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Structural Analysis and Design

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HOW TO INTERPRET STAAD RESULTS/OUTPUT?


Posted by Chris Conrad on Tue, Mar 2 2010 11:50 AM

Hi Renzt2, The Summary and Envelope tabs provide corresponding results in different formats. For instance, let's look at the Support Reactions table (Node tab, Reactions sub-tab). The All tab provides reactions for all six degrees of freedom, for all supported nodes that were identified on the Range tab of the Results Setup dialog, for all load conditions that were identified on the Loads tab of the Results Setup dialog. The Summary tab lists 12 lines of data corresponding to the Maximum and Minimum values for each of the six degrees of freedom. It lists the node at which the extreme value was found to occur and the loading condition that was found to cause the extreme condition. Then as you read the table, you'll see a bold set of values that follows the diagonal from top left to bottom right. The bold values represent the extreme values, and the values in regular font represent the associated values that were found to occur for other degrees of freedom at the same node, under the same loading condition. The Envelope tab provides reaction data in a third way. It lists all supported nodes that were identified on the Range tab of the Results Setup dialog. For each one, it provides data for the positive extreme reactions for all six degrees of freedom and for the negative extreme reactions for all six degrees of freedom. For each degree of freedom, this table indicates the extreme value and the loading condition that was found to cause it. I think I might need a little further explanation on your question regarding various loading conditions in order to provide you with a useful response.

Cheers, Chris

AD RESULTS/OUTPUT? 11/9/12 - Structural Analy sis and Design Forum - Structura

Posted by renzt2 on Tue, Mar 2 2010 4:59 AM

Sir may i ask you firstly in the post processing in any tab of results we can see ALL, Summary and Envelope. i think "All" is can already understand and very self explnatory. but i'm having problem with the Summary and envelope? can you help me with this two?

secondly what i'm going to is mormally different combination would give different results and that it might give something big on a first combination and small on another combination. For example for combination 1 the FX is 5kn and Fy 100kn while on combination two Fx is 30kn and Fy is 60kn. which combination should i choose. i think envelope will help ask determine which loads to get?

i hope im clear on this.

thanks : )

Posted by Chris Conrad on Fri, Oct 16 2009 11:18 AM

Here is the web link for a Sales Contact Request specific to STAAD.foundation: http://www.bentley.com/bentleywebsite/tools/sales_contact.aspx?lacctid=30040

Posted by renzt2 on Fri, Oct 16 2009 10:25 AM

by the way where can i get staad foundation?

thanks

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Posted by renzt2 on Fri, Oct 16 2009 10:24 AM

ok my bad....

Posted by Chris Conrad on Fri, Oct 16 2009 10:17 AM

I am going to split this into two threads with corresponding subject lines for you. I think you will get better feedback from the user group that way.

Cheers, Chris

Posted by renzt2 on Fri, Oct 16 2009 8:12 AM

ok thanks for clearing that sir. my next concern is regarding roof load. if i have a 0.57kn/m2 how do we model that in staad if given my staad file i gave you? what i did is 1kn/m member load and i feel its not acurate. how much does staad foundation cost? i remember old staad versions incorporate this design. : ) do you have trial version of this?

thanks : )

Posted by Chris Conrad on Thu, Oct 15 2009 9:58 PM

Sorry if I confused the issue in my last post. What I wanted to say is that you need to specify UNT (and UNB if the member experiences compression in the bottom flange) as well as Ky and/or Ly. Regarding your foundation design question, I recommend STAAD.foundation. communities.bentley .com/products/structural/structural_analy sis___design/f /5932/t/40394.aspx It can import reactions from your
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your foundation design question, I recommend STAAD.foundation. It can import reactions from your STAAD.Pro model, which can be a big time-saver, and eliminates all the concern about how to interpret the directions of the reactions. It can also be used for designs where you manually enter geometry and loading. Cheers, Chris

Posted by renzt2 on Thu, Oct 15 2009 11:53 AM

i got u with hte K and L but i lost you with the unb and unt. basically i can apply K and L to my rafter in my frame (rafter being a inclined beam) and let go of unb and unt in my design of parameters. using k maide my rafter deeper and thinner. just as i like it. what footing design software do you recommend me to use with cantilever design? Riza gives out very conservative ourput thus making it big or very safe.

thanks

Posted by Chris Conrad on Thu, Oct 15 2009 11:17 AM

UNT and UNB will only be used when determining the allowable bending stresses (strength). STAAD.Pro will also be evaluating combined axial and bending effects. For that check, it needs to calculate the allowable stress/strength for axial load. That is where it becomes important to correctly specify the K and L parameters to define the product of K times L. In you situation (as is with many framing conditions) it will be a judgment call to specify the Ky and Ly parameters effectively, since your purlins are only connected to the top flange of your rafters. The unbraced length for buckling about the local y axis is probably something a little larger than the purlin spacing, but very likely less than the overall member length. Cheers, Chris

Posted by renzt2 on Thu, Oct 15 2009 2:52 AM


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in my situation i use UNT 0.7m to signify my purlins spacing and it serves as the bracing length on the top flange. While my UNB = 7.5m which in my design i will place a strut bar connecting all my rafter. K = 0.65 because my rafter is fix at both ends and my Ly ia also 7.5m same to my UNB. Is this Ok and correct sir?

thanks

Posted by renzt2 on Thu, Oct 15 2009 2:44 AM

YES THERE IS A DIFFERENCE!! : ) would it be relevant if i still use UNB and UNT if i use ky and ly?

Posted by Chris Conrad on Wed, Oct 14 2009 2:59 PM

I suspect that you will find a very different result if you specify Ky and Ly parameters to limit the buckling length for axial effects. Cheers, Chris

Posted by renzt2 on Wed, Oct 14 2009 1:18 PM

YES MY GABLE FRAME IS 30METER SPAN AND EACH RAFTER IS THEREFORE 15M FROM COLUMN TO APEX STAAD PLANE START JOB INFORMATION ENGINEER DATE 11-Oct-09 END JOB INFORMATION INPUT WIDTH 79 UNIT METER KN JOINT COORDINATES 1 0 0 0; 2 30 0 0; 3 60 0 0; 4 0 7 0; 5 30 7 0; 6 60 7 0; 7 15 11 0; 8 45 11 0; MEMBER INCIDENCES 1 1 4; 2 2 5; 3 3 6; 4 4 7; 5 5 7; 6 5 8; 7 6 8;
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AD RESULTS/OUTPUT? 11/9/12 - Structural Analy sis and Design Forum - Structura

MEMBER PROPERTY AMERICAN 1 TO 3 TABLE ST W12X50 4 TO 7 TABLE ST W14X61 DEFINE MATERIAL START ISOTROPIC MATERIAL1 E 2e+008 POISSON 0.3 DENSITY 77 END DEFINE MATERIAL CONSTANTS MATERIAL MATERIAL1 ALL SUPPORTS 1 3 PINNED 2 FIXED LOAD 1 LOADTYPE None TITLE LOAD CASE 1 SELFWEIGHT Y -1.2 MEMBER LOAD 4 TO 7 UNI GY -1.4 LOAD 2 LOADTYPE None TITLE LOAD CASE 2 MEMBER LOAD 4 TO 7 UNI GY -1 LOAD COMB 3 COMBINATION LOAD CASE 3 1 1.4 2 1.7 PERFORM ANALYSIS PARAMETER 1 CODE LRFD FYLD 230000 MEMB 1 TO 3 NSF 1 MEMB 1 TO 3 UNB 7.5 4 TO 7 UNT 0.7 4 TO 7 TRACK 0 MEMB 1 TO 3 SELECT OPTIMIZED PERFORM ANALYSIS PRINT SUPPORT REACTION LIST 1 TO 3 PRINT MEMBER FORCES LIST 1 TO 3 PRINT JOINT DISPLACEMENTS LIST 1 TO 6 FINISH

Posted by Chris Conrad on Wed, Oct 14 2009 1:08 PM

Hi renzt2, Would you mind posting your input file so we can take a look at it? It sounds like you may have a long unbraced length for buckling that may be limiting the allowable load in compression for your rafter. Unfortunately, we do not have a parameter to control flange width during an optimization. We are only able to control depth. Cheers, Chris

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Posted by renzt2 on Wed, Oct 14 2009 6:51 AM

Sir Conrad, I am curious why my outpur of Rafter Section in my Gable design is a square section? i was thinking that it would be a thinner section but deeper one. i also opted in using unt and unb for the purlins support is gives to the gable frame. secondly, so we have a parameter that limits the width of the flange in the design? thank you sir.

Posted by Chris Conrad on Sun, Oct 11 2009 2:46 PM

Glad to hear that you found the member releases. Keep in mind that they are applied to a specific end of a member...either the starting end or the ending end. Your question about pinned versus fixed base condition is a good one. In reality the behavior will be somewhere between fully-fixed and fully-released. It is an exercise in engineering judgment to make the model behave as close as possible to reality. I can't provide you with an answer here, but I can recommend that you study the two boundary conditions and evaluate how sensitive the overall design is to the base fixity condition. If it is very sensitive to that base fixity condition, then you could design each element based on the condition that produces the more conservative design. Or, you could try to analyze the actual column base connection detail and try to develop a reasonable rotational spring constant to more precisely model the expected behavior. Cheers, Chris

Posted by renzt2 on Sun, Oct 11 2009 4:36 AM

with regards to the rolled beams i have double check with my supplier. im from the phillipines. our rolled beams are imported from korea or china now and few some russia. i dont know how reliable this supplies with regards to specs and standards. communities.bentley .com/products/structural/structural_analy sis___design/f /5932/t/40394.aspx
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with regards to specs and standards.

thanks

Posted by renzt2 on Sun, Oct 11 2009 4:00 AM

I tried what u said the beam release. i check on the boz Mz in the Release part and left the KMZ uncheck. I assigned the releaze to my two external columns and run analysis. the outcome is zero " 0" Mz wow!!!! : ) so this means i can just go ahead use this outcome and design my column and footing. In your engineering advice Sir, Using anchor bolts would have this kind of scenario... it becomes a Pin connection. we sometimes in our pratice here intentionally make the rebars of the column protrude out to we can weld it in the base plate of the steel column. would this design allow for the release of Mz. thank you so much!

Posted by renzt2 on Sun, Oct 11 2009 3:49 AM

OK PERFECTLY EXPLAINED SIR. Under the spec tab there is a node and beam button. what is the diffrence in the node release from the beam release? In my case i want to release the moment aciton of the rafter to my column and / or release the moment action of the column to the footing either or, u were suggesting to use beam release.... I see Location, obviously where we want the release to happen, Release type... and release... if i check a box in the release selection that means the check box release the connection and uncheck box are rigid? In my case i want to release connection of the moment about Z from the Steel column to transfer to my RC pedestal so i should check MZ.... is that correct sir? and KMZ is for what sir with input box with units kN-m/deg. thank you sir

more power : )

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Posted by Chris Conrad on Sun, Oct 11 2009 1:59 AM

Thanks for posting the model. From the post processor, if you view the Node tab, Reactions sub-tab, you'll see the Reactions table. In STAAD.Pro, reactions are reported with respect to the global coordinate system (except in the case of inclined supports, which your model does not have). So interpret these reaction magnitudes and directions as the forces and moments that restore equilibrium to your structure once the applied forces and moments have been applied. In other words, you see positive Fy values for your reactions, because the applied forces are generally downwards. Therefore, the reaction on the base of the column is in the upward direction. So, if you need to manually transcribe these reactions to another program for foundation design, you will probably need to use the opposite algebraic sign in the foundation design program, in order to indicate, for example, that the force from the column onto the foundation is downward. The other part of your question related to modeling moment releases at the ends of members. These are created as beam specifications on the General tab, Spec subtab. As a side note, you steel yield strength is approximately equivalent to an A36 material. It sounds like this is not existing construction, so you might want to double-check that value. Any wide flange sections rolled today are likely to be ASTM A992, Grade 50. Cheers, Chris

Posted by renzt2 on Sun, Oct 11 2009 1:14 AM

STAAD SPACE START JOB INFORMATION ENGINEER DATE 06-Oct-09 END JOB INFORMATION INPUT WIDTH 79 UNIT METER KN JOINT COORDINATES 1 0 0 0; 2 30 0 0; 3 60 0 0; 4 0 7 0; 5 30 7 0; 6 60 7 0; 7 15 11 0; 8 45 11 0; MEMBER INCIDENCES 1 1 4; 2 2 5; 3 3 6; 4 4 7; 5 5 7; 6 5 8; 7 6 8; MEMBER PROPERTY AMERICAN 1 TO 3 TABLE ST W12X58 4 TO 7 TABLE ST W21X50 DEFINE MATERIAL START ISOTROPIC MATERIAL1 E 2e+008 POISSON 0.3

AD RESULTS/OUTPUT? 11/9/12 - Structural Analy sis and Design Forum - Structura

POISSON 0.3 DENSITY 77 END DEFINE MATERIAL CONSTANTS MATERIAL MATERIAL1 ALL SUPPORTS 1 TO 3 FIXED <! STAAD PRO GENERATED DATA DO NOT MODIFY !!! !> END GENERATED DATA BLOCK LOAD 1 LOADTYPE None TITLE DEAD LOAD SELFWEIGHT Y -1.2 MEMBER LOAD 4 TO 7 UNI GY -1.4 LOAD 2 LOADTYPE None TITLE LIVE LOAD-WIND MEMBER LOAD 4 TO 7 UNI Y -1.44 LOAD COMB 3 COMBINATION LOAD CASE 3 1 1.4 2 1.7 PERFORM ANALYSIS PRINT SUPPORT REACTION LIST 1 TO 3 PRINT MEMBER FORCES LIST 1 TO 3 PRINT JOINT DISPLACEMENTS LIST 1 TO 6 PARAMETER 1 CODE LRFD FYLD 230000 MEMB 1 TO 3 NSF 1 MEMB 1 TO 3 TRACK 0 MEMB 1 TO 3 CHECK CODE MEMB 1 TO 3 PARAMETER 2 CODE LRFD SELECT OPTIMIZED PERFORM ANALYSIS PARAMETER 3 CODE LRFD STEEL TAKE OFF LIST 1 TO 3 PRINT SUPPORT REACTION LIST 1 TO 3 PRINT MEMBER FORCES LIST 1 TO 7 PRINT MEMBER SECTION FORCES LIST 1 TO 7 PRINT MEMBER FORCES GLOBAL LIST 1 TO 7 PRINT ANALYSIS RESULTS PRINT FORCE ENVELOPE LIST 1 TO 7 PRINT MEMBER STRESSES LIST 1 TO 7 FINISH

Posted by renzt2 on Sun, Oct 11 2009 1:10 AM

ok thanks for clarifying it.. given the staad file please see if the reactions are in correct direction and results. i may have just been confuse in my own thinking and views. given the results are correct...
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which is better pin connection for truss to column or a pin connection steel column to RC column pedestal? and how to i achieve a pin connection for truss to column and pin connection for steel column to Rc column in real world and in staad model.

thank you sir.

Posted by renzt2 on Sun, Oct 11 2009 1:01 AM

STAAD SPACE START JOB INFORMATION ENGINEER DATE 06-Oct-09 END JOB INFORMATION INPUT WIDTH 79 UNIT METER KN JOINT COORDINATES 1 0 0 0; 2 30 0 0; 3 60 0 0; 4 0 7 0; 5 30 7 0; 6 60 7 0; 7 15 11 0; 8 45 11 0; MEMBER INCIDENCES 1 1 4; 2 2 5; 3 3 6; 4 4 7; 5 5 7; 6 5 8; 7 6 8; MEMBER PROPERTY AMERICAN 1 TO 3 TABLE ST W12X58 4 TO 7 TABLE ST W21X50 DEFINE MATERIAL START ISOTROPIC MATERIAL1 E 2e+008 POISSON 0.3 DENSITY 77 END DEFINE MATERIAL CONSTANTS MATERIAL MATERIAL1 ALL SUPPORTS 1 TO 3 FIXED <! STAAD PRO GENERATED DATA DO NOT MODIFY !!! !> END GENERATED DATA BLOCK LOAD 1 LOADTYPE None TITLE LOAD CASE 1 SELFWEIGHT Y -1.2 MEMBER LOAD 4 TO 7 UNI Y -1.4 LOAD 2 LOADTYPE None TITLE LOAD CASE 2 MEMBER LOAD 4 TO 7 UNI GY -1.44 LOAD COMB 3 COMBINATION LOAD CASE 3 1 1.4 2 1.7 PERFORM ANALYSIS PRINT SUPPORT REACTION LIST 1 TO 3 PRINT MEMBER FORCES LIST 1 TO 3 PRINT JOINT DISPLACEMENTS LIST 1 TO 6 PARAMETER 1 CODE LRFD FYLD 230000 MEMB 1 TO 3
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NSF 1 MEMB 1 TO 3 TRACK 0 MEMB 1 TO 3 CHECK CODE MEMB 1 TO 3 PARAMETER 2 CODE LRFD SELECT OPTIMIZED PERFORM ANALYSIS PARAMETER 3 CODE LRFD STEEL TAKE OFF LIST 1 TO 3 PRINT SUPPORT REACTION LIST 1 TO 3 PRINT MEMBER FORCES LIST 1 TO 7 PRINT MEMBER SECTION FORCES LIST 1 TO 7 PRINT MEMBER FORCES GLOBAL LIST 1 TO 7 PRINT ANALYSIS RESULTS PRINT FORCE ENVELOPE LIST 1 TO 7 PRINT MEMBER STRESSES LIST 1 TO 7 FINISH

Posted by Chris Conrad on Sat, Oct 10 2009 3:13 PM

Rather than attaching the STAAD file, just copy the text from the .std file and paste it directly into this message field in a forum post. See an example of another file below:

STAAD SPACE START JOB INFORMATION ENGINEER DATE Today END JOB INFORMATION INPUT WIDTH 79 UNIT FEET KIP JOINT COORDINATES 1 0 0 0; 2 40 0 0; 3 80 0 0; 4 120 0 0; 5 0 0 15; 6 40 0 15; 7 80 0 15; 8 120 0 15; 9 0 0 30; 10 40 0 30; 11 80 0 30; 12 120 0 30; 13 0 0 45; 14 40 0 45; 15 80 0 45; 16 120 0 45; 17 0 0 60; 18 40 0 60; 19 80 0 60; 20 120 0 60; 21 0 -25 0; 22 120 -25 0; 23 0 -25 15; 24 120 -25 15; 25 0 -25 30; 26 120 -25 30; 27 0 -25 45; 28 120 -25 45; 29 0 -25 60; 30 120 -25 60; 31 40 -25 0; 32 80 -25 0; 33 40 -25 60; 34 80 -25 60; 35 40 0 75; 36 80 0 75; 37 40 -25 75; 38 80 -25 75; 39 40 0 -15; 40 80 0 -15; 41 40 -25 -15; 42 80 -25 -15; MEMBER INCIDENCES 1 1 2; 2 2 3; 3 3 4; 4 5 6; 5 6 7; 6 7 8; 7 9 10; 8 10 11; 9 11 12; 10 13 14; 11 14 15; 12 15 16; 13 17 18; 14 18 19; 15 19 20; 16 1 5; 17 2 6; 18 3 7; 19 4 8; 20 5 9; 21 6 10; 22 7 11; 23 8 12; 24 9 13; 25 10 14; 26 11 15; 27 12 16; 28 13 17; 29 14 18; 30 15 19; 31 16 20; 32 1 21; 33 4 22; 34 5 23; 35 8 24; 36 9 25; 37 12 26; 38 13 27; 39 16 28; 40 17 29; 41 20 30; 42 2 31; 43 3 32; 44 18 33; 45 19 34; 46 18 35; 47 19 36; 48 35 36; 49 35 37; 50 36 38; 51 2 39; 52 3 40; 53 39 40; 54 39 41; 55 40 42; DEFINE MATERIAL START ISOTROPIC STEEL

AD RESULTS/OUTPUT? 11/9/12 - Structural Analy sis and Design Forum - Structura

E 4.176e+006 POISSON 0.3 DENSITY 0.489024 ALPHA 6.5e-006 DAMP 0.03 ISOTROPIC CONCRETE E 453600 POISSON 0.17 DENSITY 0.14999 ALPHA 5.5e-006 DAMP 0.05 END DEFINE MATERIAL MEMBER PROPERTY AMERICAN 1 TO 31 46 TO 48 51 TO 53 TABLE ST W36X232 32 TO 45 49 50 54 55 TABLE ST W8X28 CONSTANTS BETA 180 MEMB 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 50 55 MATERIAL STEEL ALL SUPPORTS 21 TO 34 37 38 41 42 FIXED *SLAVE ZX MASTER 10 JOINT 1 TO 20 35 36 39 40 LOAD 1 LOADTYPE Dead TITLE HORIZ AND VERT JOINT LOAD 1 TO 5 8 9 12 13 16 TO 20 35 36 39 40 FX 10 FY -100 PDELTA 35 ANALYSIS FINISH

Posted by renzt2 on Sat, Oct 10 2009 1:40 PM

i posted my reactions load in my first post. generally i am designing a warehouse gable type roof frame. and my footing and column will rest in my property line to maximize space. so this calls for a cantilver footing. " L" shape footinf for the left side of my structure. the vertical part being the column the horizontal the footing. so i was given reactions, please refer to my first posting. im trying to understand the system of gable type roof frame why is it giving a reaction clockwise with respect to the " L" so meaning if i use the opposite as the applied loads for my RISA footing computation it will overturnthe footing more. or is it really that way and im just insisting on the idea that it shouldnt be that way.... come to think about it, the gable roof rafter (i use wide flange) is trying to collopse downward then the column is push outward... meaning the applid moment is counterclockwise of " L"... I'm trying to analyse and answer my own question. please do help me to interpret. my concern is if its really counter clockwise then its making my cantilever footing size bigger. One solution im thinking to release the column of the moment induced my the roof rafter to the column and the column transmitts lesser or no moment at all. how do we model that in staad? again.. how do attach staad file thanks : )

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Posted by renzt2 on Sat, Oct 10 2009 1:29 PM

hi... thanks for the quick response. i tried to attach the .std file but it wont allow it. it says it can only attach file with file extension name...

Posted by Chris Conrad on Sat, Oct 10 2009 12:53 PM

renzt2, It looks like you may have attached a .dgn file instead of the .std file. Could you please post the .std file so we can look it over and give you some advice on interpreting the results? It's generally easiest to simply copy the text from the .std file and paste it into this message field. Thanks! Chris

Posted by renzt2 on Sat, Oct 10 2009 6:45 AM

San Pedro Frame4 straight column.dgn

HERES MY STAAD FILE

Posted by renzt2 on Sat, Oct 10 2009 6:44 AM

San Pedro Frame4 straight column.doc

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HI... CAN ANYONE HELP ME PROPERLY INTERPRET STAAD RESULTS OR IN POST PRECESSING. I HAVE A SIMPLE PLANE GABLE FRAME STRUCTURE. IM CONFUSE WITH THE OUTPUT. TO MY UNDERSTANDING THE OUTPUT IN MEMBER FORCES AND NODES REACTIONS ARE ALL REACTIONS... MEANING THE DIRECTIONS ARE OPPOSITE THAT OF THE APPLID LOADS. IS THIS CORRECT? BEC WHEN I GET DATA TO USE IT IN MY OTHER SOFTWARE FOR FOOTING IM HAVING PROBLEM PLACING THE LOADS. I AATACH A FILE OF MY PROJECT. HERE IS ALSO THE REACTION TABLE OF MY STRUCTURE. 1 1 LOAD CASE 1 43.013 54.065 0.000 0.000 0.000 -156.918 2 LOAD CASE 2 21.634 22.536 0.000 0.000 0.000 -79.359 3 COMBINATION LOAD CASE 3 96.996 114.002 0.000 0.000 0.000 -354.596 2 1 LOAD CASE 1 -0.000 93.362 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 2 LOAD CASE 2 -0.000 44.347 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 3 COMBINATION LOAD CASE 3 -0.000 206.098 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 3 1 LOAD CASE 1 -43.013 54.065 0.000 0.000 0.000 156.918 2 LOAD CASE 2 -21.634 22.536 0.000 0.000 0.000 79.359 3 COMBINATION LOAD CASE 3 -96.996 114.002 0.000 0.000 0.000 354.596 IN MY UNDERSTANDING IF I AM TO DESIGN MY FOOTING OF COURSE THE PUTPUT BEING IN REACTIONS, UPON TRASFERRING IT TO MY OTHER PROGRAM I WILL CHANGE THE SIGN CONVENTION OF THE FORCES AND MOMENTS TO NAKE IT AS APPLIED LOADS. BUT THEN WHEN CHANGING THE DIRECTION OF THE FORCES MAKES MY CANTILVER FOOTING OVERTURN MORE. I DONT THINK THATS RIGHT. PLEASE HELP ME INTERPRET LOADS AND RESULTS.

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