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Teaching Digital Citizenship in a Global Academy

by Marxan Pescetta pescetta@nova.edu

A dissertation report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Computing Technology in Education

Graduate School of Computer and Information Sciences Nova Southeastern University 2011

UMI Number: 3482755

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An Abstract of a Dissertation Submitted to Nova Southeastern University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Teaching Digital Citizenship in a Global Academy by Marxan Pescetta November 2011 As technology continues to change the way society communicates, teachers need to prepare their students for digital literacy and competencies in their adulthood. Specific training is necessary for educators in the appropriate and effective methods for incorporating technologies such as smart phones and hand-held devices. Teachers, who work in international boarding schools, are more effective in their use of technology when they understand the classroom cultural differences and are able to clarify any misconceptions. To determine what experienced teachers find missing in their instruction and what should be included in a teachers instructional guide, a guide was developed based upon the existing literature; the guide was tested and revised under three conditions. In the first phase, a panel of subject-matter experts reviewed the guide draft to identify the instructional goals and validate the survey instrument. In the second phase, a teacher's workshop was conducted and provided in-depth discussions on how they use technology in the classroom. Teachers shared examples of how culture affected students use and misuse of technology. In the final phase, observations were conducted as teachers used the lessons and resources in their instruction. The final revision, presented in this document, includes closing comments made by participating teachers. The goal was to develop a digital citizenship guide for teachers in international boarding schools that reflected best practices from the literature and the input from experts and teachers. The results identified the specific skills and competencies that are required to teach students how to communicate in the digital world and become good digital citizens. The culturally diverse student population at the investigation site made it possible to generalize instructional sets that will be of value to teachers everywhere. The guide, developed through the dissertation initiative, provides educators with the knowledge, tools, and examples necessary to teach students how these technologies can be used in a multicultural learning environment. It can be used to address the fundamentals of digital citizenship and provide insight into the role culture plays in the use of technology in education.

Acknowledgements
I would like to acknowledge and give thanks to my husband Kevin and daughter Michelle for their unwavering love and support. They have been on the front lines throughout my adventure in higher education and as I completed my doctorate. No words can describe my gratitude. To my sisters Sherry and Laurie Dee, I have always looked up to you and wanted to be just like you, I am still working on it! Thank you for being such wonderful big sisters. To Betty, MOM! Thank you for giving me the patience and the tenacity to survive seven years of doctor school. I am so glad to have inherited some of your strength and perseverance, thank you. To my father, I thank you. I could fill another hundred pages describing my wonderful family and how they have been supportive in my education. I thank you all so very much. My ability to complete this study and develop the Digital Citizenship Guide was only made possible by the generous individuals at Wilbraham & Monson Academy. Special thanks go to the administrative team, Rodney LaBrecque, Head of School, Brian Easler, Associate Head of School, and Donald Kelly, Dean of Faculty, for allowing me to conduct this investigation and for providing the necessary resources. To the panel of experts: Dr. Kathleen Gorski, Dr. Fredrick Gao, Gayle Hsiao, and Walter Swanson, thank you for your thoughtful comments in the evaluation of the guide. To the workshop participants: Dr. Melissa Donahue, Paul Bloomfield, Lori Chesky, Paul Ekness, Brian Lautenschleger, Meg Hutchinson, Sue Cole, Jessica Feldheim, Danica Messerli, Deb Levheim, and Michael Dziura, thank you very much for taking time from your very busy schedule and attending my Sunday afternoon workshop. Your comments and assessments of the guide were essential. From the individuals who attended the workshop, special thanks go to Dr. Melissa Donahue, Jessica Feldheim, Deb Levheim, and Michael Dziura, who tested the revised guide in their classroom instruction. I will never forget the time, energy and thoughtfulness you provided in helping me to achieve my dissertation. Thank you. To my colleagues Janet Murphy and Gail Chesworth-Taylor, I would like to thank you for always encouraging me to finish and reminding me that there was an end in sight. Thank you Josh Bain for letting me use your photo in my guide. Thanks to my girlfriends Michelle, Kim, Doc Lataille, and Sue who always understood when I was not able to go out and play and accepted hearing, "I am sorry, but I am working on my paper". Special thanks to Sue, for being my personal editor, who not only corrected my grammar but adjusted my flow, many thanks! I wish to express my sincere thanks to Dr. Trudy Abramson. I have worked with Trudy for so many years, I feel as if she is a member of my extended family. Her support, and encouragement has motivated me to do my best and complete my dissertation. I thank Dr. Steven Terrell and Dr. Marlyn Littman for their support and valuable input. To my delightful granddaughter Gabriella, always listen to your mother. I love you GG!

Table of Contents
Abstract ii Acknowledgments iv List of Tables vii 1. Introduction Context 1 Problem Statement 2 Goal 4 Relevance and Significance 5 Research Questions 8 Definitions and Acronyms 8 Summary 11

2. Review of Literature Introduction 12 Web 2.0 Technologies in Education 13 Multicultural Education 19 Professional Development for the Digital Educator 25 Summary 32 3. Methodology Research Design 34 Instrument Development Approach or Procedures Data Collection 40 Resources 41 Summary 41

35 36

4. Results Introduction 43 Needs Analysis 44 Phase 1, Panel of Experts 45 Design and Development 47 Phase 2, Professional Development Workshop Participants 47 Implementation 54 Phase 3, Classrooms Observation 54 Observation 1, Financial Markets: Global Dimensions 54 Observation 2, Ceramics 57 Observation 3, Global Literature 59 Observation 4, Writing Workshop 62 Interview with Classroom Observation Participants 65

Evaluation 66 Phase 1, Panel of Experts 66 Phase 2, Professional Development Workshop, Summary from 12 Question Survey 68 Phase 3, Classroom Observations 70 Summary of Results 72 5. Conclusion, Implications, Recommendations, and Summary Conclusions 74 Implications 80 Recommendations 81 Summary 81 Appendixes Appendix A. Biographies of Contributing Experts 86 Appendix B. Consent Form, The Panel of Experts, Phase 1 87 Appendix C. Request and Consent Permission to Use Computer Facilities 90 Appendix D. IRB Approval 91 Appendix E. Consent Form, The Workshop Participants, Phase 2 92 Appendix F. Consent Form, Classroom Observations, Phase 1 95 Appendix G. 12 Question Survey for all Phases of the Study 98 Appendix H. Technology and 21st Century Skills Rubric for Teachers 101 Appendix I. Email to the Panel of Experts 104 Appendix J. Email to Teacher Participants 105 Appendix K. Email to the Final Teacher Participants 106 Appendix L. Phase 1, Panel of Experts, Complete Survey Results 107 Appendix M. Invitation to One-On-One Digital Citizenship Workshop Phase 2 Appendix N. Technology and 21st Century Skills Rubric, Teachers Results Appendix O. Phase 2, Participants Complete Survey Results 111 Appendix P. Common Sense Media Students Media Survey 118 Appendix Q. Phase 3 Class Observation, Complete Survey Results 123 Appendix R. Final Interview Questions Results 125 Appendix S. Digital Citizenship Guide 130 Reference List 160

109 110

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List of Tables

Tables 2.1. Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions as related to Dynamics of New Media 4.2. Technology and 21st Century Skills Rubric, Summary 48 4.3. Panel of Experts, Summary from 12 Question Survey 64 4.4. Professional Development Workshop, Summary from 12 Question Survey 4.5. Classroom Observations, Summary from 12 Question Survey 69 67 21

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Chapter 1 Introduction

Context At Wilbraham & Monson Academy (WMA), students from across the world come together to learn, share, and exchange ideas. Its history is rich in culture and tradition. In 1804, Massachusetts granted several charters to fill the gap between grammar school and college. In 1806, Monson Academy was one of the first academies to open its doors to 21 co-educational boarding students. In 1817, the Wesleyan (Wilbraham) Academy was instituted. Traditions of acceptance and diversity date back to 1847 when Monson Academy became the first American school to enroll Chinese students. It was not until 1971 that the two academies merged, combining their names to form what is known today as WMA (Mazzaferro, 2005). In continuing the tradition of firsts, WMA's Center for Entrepreneurial & Global Studies (CEGS) program was founded in 2004. The CEGS curriculum offers a comprehensive introduction to the world of global citizenship, entrepreneurship, and finance. The CEGS curriculum is an example of how WMA prepares its students for success in a variety of arenas in the global economy. At present, the Academy has over 362 students from 22 countries and 11 states. The Academy's population includes 170 boarding students and 192 day students, grade six through postgraduate (PG) level. The faculty is made up of 67 men and women, 33 residential and 34 commuters.

2 Teaching at an international boarding and day school, educators are offered the opportunity to learn and understand the needs of their multicultural student body. Before teachers can instruct their students to be fair, ethical, and honest digital communicators, educators will need guidance. A developmental study with qualitative and quantitative measures was undertaken to develop a digital citizenship guide for teachers.

Problem Statement With the incorporation of handheld technologies, such as iTouch, Blackberry, and iPad into classroom activities and curriculum, the importance of having a framework for teaching students how to use them in an academic setting becomes relevant (Deubel, 2009). During the WMA's new student matriculation ceremony, students agree to follow the rules and regulations set forth in the Academy's Responsible Access Policy (RAP). However, these regulations do not teach students how to be safe and effective communicators in a digital society. They offer expectations of students' behavior not guidance on how to achieve success. The problem identified was that teachers needed specific guidance to help students become safe and effective communicators in todays multicultural, digital society. Zhao (2009, p.195) warns, "Schools can no longer ignore the importance of digital competencies or what our children are already doing in the virtual world, with or without the involvement of educators". Teachers must be instructed in the use of technologies, not just as tools for improving test scores, but also as tools to develop students' digital competencies. Zhao (2009) and Palfrey and Glaser (2008) refer to Prensky (2001) who coined the terms digital immigrants and digital natives. The

3 immigrants are people born before 1980 who were not raised in an online world. The natives are those for whom electronic communications have been natural parts of their environments practically from birth. Zhao observed that the immigrants are not teaching the natives in a manner that engages them or that facilitates learning. If the digital immigrants want to connect with the digital natives, they will have to change the way they teach. Greenhow, Robelia, and Hughes (2009) explain that 21st century students use interactive multimedia in their everyday activities and advocate the use of more Web 2.0 technologies in the classroom to increase engagement. Students feel a digital disconnect with their school " claiming their teachers had not yet shifted their teaching to respond to the new ways students communicate and use the Web beyond their classrooms" (p.247). As research continues in the area of technology competencies, indicators of Web 2.0 activities are being revealed as having an educational value. Cutshall (2009) states for a student to be considered a savvy citizen they will need to possess skills, which include global awareness, the ability to learn and work collaboratively, and respect for culture of others. In the pedagogy of world languages, students master a language when they have learned the cultural context in which a language occurs. Today's technologies such as Skype, wikis, and other conversational tools make in-depth learning possible. Online classroom activities breakdown the physical borders and engage students in cultural exchange.

Goal As communities come together to share their ideas in the 21st century, it is important to understand an individual's educational, intellectual, and cultural beliefs. Since one's cultural upbringing and societal issues can influence their actions and the way they communicate digitally, a common understanding needs to be created within the new community (Kurubacak, 2007). These standards or elements of digital citizenship can provide any community with appropriate and responsible ways to use technology to be productive individuals (Ribble, 2009). If a citizen is defined as an individual that is legally recognized as a member of a community with associated rights and obligations and a digital citizen is an individual who demonstrates the norms of behavior with regard to the use of technology, then what are the characteristics of a digital citizen at a global academy? When developing a framework for teaching digital citizenship, Ribble and Bailey (2007) suggests collecting student, faculty, and administrative ideas and concerns to develop a common understanding of how to communicate safely, effectively, and equally. In the development of the framework for a global community, it is important to include the international students' thoughts and take into account their perspectives. Technology leaders need to address three important questions to understand the significance of preparing students to be good citizens in a digital world. 1. What is digital citizenship and why is it important for students to learn? 2. How should it be taught in schools? 3. What are the observable outcomes of students' mastery?

5 Mossberger, Tolbert, and McNeal (2008) reported that citizens of the 21st century need quality education combined with universal access to the Internet. These digital citizens need to be educated in the capabilities of technology to enjoy the rights and fulfill the duties of their membership in our ever-changing digital society. To answer the first of these questions, one only has to go to a movie theater, drive down the highway, or walk through a crowded airport. Technology use has increased. Most technology users are oblivious to their surroundings and how their use of technology affects others. Bauerlein (2008) comments that digital natives have the ability to use a variety of technologies but have not learned how to synthesize data and be critical thinkers. Citizenship in the digital world is not any different from any other rule of conduct in society. Citizenship in a digital society demands respect for responsibilities of proper use of technology and ethical behavior in its use. The goal of this dissertation was to develop and test a guide for teaching digital citizenship to global learners. The culturally diverse student population at WMA made it possible to generalize instruction sets that will be of value to teachers everywhere.

Relevance and Significance The Internet and the development of Web 2.0 technologies have changed the way citizens of the 21st-century communicate and collaborate within our society. Today's digital society is made up of a variety of digital communicators (i.e. the digital immigrants, the natives and the settlers, (Palfrey & Gasser, 2008)). As technologies continue to advance and dictate how societies communicate, there will be times where technology will be used inappropriately and educators will need to hold their students

6 accountable for their digital interactions (Nebel, Jamison, & Bennett, 2009). The misuse and abuse in communication disrupts the balance of the digital society. As with any change in a society, the citizens of a community have to be aware of what is appropriate behavior and what is acceptable. Acceptable Use Policies (AUP) provides members of a community with an overview of what is deemed appropriate behavior. AUPs are common in many schools, businesses, and even in residences, benefiting members by outlining acceptable technology use and providing guidelines to maintain the balance within the digital society (Kinnaman, 2005). At some schools, an AUP is in place and students are required to sign an agreement to follow the rules and regulations set forth in the document. Do students know and understand to what they are agreeing? Having an AUP in place is not enough in educating a community. Additional teaching and learning is needed to provide students with understanding of issues ranging from how to protect their identity to understanding the consequences of inappropriate technology use (Berson, & Berson, 2003). Educational communities look to the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) for guidance in the areas of technology use in the digital world. This organization has provided students, educators, and administrators with the National Education Technology Standards (NETS) since 1990. The performance indicators have guided the education community into the global realm of the digital world. Ribble (2006) produced a technology leader's guide for the implementation of digital citizenship in schools. The significance of teaching digital citizenship became more evident when ISTE included a category on digital citizenship in the refreshed 2007, 2008, and 2009 NETS for students, teachers, and administrators (ISTE, 2009).

7 Digital citizenship is an ongoing teaching-learning experience. To address how digital citizenship is taught in schools, one first looks at how schools and districts use their technology and, in most cases, their needs for teaching digital citizenship (Ribble, & Bailey, 2004). With frequent changes in new and existing technology, it is hard to determine when, and at what grade level, digital citizenship should be taught. Educators at every grade level have opportunities to include communication technologies in their curriculum and provide students with the examples of good citizenship in a digital world (Camhi, 2010). As within any society, digital citizens have to discern the appropriate conduct and learn the laws of its community. When digital citizenship is taught in schools, reinforced at home, and used in the workplace, the likelihood of young people misusing technology is lessened. Ribble (2009) notes that parents are taking precautions to protect their children more now than in the past. He goes on to say that parents will need to do more then install software for blocking inappropriate websites. Ribble writes, "We need to teach our children how to live and work in this new digital society" (p.11). A good digital citizen understands the social reasons for following the policies that pertain to the use of technology within their community. For a student to be considered a good digital citizen, he would need to demonstrate: Critical thinking skills, which would include his ability to analyze data from the Internet and correctly cite his research Caution and honesty in his representation of himself when sharing his personal information on the Internet Physical well being by using basic ergonomic guidelines

8 Ethical use of technology by not downloading illegally or plagiarizing others' works Effective consumerism by understanding and demonstrating safe buying and selling procedures on the Internet Commitment to the idea of equal digital access for all individuals Appropriate decisions about how and when to use technologies, when faced with the many different digital communication options available on the Internet

Research Questions The guiding questions were: 1. What do experienced teachers find missing in their instruction when teaching digital citizenship in a multicultural classroom? 2. What should be included in a digital citizenship guide to prepare and support instructors for teaching students to be safe and effective digital communicators? 3. What considerations need to be taken when planning lesson content for a digital citizenship guide for global learners?

Definitions and Acronyms AUP: Acceptable use policy (APU) is a policy set up by an intuitions' administration to outline rights and responsibilities as well as proved guidelines for using technology appropriately (Ribble & Bailey, 2007). CEGS: Center for Entrepreneurial & Global Studies (CEGS) program founded in 2004 at Wilbraham & Monson Academy with curriculum offering a comprehensive

9 introduction to the world of global citizenship, entrepreneurship, and finance (www.wma.us/page.cfm?p=95). Culture: societies shared values and common knowledge (Author). Cultural affairs: the lens through which a society sees and understands their own habits and customs as well as others (http://www.ica-international.org/aboutus.htm). Citizen: a native or naturalized member of a specified social, political, or national community (Author). Digital citizenship: are the norms of behavior with regard to the use of technology (Ribble, Bailey & Ross 2004). Digital competencies: determining what students knows and understands about the virtual world and how they use the tools of technology (Zhao, 2009). Digital disconnect: When students feel the educational system does not use technology in a manner that they use technology outside the classroom (Greenhow, Robelia, & Hughes, 2009). Digital Footprint: Information about an individual that can be found on the Internet (Author). Digital immigrant: one who grew up in an analog world and has learned to communicate digitally (Gasser, 2008). Digital native: one who was born after 1980 and has grown up in the digital society (Gasser, 2008). Digital settler: an individual who are not native to the digital world, but because of their age, they are sophisticated in the use of technology (Gasser, 2008).

10 Digital society: a society comprised of digital immigrates, natives, and settlers (Gasser, 2008). Electronic portfolios: a new ways of organizing, summarizing, sharing artifacts and information using Internet technologies (Rollett, Mathias, Strohmaier, Dosinger, & Tochermann, 2007). Facebook: a social networking website where individuals create a profile and share information about themselves with other members of Facebook (Author). Global competency: the ability to understand global events and participate appropriately (Reimers, 2009). Hand held devices: pocket-sized computing mechanisms that individuals use to communicate electricity through voice or data exchange (i.e., cell phones, iTouch, PDA, iPad) (Author). Interactive multimedia: a system in which information is connected and presented together through various media in which the user is able to communicate with the data (Author). ISTE: International Society for Technology in Education, an association for educators and education leaders with the goal to improve learning and teaching by advancing the effective use of technology in PK-12 and higher education (www.iste.org). Mobile technology: devices that can move with the learner, such as laptops, PDA's, and Smartphones (Passey, 2010). NETS: National Educational Technology Standards, a set of standards published by ISTE to provide students and teachers knowledge, experience, and to learn effectively

11 and live productively in an increasingly digital society (http://www.iste.org/AM/Template.cfm?Section=NETS). RAP: Wilbraham & Monson Academys acceptable use policy (www.wma.us/page.cfm?p=189). Web 2.0 technologies: user-centered collaboration tools and Internet applications, which facilitate the sharing of interactive information (i.e., blogging, podcasting, and wikis) (Author). Web conferencing tools: technologies used to communicate via the Internet (i.e. software applications such as Skype are used to collaborate by video or audio) (Author). WMA: Wilbraham & Monson Academy, a college preparatory school located in Western Massachusetts housing 150 international and domestic students (http://www.wma.us/page.cfm?p=2). Summary Technology continues to change the way society communicates. A challenge for educators is to determine how technology, such as smart phones and hand-held devices, can be used in a multicultural learning environment. To prepare students for digital literacy and competencies in their adulthood, specific training for educators in the appropriate and effective methods for incorporating these technologies is necessary. The goal of this study was to develop a digital citizenship guide for WMA teachers that reflects the findings of the expert panel and the professional development workshop. The results identified the specific skills and competencies that are required to teach students how to communicate in the digital world and become good digital citizens.

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Chapter 2 Literature Review

Introduction The concept of digital citizenship is relatively new to the educational community (Ribble, 2006). In order to research, develop, and validate a digital citizenship instructional guide for global academy teachers, an extensive review of literature was explored in these related subjects (i.e., Web 2.0 technologies, multicultural education, and professional development). These three areas affect how technology is used and how digital citizenship is integrated across the curriculum. Larson, Miller, and Ribble (200910) recommend administrators, teachers, and technology leaders integrate technology across the curricula and into all aspects of learning and teaching. For teachers to connect to their students' digital worlds, they will need new methods to engage and motivate this very different type of learner. Educational institutions need to prepare students with 21st century skills and focus on instruction that combines the use of technology with pedagogy and addresses the many issues of the multicultural classroom. This literature review provides the foundation for the development of a digital citizenship guide for teachers. The subject areas explored in the development of this guide included investigating how teachers can use Web 2.0 technologies in their multicultural classrooms. Ultimately, the digital citizenship guide will provide teachers with the necessary skills and resources to teach students to be safe and effective communicators in todays multicultural digital society.

13 Web 2.0 Technologies in Education Technology has advanced in its complexity in the past decade. With the development of Web 2.0 technologies, students are finding more ways to communicate, share, and play (Richardson, 2009). The educational community has been slow to incorporate these new technologies into their instruction. In many schools, students are not allowed to use their personal technologies (i.e. cell phones, MP3 players, and other eDevices). Richardson (2009) believes that Web 2.0 tools have relevance in school curriculum and, with the implementation of such technologies students will be prepared for digital literacy and competencies in their adulthood. To create a true 21st-century school, educators must establish a learning environment that infuses Web 2.0 technology into its curriculum. By teaching students digital media safety, citizenship, and literacy competencies skills, students are prepared for life in the digital world. Willard (2010) reports that a major barrier for moving schools forward in embracing 21st century learning environments is the ineffective ways of managing and or controlling the Internet. Filtering and monitoring does not replace the need for teaching students how to be a good digital citizen. When schools develop effective peer leadership and establish school social norms then educators have the tools to reduce student's digital mistakes. By increasing the student's ability to determine and respond to digital incidents, it encourages them to assist each other and to report any serious concerns to a responsible adult. Solomon and Schrum (2007) warn that if teachers are to prepare students with 21st century skills, they will have to focus less on standardized testing and move away from teacher-directed instruction by combining the use of technology with pedagogy. Web 2.0

14 technologies are a tool for teaching students ways to evaluate, apply, understand, and synthesize data. Since many students already use these tools, teachers need only a framework for incorporating the use of technology into their curriculum. Donohue (2010) addresses the question whats in your toolbox? and he suggests that the educational professionals explore how technology impacts their everyday life. He offers a checklist of tech tools (laptop, cell phone, digital camera, mobile wireless devices) to determine how you use these devices both personally and professionally. He suggests that teachers review how they use technology for personal use and determine if there are any benefits as a professional tool. Donohue reaffirms the theme that is its not about the technology; it is about finding the tools to better serve your students. He offers some suggestions. Take a risk and try something new, learn to use tech tools personally so you can decide how to use them professionally, participate in social computing, use social media to share best practices, and dont abandon what has worked in the past. Web 2.0 technologies have not been widely integrated into K-12 education because of the teachers' lack of modeling in their use. These technologies have potential to change the way the educational systems engage learning. Greenhow, Robelia, and Hughes (2009) suggest that teachers become more acquainted with social networks like Facebook and bookmarking services such as Delicious. These applications fill the gap the digital disconnect students feel they have with their schools. Because students communicate using Web 2.0 technologies in their everyday activities, they find that transitioning these technologies into their schoolwork increases their preparation and engagement. Schwartz (2010) addresses the question regarding Facebook's use as a

15 communication tool in the classroom. She investigates how teachers and students use social networks as an extension of classroom time. Schwartz suggests that there are advantages to using such technologies but before using such technologies as a mentoring tool in the educational environment, teachers need to set clear boundaries. With the significant development and growth of wireless and mobile technologies, students are using these resources to learn any time and anywhere. Shih, Chu, Hwang and Kinshuk (2011) address the adaptation of e-learning to m-learning. Shih et al. investigate context-aware ubiquitous learning (u-learning), which integrates wireless, mobile and context awareness technologies to provide learners with adaptive support throughout the learning process. With the use of mobile devices, such as cell phones, PDA's, and portable computers, students are able to interact with each other and learn content both in the real world and in the virtual world. Shih et al. report that mobile devices offer individualized guidance and support during the learning process, and replace the one-size-fits-all receptive style of learning. Students can actively explore their learning environment and gain more experience in collaboration and problem solving while using these technologies. Educators are exploring ways to use mobile devices in their instruction. Kolb (2011) describes the cell phone as a Swiss army knife of digital learning. Teachers are using resources such as Poll Everywhere, Google voice, and Mobile Geotagging to interact, share, and poll student's opinions. Engel and Green (2011) reported that cell phone ownership and use is increasing. Among K-12 students, 66% of the 2,000 student surveyed indicated they owned a cell phone. This is a 27% increase since 2004. High school students are highest among cell phone users at 84% compared to 60% middle

16 school students. When teachers embrace cell phone technology they find minimal class time is spent on instructional hardware and software, which frees up class time to focus on learning content. Many technology-based activities can occur outside the classroom and findings can be brought back for review and discussion. During the past 10 years the term digital divide as been the catchall phrase to describe the disparity in technology resources and the user (McCollum, 2011). In the past, low-income, rural, and minority individuals have been labeled as the technological have-nots. McCollum reports that the opposite is true; that more, low income and those considered "the underserved side of the digital divide" (p.47) are more engaged than their advantaged peers. The young black and Latino students, once considered have-nots, have found methods to break the technological barrier and are reported as being twice as likely to use Twitter then the white Internet users. There still remains the issue that some students are not learning the necessary digital skills and for many of these students, school is the only place they will have an opportunity to learn to be good digital citizens. There are concerns to address before hand held devices can be effective in the classroom. Students need to understand and agree on what is deemed appropriate, legal and safe for cell phone use in the classroom. Kolb (2011) offers suggestions when using cell phones in the classroom, first, have discussions with the students on how to stay safe in the mobile world. Next, develop consequences for inappropriate use of cell phones while in and out of the classroom. Last, keep parents and community members informed of cell phone projects and activities. Greenhow (2010) suggests that the definition of proper online behaviors and citizenship (ethical use, personal safety, and user responsibility) vary among countries,

17 cultures, and schools systems. The Internet has not only opened the possibilities for students to become mindful citizens it encourages their participation in civic life. Web 2.0 tools have provided students with the means to vote, lobby and campaign via the Internet. Students today are able to develop their awareness of social and political issues as well as interact and participate with individuals across the globe. Gozlvex (2011) expresses the importance of teaching media literacy in the classroom, as well as how technology is being used to promote and develop participatory democratic citizenship. He cautions communities to not become a Digital Island, where individuals only share experiences with those of similar interests, and ignores other issues within the global pluralistic society. The inherent dangers and misuse of social networks and Internet filtering systems can cripple the development of democratic citizenship. Education that blends technology provides an opportunity for enriched learning, but technology must be used for what it's attended, as a tool for communicating through various mediums. Richardson (2011) feels educators need to help their students understand more than just the safety and ethics of participating online. Students need to learn the potentials and the pitfalls of interacting online. Teachers would have to develop their curriculum to encourage students to follow their passion and publish meaningful work. Ultimately, students make connections with individuals who read, respond, and interact with their ideas. Schools need to develop a culture where teachers regularly share ideas, lessons, with the world and model how to interact with others online. Richardson offers four steps for teachers to encourage their students to participate online. First, become Googleable yourself. Experience the implications of having

18 personal content on the Internet first hand. Second, share relevant and appropriate online interactions you have experienced with your students. Third, create a classroom web site, where students work is regularly shared. Last, teach students how to continually monitor their lives on the Internet, not only what they are posting, but what others are posting and sharing about them. Students need to know the good and the bad consequences of online participation. Teachers need to show students the values of an audience, not just in a social sense but also in a participatory learning sense (Richardson 2011). With great technology, comes great responsibility. Online participation must demonstrate respect for the rights and responsibility of self and others within the digital communities. For students to become strong digital leaders, they need to know how to protect themselves (i.e., by adjusting their privacy settings), understand and adhere to the digital laws (i.e., when downloading music and other media files), are respectful when posting messages to the online community, and lead, by encouraging and holding others responsible for their online behaviors (Greenhow, 2010). Lee (2009) explores the use of social networking tools for the development of intercultural communication and awareness. Students indicated a higher level of engagement when using web tools, such as blogs, podcasts, and message boards. An issue many schools have is providing students with opportunities to interact with native speakers and to learn about the target culture. Students gained invaluable experience as they worked collaboratively writing blogs, producing oral recordings, and exchanging ideas with their intercultural partners. Lee states, each web tool has unique technical features and pedagogical values. With carefully designed tasks and effective strategies, student's use of digital technology can enhance their cross-cultural understanding and

19 awareness. Online collaboration between teachers and students are essential in boosting technology-enhanced learning and provides teachers with meaningful tools to use with their students. Multicultural Education The 21st century's definition of the workplace has changed. With the use of technology and the capability of the Internet, individuals no longer have to be in a specified place to do their work. People around the world are working together from various locations. This not only changes the setting of the workplace but also brings many different cultures together in a working environment. Hofstede and Hofstede (2005) describe culture as an unwritten book with rules of the social game that is passed on to newcomers by its members, nesting itself in their minds (p. 36). The rules of the social game begin when families model and teach their children how to behave within their community. This cultural programming continues on in schools as well as the workplace. One culture may differ from another. Cultural differences exist with regard to values about power, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty, and long-term orientation. To develop the knowledge, attitudes, and skills necessary for students to be world citizens, Gibson, Rimmington, and Landwehr-Brown (2008) believe global learning should incorporate technological student-centered activities. These endeavors would include learners of different cultures using technology to improve their global perspectives while remaining in their home countries. For students to be prepared to take their place in the complex global community and the challenges global communications offer, they must be able to collaborate, negotiate, think critically, and understand multiple perspectives through dialogs with individuals from various cultures. Gibson et al. state

20 "educators need to consider global learning in terms of the conditions necessary for it to emerge" (p.13). Technology driven global-learning activities will not replace student exchange programs, but offers the advantage in lower travel cost and reduces complex logistics. Kurubacak (2007) explored how Hofstede's cultural dimensions pertain to being a digital citizen and the dynamics of new media. She explains that, with the change in how individuals communicate, there is a rising need for greater understanding of how multicultural knowledge-based societies collaborate. She affirms that online communication should build multicultural learning situations dealing with real life issues. These learning experiences allow students to examine different cultures. They improve their critical thinking skills while sharing their feelings and ideas while accomplishing course requirements. Kurubacak cites Hofstede (2007) to correlate the importance of culture and the responsibilities of new media in supporting digital communities. By fostering a relationship between culture and new media, digital citizens can strengthen their communication skills and develop their ability to transfer knowledge within a new context as shown in Table 2.1. Druin (2009) explores how mobile technologies are used and lessons are designed for children to interact with and learn from. Specialized handheld tools are being used in student instruction for science classes. Students measure the level of carbon monoxide in their environment. With the use of hand held technologies the emissions from the vehicles are uploaded then compared it to similar types of data collection from children around the world. Ultimately, this creates an online global map of pollution hotspots. She

21 offers many examples of how mobile technologies are being used to increase students learning and global literacy.

Table 2.1 Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions as Related to Dynamics of New Media

Note. The relationship between culture and new media and how digital citizens can strengthen communication skills. Adapted from "Transformative power of digital citizenship: Critical perspectives on culture, new media and pedagogy," by Kurubacak, 2007, Journal of Educational Technology, 4, p.14.

Another example of how hand held devices are being used as educational tools is the Sesame Street free podcast workshops. Muppet characters teach young children the essentials of reading and language skills. In China, educators are taking advantage of childrens interest in mobile devices and teaching them English vocabulary. Mobile technologies allows for a more immersive language-learning experience by providing anytime access to a vast amount of resources. These lessons also provide students with

22 different perspectives and new ways of viewing the world. Using eDevices broadens student's knowledge by digitally connecting world regions, languages, and cultures. Passey (2010) reports that there are various studies that indicate certain learning activities are supported using mobile technologies. From the cognitive learning perspective, these technologies grasp the attention of many students and engage them in visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learning. For success in the implementation of a mobile technologies framework, appropriate practices, including home-to-school elements, should be encouraged. Passey also warns that the exclusion of political and cultural factors from the start of any mobile technology framework will limit important learning activities. He concludes by stating, mobile technologies have potential to affect areas of learning, but teachers cannot make the implementation alone. Teachers need support from all stakeholders. Lin, Cheong, Kim, and Jung, (2010) report that Asian students continue to use the Internet for entertainment-related activities. As well, they found an increase in students participation in discussing political, economic, and international issues over the Internet. Activities such as reading online news, voting, and signing online petitions has increased. Their findings suggest that this increase is due in part to three factors. First, computer technology use begins at age eight. Second, the percentage of Internet and computer technologies use in their homes is currently 97%. Last, the use of mobile phones with Internet capability has increased the rate of student interactivity from 45% to 62%. For students who are civic-minded and interested in politics, the Internet enhances their civic engagement possibilities.

23 Zhang (2010) explains that learning culture includes complex system of social practices made up of macro properties (i.e., epistemological beliefs, social values, power structure) and micro properties (i.e., curriculum, technology, classroom activities, assessments). Teachers will need to engage in deep reflection across the macro and micro properties to develop a framework. This framework will reflect desired changes as well as manage any challenges and conflicts. Teachers must comprehend the role culture plays both in their students' lives and within their school. Once this is accomplished, they can begin to develop a classroom environment that bridges cultural differences (Rothstein-Fisch & Trumbull, 2008). It can be a daunting task for teachers to manage a class of culturally diverse students. RothsteinFisch and Trumbull present a framework for managing diverse classrooms that builds on students' cultural strengths. They explore the fundamental differences between two types of cultural orientations, individualistic and collectivistic frameworks. They investigate how teachers use these frameworks to understand their own cultural values, their school, their students, and students' families. When teachers determine that home values may conflict with school values, they can address a student's confusion as to what is appropriate behavior in the classroom. Dumas (2008) explain that students will need to be skilled in cultural affairs, demonstrate awareness and acceptance, be thoughtful critical thinkers, and embrace global citizenship. Educators will be responsible for transforming their curriculum and pedagogy to guide their students in the understanding that their own survival will be directly related to their ability to deal responsibly and effectively with a variety of nations and issues (Zong, 2008). Igoche and Branch (2009) see cultural values as diverse and as

24 an important factor when creating instructional products. They warn that diversity should not raise resistance to change but apply notions of equity, equality, and processes that build pluralistic learning communities. Igoche and Branch state that cultural values should complement students performance and that their work should be valued for its demonstration of certain knowledge and skills even if it may appear contrary to community norms. Reimers (2009) addresses the need for students to have global competency, "the knowledge and skills that help them cross disciplinary domains to comprehend global events and respond to them effectively" (p. 29). He provides an example of the three interdependent dimensions of global competency: a positive approach toward cultural differences and a willingness to engage those differences, an ability to speak, understand, and think in several critical languages such as English, Mandarin, and Spanish, and a global educational system that helps discern what works well, with what effects, and at what cost. Rothstein-Fisch and Trumbull (2008) outline the importance of acknowledging students' cultural values and perspectives. A single cultural point of view will not provide diverse students with an equitable opportunity for learning. It is essential that learning include one's own culture, the culture of school, and the culture of the community. Educators share in the task of preparing their students to function within and contribute to the global society. Before teachers can teach, they need to have or develop their own global perspectives in order to foster global awareness in their students (Crawford & Kirby, 2008). Gallavan (2008) reports that most teacher candidates tend to be only moderately world-minded and appear less worldly, less well-read, less experienced, and less traveled than teacher candidates in the past. Forrester (2009) offers

25 one possible solution for educators is to make global connections using Internet technologies. He explores the use of web conferencing tools, which make sharing content more accessible and useful, allowing teachers to communicate in real time, anytime, anywhere, and with anyone. As a part of professional development, cultural awareness needs to be addressed to avoid student confusion. An example of the importance of teachers recognizing the classroom culture was evident when web assignments (i.e. wiki, Google docs) were given to Chinese students and was met with resistance. The teacher asked their students to publicly share and critique each other's work. For these students, this new process was against their cultural norm to be more passive, noncritical, and obedient in instruction. This teacher needed to know that in some countries, students fear government retaliation for publicly sharing their opinions (Young, 2010). Professional Development for the Digital Educator The 21st century educator needs to reach beyond curriculum and the walls of their institutions to learn how technology can be used to educate students who are digital natives (Honigsfeld, Giouroukakis, Cohan, & Walsh, 2009). Teachers who have shown interest in these advances have begun experimenting with the use of Internet technologies such as blogs, wikis, and podcasts in practical ways for incorporating technology into their curriculum (Solomon & Schrum, 2007). The need for teachers to become proficient in the use of web technologies has increased the demand for professional development. With the increase of information and communication technologies available over the Internet, the increase of online professional development courses and workshops has risen as well (Dede, 2006).

26 Digital communication and collaboration technologies offer potential ways to foster global awareness among teachers. As the role of the 21st century teacher changes, the conventional methods of disseminating information also change. Teachers need to be creative in designing and modeling effective participatory instruction, such as using the web as a way to write, reflect, and participate (Richardson, 2008-09). The National Technology Goals have been developed to provide educators and their institutions with the necessary resources to provide digital literacy for the 21st century student. The U.S. Department of Education, office of Educational technology (2010) have three suggestions for improving technology use in schools, provide broadband everywhere, have a computing device in the hands of every student, and make connectedness the trademark for effective teaching. Schrum, Galizio, and Ledesma (2011) reported that significant funding has been spent on educating teachers in technology use for classroom instruction. However, it does not appear that administrators have received that same level of instruction to support their teachers in effective use of technology and overcome the challenges that arise in supporting technology integration. Regrettably, no matter how much training teachers receive, unless they have the support and leadership of their administrators, technology use in the classroom will ultimately be ineffective and unsuccessful. Embracing digital literacy skills helps education thrive in this new digital world. The standard teacher-centric classroom is making way for the student-centric classroom; where the teacher is the student's individual learning coach, mentor, problem solver, and support person. The focus is on students learning at their own pace and in their preferred style (Christensen & Horn, 2008). Friedman (2005) cites technology as a method for

27 transforming every aspect of business, life, and society, changing our global structure from a command and control to a connect and collaborate universe. The Web and the technologies used to interact within it are a world-changing phenomenon. The iGeneration, as defined by Rosen (2011) is a new generation of media users born 1990 and beyond. The I is correlated to the devices used (iPhone, iPad, iTunes) the iGeneration is defined by their technology use, their love of electronics, and their need to multitask. Educators need to tap into the students love for technology and use technology to convey content more powerfully and efficiently. If teachers are successful in refocusing education, students will become more involved in their learning, and classroom activities will offer more in depth investigation of the subject content. Scherer (2011) describes a definition for digital literacy as having three components. First, the users must be able to employ information (i.e., find, consume, analyze and use it to solve a problem). Second part defines the individuals ability to use media and digital technologies to communicate and collaborate effectively (i.e., knowing best practices for publishing online, communicating your story using different media, and organizing and collaborating in and outside of your personal network). Last, digital literacy develops the concept of digital citizenship, where individuals have a sense of personal behavior and responsibility online, just as they would as a citizen, offline. In today's classrooms, teachers are met with the added challenge that many of their students are already comfortable in this new digital environment. Students were raised using electronics and many demonstrate an extended knowledge of Internet skills (Clinton, Purushotma, Robison & Weigel, 2006). Often, students have more experience in social networks and blogging than many of their teachers (Lambert & Cuper, 2008).

28 Ozgiln-Koca, Meager, and Edwards (2011) showed that the Technological, Pedagogical, and Content Knowledge (TPACK) model can be beneficial when evaluating teachers' professional growth and is a valuable tool for teachers to reflect on their own development. Ozgiln-Koca et al. suggest when planning for optimum learning with technology, teachers not only need technological knowledge but they also need time to reflect on how these technological capabilities will help their students' learn. To be considered successful in today's global community, students need to transform their social networking, blogging, and chatting skills into the ability to gather, process, synthesize, and analyze data. Students will need to take these new skills and learn to appropriately employ technology as they work collaboratively with others across the world (Hargadon, 2007). To do this, students need teachers to guide them in tailoring their Internet skills into ones that employ critical thinking, team building, cross-cultural awareness, and communication (Burkhardt, Monsour, Valdez, Gunn, Dawson, Lemke, Coughlin, Thadani & Martin, 2003). With the use of portable devices such as cell phones, students are able to shoot video, edit clips, and upload movies to websites like YouTube instantly sharing their experiences. This dramatic change in how video is recorded, watched, and shared has made using digital video easier in the classroom then traditional film. Teachers can easily isolate and control clips within a digital video. They can record, edit, and post their lectures to YouTube. Bell and Bull (2010) suggest that if educators are to use digital video in their instruction, they will need effective pedagogy. Teachers will need to give students prior instruction in what to look for in the video, monitor for potential cognitive overload, and provide dialogue to ensure the targeted information has been addressed.

29 Teachers can actively engage their students using video technology by having them observe, answer related questions, and interpret the video's message. Furthermore, students can create their own video as a form of knowledge, synthesizing and communicating what they have learned. Taranto and Abbondanza (2009) report that communication tools are a part of most students lives outside of school. Schools have the added responsibility to ensure that the technology is being used responsibly and teachers are making constructive use of these tools in the classroom. Taranto and Abbondanza write, learning leaders can provide the necessary 21st century learning experiences to ensure that students and teachers are not only good citizens but good digital citizens as well (p.42). Hofer and Moore (2010) reports that todays technology has enabled students to be more connected to their parents. Parents are digitally staying linked to their children throughout high school and into their college career, helping their children make everyday decisions. This iConnected Parent phenomenon is changing how students learn to be independent and grow into their adulthood. The entire community, teachers, parents, and students should strive to be good digital citizens. It is important to understand the limitations/consequences of extensive connectedness and how it can hamper ones mental, physical, and social wellbeing. With all the challenges of standardized testing, budget cuts, larger class size, and integrating technology standards, educators are now faced with reaching beyond their current practices to find ways to communicate, collaborate, and disseminate information. If educators are afforded the opportunity to focus on developing, evaluating, and thinking about how to provide better learning for their students, they will be more likely to use

30 technology as an effective/creative method in their teaching (Sandholtz & Reilly, 2004). Internet technologies offer individuals the ability to connect and interact in a social environment using online discussion tools, electronic portfolios, social networks, and virtual reality environments. Teachers may find these technologies influential in their practice (Rollett, Mathias, Strohmaier, Dosinger, & Tochermann, 2007). The National Council for Social Studies encourages teachers to design technologyenhanced lessons that not only address social studies content, but prepares students for effective citizenship (Frye, Trathen, & Koppenhaver, 2010). To achieve this charge, Frye et al. developed Internet workshops to provide opportunities for teachers to learn instructional technology and manage Internet resources. The workshops were structured into two sections. The first was designed to assist meaningful experiences with Internet resources (i.e., searching, reading, gathering, and evaluating content). The second section was designed to provide an opportunity to refine, display, publish, and share content with others. The Internet workshops were successful in providing teachers with the technological tools (blogs) used to research and publish instantly, to connect widely, and to participate in real life applications of literacy, social studies, and technology integration. Waters (2011) explores the development of a new technology that is taking the teacher evaluation process to the next level. Not only can this technology be used to help administrators evaluate classroom instruction, it provides teachers with a self-reflection tool. Even with the use of video recording it is difficult to capture the activity of an entire classroom. The new technology Reflect (http://www.teachscape.com/reflect/researchresults.html) that is being developed focuses on the teacher's instruction and at the same

31 time provides a 360-degree panoramic view of the classroom activity. Reflect records the classroom activities to a password protected website, where teachers can go back and review their lessons and evaluate their students' progress. In today's Information Age, students are not only media content consumers but also content creators. An important part of literacy and communication education includes how copyright laws and intellectual property issues affect online communication (McGrail, & McGrail, 2010). To prepare students to be creative in their expression, McGrail and McGrail recommend students not only have a good understanding of copyright and fair use principles, but also explore the possibility of creating their own original digital work. With the use of Web 2.0 tools, students can create original music and video. This eliminates the need for citing sources and produces original work providing students with in-depth learning and pride of ownership. With the availability of Web 2.0 tools and anytime anywhere Internet access, it is no wonder that many students have experienced cyberbullying. Hindujn and Patchin (2011) report the use of digital technology may have changed the method for bullying but not how it affects the individual. With digital access around the clock, kids are susceptible to victimization. It is easier to type out hateful comments about someone, rather than say it to their face. Levy (2011) offers best practices guidelines for helping educators to identify, address, and prevent cyberbullying. Begin by assess your schools cyberbullying issues, develop a clear policy for on and off campus acceptable use, provide teacher training on prevention and responding to cyberbullying, develop student leadership mentors, design digital citizenship curricula for the classroom and school (i.e., student netiquette, safe use

32 of social media, how to monitor their online reputation), and finely, reinforce the consistent message of responsible and ethical use of technology by soliciting support from parents and the community. With the growing number of handheld eDevices and the extended amount of time individuals sit, stand, and play using their technology, it is not surprising that the concern about students proper ergonomics is becoming a popular topic in education. Students are entering the workplace with chronic repetitive strain injury problems (Grayson, 2009). Appropriate ergonomics has been crucial in the workplace for avoiding visual, musculoskeletal injuries, and physical discomfort. Educators have to focus on teaching proper ergonomics and what the physical, mental, and social ramifications are, when eDevices are used improperly. For ergonomics to become second nature to students (i.e. proper lighting, posture etc.), school administrators will have to support the funding for ergonomic workstations and provide training for teachers to model the correct use of technology in their environment. When students are required to use digital technology for communicating within the school's community, it becomes the responsibility of the teachers and administrators to provide guidance in the correct ways to use technology (Kennedy, 2009).

Summary Technology advances have changed the way students communicate, share, and play digitally. For the educator, these technological advances have revealed the need for more creativity and imagination in curriculum development. These technology advances

33 offer educators the resources and skills to engage with their students digitally and provide them with options for communicating, working collaboratively, and sharing political issues around the world. As the development of new digital technology continues to evolve, the need to educate students to be global digital citizens and leaders becomes more apparent. The digital citizenship guide provides a foundation for teachers to educate their students in effective methods to communicate and understand the importance of being an effective, safe, and responsible digital consumer, in and out of the classroom. Across the various curriculums this single source of information will guide teachers to promote digital citizenship discussions, explore valuable resources, and provide methods to assess their students digital health.

34

Chapter 3 Methodology

Research Design For research to be effective in the educational community, it must be clear in its intent, consistent, based on reliable data, and well written. Creswell (2008) substantiates by adding, "Research involves asking a question, collecting data, and analyzing data to determine the answer to the question" (p.15). Developmental research systematically examines products, tools, processes, and models for producing reliable and usable information. Out of the many types of research methods, developmental research is a unique process for the design, development, and evaluation of instructional products (Richey & Klein, 2005). This developmental study blended qualitative and quantitative measures to aid in the content design of the digital citizenship guide. Quantitative data are useful for describing trends and explaining the relationship among variables found in the literature, while qualitative data aids in the development of an in-depth exploration of a central phenomenon. Individuals are selected that can best help in the understanding of the central phenomenon (Creswell, 2008). This research design included three phases. At the end of each phase, quantitative data was collected in the form of an online survey. These data provided valuable information for the further development of the guide. The measure of central tendency was used to determine the mode of the 12 Question Survey

35 when evaluating the Digital Citizenship Guide for readability, value of the lessons, and the benefit of the resources. In the first phase, four members of the panel of experts reviewed the digital citizenship guide and the online survey. In the second phase, 11 teachers attended a professional development seminar to learn how to use the digital citizenship guide. For the final phase, four teachers used the revised digital citizenship guide in their instruction. Using grounded theory techniques to analyze participants experiences as they used the Digital Citizenship Guide in their instruction resulted in rich descriptions of not only each participants experience but the classroom experience as well. Four participants used the initial draft Digital Citizenship Guide in their respective classrooms and each were observed allowing raw data to be collected. These data generated a broad theory about the qualitative central phenomenon grounded in the data (Creswell, 2008). The generic ADDIE approach offers the instructional designer the opportunity to incorporate cultural values in the development of the instructional design process. Considering the audiences beliefs, traditions, and past experiences and the roles these play in their learning process creates a cultural pluralism in formal education (Igoche & Branch, 2009). Designing and implementing a product requires defining teaching strategies to be incorporated in the lessons or training units (Morrison, Ross, & Kemp, 2004).

Instrument Development Survey research is a form of quantitative research in which the investigator identifies a population, collects data using questionnaires or interviews, and draws

36 conclusions about a population (Creswell, 2008). In the first phase, the 12 Question Survey instrument was developed to help determine the training needs. This survey contained both open-ended response and preset questions and responses. Based on the feedback from the panel of experts and the current literature, questions were drafted and SurveyMonkey was used to generate the survey. The cost of the account was minimal and generated data were secured. During the second phase (the professional development workshop), a Technology and 21st Century Skill Rubric for Teachers (2008) was administered. This rubric is based on the new International Society for Technology in Education 2008 teacher technology standard and was used as a self-evaluation instrument providing teachers instant data as to the their skill level (ISTE, 2009). These data provided a baseline of skill levels. Teachers were given opportunities to ask questions and clarification was provided during the presentation. For phase three, the four participating teachers used the revised guide in their instruction as a project based lesson. Classroom observations were conducted and qualitative data was recorded to obtain descriptions of activities and interpersonal interactions. Teachers' feedback was gathered at the end of this phase by an open-ended questionnaire and follow up interview.

Approach or Procedures 1. What do experienced teachers find missing in their instruction when teaching digital citizenship in a multicultural classroom?

37 A needs analysis (Morrison, et al., 2004) was conducted to define the problem and a substantive need for training was determined based upon reporting in the literature. Through an examination of current literature, findings determined that before teachers could facilitate student's universal understanding of digital citizenship. Teachers would need specific guidance in how to teach safe and effective methods for communicating in the digital world. The literature review revealed a gap between what teachers know about teaching digital citizenship and how their students are using technology in and outside of the classroom. Based upon the literature, an outline of the skills, competencies, lessons, and assessment procedures a digital citizen guide would need to include was developed. This step was based upon Morrison, et al. (2004) who prescribed that during the design and development phases the instructional designer identifies the strategies and activities needed to reach the instructional goals. To validate these finding, subject matter experts reviewed and offered feedback. As per Dick, Carey, and Carey (2001), they drew on their experience and helped to identify instructional goals for the digital citizenship guide, validated the 12 Question Survey instrument and reviewed the draft of the digital citizenship guide for teachers (Appendix A). The panel was comprised of WMA teachers who are knowledgeable about the culture of the students and the school. Their evaluation addressed reliability, validity and completeness; it appears as Appendix B. Permission was requested and granted by WMA to use the computer facilities (Appendix C). IRB permission was required and obtained from NSU (Appendix D) in

38 order to collect data from participants. Prior to the instructional workshop and classroom observations, participants signed consent forms; these forms appear in Appendix E and F. The implementation phase of instructional design focuses on the actual instruction (Igoche & Branch, 2009). To implement the digital citizenship guide, a professional development workshop was offered to teachers. The number of computer stations limited the workshop to 10 participants. The criteria for choosing these teachers was based on a cross sampling of members from different departments, their multicultural experiences, and technological backgrounds. Each participant in the workshop was emailed an informed consent form.

2. What should be included in a digital citizenship guide to prepare and support instructors for teaching students to be safe and effective digital communicators? A professional development workshop was taught to gather in-depth, firsthand experiences from the teachers. Although this situation is not preferable, care can be taken to insure objectivity by using systematic data collection techniques (Richey & Klein, 2005). The seminar was conducted on April 3, 2011 and required three hours to complete. The workshop provided an opportunity to gather in-depth, firsthand experiences from the teachers as they learned about digital citizenship and teaching in a multicultural classroom. At the end of the seminar, a 12 Question Survey was administered to each participant (Appendix G). The questions addressed: 1. The content in each unit for clarity and ease of presentation. 2. The value of each lesson. 3. The depth of benefit as a teaching resource

39 4. Written reflection of each unit, for recommendations and improvements. Each questions provided an area for the participants to offer further comments and reflect on the questions as well as their experiences. The evaluation of these data was used in the revision of the teachers guide for the next phase.

3. What considerations need to be taken when planning lesson content for a digital citizenship guide for global learners? The evaluation phase of instructional design was to determine if the instruction is effective as well as to compose a plan for evaluating the instructional products and processes (Igoche & Branch, 2009). From the 10 teachers who attended the workshop, three individuals were invited to use the revised guide in their classroom instruction. The criteria for choosing these individuals was based on their willingness to use the guide in a curriculum based project. Each participant in the instructional classroom observation was emailed an informed consent form. A classroom observation was conducted to obtain descriptions of activities and interpersonal interactions. Feedback was obtained via an open-ended questionnaire that allowed participants to compose their own responses. The follow up interview asked: 1. Do you feel the students were engaged in the lessons and activities? 2. Do you feel your students benefited from the lessons and activities? 3. Did you feel the time and effort you spent preparing for the lessons and activities, was time well spent? 4. Is there any other topic or issue you would have this guide address?

40 5. Do you think the guide accomplished its goal to provide you with an introduction to digital citizenship and provide examples of how to be safe and effective communicators in the digital world? The evaluation of these data was used in the final revision of the teachers guide for teaching digital citizenship at a global academy.

Data Collection Purposeful sampling was used; participants were not random but rather chosen for their particular instructional expertise. Instead of using a pre-established instrument, the researcher develops his or her instruments asking questions to learn specific information from the participants (Creswell, 2008). For this investigation, the data collection used a quantitative measure, a 12-question Likert scale survey. The 12 Question Survey was administered in all three phases. The panel of experts evaluated the questionnaire for clarity and validity. After reviewing the guide and offering their recommendations for improvements, the panel concluded by taking the 12 Question Survey. At the beginning of the professional development workshop, phase two, the professional development workshop participants were given a 21st Century Skill Survey (Appendix H). This pre-established instrument was used as an introduction to the workshop and to provide the teachers with an overview of their technological skills. The qualitative data gathered from the workshop interactions, as well as the 12 Questions Survey proved the revisions of the Digital Citizenship Guide for the third phase. During phase three, the four volunteer teachers used the revised guide and the researcher observed and evaluated the guide and the participants interactions. The

41 qualitative data gathered from these observations, as well as the 12 Questions Survey findings were used in the final revision of the digital citizenship guide.

Resources The participants for this study were members of the WMA faculty. Creswell (2008) states that a criterion for choosing individuals is based on what they know. The faculty members were chosen for their years of experience as educators, the number of years they have worked at WMA, and their experience in using technology in their instruction. The faculty members at WMA have email accounts and have access to the Internet on campus throughout the academic day and evening. The main resource required was time for participation. The experts had the necessary resources for viewing email and accessing the Internet to view the 12 Question Survey. The computer lab at WMA, which was used for the professional development seminar, was equipped with the technology needed to administer instruction of the digital citizenship guide. For phase three, the teachers used the guide in their instruction and their classrooms were equipped with the necessary resources to instruct a unit from the digital citizenship guide.

Summary The goal was to develop an instructional guide that teaches educators methods for opening digital communication with their students. It created a common ground for using technology in their classroom. A desired result was to determine the classroom cultural differences and clarify any misconceptions so educators can be more effective in their use

42 of technology. This digital citizenship guide can be used in any learning environment to address the fundamentals of digital citizenship and provide insight into the role culture plays in the use of technology in the classroom.

43

Chapter 4 Results

Introduction The goal of the investigation was to develop a guide to teach digital citizenship based on the need derived from the gap in the literature. The original draft was pieced together by infusing the literature referencing Web 2.0 technologies in Education, Multicultural Education, and Professional Development for Digital Educators. The instructional design followed the ADDIE system approach for needs analysis, design, development, implementation, and the evaluation. These findings summarize the process as previously described in the methodology chapter the Digital Citizenship Guide underwent in its development. This chapter contains the results from three phases; reviews from a panel of experts (Phase 1), feedback from workshop participants (Phase 2), and classroom observations from the four participants using the guide in their instruction (Phase 3). A panel of four subject-matter experts (Appendix I) helped to identify the instructional goals and to further the development of the Digital Citizenship Guide. The second phase includes the findings from the participants of the instructional workshop (Appendix J). Teachers attended a workshop to learn how to use the digital citizenship guide in their instruction. Results from their 12 Question Survey were included in these findings. The final phase includes four volunteers who participated in the workshop and agreed to use

44 the guide in their classroom instruction (Appendix K). These findings included classroom observations, interview questions, and the 12 Question Survey results.

Needs Analysis A need for developing a Digital Citizenship Guide for teachers was revealed in the current literature. This developmental study blended qualitative and quantitative measures. Analyzing qualitative research is an interpretive process that requires making sense of the data collected (Creswell, 2008). For the analysis of the written comments collected during the three phases of this investigation (i.e., reviews of the digital guide, classroom observations, and participant interviews), a three-step approach to qualitative research data analysis was used. This approach included determining initial categories of information about the phenomenon, selecting one category as the core phenomenon, and providing an explanation for the interrelationship of the categories as per the recommendation of Creswell (2008). Analyzing the data and placing them into themes revealed broad categories. The collection of data provided broad factors that influence the core phenomenon. The content of the Digital Citizenship Guide was provided by the information within the categories and emerged from analyzing the data collected during the three phases of investigation. These categories included: instructional needs, multicultural classroom, professional development, multicultural considerations, lesson plans, valuable resources, and timely discussion topics. The central category, the development of the Digital Citizenship Guide, examined how these factors influence the phenomenon, which led to the specific strategies used in the final revision of the guide.

45 Phase 1, Panel of Experts As discussed in chapter two a large gap was noted in the current literature regarding digital citizenship and how it should be taught (i.e., how students should use technology to communicate in a global, digital society). The Digital Citizenship Guide was created to fill this gap. The panel of experts helped in the analysis by evaluating the initial Digital Citizenship Guide for reliability, validity, and completeness. The panel of experts offered various forms of feedback, such as written notes made directly to their copy of the guide, while others chose to email their findings. Their comments reinforced the validity of the guides content by stating: One daily challenge teachers live with are understanding and managing students use of technology. Unit one lessons provide a good foundation for the conversation in the classroom. The panel of experts found the resources offered in the guide as very relevant and helpful. Suggestions included providing more Internet links, resources, and references to the lesson areas of the guide. An example was offered to introduce a digital community for classroom projects, such as edmodo.com (http://edmodo.com). This is a social media tool that mimics the look and feel of Facebook without breaching safety concerns or sharing personal data. Another area that the experts felt an addition was warranted was the inclusion of a component on plagiarism as many cultures view this topic differently. An additional recommendation was to introduce students to the Wayback Machine (http://www.archive.org/web/web.php) and the Digital Tattoo (http://digitaltattoo.ubc.ca/). These search engines and archive websites reveal ones digital footprints on the Internet. These resources can be an eye opening experience for

46 many students as they realize what their digital dossier is and what the implications can be, if any. Comments regarding the multicultural classroom supported the need for considerations when teaching digital citizenship at a global school, Students coming from cultures that do not honor Intellectual Property (IP) are having difficulty understanding what all the fuss is about in our classrooms. Another suggestion was to include, a piece about plagiarism, since this is viewed so differently in other cultures. The Experts offered comments for formatting and correcting minor typographical errors throughout the guide and corrections were made. Recommendations were given for adding bullets under the discussion topic area for readability and labeling lessons more clearly. Positive feedback was given on the use of topic heading. Comments such as, It is helpful for teachers to know what to expect as they move from one unit to the next" reinforced the basic structure of the format. Some of the findings uncovered areas where English as a Second Language (ESL) students may not understand some terms used. Areas where concepts were deemed confusing were clarified. An expert in ESL warned, that student lack of English skills might hinder their ability (or comfort) to offer feedback when asked to discuss various topics addressed in the guide. The expert offered, "One of the best ways to breakdown the barriers of cross-cultural miscommunication are to understand where everyone is coming from. It's a good topic...particularly in a global classroom". An expert felt the Digital Citizenship Guide's topics provide international students an opportunity to speak out in class and be considered an expert on the differences within their cultures.

47 Some important details were uncovered by the panel of experts, such as the exclusion of equal digital access issues. One expert commented, With rising digital divide between haves and have-nots, how does a true global digital citizen address the huge groups without access? This discussion topic was added addressing digital divide issues and how teachers can address this in their classroom. Another suggestion included adding digital laws vs. society norms to the discussion topics and to include where and when in curriculum this topic should be addressed. These recommendations were offered and corrections were made to the Digital Citizenship Guide. The revised guide was then used in phase 2, professional development workshop.

Design and Development Phase 2, Professional Development Workshop Participants Feedback from the panel of experts offered corrections for the revision of the guide and the workshop was scheduled. The workshop participants provided written and survey responses that were completed by two separate groups. Originally, 19 teachers were invited to attend the workshop. Only seven were able to attend and participate in the formal workshop and presentation of the guide. To reach the desired number of participants (10), six more individuals were invited to participate (Appendix M). From this request 11 volunteers participated as guide review members. The four new members in the second group did not meet at a formal workshop, but rather were given the guide for reviewing and asked to discuss their findings. Both groups took the same 12 Question Survey and were given an opportunity to address any comments or concerns related to the guide.

48 The workshop participants were comprised of five academic chairs from the English, Art, ESL, Library Services, and Academic Services Departments. The other representatives were members of the World Languages, Math, and CEGS History Departments, representing all the major departments at WMA and 113 years teaching and leadership experience lending credence to this important step toward achieving excellence in digital citizenship. At the start of the workshop the teachers were given a 21st Century Skills Rubric to outline their use of technology and their various skill levels. Table 2 represents a summary of the results. A complete version of these findings can be found in Appendix N. The rubric is a self-assessment tool used to gauge the participants level of technology use and provide a baseline for future assessments. The overall findings of this assessment were good to great as shown in Table 2, with a mode from 3 to 4 for each question. Several minutes were spent discussing the value of the teachers skills rubric and how individuals could use these findings to gauge their personal growth. Table 4.2 Technology and 21st Century Skills Rubric, Summary
Questions 1. Facilitate and Inspire Student Learning and Creativity 2. Design and Develop Digital-Age Learning Experiences and Assessments 3. Model Digital-Age Work and Learning 4. Promote and Model Digital Citizenship and Responsibility 5. Engage in Professional Growth and Leadership
Total Mean Median Mode

30 14 26 26 28

3.0 1.4 2.6 2.6 2.8

3 1 3
3

4
0,1, 3

3 3, 4 3

Total Composite Score Guidelines Outstanding, Consistently, Intentionally, Advanced Great, Most of the time, Purposeful, Proficient

=4 =3

49
Good, Inconsistent, Planned, Basic Fair, Introductory, Spontaneous, Limited Not at this time, Need training and/or to Investigate Further =2 =1 =0

Overall, the findings indicate a good sampling of participants from WMA. A weakness can be found in the design and development of digital age learning (question 2) as indicated by mean 1.4. Educators at WMA would benefit from the type of instructional workshop denoted in question 2. Note, out of the 11 participants, one teacher chose not to complete the skills rubric. The workshop continued with an introduction to digital citizenship at a global academy. An overview on how to use the guide was given. It was explained how the guide was divided into three units, Unit 1: Digital Citizenship, Unit 2: Role of Culture, and Unit 3: Digital Safety and Security. During the workshop, each unit was introduced and content was discussed. In Unit 1, teachers explored how their students communicate digitally. Teachers were provided with discussion topics to determine what students perceive as their digital rights and responsibilities in and out of the classroom. The discussion began with the definition of digital citizenship and the group explored the various ways digital citizenship has been addressed in their classrooms as well as in the dorms. In Unit 1: Lesson 1, the discussion centered on the need for more examples and definitions of terms, such as fair use, public domain, copyright, intellectual property, and plagiarism. It was suggested a list of definitions and acronyms be added to the introduction section of the guide. Intellectual property and public domain were topics that were discussed in full detail. The participants made suggestions to add more examples and references in the resources section. Clarification of terms would help to facilitate a

50 teachers better understanding of the topic and help discern differences in cultures. Participant's offered comments (i.e., "I think the topics covered are very relevant to what we are doing and should be doing at WMA" and "The guide was straightforward and gave examples of projects that would be useful in the classroom"), confirms that the guide covers the subjects that are necessary in the 21-century classroom. Faculty discussions centered on the need to add more flexibility in choosing lessons and time to test various options before using the lesson in classroom instruction. Having access to lessons that have been tested provides teachers with resources and frees up their time to apply their content. A faculty member commented on Lesson 1/1 stating that the digital rights and responsibilities exercise would be a great way to introduce proper citation to ESL students. The Instructor felt she would have to make adjustments to the lesson before using the online resource such as EasyBib (http://easybib.com). She noted this adjustment was for ESL students that needed to fully understand the concept of citations. The discussion then went on to address the importance of the guides design in its flexibility to work within many curriculums. Teachers will need to determine how it would best meet their instructional needs. Overall, the faculty discussion on Unit 1 was positive and the constructive feedback was beneficial in the continued development of the unit. An overview of Unit 2 began with an introduction as to the role culture plays in the use of technology. This unit provides teachers with the tools needed to create very clear expectations for technology use in the classroom. An example of an academic digital contract was offered as a guideline to determine how technology will be used in each classroom. This led to a discussion on the importance of determining the different

51 cultures within the classroom and what students perceive as acceptable use of technology in and outside of the classroom. An interesting point was brought to the groups attention when discussing the schools AUP. WMA has an AUP that does not include digital media and handheld devices in instruction. It became apparent through group discussion that perhaps each classroom might need to develop its own Academic Digital Contract (ADC) for technological needs differ from course to course. This discussion reinforced the need for a lesson in Unit 2 to provide the teacher with instructions on how to facilitate the process of creating an ADC for their classroom. Discussions explored how to enhance student's critical thinking skills as it pertains to plagiarism. One idea was to have students investigate copyright laws in their own countries and to allow students to accomplish this research in their own language. Students would then interpret their findings and share them with the class. Many felt this would be a welcome change. One teacher noted, Especially in an ESL classroom where the specifics may be the most interesting to students, it best enables them to give their opinions. The participants provided thoughtful examples of the various ways in which they use technology in their curriculum. The majority expressed the desire to know more about the different cultures at our school and how culture affects a students understanding of the effectiveness of technology use. In general, the comments and discussions on Unit 2 were very informative and added significant improvements to the teachers guide. Unit 3 investigates the precautions that students need to take to protect their physical safety and personal security on the Internet and intranets. An overview began

52 with a discussion on topics of personal safety and security. Members noted a significant difference in the two topics: physical safety and personal security. A discussion evolved into questioning why the two equally important, but uniquely different topics were joined together. The idea of splitting the unit into two, digital safety and into its own unit physical wellness was suggested. Clearly, the above conversation suggests segregating the two topics would improve the units readability and flow. Another area that prompted a lively discussion was students digital safety. Some members felt that the unit was somewhat of a cautionary tale and old fashioned. Discussions centered on the changing Internet and how it affects the ways individuals interact making yesterdays concerns either obsolete or less important. This is demonstrated in decreased warnings about not publishing personal videos and pictures and or buying products on the Internet. Other members of the group felt that protecting ones personal information on the Internet is a lesson that teenagers definitely need to experience. These conversations reflect the agreement that there is just the right amount of information in Unit 3. Many valid points were raised in the discussions about ergonomics. One instructor thought Lesson 3/3 would be a good group building and confidence boosting assignment. Using OSHA standards, international students could evaluate their dorm rooms. This would be a great language practice and proficiency skill builder. It was determined that the need for a visual of proper ergonomics at a computer workstation would be useful as an overview in the background information section. There were two notable suggestions made for the improvement of Unit 3. One was to include links or

53 names of documentaries that illustrate proper ergonomics and the other was to provide an assessment for Lesson 3/3 concerning the protection of privacy. The workshop ended at 3 p.m. and participants were asked to complete the survey on their own. Many teachers in the group had afternoon dorm responsibilities and family obligations and needed to leave. They were asked to return their feedback by the end of the school week. This extra time provided them with an opportunity to reflect on the experience and think about their responses. The second revision of the Digital Citizenship Guide combined the feedback from the 12 Question Survey and the workshop participants written responses. The revised Digital Citizenship Guide was then given to the volunteers who agreed to use the guide in their classroom instruction. Implementation Phase 3, Classroom Observations Classroom observations proved the implementation of the guide to be observed firsthand along with follow up interview questions and the 12 Question Survey responses, contributed to the final revision of the guide. After the workshop concluded and data were analyzed, the revisions were made to the Digital Citizenship Guide. Five individuals were invited to participate in the final phase. These individuals had indicated at the end of the workshop that they might be interested in using the guide in their instruction. Out of the five teachers who were invited, four replied that they would use the guide during a classroom observation. The teachers were asked to choose which unit(s) they would like to use as a project or assignment. All projects and assignments had a date and time determined by the classroom teacher for an observation.

54 Observation 1, Financial Markets: Global Dimensions The first classroom observation was on May 13, 2011 at 10:05 am during a 45minute block. In attendance were six out of seven male students, three seniors and three juniors. Three students were international boarding and three were day students. The instructor chose Unit 3s Digital safety and physical wellness as an introduction to a digital security lesson. The instructor began by introducing the topic and the reason for including this information in their lesson. Even though the Student Media and Technology Survey (Digital Citizenship Guide p.13) was not a resource in this unit, the instructor felt the information would be beneficial to her understanding of what her students knew about technology use. The teacher administered the survey and when the students were done, the instructor began the discussion by asking the students what type of activities they chose to do on the Internet? Did they buy products online? Download music? Play games? The majority of the students replied they did all of the above. A discussion on Internet fraud began when they were asked if anyone had his or her identity stolen. No one in the room had any incidents, but all reported that they were aware that it occurs. Many students felt it was safe to go to websites such as Amazon (http://amazon.com), to buy items and did not worry that their personal information was at risk. A lively discussion began when the question was asked as to whether they used social media sites? Most of the students responded that they used Facebook (http://facebook.com) while another added they also went to YouTube (http://youtube.com). The teacher asked if they posted to YouTube or mostly watched the videos. Most students said they only watched while one individual said they had posted

55 videos. The instructor asked if the students felt their personal information was safe on social media sites. Most of the responses were positive but qualified by the fact that they did not have much information out there. They stated that they only allowed friends to view their information. One student stated he did not know if his information was safe. This conversation was a good segue into the video, Protecting Your Privacy on Facebook (Digital Citizenship Guide, p.18). The instructor began the video and students seemed to watch attentively. Halfway through the presentation, the instructor stopped the video and asked the students if they were aware of the privacy setting in their preference panel in their Facebook account. The majority of the students replied that they were aware and most of them had chosen settings to fit their needs. One individual noted that he did not know where the settings were located. He stated, after viewing the video he had a better understanding of how to protect his personal information on the Internet. The teacher asked the students how much time they spent daily at social media sites. Some students responded with only a few times a day. One student said, If we were allowed to use Facebook during the academic day, I would probably use it more often. Another student reported that he used his Smartphone to access the Internet, and could stay connected all day and night. With only a few minutes left to the class, the instructor wanted to know what the students knew about ergonomics. The instructor began the discussion by asking several questions. With all that time you are spending buying, downloading, communicating, and playing games on the Internet, do you ever feel any physical discomfort? Do you experience any numbing in your hands or fingers from holding a phone for extended periods or do your eyes feel strained after extensive computer use? Does anyone know

56 what ergonomic are? Students responded that they were not knowledgeable in this area. Many of the students were aware of the details of ergonomics in general. Responses included Yes, you can get chairs that are ergonomic. I know when you get older you can get carpel tunnel syndrome from using the computer too much When my hand gets tired, I switch my phone over to the other hand. Although some of the students were aware of the term and its application to technology, they did not realize the depth of the physical, mental, and social issues associated with using technology. The teacher concluded the class by reviewing some tips for remaining physically safe while using technology. This included tips on proper overhead lighting, working in excess at a computer screen for an extended amount of time, the importance of taking frequent breaks when writing long papers, and remembering to be safe and responsible when using technology. Observation 2, Ceramics The second classroom observation was on May 17, 2011 at 10:05 am. Due to scheduling restraints, the teacher asked if she could use the first 20 minutes of her 45minute class time to introduce the topic for discussion. In attendance were five students, three males and two females, three of whom were international boarding and two day students. Three were seniors and the others were juniors. The instructor chose Unit 1: Lesson 1, Digital rights and responsibilities, as an introduction of how to cite sources correctly. Although the teacher was not assigning her students Lesson 1s digital book review, she did ask them to conduct research for a digital presentation. The instructor felt that the content of Lesson 1 fit nicely into what she had previously assigned her students.

57 The teacher wanted to be sure her students understood the concepts of copyright and how to cite sources correctly including knowing what their responsibility are when citing digital work of others. She also wanted to be sure that her students knew that digital media had to be cited. The class began with the students gathered around one of the sculpting tables. The instructor introduced the topic and the reason for including this information in their lesson. The discussion started with an overview of what copyrighted materials are. The teacher asked her students to define copyright. The students described copyright as laws that protect people who create stuff and like when you write books or songs. Although the instructor felt her students understood the general concept of copyright, she provided them with a more formal definition. Next, she asked if they knew the difference in fair use and copyright? Students offered no exact definitions, but suggested it had something to do with copyrighted material. A student remarked, When using copyrighted information for schoolwork that is ok. The teacher confirmed that fair use offers some exceptions for educational use, as well as in certain circumstances. A brief discussion about intellectual property (IP) began when the teacher asked the students if they could define the term. When no one in class offered a definition, she stated that she had to look it up to be sure she understood the term. She referred to the resources within Unit 1 under the topic of IP and explained that IP refers to creations of the mind. This includes inventions, literary and artistic works, symbols, names, and images all used in commerce. The instructor explained that as future artists, they might need to know how to correctly copyright their creations. At this point in the discussion, she asked if anyone had questions about IP or any other topic discussed. No one offered

58 any questions so she moved on to the final topic, public domain (PD). The instructor provided the students with a definition of public domain; works not owned by someone and therefore are not protected by copyright laws. She noted four stipulations for works that are considered PD; works created before the laws (1989), works that have an expired copyright protection, works that never had copyright protections, and works dedicated to the public domain. The teacher concluded the discussion by reiterating that it is the students responsibility to be aware of copyright laws and issues. She hoped that her introduction or review of these topics would be beneficial to the students upcoming presentations as well as for the students who were planning to go to college. Observation 3, Global Literature The third classroom observation was on May 23, 2011 at 8:50 am during a 45minute block. In attendance were seven students, all seniors and Post Graduates (PG), four males and three females. Of these students, four were international boarding and three were day students. The instructor chose Unit 1s Lesson 2, Digital Etiquette, as an introduction to digital communication and citizenship. The instructor began by introducing the topic and the reason for including this information in their lesson. The instructor chose to design her own question survey and administer it to her students. The instructor explained that her students liked to have something in their hands to work from and refer to as they discussed information. The questions that were included in her survey followed the discussion topics found in Lesson 2, Digital Etiquette.

59 The students used the first 10 minutes of class time to fill out the questions on the general technology usage, teacher-supplied, survey. Once completed, the teacher offered some assumptions: Would I be correct to say that you all have used the Internet and you all have cell phones and have texted messages? At this point, she gave pause to her assumptions and asked if anyone knew of a student who did not have a cell phone? The majority of students reported that most of their friends had cell phones. One student offered a name of an individual who did not have one. The students expressed that they found it strange for a student not to have a cell phone. The teacher seemed to find the student responses interesting. The instructor noted that the students reported that although they did not think everyone had a cell phone, they did think that all teenagers had one. The teacher offered a revision on the question. She said she should have asked whether they believed that every high school student had a cell phone. A lively discussion centered on how students use their cell phones during the academic day. The majority of students felt it was unfair not to be able to use cell phones during the day. The teacher suggested that there were issues and concerns about students being distracted in class and using phones for sharing answers to tests. A student shared, Sometimes when I dont understand a term, I ask my teacher if I can use my phone to look up the definition. The students agreed that there were some legitimate reasons for using handheld devices during the school day, but they also felt that some users would have to be held accountable for misuse. The teacher speculated on the possibility of developing an agreed-upon contract within the class where cell phone use might be allowed. Student responses were mostly positive. Some were not convinced that all students would follow the rules of the agreement stipulated in the contract.

60 The instructor asked for a volunteer to participate in the assessment portion of Unit1, The crowded restaurant scenario. After much debate, a student agreed that she would take on the part of a person using her phone in a crowded restaurant. Within a minute, the phone rang and she was speaking loudly about the blind date she had the previous night. After the students delivery of the scenario, the teacher said, Wow, what was that all about? Did anyone find that inappropriate? A lively discussion began as students offered their opinions as to why they felt the person on the phone was being inconsiderate of the others around her. They spoke of being embarrassed hearing her personal conversation. Some thought it was funny to eavesdrop on someones blind date until they considered that they could have been the person being talked about. The teacher asked for some examples of more appropriate ways to handle a cell phone ringing loudly in a crowded restaurant. Some students said that would never occur because they have their phone on vibrate. Others said they dont answer their phone when they are busy doing something else with someone else. Some felt that they should take their call outside where they would not disturb anyone. The teachers asked if there was a time when it may be appropriate to answer the phone such as a doctor on call or a call from a babysitter. This sparked the discussion of who should be able to have their phones on at all times and who should not be allowed. Another topic discussed included whether phones be allowed in buildings in general. Some students stated they should always be able to have their phones with them. They added that they felt it was their choice to have them on or not on. A question was raised as to whether it was okay to use the phone in the school locker room. Someone added that

61 many phones have cameras and this would present a problem. There was a poignant pause in their conversation. The idea of ones culture came into the conversation when someone asked whether using technology in other countries differs. The teacher asked, Do you see similar situations occurring in crowded restaurants and movie theaters in other countries? Many acknowledged it was different but similar and depended on who you were with and where you were. They did agree that although the cultures of different countries were different, technology issues were found everywhere. The teacher concluded by stating, There is no one correct answer to any of these questions. Conversations have to take place so we can all understand the consequences of using technology and how it affects others around us. Observation 4, Writing Workshop The fourth classroom observation was on May 31, 2011 at 12:40 p.m. during a 45-minute block. At the end of the session, the teacher requested an additional day to continue with the class discussion. The second meeting was June 3, 2011 at 12:40 p.m. during a 45-minute block. In attendance, were seven, 10th and 11th graders. Five males and two females, of these students six were international boarding and one was a day student. The instructor chose Unit 2s The Role Culture Plays in the Use of Technology (Digital Citizenship Guide, p.12) as an introduction on technology use and how differences in culture determine digital communication and citizenship. The instructor began by introducing the topic and the reason for using the digital citizenship guide in their lesson. The Common Sense, Student Media and Technology Survey (Appendix P) was handed out at the beginning of the class and the teacher

62 provided explanations as needed. Students took several minutes to complete the survey and the teacher redistributed it so everyone had another person's survey. Although, the teacher took the time to go through each of the questions prompting students to get engaged in the discussion, it soon became clear that the process was confusing to students. Students were not clear if they should read from the answers on the survey or if they should address the questions as if they were being asked directly. The teacher asked them to read the answers from the survey on hand. Later, he explained that he would consider not redistributing the surveys in future classes. After a short time, students would respond with the answer off their given survey and add how they would agree or disagree. They appeared to feel it important to make a distinction from what they read and how they felt about the topic. When they added their own feelings, it appeared the topic became more relevant. Some of the responses on the survey were in line with what are becoming high school students norms, such as owning a cell phone. Only three individuals who reported owning a phone said the phone did not have Internet access. When discussing the types of media students use, the topic of Internet speed and access on campus was cause for much debate. As international students, the majority of the class found having limited download permissions very different from home. A student said, I cant even watch TV shows from China and Skype in the same day because I go over the 500 mb a day rule. (WMA limits the daily amount of megabytes for downloading to 500 mb.) Another student expressed that at home I dont think about the amount I am downloading or how much time I spend watching movies. These conversations led the class to talk about how they were or were not monitored by their parents. Some students reported that their

63 parents knew what they were doing but rarely checked up on them. Others reported that their parents asked them what they were doing. They told them and found that sometimes they checked to be sure. At this time, the teacher said the class would meet again on Friday and continue the discussion. The second Writing Workshops class discussion began with the topic of cyberbullying and intellectual property. This resulted from a request from a few students from the previous class. The teacher asked for a definition of cyberbullying. Comments ranged from making fun of someone, posting something negative on someones Facebook wall, to texting about someone then sharing it with others to intentionally hurt feelings. When the instructor asked the students why they might post negative comments on someones Facebook wall, they suggested it might be because they are bored. A discussion on how people perceive things came about when a student brought up the idea that different cultures may not understand subtleties or sarcasm. People from different cultures may not realize that someone is making fun of them or using them as an example in their joke. The teacher explained that there are times when communication can be misinterpreted because some things do not translate to other cultures the way they are meant. Personal feelings are hard to interpret sometimes, especially when they are being communicated digitally. The teacher defined the term intellectual property as property created from your mind. IP is divided into two categories, industrial property and copyright. He asked the question, Do you know what your copyright law or guidelines are in your country? One student said, If my country had laws, the people are not adhering to them. People all the

64 time are downloading and sharing files. The teacher noted that Peer-2-Peer file sharing was not legal anywhere. He continued to say that laws may not be reinforced, but there are regulations for digital media that everyone should be made aware. He emphasized that in order to be a good digital citizen, one should learn to respect one another, work together, and be tolerant of each others differences. The teacher concluded by thanking the students for the opportunity to have these in-depth conversations about how culture affects their digital communication with them. He highlighted how this was a valuable and enlightening experience. Interview with Classroom Observation Participants The findings from the classroom observations provide an opportunity to view firsthand how the Digital Citizenship Guide performs in its intended environment. Interviews were conducted with the teachers after the class presentations and observations were performed. The interviews collected the instructors impressions of how the digital citizenship guide preformed as an instructional tool. Five open-ended questions were asked during the interview process to collect qualitative feedback regarding the guides effectiveness in accomplishing its goals, to provide teachers with an introduction to digital citizenship and provide examples of how to be safe and effective communicators in the digital world. Their feedback provided an opportunity to discus the observations firsthand and to determine if there were issues that still needed to be addressed in the final revision of the guide. See the complete interview responses from teachers in Appendix R. The teachers who participated in the workshops and classroom observations exhibited a genuine interest in the topic of digital citizenship. The continued support of

65 the teachers was essential in the guides growth. One member expressed this in his commentary the guide is comprehensive and thorough. All of the topics are given proper consideration and can only act as springboards for further discussion. adding too much could take away from the process of group discovery. Feedback such as this added to the depth and breadth of the development of the digital citizenship guide and to this study.

Evaluation Analyzing quantitative data differs from that of the qualitative data in that it summarizes numbers that represent a single value in a distribution of scores. An average score is expressed as the mean, the middle of the set of scores, is the median, and the most frequently occurring score, is the mode. The 12 Question Survey used in this investigation reported the most frequently occurring score, as an indicator of the participants findings as they evaluated the Digital Citizenship Guide for clarity, validity, and its benefit in a multicultural classroom. Phase 1, Panel of Experts The participants in phase 1 took the survey and their complete findings are included in Appendix L. Table 4.3 below summarizes the data collected from Units 1, 2, and 3. Each member of the panel is represented in the response count and the bold numbers indicate the mode with the coordinating percentages.

66 Table 4.3 Panel of Experts, Summary from 12 Question Survey


Questions for Unit 1: Digital Citizenship
1. Unit 1s content was clear in its presentation and easy to follow. 2. I found the value of lessons in Unit 1 to be: 3. As a teaching resource, I have found the information in Unit 1 beneficial to my instruction. 4. Please take a moment to reflect on Unit 1: Digital Citizenship and offer recommendations for its improvement.

Indicators
Strongly Agree = 5 Somewhat Agree = 4 Of Much Value Strongly Agree = 5

Response Count 3 1 4 4

Response Percent 75.0% 25.0% 100 % 100 %

Questions for Unit 2: Role of Culture


5. Unit 2s content was easy to read and understand. 6. I found the amount of information in Unit 2: Role of Culture to be: 7. Overall, I have found the information in Unit 2: Role of Culture useful. 8. Please take a moment to reflect on Unit 2: Role of Culture and offer recommendations for its improvement.

Indicators
Strongly Agree = 5 Somewhat Agree = 4 Just the right amount information Too little information Strongly Agree = 5 Somewhat Agree = 4

Response Count 3 1 3 1 3 1 4

Response Percent 75.0% 25.0% 75.0% 25.0% 75.0% 25.0%

Questions for Unit 3: Digital Safety


9. This unit was easy to read and understand. 10. I found the amount of information in Unit 3: Digital Safety to be: 11. Overall, I have found the information in Unit 3: Digital Safety useful. 12. Please take a moment to reflect on Unit 3: Digital Safety and offer recommendations for its improvement.

Indicators
Strongly Agree= 5 Just the right amount information Strongly Agree= 5 Somewhat Agree= 4

Response Count 4 4 3 1 4

Response Percent 100 % 100 % 75.0% 25.0%

Note. The Bold numbers above indicate the mode from the results of the panel of experts survey.

The panel of experts survey findings offered constructive feedback for making improvements to the Digital Citizenship Guide. When asked about the overall findings of the guides clarity of content and ease of use, the majority (83%) strongly agreed. Although this was positive, it indicated a need for continued investigation to improve the readability and clarity. Although, a majority of experts (91%) found the amount and value of the information in each unit to be just the right amount and of much value, several comments indicated a need for improving and making additions to the content.

67 As a teaching resource 83% of the experts strongly agree that the information in each unit was useful and beneficial to their instruction. Clearly, there is room for continued development in this area. Generally, the experts agreed that the teachers' guide covered most of the important aspects of technology use. These include the norms and regulations practiced in technological communities, the cultural issues, and safety concerns. These findings reinforced the need for the proposed digital citizenship guide. The panel of experts recommendations and reflections were paramount in the continued development of the guide. Phase 2, Professional Development Workshop, Summary from 12 Questions Survey At the end of the professional development workshop, participants completed a survey. Table 4.4 below summarizes data collected for Units 1, 2, and 3. Each member of the workshop (11) is represented in the response count and bold indicators show the preferred choice mode with the coordinating percentages. See complete results from surveys in Appendix O. Table 4.4 Professional Development Workshop, Summary from 12 Question Survey
Questions for Unit 1: Digital Citizenship
1. Unit 1s content was clear in its presentation and easy to follow. 2. I found the value of lessons in Unit 1 to be: 3. As a teaching resource, I have found the information in Unit 1 beneficial to my instruction. 4. Please take a moment to reflect on Unit 1: Digital Citizenship and offer recommendations for its improvement.

Indicators
Strongly Agree = 5 Somewhat Agree = 4 Of much value Of some value Strongly Agree = 5 Somewhat Agree = 4 Neither Agree Disagree = 3

Response Count 10 1 6 5 3 7 1 11

Response Percent 90.9 % 9.09 % 54.5 % 45.4 % 27.2 % 63.6 % 9.09%

Questions for Unit 2: Role of Culture


5. Unit 2s content was easy to read and understand.

Indicators
Strongly Agree = 5 Somewhat Agree = 4

Response Count 7 4

Response Percent 63.6 % 36.3 %

68
6. I found the amount of information in Unit 2: Role of Culture to be: Too much Information Just the right amount information Too little information Strongly Agree = 5 Somewhat Agree = 4 1 8 2 7 4 11 Response Count 9 2 11 9 2 11 Response Percent 81.8 % 18.1 % 100 % 81.8 % 18.1 % 9.09 % 72.7 % 18.1 % 63.6 % 36.3 %

7. Overall, I have found the information in Unit 2: Role of Culture useful. 8. Please take a moment to reflect on Unit 2: Role of Culture and offer recommendations for its improvement.

Questions for Unit 3: Digital Safety


9. This unit was easy to read and understand. 10. I found the amount of information in Unit 3: Digital Safety to be: 11. Overall, I have found the information in Unit 3 (Digital Safety) useful. 12. Please take a moment to reflect on Unit 3: Digital Safety and offer recommendations for its improvement.

Indicators
Strongly Agree = 5 Somewhat Agree = 4 Just the right amount information Strongly Agree = 5 Somewhat Agree = 4

Note. The bold numbers above indicate the mode from the results of the workshop participant's survey.

The teachers assessments of the value of the lessons in Unit 1 were split; 54.5 % found the lessons to be of much value while 45.4% reported them to be of some value. As a teaching resource, the majority of the group (63.6%) found that Unit 1 was somewhat beneficial to their instruction while only 27.2% strongly agreed. This reinforces the need to make improvements on the units instructional resources. Suggestions for adding more scenarios or role playing activities for the digital etiquette section were offered. Stating that having more resources to offer teachers and more options will improve the flexibility of the guide. The majority of members (90%) strongly agreed that Unit 1s content was clear and was easy to follow, although the workshop debates uncovered a need for more description of terms. Although many (66.6%) of the participants strongly agree that the information in Unit 2 is useful, some faculty felt that the material presented in the example of Hofstedes Cultural Dimensions as related to Dynamics of New Media was dense and too confusing. Because little time was taken to discuss the topic, it was suggested placing the chart in the appendix of the guide would be preferable. Others questioned the example of an ADC, the Social Network Contract. They stated they found this contract too vague.

69 Moving this to the appendix and providing more information regarding its content would be more beneficial to the reader. The findings regarding the content of Unit 2 showed that 63.6% strongly agrees that it was easy to read and understand. Workshop participants responded 72.2% felt there was "Just the right amount of information" in Unit 2. Suggestions were made for adding more discussion topic on multicultural issues. Another idea that would work nicely with the assessment for Lesson 2/1 was to have an AP Statistics class compile data and make statistical findings available to the classroom teachers from Table 1, Example of countrys policies and law regarding technology as a research project (Digital Citizenship Guide p.13). Participants reported that Unit 3's content was easy to read and understand, 81.8%. One participant stated, "The guide was straightforward and gave examples of projects that would be useful in the classroom." while 18.1% somewhat agreed and suggested adding definition of terms. The comment, "This unit highlighted the importance of securing all personal information to guard against any abuse and/or misuse." reinforces the unanimous finding that this unit has just the right amount of information. While, 81% strongly agreed that the Unit 3's information was useful, a suggestion was made for adding an assessment tools to Lesson 3/1 Protecting Your Privacy. The majority of participants agreed that Unit 3's material was valuable, thorough, and comprehensive. Phase 3, Classroom Observations The final evaluation of the Digital Citizenship Guide combined teacher interviews and the results from the12 Question Survey. The teachers that participated in the

70 classroom observations were given the option of addressing only the unit that they used in their instruction. Table 4.5 below summarizes data collected for Units 1, 2, and 3. Each participant of the classroom observation is represented in the response count and bold indicators show the preferred choice mode with the coordinating percentages. See complete results from surveys in Appendix Q. Table 4.5 Classroom Observations, Summary from 12 Question Survey
Questions for Unit1: Digital Citizenship
1. Unit 1s content was clear in its presentation and easy to follow. 2. I found the value of lessons in Unit 1 to be: 3. As a teaching resource, I have found the information in Unit 1 beneficial to my instruction. 4. Please take a moment to reflect on Unit 1: Digital Citizenship and offer recommendations for its improvement.

Indicators
Strong Agree= 5 Somewhat Agree= 4 Of much value Of some value Strong Agree= 5 Somewhat Agree= 4

Response Percent 66.7% 33.3% 66.7% 33.3% 66.7% 33.3%

Respons e Count 2 1 2 1 2 1 0

Questions for Unit 2: Role of Culture


5. Unit 2s content was easy to read and understand. 6. I found the amount of information in Unit 2: Role of Culture to be: 7. Overall, I have found the information in Unit 2: Role of Culture useful. 8. Please take a moment to reflect on Unit 2: Role of Culture and offer recommendations for its improvement.

Indicators
Strong Agree= 5 Just the right amount information Strongly Agree= 5 Somewhat Agree= 4

Response Percent 100 % 66.7% 33.3% 66.7%

Respons e Count 3 2 1 2 0

Questions for Unit 3: Digital Safety


9. This unit was easy to read and understand. 10. I found the amount of information in Unit 3: Digital Safety to be: 11. Overall, I have found the information in Unit 3: Digital Safety useful. 12. Please take a moment to reflect on Unit 3: Digital Safety and offer recommendations for its improvement.

Indicators
Strong Agree= 5 Just the right amount information Strongly Agree= 5

Response Percent 100 % 100 % 100 %

Response Count 3 3 3 0

Note. The bold numbers indicate the mode from the classroom observations participant's survey.

71 The teachers 12 Question Survey results for the classroom observations indicate the teachers felt that the guide had made significant improvements, from the earlier revision, in both content and volume of information. A participant suggested they would " have liked more in the area of creative commons licensing" added to the content of the guide. These experiences coupled with the interviews questions and the 12 Question Survey results proved invaluable for a final revision of the Digital Citizenship Guide. Summary of Results As this developmental research began the panel of subject-matter experts identified instructional goals, furthering the Digital Citizenship Guides development. As a blended study using qualitative and quantitative methodologies, raw data was collected and analyzed through each of these lenses. The qualitative data collected during the three phases of this investigation provided examples of how culture affects students use and misuse of technology in and out of the classroom. The workshop presentation provided an opportunity to flush out the lessons and resources offered in the guide. The workshop discussions provided valuable feedback in the form of questions, comments, and concerns regarding the use of technology in a multicultural classroom. The classroom observations and the findings from the participants written responses provided rich and dense descriptions of how the guide performed in an instructional environment. Obtained from these observations were descriptions of how the students interacted with the teachers and each other as they engaged in the topics of the discussion. The concluding interviews with the teachers added the finishing touches. These participants suggested improvements in the content and the resource areas of the guide.

72 The surveys distributed during the three phases of this investigation provided quantitative data that verified how dispersed the responses are to the items on the instrument. The teachers 21st Century Skill Rubric provided conformation that a good sampling from WMA faculty was involved in the investigation. The data suggested that educators benefit from in-depth discussion that took place in the faculty development workshops. Together with the qualitative data, the teachers feedback offered suggestions, resources, and asked valuable questions that, led to the significant improvements in the final revision of the Digital citizenship Guide. The Digital Citizenship Guide is provided in Appendix S.

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Chapter 5 Conclusions, Implications, Recommendations, and Summary

Conclusions The goal was to develop a guide for teaching digital citizenship at a global academy. The culturally diverse student population at WMA made it possible to generalize instruction sets that would be of value to teachers everywhere. Digital Citizenship Guide (Appendix S) provides a foundation for teachers to educate their students in effective methods to communicate and understand the importance of being an effective, safe, and responsible digital consumer in and out of the classroom. Larson, Miller, and Ribble (2009-10) suggest integrating technology across curriculum will connect teachers to students digital worlds. Across the various curricula, the guide will help teachers promote discussions, provide examples, and assess their students digital health. Below are the research questions and the answers derived from the findings of this study.

What do experienced teachers find missing in their instruction when teaching digital citizenship in a multicultural classroom?

A common response to this question was the lack of training in technology. The question was answered initially through the literature. It was confirmed through the survey results presented by the expert panel and reiterated by survey findings in all three

74 phases of investigation. A lack of training in the use of appropriate technologies was the most important item found missing. Educators need to understand the dynamics of the digital classroom and determine how best to address digital citizenship (Richardson, 2009). Teachers need to know how to manage their students use of technology in their classroom and be able to address possible digital divide issues (McCollum, 2010). Pitler, Lippincott, and Grunwald (2011) offer that instructors lack guidance in how to promote students self control when surfing the Internet, using handheld devices, and communicating digitally in and out of the classroom. Teachers need specific lesson plans to incorporate Internet technology to which the digital student can relate (Rosen, 2011). Instructors require resources that are easy to access and do not take time away from their content preparation. Teachers surveyed, expressed a lack of training in new technologies such as Web 2.0 tools and incorporating them into their instruction. Educators are overwhelmed with an abundance of technological information and need strategies and/or means to prioritize subject matter (Willard, 2010). Teachers are charged with the daunting task of instructing students in new technologies, the very area of which they report themselves ignorant. An example is introducing a topic like intellectual property in a multicultural classroom where the instructor lacks effective lessons to assists their students who might not understand the concept or its importance. Teachers requested examples and resources for promoting in-depth conversations about culture and technology use. As educators at a global academy, teachers reported a need for methods to break down the barriers of cross-cultural miscommunication. Instructors need to know more about the various cultures and how culture plays a role in technology use (Young, 2010).

75 Teachers report a deficiency in digital security and safety training. Instructors need resources and information to guide students in safe practices on the Internet. Instructors reported helping students identify ways to protect privacy in digital communities such as Facebook are missing in their instruction. An example for teaching safety and security demonstrates for students how to assess their digital footprints. Kolb (2011) suggests instructors need discussion points to discern if their students are digitally safe and aware of their digital rights and responsibilities. Students physical health was another area teachers reported a need for more training. Richardson (2008-09) suggests teachers should model correct methods for using technology as a positive reinforcement for students. However, teachers are not always aware of how or what to model. Educators lack examples of what correct ergonomics are and the best way to model technology use in the classroom. Levy (2011) offers best practice guidelines for instructors who need to understand the correct terminology that defines and clarifies such topics as cyberbullying and digital media.

What should be included in a digital citizenship guide to prepare and support instructors for teaching students to be safe and effective digital communicators?

Teachers realized there is an abundance of digital information and resources available. Knowing how to organize, manage, and develop digital media can be a daunting task. This question was answered by in-depth group discussions with the instructional workshop participants, their survey results, and interviews conducted with phase three teachers. A digital citizenship guide should provide resources for teachers in

76 how to teach their students to be safe and effective digital communicators (Ribble, 2009). The teachers guide should include a format that is easy to follow, offers teachers a method for organizing information and discussion topics, provides relevant examples and resources, and contains timely lessons and assessments. Background information on each topic provides insight to the topic and offers resources for teachers to begin in depth discussion. Prioritizing discussion topics helps teachers flush out the concepts and have in depth conversations with their students on the desired subject. Provided lessons and assessments in the guide ensure group discussion is clear, timely, and informative. Teachers were enthusiastic in the development of the digital citizenship guide. They qualified the need for the guide in their curriculum and offered content suggestions. Teachers have disparity in personality, background, knowledge and skill. This requires a guide that can meet those demands. It was suggested that a list of definitions and acronyms be added to the teachers guide in order to provide an explanation of digital terms and concepts. Most educators realize the importance of digital rights, responsibilities, and proper digital etiquette (Greenhow, 2010). Teachers requested lessons that provide relevant discussion topics, well-constructed lesson plans, and clear assessment options. They would like to support students in their use of digital media as a presentation method. On a broader scale, faculties require lessons in how to develop and incorporate digital media skills in their schools (Scherer, 2011). Academy teachers expressed a concerned that the schools AUP would not allow for such activities as incorporating mobile devices into their instruction. Teachers and administrators need to review their AUPs to make sure they allow for continued growth and support of technology in

77 classroom instruction (Kinnaman, 2005). Educators teaching diverse cultures cannot ignore there are differences in how individual members use technology. Discussions on understanding individual differences can help the classroom dynamics (Zhang, 2010). Topics that are first defined and then explained with supporting data prove useful for both constructing good research skills and opening discussions about appropriate technology use. Lessons with practical outcomes that chart approaches used in different cultures give each student a better understanding of the differences within a given community. Rothstein-Fisch and Trumbull (2008) offer a framework for teachers to use lessons that include social media tools. This outline allows teachers to investigate cultural differences within their classroom. Providing results of these investigations shows the affect culture plays in their students interactions. Students think they know everything about using technology (Rosen, 2011). Teachers need ways to make their students receptive to new ideas in technology. Lessons on digital safety would be beneficial to show the students what they might not realize. Teachers require resources such as websites or podcasts that demonstrate the digital tattoo students leave behind. Solomon and Schrum (2007) recommend combining the use of web 2.0 technologies with pedagogy will help students evaluate, apply, understand and synthesize data. Teachers cannot assume that students know how to take steps to protect their privacy. By using examples that students can relate to, instructors can demonstrate practical methods for protecting a students digital identity. In this practical application, teachers can assess student learning and uncover potential privacy issues of which students are unaware.

78 As mobile technology and eDevices continue to evolve, the issues of ergonomics will need to be investigated more thoroughly. Limited research is available on how these new technologies affect physical health. Because of this, many teachers might not consider the physical harm technology can have on students. Lessons offering examples of ergonomic workstations, discussions on proper lighting during classroom instruction, and encouragement to use self-control when using technology will benefit students, teachers, and the community. The 21st century learner is the first generation to grow up using technology from toddlerhood. This use impacts physical ramifications that are yet to be identified.

What considerations need to be taken when planning lesson content for a digital citizenship guide for global learners?

The question was answered by in-person observations, surveys completed by the teachers observe and interviews conducted with teachers. A guide that provides lessons that are governed by the use of technology needs to be updated and edited regularly. Careful consideration when choosing resources and hyperlinks for inclusion in the guide must be taken. The Internet is evolving and changes are made daily. Another relevant factor when planning lessons for this guide is how to reach the targeted audience. To accomplish this, teachers need to know when and where in the curriculum digital citizenship should be taught. As proposed by Ribble and Bailey (2007) a curriculum director or department chair would be helpful in assisting teachers how to determine when and where the guide would best fit the instruction. As a schools culture

79 changes (staff and students) consideration to the relevant material in the guide might need a review and or an update. Time is an enormous consideration when planning lessons with the digital citizenship guide. A teachers time during the academic year is hectic. The guide should reduce time planning technical lessons yet be flexible. Flexible lessons need to be broad enough to be used in any curriculum but narrow enough to cover relevant topics for in depth discussions. Another timesaver for teachers is to eliminate formal workshops. Formal workshops will not be necessary since the guide provides clear instructions, relevant topics, suitable discussion points, and valid resources. The only time demands that remain for the teacher are using the guide in determining what lesson(s) best fit their needs, retrieving any related resources, and incorporating the desired lesson(s) into their curriculum.

Implications The results indicated that teachers welcome the opportunity to learn about digital citizenship, the schools diverse culture, how these cultures affect technology use, and teaching students how to be safe and healthy digital citizens. Two major implications are readily derived from the investigation. First, there is a need for on-going technology guidance and support. Teachers cannot be expected to use the new technologies to best advantage without scheduled training and the availability of immediate assistance in the classroom. Second, digital citizenship must be taught and monitored by the classroom teacher. The Digital Citizenship Guide (Appendix S) is a valuable resource for classroom teachers, particularly those who teach in multi-cultural environments.

80 Recommendations The role of education is forever changing as does the role technology plays in instruction. Lessons and resources need to be reliable and obtainable. A recommendation for providing teachers with better access to the guide would be to transform the guide into an interactive digital citizenship site. The guide could be digitized and housed on a website. Podcast or video tutorials could be accessed on YouTube. Without regard to the method used for delivering the message of the guide, the information would need to be continuously updated. More teachers need to be trained in cultural studies. Gallavan (2008) reports teachers learn about a given students culture by observing interactions while working with them in and out of the classroom. We must realize that all of us are world citizens. If the saying to teach is to touch the future has merit, then as teachers we must acquire knowledge about all cultures, become active participants, and care about our shared space called Earth... (p.252). Recommendations were made for exploring how cultural and global issues influenced the development and use of digital technology. Obtaining a deeper understanding of how various cultures interact, experience, and use technology will produce valuable resources for teachers who work in culturally diverse settings.

Summary The guide, in its current state, has been through three revisions, one following each phase of the investigation. The three phases of data collection provided an evaluation process by a cross sampling of experienced teachers that insured the guides material would be relevant, timely, and easy to use. The majority of the teachers

81 responses were positive providing constructive criticisms to better the guide material. Some recommendations by the participating teachers included adding additional lessons with more resource options. Teachers wanted lessons plans to fit into their classroom needs but are flexible enough to use across curriculums. Time would be saved with the creation of more readymade lessons that fit into a given curriculum. Providing more lessons, scenarios, resources, and discussion topics in the three units of the guide would increase flexibility and reach a wider audience. At times, teachers struggle with incorporating the use of technology in their instruction in this multicultural environment. Many teachers need specific guidance in using and modeling technology as they teach their students how to be safe and responsible digital communicators. Faculty obtains guidance in technology from many sources, some more effective than others. Finding reliable sources is time consuming, overwhelming, frustrating and unreliable. Having a teachers guide that provides resources, lessons, discussion topics, and assessment tools would make this process more efficient and less stressful. The goal was to develop an instructional guide to aid teachers in incorporating digital citizenship into their pedagogy. This guide will fill the gap noted in current literature regarding teaching digital citizenship to global learners. Several questions needed to be addressed in creating this guide. What do teachers find missing in their instruction? What should be included in the digital citizenship guide? What considerations need to be taken when planning the lessons for the guide? To determine answers to these questions, a developmental study was undertaken to create a viable digital citizenship guide for teachers.

82 After an extensive examination of current literature, a draft of the guide was created and put through a three-phase development process. Subject matter experts reviewed the guide and offered comments on the completeness and validity of its content. These individuals were crucial in the initial review of the guide and validation of the survey instrument. As a result of their suggestions and feedback, supplemental resources, scenarios, and information in background areas for each unit were created. The panel of experts concluded their portion of this investigation by taking the online survey instrument and provided their final comments for the guides continued development. The workshop was held for experienced teachers and collected their impressions of the guide and discussed the issues they faced while working at this global school. The discussions on technology use and how these teachers envisioned its future use were an exceptional opportunity to better understand these global teachers. The request for workshop participants generated only seven acceptances. With limited time left in the term, a second workshop was not possible. Four more teachers agreed to review the guide and provide their feedback. The initial workshop provided invaluable information of classroom experiences, lively discussions, and suggestions for advancing the guides content. The four participants provided equally relevant feedback, but group discussions did not take place. The findings were constructive in both groups in that they provided valid resources, suggestions, and constructive feedback. A total of 11 participants provided useful experiences of classroom encounters and suggestions for advancing the guides content. Upon conclusion of phase two of this study, a survey was administered to these individuals and these data were incorporated into the second revised teachers guide.

83 Firsthand student experiences were obtained from classroom observations as teachers used the guide in their instruction. These interactions offered practical experiences of the students as they interacted within the classroom. Teacher observations confirmed that the topics were clear and easy to address, the lessons had value, and timely resources were provided. Student reactions to these discussions and activities confirmed their desire to further their instruction in technology use. Students were willing to discuss technology issues and were receptive to addressing these issues as users responsibility. The three phases of this developmental study provided for constructive feedback and suggestions that were incorporated into the final revision of the teachers guide. The findings revealed that experienced teachers lack specific digital technology lesson plans that are easy to access, provide timely discussion topics, and provide valuable resources for classroom instruction. The need for a teachers guide on digital citizenship was clearly identified. It was determined that the task of creating such a resource is fraught with complications. Planning lessons for a teachers guide is hampered by the fact that technology and the Internet are constantly evolving. Resources and hyperlinks should be carefully chosen and must be frequently updated. Possible solutions could include digital options for accessibility. During this process, cultural issues relating to technology use were explored. In the global school, these issues are magnified for many students are international. Cultural implications are found in multicultural schools that require technology in their curriculum. When examining complicated issues such as digital citizenship, digital

84 communication, digital etiquette, digital security and safety, culture plays a substantial role in all of these areas. The final teachers digital citizenship guide was determined an invaluable resource. It will provide many teachers specific guidance in teaching their students how to be safe and responsible digital communicators. The Digital Citizenship Guide will be a reliable resource that will save time and condenses a vast sum of information. This teachers guide provides resources, lessons, discussion topics, and assessment tools making instruction with technology more efficient and less stressful.

85

Appendix A Biographies of Contributing Experts


Dr. Fredrick Gao is a member of the World Languages Department as a Mandarin teacher. Before coming to WMA in 2007, he was a visiting lecturer at the Northwest Poly-Technical University in Xian, China. A native of China, Dr. Gao is a translator for the Comparative Literature Department at the University of Massachusetts. Dr. Gao holds a M.A. and a Ph.D. from the University of Massachusetts in Amherst, Massachusetts. Dr. Kathleen Gorski has taught Advanced Placement and regular chemistry classes at WMA for three years. She previously taught at the Kingswood-Oxford School in West Hartford, Connecticut and at the Nativity School in Worcester, Massachusetts. Dr. Gorski was an Albert Einstein Distinguished Educator Fellow at the National Science Foundation in Arlington, Virginia. Dr. Gorski holds a B.S. from Western New England College and a M.S. and Ph.D. from the University of Massachusetts in Amherst, Massachusetts. Mrs. Gayle Hsiao, Director of the International Student Program, oversees the wellbeing of international students at WMA. Her extensive background in entrepreneurial education provides students with courses in entrepreneurial studies and marketing through the CEGS Department. As the co-developer of The Global EcoLearn Project, Mrs. Hsiao organized students in the production, marketing, and sales of wood projects harvested from WMA woodlands. Mrs. Hsiao holds a B.S. from the University of Massachusetts in Amherst, Massachusetts, and M.Ed. from Fitchburg State College in Fitchburg, Massachusetts, and a M.B.A. from Bay Path College in Longmeadow, Massachusetts. Mr. Walter Swanson has been the Director of Center for Entrepreneurial & Global Studies as well as the Director of International Travel Programs at WMA for six years. Mr. Swanson began his career in international education as a Peace Corps Volunteer in Cape Verde, West Africa. Mr. Swanson was a Project Manager for Boston Partners in Education serving secondary schools and bilingual communities in the Boston Public School System. Mr. Swanson holds a B.A. from Middlebury College in Middlebury, Vermont and an Ed.M. from Harvard Graduate School of Education in Boston, Massachusetts.

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Appendix B
Consent Form for Participation in the Research Study Digital Citizenship in a Global Academy The Panel of Experts, Phase I Funding Source: None. IRB protocol # Principal investigator Marxan Pescetta, Ed.S 152 Lake Drive Indian Orchard, Ma 01151 (413) 315-0999 Co-investigator Gertrude (Trudy) Abramson, Ed.D 3301 College Avenue Fort Lauderdale, FL 33314 (954) 262-2070

For questions/concerns about your research rights, contact: Human Research Oversight Board (Institutional Review Board or IRB) Nova Southeastern University (954) 262-5369/Toll Free: 866-499-0790 IRB@nsu.nova.edu Site Information Wilbraham & Monson Academy 423 Main St. Wilbraham Ma, 01095 (413) 596-6811 What is the study about? You have been asked to participate in this research study to develop and test an instructional guide for teaching digital citizenship to global learners. This guide is designed to teach educators methods for opening digital communication with their students and create a common ground for using technology in their classroom. The guide will reflect the findings of the expert panel and the professional development seminar, and classroom observations. The results will identify the specific skills and competencies that are required to teach students how to communicate in the digital world and become good digital citizens. Why are you asking me? You have been invited to participate as a member of the panel of experts because you have extensive experience in educational, technological, and multicultural considerations within the educational system. There will be four participants in this phase of the research study.

87 What will I be doing if I agree to be in the study? As a member of the panel of experts you will be asked to review and evaluate the digital citizenship guide and the survey instrument for reliability, validity, and completeness. After your examination of the guide, you will be asked to offer any changes, additions, and or retractions to the guide. As well, you will be asked to review the survey instrument to provide any feedback as to the effectiveness of the questions being asked. Is there any audio or video recording? There will be no recording of audio or video during this study. What are the dangers to me? Risks to you are minimal, meaning they are not thought to be greater than other risks you experience everyday. If you have questions about the research, your research rights, or if you experience an injury because of the research please contact Marxan Pescetta at (413) 315-0999. You may also contact the IRB at the numbers indicated above with questions about your research rights. Are there any benefits to me for taking part in this research study? By participating in this study you will be helping to improve the instructional guide. Upon the completion of the guide, you will be given a revised copy of the Digital Citizenship Guide for your own use. Will I get paid for being in the study? Will it cost me anything? There are no costs to you or payments made for participating in this study. How will you keep my information private? The questionnaire will not ask you for any information that could be linked to you. To facilitate communication during the study you are being asked to provide some private information such as your name and email address. This information will be kept confidential and your name will not be connected with the results. All information obtained in this study is strictly confidential unless law requires disclosure. All of the data will be maintained on the investigators computer. Survey results will be maintained for a minimum of five years and may be reviewed by the Internal Review Board (IRB). What if I do not want to participate or I want to leave the study? You have the right to leave this study at any time or refuse to participate. If you do decide to leave or you decide not to participate, you will not experience any penalty or loss of services you have a right to receive. If you choose to withdraw, any information collected about you before the date you leave the study will be kept in the research records for 36 months from the conclusion of the study and may be used as a part of the research.

88 Other Considerations: If the researchers learn anything, which might change your mind about being involved, you will be told of this information. Voluntary Consent by Participant: By signing below, you indicate that this study has been explained to you you have read this document or it has been read to you your questions about this research study have been answered you have been told that you may ask the researchers any study related questions in the future or contact them in the event of a research-related injury you have been told that you may ask Institutional Review Board (IRB) personnel questions about your study rights you are entitled to a copy of this form after you have read and signed it you voluntarily agree to participate in the study entitled The Opinions of Patients on their Treatment

Participant's Signature: ________________________Date: ________________ Participants Name: ___________________________Date: ________________ Signature of Person Obtaining Consent: _____________________________ Date: ___________________________

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Appendix C Request for Permission and Consent to Use Computer Facilities


Marxan Pescetta Chair, Academic Computing Department Wilbraham & Monson Academy Dear Mr. LaBrecque, As a follow up to our earlier conversations, I am now ready to move forward with my dissertation, Digital Citizenship in a Global Academy. This email is an official request to use our computer facilities for my doctoral study. It is my intention to request 10 teachers from our community to take part in my study on Sunday, March 27th or Sunday, April 3rd (these dates are dependent on the approval off my proposal and the IRB processes). From the 10 participants, three individuals will be asked to use the guide in their classrooms where I will observe and document the outcome. To complete the IRB process, I will need an official response to this email at your earliest convenience. Sincerely, Marxan Pescetta P.s. I am Cc: Janet Murphy this request for review and placement in the Facilities Calendar.

90

Appendix D IRB Approval

91

Appendix E
Consent Form for Participation in the Research Study Digital Citizenship in a Global Academy The Professional Development Seminar, Phase II Funding Source: None. IRB protocol # Principal investigator Marxan Pescetta, Ed.S 152 Lake Drive Indian Orchard, Ma 01151 (413) 315-0999 Co-investigator Gertrude (Trudy) Abramson, Ed.D 3301 College Avenue Fort Lauderdale, FL 33314 (954) 262-2070

For questions/concerns about your research rights, contact: Human Research Oversight Board (Institutional Review Board or IRB) Nova Southeastern University (954) 262-5369/Toll Free: 866-499-0790 IRB@nsu.nova.edu Site Information Wilbraham & Monson Academy 423 Main St. Wilbraham Ma, 01095 (413) 596-6811 What is the study about? You have been asked to participate in this research study to develop and test an instructional guide for teaching digital citizenship to global learners. This guide is designed to teach educators methods for opening digital communication with their students and create a common ground for using technology in their classroom. The guide will reflect the findings of the expert panel and the professional development seminar, and classroom observations. The results will identify the specific skills and competencies that are required to teach students how to communicate in the digital world and become good digital citizens. Why are you asking me? You have been invited to participate because of the academic department you work in, your experience in education, and your experience using technology in your instruction. There will be ten participants in this phase of the research study who have worked at WMA for a minimum of three years.

92 What will I be doing if I agree to be in the study? As a participating member of the professional development seminar, you will be asked to attend a 5-hour instructional session where you will be introduced to the digital citizenship guide. During this time, you will explore the three units: digital communication, the role culture plays in the use of technology, and digital safety. Time will be provided for your questions throughout the presentation. At the end of the seminar, you will be asked to complete a 12 questions survey. Your feedback will allow the researcher to continue the development of the digital citizenship guide. Is there any audio or video recording? There will be no recording of audio or video during this study. What are the dangers to me? Risks to you are minimal, meaning they are not thought to be greater than other risks you experience everyday. If you have questions about the research, your research rights, or if you experience an injury because of the research please contact Marxan Pescetta at (413) 315-0999. You may also contact the IRB at the numbers indicated above with questions about your research rights. Are there any benefits to me for taking part in this research study? By participating in this study you will be helping to improve the instructional guide. Upon the completion of the guide, you will be given a revised copy of the Digital Citizenship Guide for your own use. Will I get paid for being in the study? Will it cost me anything? There are no costs to you or payments made for participating in this study. How will you keep my information private? The questionnaire will not ask you for any information that could be linked to you. To facilitate communication during the study you are being asked to provide some private information such as your name and email address. This information will be kept confidential and your name will not be connected with the results. All information obtained in this study is strictly confidential unless law requires disclosure. All of the data will be maintained on the investigators computer. Survey results will be maintained for a minimum of five years and may be reviewed by the Internal Review Board (IRB). What if I do not want to participate or I want to leave the study? You have the right to leave this study at any time or refuse to participate. If you do decide to leave or you decide not to participate, you will not experience any penalty or loss of services you have a right to receive. If you choose to withdraw, any information collected about you before the date you leave the study will be kept in the research records for 36 months from the conclusion of the study and may be used as a part of the research. Other Considerations:

93 If the researchers learn anything, which might change your mind about being involved, you will be told of this information. Voluntary Consent by Participant: By signing below, you indicate that this study has been explained to you you have read this document or it has been read to you your questions about this research study have been answered you have been told that you may ask the researchers any study related questions in the future or contact them in the event of a research-related injury you have been told that you may ask Institutional Review Board (IRB) personnel questions about your study rights you are entitled to a copy of this form after you have read and signed it you voluntarily agree to participate in the study entitled The Opinions of Patients on their Treatment

Participant's Signature: _______________________ Date: ________________ Participants Name: ___________________________Date: ________________ Signature of Person Obtaining Consent: _____________________________ Date: ___________________________

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Appendix F
Consent Form for Participation in the Research Study Digital Citizenship in a Global Academy The Classroom Instruction and Observation, Phase III Funding Source: None. IRB protocol # Principal investigator Marxan Pescetta, Ed.S 152 Lake Drive Indian Orchard, Ma 01151 (413) 315-0999 Co-investigator Gertrude (Trudy) Abramson, Ed.D 3301 College Avenue Fort Lauderdale, FL 33314 (954) 262-2070

For questions/concerns about your research rights, contact: Human Research Oversight Board (Institutional Review Board or IRB) Nova Southeastern University (954) 262-5369/Toll Free: 866-499-0790 IRB@nsu.nova.edu Site Information Wilbraham & Monson Academy 423 Main St. Wilbraham Ma, 01095 (413) 596-6811 What is the study about? You have been asked to participate in this research study to develop and test an instructional guide for teaching digital citizenship to global learners. This guide is designed to teach educators methods for opening digital communication with their students and create a common ground for using technology in their classroom. The guide will reflect the findings of the expert panel and the professional development seminar, and classroom observations. The results will identify the specific skills and competencies that are required to teach students how to communicate in the digital world and become good digital citizens. Why are you asking me? You have been invited to participate because you have completed the professional development seminar and have indicated you would be willing to use the guide as a class project. There will be three participants in this phase of the research study.

95 What will I be doing if I agree to be in the study? During the first few weeks of the trimester, you will be asked to use a unit(s) from the digital citizenship guide as a project in your class. The researcher will observe the class to obtain descriptions of activities and interpersonal interactions. At the end of the class observation, you will answer a 12 question survey. The researcher will also interview you. You will be asked questions about your satisfaction with treatment. The survey should take you no more than 15 minutes to complete. The interview will last no more than 30 minutes. Is there any audio or video recording? There will be no recording of audio or video during this study.. What are the dangers to me? Risks to you are minimal, meaning they are not thought to be greater than other risks you experience everyday. If you have questions about the research, your research rights, or if you experience an injury because of the research please contact Marxan Pescetta at (413) 315-0999. You may also contact the IRB at the numbers indicated above with questions about your research rights. Are there any benefits to me for taking part in this research study? By participating in this study you will be helping to improve the instructional guide. Upon the completion of the guide, you will be given a revised copy of the Digital Citizenship Guide for your own use. Will I get paid for being in the study? Will it cost me anything? There are no costs to you or payments made for participating in this study. How will you keep my information private? The questionnaire will not ask you for any information that could be linked to you. To facilitate communication during the study you are being asked to provide some private information such as your name and email address. This information will be kept confidential and your name will not be connected with the results. All information obtained in this study is strictly confidential unless law requires disclosure. All of the data will be maintained on the investigators computer. Survey results will be maintained for a minimum of five years and may be reviewed by the Internal Review Board (IRB). What if I do not want to participate or I want to leave the study? You have the right to leave this study at any time or refuse to participate. If you do decide to leave or you decide not to participate, you will not experience any penalty or loss of services you have a right to receive. If you choose to withdraw, any information collected about you before the date you leave the study will be kept in the research records for 36 months from the conclusion of the study and may be used as a part of the research.

96 Other Considerations: If the researchers learn anything, which might change your mind about being involved, you will be told of this information. Voluntary Consent by Participant: By signing below, you indicate that this study has been explained to you you have read this document or it has been read to you your questions about this research study have been answered you have been told that you may ask the researchers any study related questions in the future or contact them in the event of a research-related injury you have been told that you may ask Institutional Review Board (IRB) personnel questions about your study rights you are entitled to a copy of this form after you have read and signed it you voluntarily agree to participate in the study entitled The Opinions of Patients on their Treatment

Participant's Signature: ________________________Date: ________________ Participants Name: ___________________________Date: ________________ Signature of Person Obtaining Consent: _____________________________ Date: ___________________________

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Appendix G 12 Question Survey for All 3 Phases of the Study


This is an example of the 12 Question Survey. Each phase will use this survey for data collection. Unit 1,Digital Citizenship:

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Unit 2, Role of Culture:

99
Unit 3, Digital Safety:

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Appendix H

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102

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Appendix I Email to the Panel of Experts


Marxan Pescetta Chair, Academic Computing Department Wilbraham & Monson Academy Doctoral Candidate, Nova Southeastern University Computing Technology in Education Good-day Colleagues, As part of my doctoral dissertation, I am developing a guide on teaching digital citizenship to global learners. This guide will offer teachers descriptions of digital citizenship, provide discussion topics to flush out multicultural issues, and resources that will further teachers knowledge in this area. This email is a formal communication requesting you to be a member of the panel of experts. Your participation in this study would include reviewing the guide and offering recommendations for its improvement, as well as evaluating the 12-question Likert scale survey for clarity and validity. After I have received your comments and made the necessary improvements, it is my intention to invite 10 teachers from our community to take part in my study. These teachers will participate in a professional development seminar and is scheduled for March 27th or April 3rd. From this group, three individuals will be asked to use the guide in their classes. I would like to observe and document the outcome. The criteria for selecting these individuals will be based on their willingness, experience as an educator, and the academic area they teach. Your feedback will help to make this guide a useful tool for teaching digital citizenship to global learners. Thank you for your consideration, Marxan Pescetta

Attached to this email is the informed consent document. Please take a moment to read over its content. If you are interested in being a member of my study, please email me your intentions. I will have a printed copy of the informed consent document for you to sign when you have agree to be a member of the expert panel. At that time, I will provide you with a printed copy of the digital citizenship guide and the survey instrument. If you have any questions before this time, please feel free to phone me directly at (413) 315-0999 or by email, mpescetta@wma.us.

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Appendix J Email to Teacher Participants


Marxan Pescetta Chair, Academic Computing Department Wilbraham & Monson Academy Doctoral Candidate, Nova Southeastern University Computing Technology in Education Good-day Colleagues, As part of my doctoral dissertation, I am developing a guide on teaching digital citizenship to global learners. It will include descriptions, discussion topics, and resources. It is my intention to invite 10 teachers from our community to take part in my study. These teachers will participate in a professional development seminar on April 3rd. From this group, three individuals will be asked to use the guide in their classes. I would like to observe and document the outcome. The criteria for selecting these individuals will be based on their willingness, experience as an educator, and the academic area they teach. Your feedback will help to make this guide a useful tool for teaching digital citizenship to global learners. Thank you for your consideration, Marxan Pescetta

Attached to this email is the informed consent document. Please take a moment to read over its content. If you are interested in being a member of my study please email me your intentions. At the beginning of the professional development seminar, I will have a printed copy of the informed consent document for you to sign. If you have any questions before the seminar, please feel free to phone me directly at (413) 315-0999 or by email, mpescetta@wma.us.

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Appendix K Email to the Final Teacher Participants

Marxan Pescetta Chair, Academic Computing Department Wilbraham & Monson Academy Doctoral Candidate, Nova Southeastern University Computing Technology in Education Good-day Colleagues, Now that you have completed the professional development seminar I would like to invite you to participate in the second half of my study. You will be asked to use the guide in their instruction as a project base assignment and I would like to observe and document the outcome of your instruction. Your continued feedback will help in the final revision of the guide to make it a useful tool for teaching digital citizenship to global learners. Thank you for your consideration, Marxan Pescetta

Attached to this email is a second informed consent document. Please take a moment to read over its content. If you are interested in being a member of the final phase of my study please email me your intentions. At that time I will have a printed copy of the informed consent document for you to sign. If you have any questions before this phase of the study begins, please feel free to phone me directly at (413) 315-0999 or by email, mpescetta@wma.us.

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Appendix L Phase 1, Panel of Experts, 12 Question Survey Results


Questions for Unit 1: Digital Citizenship
1. Unit 1s content was clear in its presentation and easy to follow.

Indicators
Strongly Agree= 5 Somewhat Agree= 4 Neither Agree Disagree= 3 Somewhat Disagree= 2 Strongly Disagree= 1

Response Percent
75.0% 25.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%

Response Count
3 1 0 0 0

Written Responses

Easy to follow yet some suggestions for where this could be used (which disciplines) might lend itself to it being more quickly adopted 3/30/11 8:21AM There's so much to discuss, that I liked that it focused on some priorities, and noted that we might go deeper in discussion. 3/28/11 2:33PM I liked the way the topic was first defined and then explained with supporting data...including suggesting additional readings offered in the event I needed them. 3/27/11 10:18AM

2. I found the value of the lessons in Unit 1 to be:

Of much value Of some value Of no value

100% 0.0% 0.0%

4 0 0

One daily challenge teachers live with is trying to understand and manage students use of technology. Unit 1's lessons provide a good foundation for the conversation in the classroom. 3/27/11 10:18AM As someone who teaches basic research skills, I found this very relevant and helpful 3/30/11 8:21AM :) They have been useful for both constructing good research skills and opening discussions about appropriate use (that would make educators less likely to ban rather than utilize) 3/28/11 2:33PM Yes, especially in a multi-cultural classroom. Students coming from cultures that do not honor IP are having difficulty understanding what all the fuss is about in our classrooms. 3/27/11 10:18AM

3. As a teaching resource, I have found the information in Unit 1 beneficial to my instruction.

Strongly Agree= 5 Somewhat Agree= 4 Neither Agree Disagree= 3 Somewhat Disagree= 2 Strongly Disagree= 1

100% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%

4 0 0 0 0

4. Please take a moment to reflect on Unit 1: Digital Citizenship and offer recommendations for its improvement.

I would suggest a one pager for dept. chairs or principals or curriculum folks that directs them to where they could most easily insert this

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curriculum. I would also suggest places where pieces of the curriculum would be relevant so as not each teacher feels they need to do the whole thing. 3/30/11 8:21AM I would consider including a piece about plagiarism since this is viewed so differently in other cultures. 3/28/11 2:33PM This is a nice unit...covers a broad range of issues in a relatively new topic. 3/27/11 10:18AM This unit is well organized. And the lessons are especially valuable. 3/27/11 9:20AM

Questions for Unit 2: Role of Culture


5. Unit 2s content was easy to read and understand.

Indicators
Strongly Agree= 5 Somewhat Agree= 4 Neither Agree Disagree= 3 Somewhat Disagree= 2 Strongly Disagree= 1

Response Percent 75.0% 25.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%

Response Count 3 1 0 0 0

Written Responses

Readability is great, yet may assume a fairly homogenous student group (in terms of economics) 3/30/11 8:22AM On the fence here. Think this needs more play than it gets, but I recognize the constraints of guide. 3/28/11 2:33PM One of the best ways to breakdown the barriers of cross-cultural MIScommunication are to understand where everyone is coming from. It's a good topic...particularly in a global classroom. 3/27/11 10:25AM It's been a little difficult to scope out this topic for other countries represented in the WMA community; so a few more references would have helped (are there specific keywords to search on?) 3/28/11 2:33PM The topic is simple enough so enough information was I given to initiate the conversation with the students. Mastering the topic will come from practice in the classroom and revisiting the issue as needed. 3/27/11 10:25AM In addition to the practical outcome of the lessons in this unit, the chart

6. I found the amount of information in Unit 2: Role of Culture to be:

Two much Information Just the right amount information Too little information

0.0% 75.0% 25.0%

0 3 1

7. Overall, I have found the information in Unit 2: Role of Culture useful.

Strongly Agree= 5 Somewhat Agree=

75.0% 25.0%

3 1

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4 Neither Agree Disagree= 3 Somewhat Disagree= 2 Strongly Disagree= 1 8. Please take a moment to reflect on Unit 2: Role of Culture and offer recommendations for its improvement. 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0 0 0 4

showing the different approaches used in different cultures, the unit gives the international student to be 'expert' on something and speak out in class. 3/27/11 10:25AM

Recommendations needed for how to deal with a possible digital divide in the classroom 3/30/11 8:22AM I think I might suggest some of the digital communities for use in a classroom project - for example edmodo mimics the look and feel of Facebook, but does not collect personal info and is designed for classroom use. There is other social media that would let teachers better explore, within the classroom but with heed to safety concerns, the affect of culture on the interactions. 3/28/11 2:33PM Refer to comment #3, the unit gives the international student to be 'expert' on something and speak out in class. 3/27/11 10:25AM In this unit, a little more background info may be needed on the site of this specific study--the international student body. 3/27/11 9:30AM

Questions for Unit 3: Digital Safety


9. This unit was easy to read and understand.

Indicators
Strongly Agree= 5 Somewhat Agree= 4 Neither Agree Disagree= 3 Somewhat Disagree= 2

Response Percent 100 % 00.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%

Response Count 4 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 3 1

Written Responses

GOOD lesson! The students think they know everything about technology but often don't think about safety. 3/27/11 10:34AM

10. I found the amount of information in Unit 3: Digital Safety to be:

Strongly Disagree= 1 Too much Information Just the right amount information Too little information

0.0% 100 % 00.0% 75.0% 25.0%

Again, the lesson provided an appropriate guide for the teacher to use in the classroom using examples the kids can relate to. I like that suggestions are made for additional reading. 3/27/11 10:34AM We cannot assume the students will know how to take steps to protect

11. Overall, I have found the information in Unit 3: Digital Safety useful.

Strongly Agree= 5 Somewhat Agree= 4

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their privacy...this unit is very practical. 3/27/11 10:34AM

Neither Agree Disagree= 3 Somewhat Disagree= 2 Strongly Disagree= 1 12. Please take a moment to reflect on Unit 3: Digital Safety and offer recommendations for its improvement.

0.0% 0.0% 0.0%

0 0 0 4

This was very clear and more relevant to a number of disciplines or school programs. Very transferable 3/30/11 8:23AM In the discussion of digital safety, I think it would be beneficial to show the students the Internet Archive/Wayback Machine as well as the website Digital Tattoo http://digitaltattoo.ubc.ca/ (designed for kids) since I find they are often surprised. 3/28/11 2:35PM Now if we could just get the students to use some self-control in the use of their technology and put it away in order to pay attention in class. 3/27/11 10:34AM Topics well defined, objectives clear, process elaborated and lessons are of great value. 3/27/11 9:34AM

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Appendix M

Invitation to One-On-One Digital Citizenship Workshop

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Appendix N Technology and 21st Century Skills Rubric, Teachers Results


Questions 1. Facilitate and Inspire Student Learning and Creativity 2. Design and Develop Digital-Age Learning Experiences and Assessments 3. Model DigitalAge Work and Learning 4. Promote and Model Digital Citizenship and Responsibility 5. Engage in Professional Growth and Leadership
Total Participants responses (10) 2 3 4 4 2 4 3 4 1 3 30 Mean Median Mode

3.0

1 0

1 0 2

14

3.4

0,1,3

3 1

3 4

3 4

3 3 2 2

4 4

0 3

2 2 3 3 0 4

26 26

2.6 2.6

3
3

3 3,4

3 1

4 3 3

28

2.8

Total Composite Score Guidelines Outstanding, Consistently, Intentionally, Advanced Great, Most of the time, Purposeful, Proficient Good, Inconsistent, Planned, Basic Fair, Introductory, Spontaneous, Limited Not at this time, Need training and/or to Investigate Further

=3 =3 =2 =1 =0

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Appendix O Phase 2 Professional Development Workshop 12 Question Survey Results


Questions for Unit1: Digital Citizenship
1. Unit 1s content was clear in its presentation and easy to follow.

Indicators
Strongly Agree= 5 Somewhat Agree= 4 Neither Agree Disagree= 3 Somewhat Disagree= 2 Strongly Disagree= 1

Response Percent 90.9 %

Response Count 10

Written Responses

Some of the wording was too academic. 4/8/11 2:24PM The guide was straightforward and gave examples of projects that would be useful in the classroom. The one thing that might be missing for faculty who did not grow up in the digital age is a list of what items are considered "digital media". 4/7/11 9:54AM Marxan was prepared and organized, and maintained the appropriate pace that allowed us to read and process the material she presented. 4/4/11 11:28AM

9.09 % 0.0 %

1 0

0.0 % 0 0.0 % 0

2. I found the value of lessons in Unit 1 to be:

Of much value Of some value Of no value

54.5 % 45.4 % 0.0%

6 5 0

Easy to follow 4/8/11 1:47PM I think the topics covered are very relevant to what we are doing and should be doing at WMA. 4/7/11 9:36PM It reminds me that we all need to be careful about citing sources. 4/7/11 9:54AM While I was in the class, I had trouble thinking of how this applies to me (a language teacher), but after taking home the idea and thinking about it. I now understand and know that it does apply to world language teachers. However, I am looking for help/suggestions on how to incorporate the Internet more... 4/6/11 12:45AM Marxan led a strong discussion on when we need to cite Internet sources, and I also found the conversation on public domain very interesting and helpful. 4/4/11 11:28AM The idea that digital citizenship is now an important part of citizenship in general is especially interesting to me

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because I am not sure that citizenship is properly taught any more. 4/17/11 9:41AM Its an evolving field that impacts so much of what we do, how react, and how we think. 4/8/11 1:47PM I work one on one with students, and I often am the final person to edit their written work before they hand it in to their classroom teacher. Therefore, the information on citations was very helpful. 4/4/11 11:28AM Lesson 1/1, Digital Rights and Responsibilities, would be a great way to introduce proper citation. The concept is unfamiliar to ESL students. We usually start in the library, where books are also somewhat unfamiliar! I love watching the process of discovery in the library and would never give it up, but I might like to first introduce the concept of citation with media that are more familiar to the students. Plus, more varied media could let their analysis and technological abilities shine without perfect language. I would not, however, be able to help them with animation. I am wary about using Easybibs, however, because they are so incredibly unfamiliar with citation. I prefer that they learn to locate publisher, year, editors, etc. in the books, as well as notice formatting by italicizing themselves, before they start plugging things in electronically. I would introduce Easybibs to them at the end of the year. Lesson 1/2 Digital Etiquette is absolutely made for the ESL and World Languages classroom - at higher levels more issues would be discussed. Awesome! 4/17/11 9:41AM It is worthwhile to set parameters and expectations. Also the idea of a citizen speaks to us as a community 4/8/11 1:47PM Making sure students cite their work on their power point presentations in the Visual Arts. 4/8/11 10:25AM
4. Please take a moment to reflect on Unit 1: Digital Citizenship and offer recommendations 11

4. Please take a moment to reflect on Unit 1: Digital Citizenship and offer recommendations for its improvement.

Strongly Agree= 5 Somewhat Agree= 4 Neither Agree Disagree= 3

27.2 % 63.6 % 9.0 %

3 7 1

I felt you did a really good job presenting thorough and thoughtprovoking information. Perhaps the

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for its improvement.

lesson plans could be a bit more specific, but this is a minor suggestion to an otherwise well-organized project. 4/13/11 12:17AM Could suggest various role playing activities for the digital etiquette section 4/11/11 7:27AM Both assignments are quite simplistic. U1/L1 does not get into the specifics of different types if digital copyright. 4/8/11 2:24PM A stronger focus on current intellectual property issues might be helpful. 4/7/11 9:36PM A list of digital media would be useful 4/7/11 9:54AM While I was in the class, I had trouble thinking of how this applies to me (a language teacher), but after taking home the idea and thinking about it. I now understand and know that it does apply to world language teachers. However, I am looking for help/suggestions on how to incorporate the Internet more... 4/6/11 12:45AM N/A 4/4/11 11:28AM In lesson 1/1, I would love a complete list of possible media/ forms for a book review. I was also unclear about the exact meaning of "public domain site." 4/17/11 9:41AM I felt that I already had a strong understanding of how students communicate digitally. I would like more information about how to present material to them in a way that they prefer digitally. 4/10/11 9:44AM Nothing to add 4/8/11 1:47PM None 4/8/11 10:25AM

Questions for Unit 2: Role of Culture


5. Unit 2s content was easy to read and understand.

Indicators
Strongly Agree= 5 Somewhat Agree= 4

Response Percent 63.6 % 36.3 %

Response Count 7 4

Written Responses

Proof read. Missing commas 4/8/11 2:38PM

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Neither Agree Disagree= 3 Somewhat Disagree= 2 Strongly Disagree= 1

0.0% 0.0% 0.0%

0 0 0

I found Hofstede's chart to be confusing and we did not spend anytime discussing its relevance. 4/7/11 10:15AM I was unclear about the implications of Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions as related to Dynamics of New Media. 4/17/11 10:01AM I would like to hear more about the various cultures on our campus, and what differences in the roles of culture exist regarding technology. There was mention of an AP Statistics class researching and completing the assessment on page ten of the handout. I would be interested in these results. 4/4/11 11:39AM I couldn't figure out Hofstede, but I wouldn't mind a quick review of copyright, plagiarism, IP, and Fair Use I've got the idea but more details could help me guide an interesting discussion, especially in an ESL classroom where the specifics may be the most interesting to students, and best enable them to give their opinions. There are so many great IP cases out there (that I don't quite remember), I forget how long copyright lasts, and Fair Use is a fascinating concept. I know I should know more but I spend a lot of time informing students that plagiarism even exists. I'd love to delve into more interesting, controversial topics. 4/17/11 10:01AM The copy of the "Academic Social Networks" contract on page ten of the Teacher's Guide should prove beneficial, particularly for our classroom teachers as well as the administration. 4/4/11 11:39AM Very useful! Getting students to think critically about plagiarism may make them less resistant to it. As a fellow teacher once said, to international students it sometimes seem that we treat plagiarism like murder, which does not make them more receptive to it. Treating it as the complex topic it is (that lawyers fight about!) respects everyone's intelligence, helping students to use their heads while informing them of the basics. It might also teach students to learn to deal with ambiguity - another important life skill. I love the idea of using the survey - the language would be

6. I found the amount of information in Unit 2: Role of Culture to be:

Too much Information Just the right amount information

9.09 % 72.7 % 18.1 %

1 8 2

Too little information

7. Overall, I have found the information in Unit 2: Role of Culture useful.

Strongly Agree= 5 Somewhat Agree= 4 Neither Agree Disagree= 3 Somewhat Disagree= 2 Strongly Disagree= 1

63.6 % 36.3 % 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%

7 4 0 0 0

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difficult but that would be fun. Researching policies in students' own countries could allow students to research in their own languages, a welcome change, and then interpret their findings to the class. 4/17/11 10:01AM No comment 4/13/11 12:18AM Somewhere it might be nice to see a statement of attention spans of various age group people. The integration of technologies into the classroom may be able to maximize learning by understanding attention spans and use of technology. 4/11/11 7:35AM The stipulations of the contract are a little vague. 4/8/11 2:38PM There is nothing about this section that needs to be changed. 4/7/11 9:51PM I would like to see Hofstede's chart explained if it is going to be in there. 4/7/11 10:15AM A very important area to think about, especially at the global school... 4/6/11 12:46AM Our present AUP asks for uniformity; however, it became apparent through our group discussions that perhaps each classroom might develop their own contract, as technological needs differ from course to course. 4/4/11 11:39AM Relevance of Hofstede to the lesson plans and information about laws in the US would be helpful additions. Perhaps the unit could be divided into more lessons? 4/17/11 10:01AM The material in the grid and the social network contract was somewhat dense. It would be good to perhaps include those things as appendices, and provide a more easy to digest textual explanation of the information they present. 4/10/11 9:46AM Ever-increasing importance 4/8/11 1:51PM None 4/8/11 10:26AM

8. Please take a moment to reflect on Unit 2: Role of Culture and offer recommendations for its improvement.

11

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Questions for Unit 3: Digital Safety


9. This unit was easy to read and understand.

Indicators
Strongly Agree= 5 Somewhat Agree= 4 Neither Agree Disagree= 3 Somewhat Disagree= 2

Response Percent 81.8 % 18.1 % 0.0%

Response Count 9 2 0

Written Responses

This is an easily readable unit. I do always forget exactly what Web 2.0 is, as well as the deep web (id that's an issue here). 4/17/11 10:17AM N/a 4/8/11 3:10PM

0.0% 0 0.0% 0 10. I found the amount of information in Unit 3: Digital Safety to be: Strongly Disagree= 1 Too much Information Just the right amount information 11. Overall, I have found the information in Unit 3: Digital Safety useful. Too little information Strongly Agree= 5 Somewhat Agree= 4 Neither Agree Disagree= 3 Somewhat Disagree= 2 Strongly Disagree= 1 0.0% 100 % 0.0% 81.8 % 18.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0 11 0 9 2 0 0 0

I thought it was perfect, but always welcome examples and information to use in class. 4/17/11 10:17AM

I believe the discussion about digital safety is a little 'cautionary tale'/ old fashioned. Especially the not publishing videos/pictures and buying products on the Internet. 4/8/11 2:53PM Looking at edmodo was quite informative. 4/7/11 10:37AM Much of this information was a reminder of how to improve digital safety. However, for our pre-teen and teenaged students, this information is imperative for them to hear. 4/4/11 11:44AM Students are at the same time aware of the issues here while often not making themselves secure. "Asians in the Library," the recent anti-Asian rant by a UCLA student, was a hot topic. And the issues there are many. I would hope that in-depth discussions of ergonomics are now covered in health classes (though I often mention such things casually) as I can imagine the conversation about the topic not going anywhere. However, I love the assessments for Lesson 3/3 Ergonomics. Creating videos is a great activity for ESL students, humorous, great group building, and confidence boosting. Evaluating their rooms according to OSHA standards would be great language practice - highly contextualized situation that uses advanced language is one of the best situations for improving English skills, both in terms of proficiency and academic language. 4/17/11 10:17AM

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This unit provided information I did not previously know. 4/10/11 9:47AM Identity theft is huge so this is important for many aspects of life 4/8/11 3:10PM I felt this was an important piece of the puzzle to cover and it gave me much to ponder 4/13/11 12:18AM A short description of proper ergonomics at a computer would be useful in the background information system. 4/11/11 7:38AM I believe the discussion about digital safety is a little 'cautionary tale'/ old fashioned. Especially the not publishing videos/pictures and buying products on the Internet. 4/8/11 2:53PM Excellent coverage of some important topics. I think that perhaps the coverage of ergonomic concerns might need to be separated from the security issues, however. 4/7/11 9:53PM I am not sure I would change a thing. 4/7/11 10:37AM After hearing people talk, it is scary as to what one is actually 'allowed' to do with the Internet. I think more detail should be given to those in the workplace in regards to definite DO NOTS! I sometimes shut down when I hear of all the things one needs to be careful of. At times, this makes me not even want to use technology. 4/6/11 12:49AM This unit highlighted the importance of securing all personal information to guard against any abuse and/or misuse. 4/4/11 11:44AM Are there any assessment ideas for Lesson 3/1 protecting Your Privacy? 4/17/11 10:17AM I think it is strong the way it is. 4/10/11 9:47AM Maybe there are documentaries movies that illustrate this 4/8/11 3:10PM None 4/8/11 10:26AM

12. Please take a moment to reflect on Unit 3: Digital Safety and offer recommendations for its improvement.

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Appendix Q Phase 3, Class Observation, 12 Question Survey Results


Questions for Unit1: Digital Citizenship
1. Unit 1s content was clear in its presentation and easy to follow.

Indicators
Strong Agree= 5 Somewhat Agree= 4 Neither Agree Disagree= 3 Somewhat Disagree= 2

Response Percent 66.7% 33.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%

Response Count 2 1 0 0 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 0 0

Written Responses

2. I found the value of lessons in Unit 1 to be:

Strongly Disagree= 1 Of much value Of some value

66.7% 33.3% 0.0% 66.7% 33.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%

I would have liked more in the area of creative commons licensing. 6/1/11 11:16AM I think the students gained benefits from thinking about the topics 6/1/11 11:16AM

3. As a teaching resource, I have found the information in Unit 1 beneficial to my instruction.

Of no value Strong Agree= 5 Somewhat Agree= 4 Neither Agree Disagree= 3 Somewhat Disagree= 2 Strongly Disagree= 1

4. Please take a moment to reflect on Unit 1: Digital Citizenship and offer recommendations for its improvement.

Questions for Unit 2: Role of Culture


5. Unit 2s content was easy to read and understand.

Indicators
Strong Agree= 5 Somewhat Agree= 4 Neither Agree Disagree= 3 Somewhat Disagree= 2

Response Percent 100 % 00.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%

Response Count 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 2

Written Responses

6. I found the amount of information in Unit 2: Role of Culture to be:

Strongly Disagree= 1 Too much Information Just the right amount information Too little information Strongly Agree= 5 Somewhat Agree= 4 Neither Agree

00.0% 66.7% 33.3% 33.3% 66.7%

7. Overall, I have found the information in Unit 2: Role of Culture useful.

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Disagree= 3 Somewhat Disagree= 2 Strongly Disagree= 1 8. Please take a moment to reflect on Unit 2: Role of Culture and offer recommendations for its improvement. 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0 0 0

Questions for Unit 3: Digital Safety


9. This unit was easy to read and understand.

Indicators
Strong Agree= 5 Somewhat Agree= 4 Neither Agree Disagree= 3 Somewhat Disagree= 2

Response Percent 100 % 00.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%

Response Count 3 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0

Written Responses

10. I found the amount of information in Unit 3: Digital Safety to be:

Strongly Disagree= 1 Too much Information Just the right amount information Too little information

00.0% 100 % 00.0% 100 % 00.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%

11. Overall, I have found the information in Unit 3: Digital Safety useful.

Strongly Agree= 5 Somewhat Agree= 4 Neither Agree Disagree= 3 Somewhat Disagree= 2 Strongly Disagree= 1

12. Please take a moment to reflect on Unit 3: Digital Safety and offer recommendations for its improvement.

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Appendix R Phase 3, Final Interview Questions Results


Interview Questions, Observation 1: Financial Markets: Global Dimensions 1. Do you feel the students were engaged in the lessons and activities? Yes, I felt for the most part that the students were interested in the content of the lesson. I felt the discussions went well and the students were able to take from topics covered, information that they may not have known. 2. Do you feel your students benefited from the lessons and activities? Because my class was mostly upperclassmen, they seam to have a good understanding of the material that was covered. But, I am sure there was some material that was beneficial and worth reviewing. 3. Did you feel the time and effort you spent preparing for the lessons and activities, was time well spent? Although, I had a good understanding of the material that was presented to the class, I felt I should have gone into greater depth rather then try to cover all the topics offered. More then one-class period is needed to do justice to these two important topics. I would suggest in the revision of the guide, either group the discussion topics into similar subject areas or suggest to the user to choose one or two topics to help the flow of the material and get into more depth of the subject. 4. Is there any other topic or issue you would have this guide address? Not at this time. I feel high school age students have been working with these types of technology for some time. It is important that students continue to hear the issues and understand their responsibilities and the consequences of being a safe and effective digital communicator.

127 5. Do you think the guide accomplished its goal to provide you with an introduction to digital citizenship and provide examples of how to be safe and effective communicators in the digital world? Definitely. There is so much information about this subject, I am sure this is a guide that will need to be updated regularly to keep up with the changing technology. It would be nice to have the guide in a digital form where you could access it regularly. While developing your curriculum you could refer to the guide and reference its information, share it with faculty and students. Interview Questions, Observation 2: Ceramics 1. Do you feel the students were engaged in the lessons and activities? Yes. At times I feel students may know more about some of these topics then I do, but I felt that as an overview students were receptive to the discussions. I know there are times when I need a reminder on these complex issues. I feel if nothing else, this was a gentle reminder for many of my students who are graduating this year. 2. Do you feel your students benefited from the lessons and activities? Yes. The research project that students recently finished was a PowerPoint presentation. I was happy to see that the class time spent on reviewing citing resources was time well spent. The entire class cited their work correctly and presented their findings without incident. 3. Did you feel the time and effort you spent preparing for the lessons and activities, was time well spent? Some of the topics I had to review for myself, before I felt comfortable presenting to the students. I would have like more resources and a little more information about each topic. Perhaps other lessons to choose from with different scenarios would be helpful.

128 4. Is there any other topic or issue you would have this guide address? No. I am sure as I continue to learn more about the subjects in the guide, there will be issues that arise and I will need to know how best to handle them. I would imagine that as technology changes, the need for new topics would need to be addressed. 5. Do you think the guide accomplished its goal to provide you with an introduction to digital citizenship and provide examples of how to be safe and effective communicators in the digital world? Yes, although the teacher has to customize the information for their subject matter. Perhaps more can be added to the various units, as resources or more lessons. That may provide for more options to the instructor and that could cut down on the need for customization. Interview Questions, Observation 3: Global Literature 1. Do you feel the students were engaged in the lessons and activities? I think so. I found the discussion lively and even some of my quite students shared their options. Perhaps having more time to try different scenarios would have given the class the opportunity to dive deeper into the discussion points. 2. Do you feel your students benefited from the lessons and activities? After reviewed the survey that I gave to the students, I know they are technology savvy individuals. I am not sure if they learned anything new, but I feel that they had an opportunity to discuses topics that they may not have thought much about in the past. I hope they realize the importance of these types of conversations and continue to participate and understand human technology issues. 3. Did you feel the time and effort you spent preparing for the lessons and activities, was time well spent? I dont feel I spent a lot of time preparing, these are topics that as a

129 Library Services Director I deal with similar issues often. I did enjoy review the students surveys because they were anonymous, I feel their feedback was legitimate. I feel it is always a good investment of time when having informative discussions with students about important issues. 4. Is there any other topic or issue you would have this guide address? So many topics, so little time. I would like to see more in the guide abut citing digital sources. Also, there is no mention about Creative Commons. I think this is an important topic that students and teachers should know about. The Creative Commons organization develops and supports the sharing, remixing, and reusing of digital resources, legally. 5. Do you think the guide accomplished its goal to provide you with an introduction to digital citizenship and provide examples of how to be safe and effective communicators in the digital world? This topic has some complex issues, I think if you can add more background information to the units where appreciate, and it will help when developing your curriculum to include some of these issues. Interview Questions, Observation: Writing Workshop 1. Do you feel the students were engaged in the lessons and activities? I do feel that most of the students were engaged, but what I have found in my Social Media class applied in this situation as well: most high school students, despite the fact that they use digital communications technologies every day, do not have a desire to think about those technologies. This phenomenon is similar to complaints that come up in cinema studies classes; people often wish to be blissfully ignorant of the philosophical and sociopolitical underpinnings of technologies that they use for entertainment and to make their lives function more simply. This causes some students to disengage from the material,

130 lest they start to question their tech use. Of course, this is the very reason we need things like the Digital Citizenship Guide. 2. Do you feel your students benefited from the lessons and activities? I do. This is true whether or not they experienced a clear, immediate, and conscious realization of the benefits. 3. Did you feel the time and effort you spent preparing for the lessons and activities, was time well spent? Yes. As I said above, I feel that this type of inquiry and discussion is one of the most important components of twenty-first century education. Any effort expended toward this end is time well spent 4. Is there any other topic or issue you would have this guide address? I think the guide is comprehensive and thorough. All of the topics are given proper consideration, and can only act as springboards for further discussion. It seems as though adding too much could take away from the process of group discovery. 5. Do you think the guide accomplished its goal to provide you with an introduction to digital citizenship and provide examples of how to be safe and effective communicators in the digital world? Yes. (Although this is my personal area of expertise :))

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