s use of technology.
Strongly Agree= 5 Somewhat Agree= 4 Neither Agree Disagree= 3 Somewhat Disagree= 2 Strongly Disagree= 1
100% 0.0% 0. 3/27/11 10:18AM
2. 3/27/11 10:18AM
3. As a teaching resource. Please take a moment to reflect on Unit 1: Digital Citizenship and offer recommendations for its improvement.0% 0.
Think this needs more play than it gets. the chart
6. 3/27/11 10:25AM It's been a little difficult to scope out this topic for other countries represented in the WMA community. 3/28/11 2:33PM One of the best ways to breakdown the barriers of cross-cultural MIScommunication are to understand where everyone is coming from.0% 0. so a few more references would have helped (are there specific keywords to search on?) 3/28/11 2:33PM The topic is simple enough so enough information was I given to initiate the conversation with the students.0% 0. Mastering the topic will come from practice in the classroom and revisiting the issue as needed.0% 25. Unit 2’s content was easy to read and understand..
Strongly Agree= 5 Somewhat Agree= 4 Neither Agree Disagree= 3 Somewhat Disagree= 2 Strongly Disagree= 1
Response Percent 75.. And the lessons are especially valuable.0% 25.0%
Response Count 3 1 0 0 0
Readability is great. yet may assume a fairly homogenous student group (in terms of economics) 3/30/11 8:22AM On the fence here.0% 75.0%
. 3/30/11 8:21AM I would consider including a piece about plagiarism since this is viewed so differently in other cultures. It's a good topic.0%
0 3 1
curriculum.0% 0. I found the amount of information in Unit 2: Role of Culture to be:
Two much Information Just the right amount information Too little information
0.. 3/28/11 2:33PM This is a nice unit. but I recognize the constraints of guide. 3/27/11 9:20AM
Questions for Unit 2: Role of Culture
Strongly Agree= 5 Somewhat Agree=
75.covers a broad range of issues in a relatively new topic. I have found the information in Unit 2: Role of Culture useful.particularly in a global classroom. 3/27/11 10:18AM This unit is well organized. Overall. 3/27/11 10:25AM In addition to the practical outcome of the lessons in this unit.. I would also suggest places where pieces of the curriculum would be relevant so as not each teacher feels they need to do the whole thing.
but does not collect personal info and is designed for classroom use. 3/27/11 10:34AM
10. 3/27/11 10:34AM We cannot assume the students will know how to take steps to protect
11. the unit gives the international student to be 'expert' on something and speak out in class.0% 0. Overall. 3/27/11 10:25AM
Recommendations needed for how to deal with a possible digital divide in the classroom 3/30/11 8:22AM I think I might suggest some of the digital communities for use in a classroom project . 0. I like that suggestions are made for additional reading.0% 0.0%
Again.for example “edmodo” mimics the look and feel of “Facebook”. the affect of culture on the interactions.
Strongly Agree= 5 Somewhat Agree= 4
.0% 100 % 00.0% 25.
Strongly Agree= 5 Somewhat Agree= 4 Neither Agree Disagree= 3 Somewhat Disagree= 2
Response Percent 100 % 00. a little more background info may be needed on the site of this specific study--the international student body. There is other social media that would let teachers better explore.0% 75. the lesson provided an appropriate guide for the teacher to use in the classroom using examples the kids can relate to. I have found the information in Unit 3: Digital Safety useful. within the classroom but with heed to safety concerns. Please take a moment to reflect on Unit 2: Role of Culture and offer recommendations for its improvement.0% 0. 3/28/11 2:33PM Refer to comment #3. 3/27/11 9:30AM
Questions for Unit 3: Digital Safety
9.0% 0 0 0 4
showing the different approaches used in different cultures.0% 0. 3/27/11 10:25AM In this unit. This unit was easy to read and understand. the unit gives the international student to be 'expert' on something and speak out in class.0% 0.0%
Response Count 4 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 3 1
GOOD lesson! The students think they know everything about technology but often don't think about safety.108
4 Neither Agree Disagree= 3 Somewhat Disagree= 2 Strongly Disagree= 1 8. I found the amount of information in Unit 3: Digital Safety to be:
Strongly Disagree= 1 Too much Information Just the right amount information Too little information
0% 0.this unit is very practical.ca/ (designed for kids) since I find they are often surprised. 3/28/11 2:35PM Now if we could just get the students to use some self-control in the use of their technology and put it away in order to pay attention in class.. 3/27/11 10:34AM Topics well defined.109
0 0 0 4
This was very clear and more relevant to a number of disciplines or school programs.ubc.. I think it would be beneficial to show the students the Internet Archive/Wayback Machine as well as the website Digital Tattoo http://digitaltattoo.0% 0. process elaborated and lessons are of great value. 3/27/11 9:34AM
0. objectives clear. Very transferable 3/30/11 8:23AM In the discussion of digital safety. 3/27/11 10:34AM
Neither Agree Disagree= 3 Somewhat Disagree= 2 Strongly Disagree= 1 12. Please take a moment to reflect on Unit 3: Digital Safety and offer recommendations for its improvement.
Invitation to “One-On-One” Digital Citizenship Workshop
Engage in Professional Growth and Leadership
Total Participants’ responses (10) 2 3 4 4 2 4 3 4 1 3 30 Mean Median Mode
3. Facilitate and Inspire Student Learning and Creativity 2. Limited Not at this time.4
Total Composite Score Guidelines Outstanding. Spontaneous. Design and Develop Digital-Age Learning Experiences and Assessments 3. Purposeful. Most of the time. Proficient Good.1.4
4 3 3
2. Planned. Need training and/or to Investigate Further
=3 =3 =2 =1 =0
. Advanced Great. Introductory.3
3 3 2 2
2 2 3 3 0 4
3 3. Intentionally. Teachers Results
Questions 1. Basic Fair.111
Appendix N Technology and 21st Century Skills Rubric. Inconsistent. Model DigitalAge Work and Learning 4.0
1 0 2
3. Promote and Model Digital Citizenship and Responsibility 5.
I found the value of lessons in Unit 1 to be:
Of much value Of some value Of no value
54. but after taking home the idea and thinking about it.0 % 0 0. 4/6/11 12:45AM Marxan led a strong discussion on when we need to cite Internet sources. I now understand and know that it does apply to world language teachers. However.09 % 0. 4/7/11 9:54AM Marxan was prepared and organized. 4/8/11 2:24PM The guide was straightforward and gave examples of projects that would be useful in the classroom.112
Appendix O Phase 2 Professional Development Workshop 12 Question Survey Results
Questions for Unit1: Digital Citizenship
6 5 0
Easy to follow 4/8/11 1:47PM I think the topics covered are very relevant to what we are doing and should be doing at WMA.0 %
0..0 % 0
2. and I also found the conversation on public domain very interesting and helpful.4 % 0. 4/7/11 9:36PM It reminds me that we all need to be careful about citing sources.5 % 45. Unit 1’s content was clear in its presentation and easy to follow. 4/7/11 9:54AM While I was in the class. I had trouble thinking of how this applies to me (a language teacher). I am looking for help/suggestions on how to incorporate the Internet more. The one thing that might be missing for faculty who did not grow up in the digital age is a list of what items are considered "digital media"..9 %
Response Count 10
Some of the wording was too academic. 4/4/11 11:28AM
Strongly Agree= 5 Somewhat Agree= 4 Neither Agree Disagree= 3 Somewhat Disagree= 2 Strongly Disagree= 1
Response Percent 90. 4/4/11 11:28AM The idea that digital citizenship is now an important part of citizenship in general is especially interesting to me
. and maintained the appropriate pace that allowed us to read and process the material she presented.
4. I am wary about using Easybibs. I would introduce Easybibs to them at the end of the year. I prefer that they learn to locate publisher. 4/8/11 1:47PM I work one on one with students.0 %
3 7 1
I felt you did a really good job presenting thorough and thoughtprovoking information. before they start plugging things in electronically. where books are also somewhat unfamiliar! I love watching the process of discovery in the library and would never give it up. year. more varied media could let their analysis and technological abilities shine without perfect language. The concept is unfamiliar to ESL students. Perhaps the
.2 % 63. Digital Rights and Responsibilities.113
because I am not sure that citizenship is properly taught any more. Please take a moment to reflect on Unit 1: Digital Citizenship and offer recommendations for its improvement. Please take a moment to reflect on Unit 1: Digital Citizenship and offer recommendations 11
4. however.6 % 9. 4/4/11 11:28AM Lesson 1/1.at higher levels more issues would be discussed. etc. 4/17/11 9:41AM Its an evolving field that impacts so much of what we do. but I might like to first introduce the concept of citation with media that are more familiar to the students. Plus. and I often am the final person to edit their written work before they hand it in to their classroom teacher. editors. and how we think. Awesome! 4/17/11 9:41AM It is worthwhile to set parameters and expectations. would be a great way to introduce proper citation. in the books. Therefore. the information on citations was very helpful. Lesson 1/2 Digital Etiquette is absolutely made for the ESL and World Languages classroom . We usually start in the library. Also the idea of a citizen speaks to us as a community 4/8/11 1:47PM Making sure students cite their work on their power point presentations in the Visual Arts. be able to help them with animation. because they are so incredibly unfamiliar with citation. however.
Strongly Agree= 5 Somewhat Agree= 4 Neither Agree Disagree= 3
27. how react. as well as notice formatting by italicizing themselves. I would not.
Missing commas 4/8/11 2:38PM
. I was also unclear about the exact meaning of "public domain site. 4/13/11 12:17AM Could suggest various role playing activities for the digital etiquette section 4/11/11 7:27AM Both assignments are quite simplistic. 4/6/11 12:45AM N/A 4/4/11 11:28AM In lesson 1/1.6 % 36. I now understand and know that it does apply to world language teachers. However. 4/8/11 2:24PM A stronger focus on current intellectual property issues might be helpful.3 %
Response Count 7 4
Proof read. 4/7/11 9:36PM A list of digital media would be useful 4/7/11 9:54AM While I was in the class.
lesson plans could be a bit more specific. U1/L1 does not get into the specifics of different types if digital copyright. I would love a complete list of possible media/ forms for a book review.. 4/10/11 9:44AM Nothing to add 4/8/11 1:47PM None 4/8/11 10:25AM
Questions for Unit 2: Role of Culture
5. Unit 2’s content was easy to read and understand. I am looking for help/suggestions on how to incorporate the Internet more. but after taking home the idea and thinking about it. I had trouble thinking of how this applies to me (a language teacher)." 4/17/11 9:41AM I felt that I already had a strong understanding of how students communicate digitally.114
for its improvement..
Strongly Agree= 5 Somewhat Agree= 4
Response Percent 63. I would like more information about how to present material to them in a way that they prefer digitally. but this is a minor suggestion to an otherwise well-organized project.
I love the idea of using the survey . particularly for our classroom teachers as well as the administration. and best enable them to give their opinions.0% 0.6 % 36. As a fellow teacher once said. It might also teach students to learn to deal with ambiguity . There was mention of an AP Statistics class researching and completing the assessment on page ten of the handout. I found the amount of information in Unit 2: Role of Culture to be:
Too much Information Just the right amount information
9.another important life skill. but I wouldn't mind a quick review of copyright.0% 0.0%
0 0 0
I found Hofstede's chart to be confusing and we did not spend anytime discussing its relevance. 4/7/11 10:15AM I was unclear about the implications of Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions as related to Dynamics of New Media. especially in an ESL classroom where the specifics may be the most interesting to students.09 % 72. to international students it sometimes seem that we treat plagiarism like murder.the language would be
7 4 0 0 0
Strongly Agree= 5 Somewhat Agree= 4 Neither Agree Disagree= 3 Somewhat Disagree= 2 Strongly Disagree= 1
63. There are so many great IP cases out there (that I don't quite remember).7 % 18. 4/17/11 10:01AM The copy of the "Academic Social Networks" contract on page ten of the Teacher's Guide should prove beneficial. and Fair Use I've got the idea but more details could help me guide an interesting discussion. 4/17/11 10:01AM I would like to hear more about the various cultures on our campus. I would be interested in these results. I forget how long copyright lasts. controversial topics. which does not make them more receptive to it. plagiarism. IP. 4/4/11 11:39AM I couldn't figure out Hofstede. I know I should know more but I spend a lot of time informing students that plagiarism even exists. and what differences in the roles of culture exist regarding technology.3 % 0.0% 0. 4/4/11 11:39AM Very useful! Getting students to think critically about plagiarism may make them less resistant to it.1 %
1 8 2
Too little information
7.0% 0. Overall. I have found the information in Unit 2: Role of Culture useful. helping students to use their heads while informing them of the basics.115
Neither Agree Disagree= 3 Somewhat Disagree= 2 Strongly Disagree= 1
0. Treating it as the complex topic it is (that lawyers fight about!) respects everyone's intelligence. and Fair Use is a fascinating concept. I'd love to delve into more interesting.
and provide a more easy to digest textual explanation of the information they present. as technological needs differ from course to course. 4/10/11 9:46AM Ever-increasing importance 4/8/11 1:51PM None 4/8/11 10:26AM
difficult but that would be fun. especially at the global school. 4/4/11 11:39AM Relevance of Hofstede to the lesson plans and information about laws in the US would be helpful additions. 4/6/11 12:46AM Our present AUP asks for uniformity. and then interpret their findings to the class. 4/7/11 10:15AM A very important area to think about.. however.. Please take a moment to reflect on Unit 2: Role of Culture and offer recommendations for its improvement. It would be good to perhaps include those things as appendices. Researching policies in students' own countries could allow students to research in their own languages. it became apparent through our group discussions that perhaps each classroom might develop their own contract. 4/8/11 2:38PM There is nothing about this section that needs to be changed. 4/11/11 7:35AM The stipulations of the contract are a little vague. Perhaps the unit could be divided into more lessons? 4/17/11 10:01AM The material in the grid and the social network contract was somewhat dense. The integration of technologies into the classroom may be able to maximize learning by understanding attention spans and use of technology. 4/17/11 10:01AM No comment 4/13/11 12:18AM Somewhere it might be nice to see a statement of attention spans of various age group people.
. a welcome change. 4/7/11 9:51PM I would like to see Hofstede's chart explained if it is going to be in there.
I believe the discussion about digital safety is a little 'cautionary tale'/ old fashioned.8 % 18.0% 100 % 0.highly contextualized situation that uses advanced language is one of the best situations for improving English skills. However. 4/17/11 10:17AM
. as well as the deep web (id that's an issue here).0% 81.0% 0. Evaluating their rooms according to OSHA standards would be great language practice .117
Questions for Unit 3: Digital Safety
9.0% 0 10.0% 0.1 % 0. and confidence boosting. Overall. I found the amount of information in Unit 3: Digital Safety to be: Strongly Disagree= 1 Too much Information Just the right amount information 11. Especially the not publishing videos/pictures and buying products on the Internet. However. 4/17/11 10:17AM N/a 4/8/11 3:10PM
0.0 is. humorous. Creating videos is a great activity for ESL students.0% 0 11 0 9 2 0 0 0
I thought it was perfect. 4/4/11 11:44AM Students are at the same time aware of the issues here while often not making themselves secure. And the issues there are many. both in terms of proficiency and academic language. I love the assessments for Lesson 3/3 Ergonomics. this information is imperative for them to hear." the recent anti-Asian rant by a UCLA student. I would hope that in-depth discussions of ergonomics are now covered in health classes (though I often mention such things casually) as I can imagine the conversation about the topic not going anywhere. 4/8/11 2:53PM Looking at edmodo was quite informative. "Asians in the Library. I do always forget exactly what Web 2.1% 0. but always welcome examples and information to use in class. was a hot topic. I have found the information in Unit 3: Digital Safety useful.0% 0 0. for our pre-teen and teenaged students.0%
Response Count 9 2 0
This is an easily readable unit. great group building. This unit was easy to read and understand.8 % 18. 4/7/11 10:37AM Much of this information was a reminder of how to improve digital safety. Too little information Strongly Agree= 5 Somewhat Agree= 4 Neither Agree Disagree= 3 Somewhat Disagree= 2 Strongly Disagree= 1 0.
Strongly Agree= 5 Somewhat Agree= 4 Neither Agree Disagree= 3 Somewhat Disagree= 2
Response Percent 81.
I think more detail should be given to those in the workplace in regards to definite DO NOTS! I sometimes shut down when I hear of all the things one needs to be careful of. Please take a moment to reflect on Unit 3: Digital Safety and offer recommendations for its improvement. At times. I think that perhaps the coverage of ergonomic concerns might need to be separated from the security issues. 4/8/11 2:53PM Excellent coverage of some important topics.118
This unit provided information I did not previously know. 4/10/11 9:47AM Identity theft is huge so this is important for many aspects of life 4/8/11 3:10PM I felt this was an important piece of the puzzle to cover and it gave me much to ponder 4/13/11 12:18AM A short description of proper ergonomics at a computer would be useful in the background information system. 4/4/11 11:44AM Are there any assessment ideas for Lesson 3/1 protecting Your Privacy? 4/17/11 10:17AM I think it is strong the way it is. 4/10/11 9:47AM Maybe there are documentaries movies that illustrate this 4/8/11 3:10PM None 4/8/11 10:26AM
12. Especially the not publishing videos/pictures and buying products on the Internet. 4/11/11 7:38AM I believe the discussion about digital safety is a little 'cautionary tale'/ old fashioned. however. 4/7/11 10:37AM After hearing people talk. 4/6/11 12:49AM This unit highlighted the importance of securing all personal information to guard against any abuse and/or misuse. 4/7/11 9:53PM I am not sure I would change a thing.
. this makes me not even want to use technology. it is scary as to what one is actually 'allowed' to do with the Internet.
0% 0. Unit 2’s content was easy to read and understand. I have found the information in Unit 1 beneficial to my instruction. 12 Question Survey Results
Questions for Unit1: Digital Citizenship
.7% 33. I found the amount of information in Unit 2: Role of Culture to be:
Strongly Disagree= 1 Too much Information Just the right amount information Too little information Strongly Agree= 5 Somewhat Agree= 4 Neither Agree
Response Count 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 2
I would have liked more in the area of creative commons licensing.7% 33. As a teaching resource.3% 0.
Strong Agree= 5 Somewhat Agree= 4 Neither Agree Disagree= 3 Somewhat Disagree= 2
Response Percent 100 % 00.0% 0.3% 66.
Of no value Strong Agree= 5 Somewhat Agree= 4 Neither Agree Disagree= 3 Somewhat Disagree= 2 Strongly Disagree= 1
4.0% 0.3% 33.0% 0. I found the value of lessons in Unit 1 to be:
Strongly Disagree= 1 Of much value Of some value
66. Overall.0% 0. 6/1/11 11:16AM I think the students gained benefits from thinking about the topics 6/1/11 11:16AM
3.0% 0.3% 0. Unit 1’s content was clear in its presentation and easy to follow.0% 0. Class Observation.7% 33.7% 33.124
Appendix Q Phase 3.
Strong Agree= 5 Somewhat Agree= 4 Neither Agree Disagree= 3 Somewhat Disagree= 2
Response Percent 66.
Questions for Unit 2: Role of Culture
5.0% 66. Please take a moment to reflect on Unit 1: Digital Citizenship and offer recommendations for its improvement.7%
7. I have found the information in Unit 2: Role of Culture useful.0% 66.0%
Response Count 2 1 0 0 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 0 0
0% 100 % 00.0% 0. Please take a moment to reflect on Unit 3: Digital Safety and offer recommendations for its improvement.0% 0 0 0
Questions for Unit 3: Digital Safety
Strong Agree= 5 Somewhat Agree= 4 Neither Agree Disagree= 3 Somewhat Disagree= 2
Response Percent 100 % 00.
. Overall. Please take a moment to reflect on Unit 2: Role of Culture and offer recommendations for its improvement.0% 0.0% 0. 0 0.0%
Disagree= 3 Somewhat Disagree= 2 Strongly Disagree= 1 8.0% 0.
Strongly Agree= 5 Somewhat Agree= 4 Neither Agree Disagree= 3 Somewhat Disagree= 2 Strongly Disagree= 1
Response Count 3 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0
10. This unit was easy to read and understand.0% 0. I found the amount of information in Unit 3: Digital Safety to be:
Strongly Disagree= 1 Too much Information Just the right amount information Too little information
00.0% 0. I have found the information in Unit 3: Digital Safety useful.0% 100 % 00.0% 0.
I would suggest in the revision of the guide. 4. 2. Did you feel the time and effort you spent preparing for the lessons and activities. I felt the discussions went well and the students were able to take from topics covered.
. information that they may not have known. I feel high school age students have been working with these types of technology for some time. Do you feel your students benefited from the lessons and activities? Because my class was mostly upperclassmen. either group the discussion topics into similar subject areas or suggest to the user to choose one or two topics to help the flow of the material and get into more depth of the subject. I am sure there was some material that was beneficial and worth reviewing. Is there any other topic or issue you would have this guide address? Not at this time.126
Appendix R Phase 3. Final Interview Questions Results
Interview Questions. More then one-class period is needed to do justice to these two important topics. It is important that students continue to hear the issues and understand their responsibilities and the consequences of being a safe and effective digital communicator. I felt I should have gone into greater depth rather then try to cover all the topics offered. Observation 1: Financial Markets: Global Dimensions 1. I had a good understanding of the material that was presented to the class. they seam to have a good understanding of the material that was covered. I felt for the most part that the students were interested in the content of the lesson. But. was time well spent? Although. 3. Do you feel the students were engaged in the lessons and activities? Yes.
127 5. Do you think the guide accomplished its goal to provide you with an introduction to digital citizenship and provide examples of how to be safe and effective communicators in the digital world? Definitely. There is so much information about this subject. The entire class cited their work correctly and presented their findings without incident. I know there are times when I need a reminder on these complex issues. Did you feel the time and effort you spent preparing for the lessons and activities. It would be nice to have the guide in a digital form where you could access it regularly. I am sure this is a guide that will need to be updated regularly to keep up with the changing technology. 2. I would have like more resources and a little more information about each topic. this was a gentle reminder for many of my students who are graduating this year.
. was time well spent? Some of the topics I had to review for myself. I feel if nothing else. I was happy to see that the class time spent on reviewing citing resources was time well spent. 3. before I felt comfortable presenting to the students. Observation 2: Ceramics 1. Interview Questions. At times I feel students may know more about some of these topics then I do. Do you feel your students benefited from the lessons and activities? Yes. but I felt that as an overview students were receptive to the discussions. While developing your curriculum you could refer to the guide and reference its information. share it with faculty and students. Do you feel the students were engaged in the lessons and activities? Yes. The research project that students recently finished was a PowerPoint presentation. Perhaps other lessons to choose from with different scenarios would be helpful.
Do you feel the students were engaged in the lessons and activities? I think so. I am not sure if they learned anything new. Is there any other topic or issue you would have this guide address? No. as resources or more lessons. I hope they realize the importance of these types of conversations and continue to participate and understand human technology issues. but I feel that they had an opportunity to discuses topics that they may not have thought much about in the past. these are topics that as a
. I found the discussion lively and even some of my quite students shared their options. there will be issues that arise and I will need to know how best to handle them. I know they are technology savvy individuals. Do you feel your students benefited from the lessons and activities? After reviewed the survey that I gave to the students. That may provide for more options to the instructor and that could cut down on the need for customization. Interview Questions. Did you feel the time and effort you spent preparing for the lessons and activities.128 4. Perhaps more can be added to the various units. although the teacher has to customize the information for their subject matter. 5. 3. the need for new topics would need to be addressed. Observation 3: Global Literature 1. I am sure as I continue to learn more about the subjects in the guide. was time well spent? I don’t feel I spent a lot of time preparing. 2. I would imagine that as technology changes. Perhaps having more time to try different scenarios would have given the class the opportunity to dive deeper into the discussion points. Do you think the guide accomplished its goal to provide you with an introduction to digital citizenship and provide examples of how to be safe and effective communicators in the digital world? Yes.
Also. Do you think the guide accomplished its goal to provide you with an introduction to digital citizenship and provide examples of how to be safe and effective communicators in the digital world? This topic has some complex issues. remixing. but what I have found in my Social Media class applied in this situation as well: most high school students. I think this is an important topic that students and teachers should know about. Observation: Writing Workshop 1. 5. I did enjoy review the student’s surveys because they were anonymous. This phenomenon is similar to complaints that come up in cinema studies classes. Do you feel the students were engaged in the lessons and activities? I do feel that most of the students were engaged. there is no mention about Creative Commons. I feel it is always a good investment of time when having informative discussions with students about important issues. I think if you can add more background information to the units where appreciate. 4. Is there any other topic or issue you would have this guide address? So many topics. legally. despite the fact that they use digital communications technologies every day.129 Library Services Director I deal with similar issues often. people often wish to be blissfully ignorant of the philosophical and sociopolitical underpinnings of technologies that they use for entertainment and to make their lives function more simply. and it will help when developing your curriculum to include some of these issues. and reusing of digital resources.
. The Creative Commons organization develops and supports the sharing. Interview Questions. so little time. do not have a desire to think about those technologies. This causes some students to disengage from the material. I feel their feedback was legitimate. I would like to see more in the guide abut citing digital sources.
Do you feel your students benefited from the lessons and activities? I do. All of the topics are given proper consideration. 5. Do you think the guide accomplished its goal to provide you with an introduction to digital citizenship and provide examples of how to be safe and effective communicators in the digital world? Yes. (Although this is my personal area of expertise :))
. I feel that this type of inquiry and discussion is one of the most important components of twenty-first century education. 3. Any effort expended toward this end is time well spent 4. Is there any other topic or issue you would have this guide address? I think the guide is comprehensive and thorough.130 lest they start to question their tech use. and can only act as springboards for further discussion. immediate. Did you feel the time and effort you spent preparing for the lessons and activities. It seems as though adding too much could take away from the process of group discovery. This is true whether or not they experienced a clear. and conscious realization of the benefits. 2. Of course. As I said above. this is the very reason we need things like the Digital Citizenship Guide. was time well spent? Yes.
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