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Packaging Info | Glossary of Terms
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Glossary of Packaging Terms
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A A Flute: Fluting of height 4-5mm, also known as coarse flute. See Flutes. Accessories: We can divide the accessories products in 3 main groups. 1. Closing systems, which are mainly used for closing boxes or packages. 2. Stabilization packaging that is used for grouping the several packages in one bulk or pallet and helps it keep it safe during transports. 3. There are as well other products that are a complementary to the package itself like labels or security system that can give the package a complementary function in security or proper identification. Adhesives dispensers and machines: From the simple manual tape dispenser to the fully automatic applicator machines, it makes the process of closing boxes faster and more efficient. In case of plastic tape a simple dispenser process is used for manual and automatic applications. The main difference is that in automatic applications the box closing is automatically done. Adhesives tapes: The product consists in a base support (plastic, paper) and glue (adhesive), which are used for sealing corrugated boxes and other packages. There are different tape materials such as paper, plastics fabricated in a wide range of thicknesses and widths. This gives the best solution depending on application and area of usage. See Paper Tapes, and/or Plastic Tapes Air freight: Air freighting is commonly used by companies who work with short lead times, or advanced service levels. Shipping by air certainly isn’t the cheapest alternative, and is only advisable for certain size/weighted products. Air pad : Air pad is a fast, easy-to-use and efficient void filling solution that can also be used for blocking lightweight products. This packaging solution fills the empty spaces in the box,
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Packaging Info | Glossary of Terms
effectively protecting and stabilizing the product. The material is clean and aesthetic and it is suitable for regular shaped products without sharp edges. Anti slip paper: Anti slip paper is a disposable non-woven fleece; it is placed between the layers and avoids shifting of the cargo. This fleece is used to put between roles of paper, but also as an anti-skid material under a pallet. Anti skid fleece is particularly efficient to use with goods of an irregular form. Anti slip sheets are the best solution to become more safety and stable your pallets handling in the storage system and transport. ASTM : American Society of Testing Materials. ASTM-standard: D 4169-01 Standard Practice for Performance Testing of Shipping Containers and Systems. ASTM D 4169-01 includes 18 different distribution cycles to choose between depending on the transportation method and distribution chain. The testing program refers to 13 different standards for testing moments and equipment. This is a common standard and all types of packed products and all types of packages can be tested according to it, it isn’t concerned for any special products.
B Flute: Fluting of height 2.1-3mm. See Flutes. Barriers: Barriers are available in the form of films or laminated foils (multi-layer) that protect against corrosion by preventing the entry of moist air into the packaging system. Barriers also protect against water infiltration, dust and hand perspiration… Bending Test: During the use of sheet material for packaging it has become evident that the ability of the package to withstand compression is based on the bending strength and bending stiffness of the sheet material. Therefore this is a vital test to perform in order to get the best possible packaging. The sheets are cut to size, 900 by 100 millimetres, and are conditioned in room climate (23 degrees and 50% RH) before testing. The test is performed by placing the pieces onto two pillars 500 millimetres from each other and then applying pressure to the middle (acc. to the picture). The test is completed either when the sheet brakes or when the force is zero. Bins : Containers used for storage. Bio-Degradable: Capable of being decomposed of by biological means Birch Faced Kraft: the base ply is usually the same as for a White Top Kraft. The top ply is of Birch fibres which are bleached by an Oxygen based technique, which does not involve the use of chlorine compounds. This slightly lowers the overall environmental impact of the process, but the best whiteness levels can be achieved are lower than those that can be achieved for White Top Krafts. Bleached Kraft: as its name implies, Bleached Kraft is produced by the same process as natural Kraft with the addition of bleaching stage in the pulping process. This produces a material which is white in appearance but with some loss of strength against the unbleached one. Bleached
Packaging Info | Glossary of Terms
Krafts are less widely used nowadays with the development of White Top Krafts. Block Pallet : Block pallets have the most efficient design without stringers. They are capable of full four-way entry; compatible with forklifts, hand trucks and walkies in all directions. Blocking : There are many different ways to fill up a void or block a product inside a packaging. Standard materials can be used to develop a customized packaging solution and the focus is always to provide the most cost efficient solution for each project. The main purpose of these solutions is to block and fixate the product inside. Blocking & Filling Solutions: The four main blocking and filling materials are paper pad, air pad, foam-in-place and loose fill. Honeycomb, bubble wrap and foam are other materials whose main field of application is not blocking and filling. However these materials are sometimes used for blocking and filling applications. Also some less commonly used materials will be presented under other solutions. Blown Films: Blown stretch film provides greater tear resistance, tension retention and scuff resistance than cast film, making it ideal for heavy industrial loads, irregular loads and loads with sharp corners. Bonded Warehouse ： A warehouse, distribution centre or consolidation centre that is authorised by customs to store goods; where duties and taxes are only payable once items are dispatched. Box : Describes a variety of containers and receptacles. When no specific shape is described, a typical rectangular box may be expected. Nevertheless, a box may have a horizontal cross section that is square, elongated, round or oval; sloped or domed top surfaces, or non-vertical sides. A box normally may be opened by raising, sliding or removing the lid, which may be hinged and/or fastened by a catch, clasp, lock, or adhesive tape. Bracing : To bind or tie closely; to fasten tightly. The objective when bracing a product is to ensure it is tightly fitted to ensure minimal movements. Brown Kraft: This material is naturally brown in appearance and the shade varies depending on the location of the mill, the source of fibre and the pulping process. Bubble Wrap : Bubble wrap is a light and flexible packaging material made of low-density polyethylene. Bubble Wrap is an inner packaging solution which performs very well when used for blocking and filling. There are several different bubble sizes available and the wrap can be dissipative or conductive. Bulk Container : A large container which was designed to carry bulk cargo.
C Flute : Fluting of height 3.2 – 4mm. See Flutes.
CIF. he would either need to agree as much expressly with the seller or to make his own extra insurance arrangements. This term can be used only for sea and inland waterway transport. These characteristics make cast film a good choice for cube shaped loads. and quieter films unwind than blown films. to melt ice on the roads in the Nordic countries and in a variety of other applications. Cast Films: Cast film provides better clarity and gloss.aspx 4/32 . This term can be used only for sea and inland waterway transport. However. · Mottled (M) . This is a material manufactured from uncontrolled recycled material. It offers much lower performance. It is used.Liner which is bleached. · White top (WT) . the CPT term should be used. The buyer should note that under the CIF term the seller is required to obtain insurance only on minimum cover. usually made of corrugated board. Chip can be bleached or used in conjunction with bleached paper to give the following variations: · Bleached (B) . together with other chlorides. If the parties do not intend to deliver the goods across the ship’s rail. as well as any additional costs due to events occurring after the time of delivery. and loads that are used for display purposes. in CIF the seller also has to procure marine insurance against the buyer’s risk of loss of or damage to the goods during the carriage. Cost and Freight: Incoterm (… named port of destination) “Cost and Freight” means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship’s rail in the port of shipment. The CFR term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. It varies considerably in performance. a case is similar to a tote. as water binding agent on roads. Insurance and Freight: Incoterm (… named port of destination) “Cost.com/Packaging_Glossary_Terms. CFR. The seller must pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination BUT the risk of loss or damage to the goods. usually white. The seller must pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination BUT the risk of loss of or any damage to the goods. Consequently. Cases are usually made of plastic and similar in concept to the briefcase. If the parties do not intend to deliver the goods across the ship’s rail. www.Their use is normally restricted to applications as an inner and/or centre liner in double wall board. Chip (C): L ess commonly seen as a liner material than the other two. Cost. the seller contracts for insurance and pays the insurance premium. Calcium chloride ( CaCl2 CAS No 10043-52-4) is a very hygroscopic salt. Case : In terms of packaging. Should the buyer wish to have the protection of greater cover. Carton : A container made from folding boxboard and supplied flat for erection when filling.7/1/13 Packaging Info | Glossary of Terms Calcium Chloride: Calcium chloride can in some instances be used as a corrosion inhibitor. are transferred from the seller to the buyer. but can be used throughout in the manufacture of fittings as appropriate.Liner with a laminated bleached liner to give a similar affect to the above at a lower cost. It is classified as a hazardous compound and must be declared as such (irritating) in any product that holds more than 20% by weight. are transferred from the seller to the buyer.nefab. The CIF term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. Insurance and Freight” means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship’s rail in the port of shipment. as well as any additional costs due to the events occurring after the time of delivery.
in a contract of carriage. Closing Systems: Usually there is the need to close a corrugated box. CIP. boxes etc is essential in transport packaging. are adversely affected by temperature extremes. and Stapling. However. Packaging Machines. A cleat is used to provide support to a panel when that panel has reached a size that is may require added support based on the method of transportation. he would either need to agree as much expressly with the seller or to make his own extra insurance arrangements. by rail. Climatic Stresses: In addition to the mechanical and energy strains the climate also plays a part in the durability and performance of the packaging during the transport. in CIP the seller also has to procure insurance against the buyer’s risk of loss of or damage to the goods during carriage. The benefits of collapsible containers/packaging are.nefab. Some packaging materials. Should the buyer wish to have the protection of greater cover. Consequently. sea. you can store more goods in the same warehouse space. This term may be used irrespective of the mode of transport including multimodal transport. The buyer should note that under the CIP term the seller is required to obtain insurance only on minimum cover. Condensation is particularly occurring during overseas transportation inside steel containers. the seller contracts for insurance and pays the insurance premium. road. The CIP term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. Therefore it’s very important that we chose the correct product to perform well this operation. and closing system) work in the correct way.com/Packaging_Glossary_Terms. Humidity can create two types of problems in packaging. These boards are often called Cleats. Cleated Crate : When any type of crate reaches a certain size. air.aspx 5/32 . The other problem is condensation inside a package. “Carrier” means any person who. Straps. which may cause corrosion or other damaging effects.7/1/13 Packaging Info | Glossary of Terms the CIP term should be used. see Adhesive Tapes. foam. crates. It is also important that the procedure is done in the correct and efficient way in order that all the elements in the packaging (f. Coarse Flute: Alternative name for A or C flute Coated Paper: Paper made with a layer of clay on top of fibres. If subsequent carriers are used for the carriage to the agreed destination. corrugated box. more boards may be added. you can save on inbound and return freight due www. For types. inland waterway or by a combination of such modes. Plastic components may soften at high temperatures or become stiff and brittle at low temperatures. fix a container to a pallet. particularly plastics. Carriage and Insurance Paid To: Incoterm (… named place of destination) “Carriage and Insurance paid to…” means that the seller delivers the goods to the carrier nominated by him but the seller must in addition pay the cost of carriage necessary to bring the goods to the named destination. One problem caused by high relative humidity is the weakening of organic materials. which is basically to keep the package as a one piece solution. Collapsibility : Collapsibility in packaging when we look at containers. undertakes to perform or to procure the performance of transport. This means that the buyer bears all risks and any additional costs occurring after the goods have been so delivered. the risk passes when the goods have been delivered to the first carrier.
When products are fabricated out of iron. or plastic materials. Different Forms of Corrosion: There are several types of electrochemical corrosion. Corrosion Inhibitors : Corrosion Inhibitors are substances.. the electrons will transfer between the materials or to ground quite easily. That is why meteorological elements such as: temperature. (depending on the thickness).g. Container : An item which product(s) are stored in. Compression and Stacking Tests. General corrosion.nefab. which restrain the chemical process www. The test package is placed between the parallel plates of a compression tester and then the load is applied. The metal begins to release its stored up energy by reacting with oxygen. The surface effect produced by most direct chemical attacks (e. steel. it is natural for them to return to their original state. 3. or other metals. If the charged conductive material makes contact with another conductive material or ground. Consolidation : The combination of two or more consignments to create a more economical freight solution. products are subject to climatic stress. See ESD Consignment : One or more items that a carrier has accepted for shipment at a given time. In the case of a compression test the load is applied until the package fails or predetermined values for load or displacement are reached. because of meteorological variations between two geographical points. Corrosion: Corrosion is a natural process. and much more. As long as the conductive material is isolated from other conductors or ground. Electrochemical corrosion. ISO 12048 and 2234 This test is performed to assess the ability of a transport package to withstand compressive forces and to protect its contents during compression. temperature is 20°C and Relative Humidity (%HR) is 80%. The test may also be used as a stacking test to investigate the performance of i. Example: In a watertight enclosure.com/Packaging_Glossary_Terms. Atmospheric corrosion. Factors Influencing Corrosion. In the transport packaging industry. the bottom package in a stack during storage in a warehouse. Condensation: When the temperature of the metal surface is lower than the surrounding air. moisture are main factors influencing corrosion.The most common oxidation component influencing corrosion is the oxygen in both air and water.7/1/13 Packaging Info | Glossary of Terms to optimized transport. Charge placed in one spot on a conductive object will flow around the object so that all parts of the object share the same charge. 2.e. the static charge will remain on the conductive material. In the case of a stacking test a predetermined load is applied for a predetermined time or until the package fails. as by an acid) is a uniform etching of the metal. Corrosion in air is the most relevant to transport packaging design. and often are made of wood. If temperature drops to 15°C.aspx 6/32 . Electrostatic charge can be created triboelectrically on conductive materials. Conductive Materials : Conductive materials allow charge (electrons) to move freely across their surface or through their volume. Typical products: “Black” -boxes. A conductor does have some shielding capacity. water condenses on the metal surface. containers are used as storage for cargo during shipping. then water condenses. depending on the material and the corrosive environment: 1. Also. This process is called corrosion. The most common form and it can vary depending on metals and the local environment.
foams. also sometimes called VPI (Vapour Phase Inhibitors). heavy. Crate : A crate is a large container. VCI oils and water based coatings can be used. water vapour and condensation. mostly when they are made of wood. Corrugator: The machine for making corrugated board. See testing for www. the risk passes when the goods have been delivered to the first carrier. often used to transport large. For a container to be a crate. CPS. The products and possible services that will be chosen will optimise the transport and logistics while fulfilling the requirements that the customer has on the packaging. glue and heating only.com/Packaging_Glossary_Terms. The CPT term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. liners. The most common type is VCI (Volatile Corrosion Inhibitors).nefab. all six of its sides must be put in place to result in the rated strength of the container. sea. undertakes to perform or to procure the performance of transport. that’s why corrugated is treated as environmental friendly product. Corrugated board consists of one or more sheets of fluted paper adhered to one or more liner papers. The board consists of formed fluting that is faced with a liner on both sides. or awkward items. Boxes and crates are often confused with one another. air. This means that the buyer bears all risks and any other costs occurring after the goods have been so delivered. CPT. Corrugated: Corrugated is made from paper made up cellulose fibres which can be virgin or recycled. Packages can be heat sealed or taped shut. If subsequent carriers are used for the carriage to the agreed destination. bags. VCI protects against the corrosive influences of oxygen. This is usually done through the use of software programs such as CAD. often made of wood. tubing. This term may be used irrespective of the mode of transport including multimodal transport. A variety of boards are made using variations of: · Liner material · Fluting medium · Board construction Corrugated Board: Formed fluting faced with liner on both sides. for more detail see corrugated. inland waterway or by a combination of such modes. and also often requires testing of the packaging under the specific conditions which the product would go through. CPS is about selling a solution which will provide the customer with a total cost take out. in a contract of carriage. “Carrier” means any person who. high-valued. very high humidity (steam). The manufacturing process requires at least two layers of paper. road. by rail. Custom Packaging : Designing packing solutions for customers’ specific requirements.7/1/13 Packaging Info | Glossary of Terms of corrosion. · Emitters : cups. VCI products can be impregnated into: · Paper : useful as an intermediate layer between small parts · Polyethylene: PE can be supplied as sheeting. Carriage Paid To: Incoterm (… named place of destination) “Carriage paid to…” means that the seller delivers the goods to the carrier nominated by him but the seller must in addition pay the cost of carriage necessary to bring the goods to the named destination.aspx 7/32 . A crate has a self-supporting structure. Complete Packaging Solutions : CPS is not about selling one product. … · Cardboard · For some applications.
nefab. The testing methods vary a bit depending on the bonding material used in the plywood. animals. · packaged.aspx 8/32 . Nefab products are very strong and fulfils this purpose very well IF THEY ARE PRODUCED AND MARKED according to the certificates we hold. When delivery is to take place in the port of destination. Therefore. but not cleared for import at the named point and place at the frontier. Dangerous Goods : Dangerous goods are a designation for substances and products that have such dangerous characteristics that they can damage humans. down through two of the layers (as shown in the drawing). Cycle Time is not the same as Lead Time) D DAF. on board a vessel or on the quay (wharf). if the partier wish the seller to be responsible for the unloading of the goods from the arriving means of transport and to bear the risks and costs of unloading. Cutting-Strength Test: The cutting-strength test is performed to establish the strength of the glue. For dangerous goods to be safe for transport they must be properly (also see Classification of Dangerous Goods) · classified. cleared for export. Cycle Time ： Cycle time is the total time from the beginning to the end of your process. one on each opposing side. the DES or DEQ terms should be used. the groove should be so deep so that it cuts through the middle layer from both sides.com/Packaging_Glossary_Terms. it is of vital importance that the frontier in question be defined precisely by always naming the point and place in the term. Delivered At Frontier: Incoterm (… named place) “Delivered at Frontier” means that the seller delivers when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer on the arriving means of transport not unloaded. Into these pieces you cut two grooves. which holds the veneers of ply together to form the plywood-sheet. but before the customs border of the adjoining country. during which a unit of work is spent waiting to take the next action. during which a unit is acted upon to bring it closer to an output. In a nutshell . · labelled and · documented.7/1/13 Packaging Info | Glossary of Terms more details. Even emptied packages or containers that have contained such substances can in some cases be regarded as dangerous goods. Cycle time includes process time. This term may be used irrespective of the mode of transport when goods are to be delivered at a land frontier. However. The term “frontier” may be used for any frontier including that of the country of export. The basic purpose for DG Packaging is to contain the dangerous goods even if the box is being put under grate stress. and delay time. www. this should be made clear by adding explicit wording to this effect in the contract of sale. in different ways depending on the bonding material used in the plywood. The size of the pieces should be approximately 135 by 25 millimetres and only have three layers of veneer. (Note. Before the actual testing begins the sheets are conditioned in water. environment or property if they are not handled right during transport or storage. as defined by you and your customer.Cycle Time is the total elapsed time to move a unit of work from the beginning to the end of a physical process. The test is then conducted by pulling the plywoodsheet from two different directions at once until the sheet brakes. · marked.
However. emit flammable gases 5. 1. in contact with water. and the payment of formalities. This term may be used irrespective of the mode of transport but when delivery is to take place in the port of destination on board the vessel or on the quay (wharf). DDP represents the maximum obligation. Toxic and infectious substances 7. Delivered Duty Paid: Incoterm (… named place of destination) “Delivered duty paid” means that the seller delivers the goods to the buyer. Substances liable to spontaneous combustion. and not unloaded from any arriving means of transport at the named place of destination. customs duties.nefab. Flammable solids. Flammable liquids 4.7/1/13 Packaging Info | Glossary of Terms Dangerous Goods. Oxidizing substances and Organic peroxides 6. customs duties. cleared for import. any “duty” (which term includes the responsibility for and the risks of the carrying out of customs formalities. Radioactive materials 8. and not unloaded from any arriving means of transport at the named place of destination. However.com/Packaging_Glossary_Terms. the DDU term should be used. if the parties wish the seller to carry out customs formalities and bear the costs and risks resulting there from as well as some of the costs payable upon import of the goods. Gases 3. Explosives 2. where applicable. this should be made clear by adding explicit wording to this effect in the contract of sale. The seller has to bear all the costs and risks involved in bringing the goods thereto including. any “duty” (which term includes the responsibility for and the risks of the carrying out of customs formalities and the payment of formalities. Corrosives 9. If the parties wish the buyer to bear all risks and costs of the import. Delivered Duty Unpaid. Substances which. This term should not be used if the seller is unable directly or indirectly to obtain the import licence.aspx 9/32 . other than. Whilst the EXW term represents the minimum obligation for the seller. Incoterm (… named place of destination) “Delivered duty unpaid” means that the seller delivers the goods to the buyer. taxes and other charges) for import in the country of destination. not cleared for import. this should be made clear by adding explicit wording to this effect in the contract of sale. the DES or DEQ terms should be used. if the parties wish to exclude from the seller’s obligations some of the costs payable upon import of the goods (such as value-added tax: VAT). Miscellaneous dangerous goods DDP. All classes are also divided into subclasses. The following classes give you an idea of which kind of products and material are classified as dangerous goods. taxes and other charges) for import in the country of destination. DDU. This term may be used irrespective of the mode of transport but when delivery is to take place in the port of destination on board the vessel or on the quay (wharf). the DES or DEQ terms should www. where applicable. Classification of: Goods that are to be transported can involve many kinds of risks and are therefore divided into nine different classes. Such “duty” has to be borne by the buyer as well as any costs and risks caused by his failure to clear the goods for import in time. The seller has to bear the costs and risks involved in bringing the goods thereto.
“A slowly controlled move. then the DEQ term should be used. However. etc. Delivered Ex Ship: Incoterm (… named port of destination) “Delivered Ex Ship” means that the seller delivers when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer on board the ship not cleared for import at the named port of destination. If the parties wish to include in the seller’s obligations all or part of the costs payable upon import of the goods. This term can be used only when the goods are to be delivered by sea or inland waterway or multimodal transport on a vessel in the port of destination. Dissipative Materials : There can be electron flow across or through the dissipative material. See ESD Distribution: The process of storing and transporting finished goods from the end of the www.3 mm and 6.aspx 10/32 . and pressure is applied by hydraulic or mechanical presses. Charge transfers from dissipative materials are significantly slower than from conductors. duties.” Like other types of materials. terminal. taxes and other charges upon import. When air is dried using desiccants it will not release condensation onto sensitive surfaces when the surrounding temperature drops.7/1/13 Packaging Info | Glossary of Terms be used. If the parties wish the seller to bear the costs and risks of discharging the goods. The transfer of charge from a dissipative material will generally take longer than from a conductive material of equivalent size. However if the parties wish to include in the seller’s obligations the risks and costs of the handling of the goods from the quay to another place (warehouse. The DEQ term requires the buyer to clear the goods for import and to pay for all formalities. charge can be generated triboelectrically on a dissipative material. Die-Cutting : The process of cutting shapes from sheets of plastic by pressing a shaped knife edge into one or several layers of sheeting.nefab.e. the more active they are (i. The seller has to bear all the costs and risks involved in bringing the goods to the named port of destination before discharging. the more water vapour they can absorb from the surrounding air). Desiccants : Desiccants are granules of between 0.3 mm in which there are countless numbers of pores. The less water they contain themselves. like the conductive material. but the surface resistance or volume resistance of the material controls it. transport station. the DDU or DDP terms should be used. Delivered Ex Quay: Incoterm (… named port of destination) “Delivered Ex Quay” means that the seller delivers when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer not cleared for import on the quay (wharf) at the named port of destination. This is a reversal from previous INCOTERMS versions which required the seller to arrange for import clearance. the dissipative material will allow the transfer of charge to ground or other conductive and dissipative objects. this should be made clear by adding explicit wording to this effect in the contract of sale. DEQ.) in or outside the port. DES. The dies are often called steel rule dies. This term can be used only when the goods are to be delivered by sea or inland waterway or multimodal transport on discharging from a vessel onto the quay (wharf) in the port of destination.com/Packaging_Glossary_Terms. Die – Cut: Stamping out a specified shape using steel rule dies. The seller has to bear costs and risks involved in bringing the goods to the named port of destination and discharging the goods on the quay (wharf).
Drop Test: The purpose of this test is not only to test the actual package but also to see how well the intended content is protected by the package. Environmental Hazards: Transport packages and their contents are influenced by the methods of transport and the stresses they are submitted to during transport. There are several types of stresses the package has to be able to withstand. E E Flute: Fluting of height 1 – 1.com/Packaging_Glossary_Terms. Double wall corrugated board should be used when stronger boxes and extra padding are needed. edge or corner. Electrostatic charge is most commonly created by the contact and separation of two materials. Edge Crush Test: Test of vertical crush resistance EDI: One of the first steps in rationalizing information transfer in the supply chain was EDI (Electronic Data Interchange). Many DCs also contain specialised handling/storage equipment and IT systems and also serve as warehouses. EDI is a method of exchanging information about business objects electronically in a standard format so that the information is correctly processed by the receiving computers.nefab. Also: regional DC (or RDC). Both NEED to work in their own system! Please note. components or finished goods. ESD. www. A common solution for stacking products with average weight. Electrostatic Charge: Static electricity is defined as an electrical charge caused by an imbalance of electrons on the surface of a material.aspx 11/32 . national DC (or NDC) and international DC (or IDC). EDI is not the same as VMI. divides and then recombines them in different ways into outbound shipments. see Flutes. Double wall corrugation: Normally a combination of B & C flutes. The package is set up to hit the surface at a particular angle and on a particular attitude. The problem in order to make this work is that the customer and the supplier have DIFFERENT BUSINESS SYSTEMS with different item number systems and different format of data. face. The test simulates actual shocks by dropping the package and its intended content freely against a rigid plane surface from a predetermined height. This imbalance of electrons produces an electric field that can be measured and that can influence other objects at a distance.8mm. of the package.7/1/13 Packaging Info | Glossary of Terms production line to the final customer. Controlling electrostatic discharge begins with understanding how electrostatic charge occurs in the first place. is defined as the transfer of charge between bodies at different electrical potentials. Drum : barrel or large cylindrical container for liquid transport and storage Durability : Durability is the ability to endure. Among these are mechanical strains and climatic stresses. Distribution Centre: A facility that accepts inbound consignments of raw materials. also called fine flute. Electrostatic discharge.
PP is one of the lightest of all thermoplastics and as a result. All material brought into the area need to be ESD safe and controlled.aspx 12/32 . Expanded polyethylene beads produce very flexible. it has an extremely simple chemical structure.7/1/13 Packaging Info | Glossary of Terms EPA – Electrostatic Protected Area: An EPA is an area that is maintained safe for handling of electrostatic sensitive components. Noncross linked Polyethylene foam is a tough. A molecule of PE is simply a long chain of carbon atoms. resilient. Many items that are designed to withstand high temperatures. excellent recoverability from repeated shocks and deformations. with two hydrogen atoms attached. some arrangements need to be done. Shock absorption and resiliency (maintained performance during repeated use) inferior to EPE/EPP. In Packaging & Logistics. resilient. Most EPS used in the packaging industry is moulded into custom shapes from beads. Personnel have to wear the correct clothes. low conductivity. PP is a very versatile material but is not as widely used as PE. fewer pounds are needed for finished goods. lightweight. such as automotive and electronic parts utilise PP because of its high melt temperature and creep resistance. Ergonomics: Ergonomics is commonly thought of as how companies design tasks and work areas to maximize the efficiency and quality of their employees’ work. however. such as kitchen appliances and telephones. due to its moderate cost and favourable attributes makes it one of the fastest growing classes of commodity thermoplastics. shoes and wristbands. EPP Foam: Polypropylene foam is a tough. and lightweight closed cell material that is moisture and chemical resistant and can be used throughout a wide temperature range. but often better performance under static compression (stacking). EPS is rigid and lightweight. Foams moulded from these beads also retain their high degree of dimensional stability when exposed to temperature extremes. and even bullet-proof vests. it is very similar to PE with the exception that every other carbon atom in the backbone chain has a methyl group attached to it. moisture and chemical resistant closed cell material that is usable throughout a wide temperature range. chairs.com/Packaging_Glossary_Terms. Good temperature resistance. which offers a high degree of resiliency. Structurally. Any surface floor. More EPS foam shapes are manufactured than any other type on the market. children’s toys. EPS Foam: Very good temperature resistance. Keeping electrostatic fields and voltages to an insignificantly low level is the guiding-star to attain this. This polymer is used to make grocery bags. it is much more rigid when compared to other polyolefins. Lower material cost than many other products. The material has together with EPE. An EPA should have well defined boundaries so that it is absolutely clear where the safe area is entered and left. This material can withstand repetitive deformations and still maintain its dimensions and cushioning ability. tables and benches need to be resistively correct and ESD grounded . this plays a role to ensure packers aren’t at risk or for packaging companies to limit that risk by www. and usually good single-impact protection for relatively durable items. shampoo bottles. Primarily the small appliance and consumer electronics markets for shipping lightweight. closed-cell foam. Due to the high strength to weight ratio. relatively rugged products use these foam shapes. Expanded polypropylene (EPP) beads produce low-density. E PE (PE) Foam : PE is the most widely used polymer in the world and as a result. Good resistance to acids non-organic chemicals and alkali’s. closed-cell foam with excellent energy absorption characteristics.nefab. Expanded polyethylene is a thermoplastic foam with closed cells. To make an EPA. is probably the polymer that we all see most frequently in our day to day activities. Although this product is very versatile in its applications. isolating.
it will be possible to demonstrate the effectiveness and cost efficiency of several packaging alternatives. Expendable packaging is usually only used for international shipments by air or sea. EXW. Manufacturers of electronic components and assemblers of electronic systems must control static discharges in their processes through the use of an effective ESD program. which then produces a film. Extruded Film : The process in which the extrusion of molten resin occurs through a die. Generally. see also ‘Extruded Materials’ Extruded Materials: Extruded materials are generally used when the product have a low volume. Very careful. To many people. The former name for NEFAB ExPak was Vikex. ESD ( E lectroStatic Discharge). Why worry about ESD. Lshaped profiles. Tooling costs are low. ETSI is an organization whose mission is to produce telecommunication standards. which is derived from the Swedish words for foldable export packaging – vikbara exportförpackningar. all export packing places great demands on packaging. easy design (also possibly for a product with difficult design). to choose between and it treats both packed and unpacked products.1. However. If they fail to take the necessary measures to control static electricity many of the components or systems they produce will fail to work or will suffer a reduced operating life.. the lifetime of the product are short and when the design of the product changes often. ExPak : The name Nefab ExPak derives from Ex port Packaging. But only products for the telecommunication market. ETSI unites a big number of members from 55 countries inside and outside Europe. but at times plays a role in domestic shipping. Modern electronic components are often very sensitive to discharges of static electricity. ETSI: ETSI EN 300 019-2-2 V2. Because the use of fabrication.aspx 13/32 . Once the data is collected and entered into EXCO. Extruded materials are used for pads. Careful and Public transportation. and case inserts. Expendable Packaging : This term (similar to export packaging) stands for one-way.(… named place) “Ex Works” means that the seller delivers when www.2 (1999-09) Transportation This standard includes 3 different severity levels. software application developed by Nefab based on software called Delphi. in other words an external packaging for demanding export transports. EXCO: To be able to compare alternative Export.com/Packaging_Glossary_Terms. It is necessary to understand the customer’s needs and operating environment. Ex Works: Incoterm . Packaging materials that fall under export or expendable are usually only expected to make it once from its assembly to final destination. the flexibility is very good. including computer chips. ESD is discreet and invisible and causes problems of different nature.7/1/13 Packaging Info | Glossary of Terms offering products that are designed with ergonomic concerns in mind. ESD (E lectroS tatic D ischarge): Static electricity is a phenomenon as old as our world and is still the most unknown form of electricity. Many electrical components.nefab.Within industry. electronic assemblies and circuit boards. static electricity has been a serious industrial problem for centuries. static electricity is no more than the shock experienced when touching a metal doorknob after walking across a carpeted room or sliding across a car seat..or expendable packaging solutions from cost viewpoint requires that a quite detailed packaging audit be conducted. can be damaged beyond repair by electrical discharges.
etc. The inventors of corrugated fibre board applied this same principle to paper when they put arches in the corrugated medium. they resist bending and pressure from all directions. air. If delivery occurs at any other place. Flutes: Architects have known for thousands of years that an arch with the proper curve is the strongest way to span a given space. F F Flute: Fluting of height 0.75mm.com/Packaging_Glossary_Terms. see Flutes. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss of or damage to the goods from that moment. These arches are known as flutes and when anchored to the linerboard with a starch-based adhesive. to the carrier nominated by the buyer at the named place.nefab. When a piece of combined board is placed on its end. However. In such circumstances. The FAS term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. capable of supporting a great deal of weight. inland waterway or by a combination of such modes. This term can be used only for sea or inland waterway transport. also called micro flute.7/1/13 Packaging Info | Glossary of Terms he places the goods at the disposal of the buyer at the seller’s premises or another named place (ie. cleared for export. This term should not be used when the buyer cannot carry out the export formalities directly or indirectly. FEFCO: The European Federation of Corrugated Board Manufacture. If the buyer nominates a person other than a carrier to receive the goods. the seller is not responsible for unloading. It should be noted that the chosen place of delivery has an impact on the obligations of loading and unloading the goods at that place. the FCA term should be used. sea.aspx 14/32 . works. “Carrier” means any person who. This is a reversal from previous INCOTERMS versions which required the buyer to arrange for export clearance.) not cleared for export and not loaded on any collecting vehicle. provided the seller agrees that he will load at his cost and risk. this should be made clear by adding explicit wording to this effect in the contract of sale. including multimodal transport. if the parties wish the seller to be responsible for the loading of the goods on departure and to bear the risks and all the costs of such loading. and the buyer has to bear all costs and risks involved in taking the goods from the seller’s premises. this should be made clear by adding explicit wording to this effect in the contract sale. However. This term may be used irrespective of the mode of transport. the seller is deemed to have fulfilled his obligation to deliver the goods when they are delivered to that person. Free Carrier: Incoterm . If delivery occurs at the seller’s premises. FEFCO represents 22 European National Associations in the corrugated packaging industry and is mandated by these active members to represent them on a European level. This term thus represents the minimum obligation for the seller. if the parties wish the buyer to clear the goods for export. factory. FAS Free Alongside Ship: Incoterm (… named port of shipment) “Free Alongside Ship” means that the seller delivers when the goods are placed alongside the vessel at the named port of shipment. the seller is responsible for loading. road. undertakes to perform or to procure the performance of transport by rail.(… named place) “Free Carrier” means that the seller delivers the goods. FCA. the arches form rigid columns. When pressure is applied to the www. in a contract of carriage. warehouse.
the FCA term should be used. F. see corrugated for more details. B. In a very short space of time. E. A-flute was the first to be developed and is the largest common flute profile. etc. the space in between the flutes acts as a cushion to protect the container’s contents. C-flute followed and is between A and B in size. where two liquids react and expand rapidly. If the parties do not intent to deliver the goods across the ship’s rail. the foam expands more than 280 times. C. Foam belongs mainly to cushioning but can in some cases be considered as a blocking and filling medium why it will be briefly described in this course.aspx 15/32 . The polyurethane foam is created through a chemical process. Fluting Profile: The shape of the corrugations. Semi-Chemical Fluting is commonly used for heavy duty packaging and in some instances where high humidity conditions are expected. see corrugated for more details. This term can be used only for sea or inland waterway transport. easy and versatile process for on-line and on-site production of protective polyurethane foam packages. Typically. The FOB term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. There are basically four different materials (polymers) and two main manufacturing techniques that are used to meet required specifications. Recycled Fluting – made from 100% recycled fibre. Flexographic: Type of printing on standard corrugated or plywood boxes such as logotype. Foam: Foam is widely used as protective packaging material and has unique shock absorbing abilities. 2. consolidation.nefab. E-flute is smaller than B and F-flute is smaller yet. freight forwarders clear freight www. Flutes come in several standard shapes or flute profiles (A. At the same time. Free on Board: Incoterm (… named port of shipment) “Free on Board” means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship’s rail at the named port of shipment. Fluting Medium: Paper formed into the flute profile. pouches. RCT Rigidity and Concora strength properties are usually enhanced by the addition of chemicals and starches. Flexible Packaging : Flexible packaging is material such as paper or foil used to form packaging for items such as bags.com/Packaging_Glossary_Terms.7/1/13 Packaging Info | Glossary of Terms side of the board. Foam-in-place: Foam-in-place is a fast. FOB. Typically Semi-Chemical flutings will contain a proportion of recycled or softwood fibres. Flutings: F lutings fall into two categories: 1. envelopes. Semi-Chemical Fluting – is manufactured from hardwood pulp. etc.). shipping and distribution of goods from overseas territories. providing some product protection from sudden temperature changes. The flutes also serve as an insulator. B-flute was next and is much smaller. Free Trade Zone ： A commercial or industrial area usually near a port of entry where merchandise and raw material imports are not subject to customs charges or duties Freight Forwarder ： A person or company involved in the collection. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss of or damage to the goods from that point. which come from selected grades of waste paper. the vertical liner board provides more strength and protects the flutes from damage.
900 by 200 millimetres. This kind of glue doesn’t have any negative influence on environment and is easily applicable onto a paper. unlike that test the pressure is applied on both sides of the glue-joint. Inclined plane tester. this term stands for hazardous materials pack aging (hazmat). H HAZMAT : used almost exclusively in the United States. Three different types of test apparatus is available for this test. see foam for more details. where goods being shipped occupy a complete truck. The impact velocity and the attitude of the test specimen are predetermined. By adding pressure to the joint it is possible to measure the amount of pressure. I www. Glue-Joints Test: This test is very similar to the one used to measure the strength of the plywood. However. HDPE : High Density Polyethylene. Honeycomb : Honeycomb is a material consisting of Kraft-liner formed into continuous uniform hexagonal cells.nefab. The test is concluded either when the board brakes or when the force is down to zero. Gram Weight: The weight of paper specified. prepare documents and arrange shipping. Apart from blocking and filling. G Glue: Glue made out of starch is most commonly used in modern paper and paper packaging industry. Horizontal plane tester and Pendulum apparatus. on two pillars with the joint between them. or strain. in order to get the maximum strain on the joint. FTL : Full-truck-load. Humidity / Temperature Indicators : These indicators monitor whether a threshold has been reached and surpassed. The test is performed by placing the sheets. warehousing and delivery. Most major horizontal impact arise from railway shunting. The hexagonal structure makes this material quite strong – can support 40 Ton/m2 maximum (vertical compression).7/1/13 Packaging Info | Glossary of Terms through customs. which is why this is a meaningful test to perform on packaging destined for this type of transport. see Dangerous Goods for more details. it can also be used as a product separator or even as a pallet. for corrugated.aspx 16/32 . Horizontal Impact Test: Horizontal shocks are simulated by applying a horizontal velocity to the test specimen and bringing it to halt by impact with a vertical impact surface. This is an easy way to check if the product has been exposed to unacceptable temperatures/levels of humidity during transport and storage.com/Packaging_Glossary_Terms. the glue-joint is able to withstand.
because insulators do not allow charge (electrons) movement. Nefab delivers indicators to several industries and the wide product range makes it possible to find the most suitable solution for each customer approach.nefab. See ESD.com/Packaging_Glossary_Terms. Insulative Materials : Insulative materials do not allow charge (electrons) to move across their surface or through their volume. the inner packaging together with the outer packaging is protecting the product from transport and storage damages. International inbound logistics is the management of the international inbound supply chain. ISO: ISO 4180-1 and -2:1980 Complete. Charge placed on one spot on an insulative object will stay in that location. Inner Packaging ： By blocking. Indicators: Today’s "Just-In-Time" zero defect delivery requirements demand shipping control to ensure that handling and transportation is performed accordingly. Intermodal: This involves the use of more than one form of transport for a journey. Insulators can accumulate massive amounts of charge. Inventory : A list of raw materials. components. A test program for any general undefined distribution system isn’t included. Impact Indicators: The drop or impact indicator is an impact detection device that activates when the impact level exceeds the threshold of the unit. directly on the product or outside the product in the external box. Inbound Logistics: The movement of raw materials and components from suppliers/vendors to production processes and storage facilities. J www. ISO is a global association of national standardization institutions. It can be used inside the box. The inner packaging surrounds the product and can also be designed to protect against abrasion. ISTA: ISTA Pre-shipment Testing Procedures ISTA’s 17 different testing procedures are designed to help shippers of any product reduce transit and handling damage. charge will not move to ground. often on behalf of retailers. corrosion or electro static discharge (ESD). packaging suppliers and certified testing laboratories. carriers. The program is designed with experiences through the cooperation of shippers. usually given or shown as L (length) x W (width) x H (height). work in progress. Insulators can have both negatively and positively charged areas on the same object. bracing and cushioning the products. filled transport packages – General rules for the compilation of performance test schedules. Recommends severity levels when the whole distribution chain is known. about 130 countries are included in this association.aspx 17/32 . manufacturers. If a charged insulator is grounded.7/1/13 Packaging Info | Glossary of Terms IATA DGR : The International Air Transport Association Dangerous Goods Regulations ID : Inner Dimension. The standard tells that only the strains that will exist are necessary to test. finished goods or other supplies held in a warehouse or distribution centre.
see foam for more details. A comprehensive stock and manufacturing control system. it proved to be an excellent way for promoting improvements because restricting the number of kanban in circulation highlighted problem areas. Kraft Liner represents the top material grade in terms of physical properties used in the corrugated industry. manufactured or supplied only when required. White Tope Kraft. see Brown Kraft. The test is then performed by pressing the sheet material downwards while the steel is held at a constant height. Lightweight Pallet : The light weight pallet is an excellent load carrier for heavy goods that need a strong and durable packaging solution. In addition. K K ANBAN : I s a concept related to lean and just-in-time (JIT) production. In general these liners are made from softwood pulp (ISO 4046) although many sources of Kraft liner now also incorporate pulp from harder wood sources such as birch. 200 by 100 millimetres. Sheet/Steel Material: The aim of this test is to determine the strength of the joint between the steel and the sheet material. In logistics.nefab. or supply of a unit in a factory.com/Packaging_Glossary_Terms. depending on the manufacturer. in which materials are purchased. Most sources of Kraft liner also incorporate recycled fibre in varying amounts. The plywood deck has a smooth. Kanban became an effective tool to support the running of the production system as a whole. to those required for dangerous goods by law. The testing is performed until the steel starts to separate from the sheet material. Nefab can provide a wide range. and/or Birch Faced Kraft. and the steel is attached to them. from consumer packaging labels showing company logos. Nefab's lightweight plywood pallet can not only be reused several times but can also be sold as an integrated part of the box. For the different material types. Bleached Kraft. It offers excellent strength and stiffness properties and excellent surface finish. LDPE: Low density polyethylene. Joint-Test. production. www. As its name suggests. see Kraft.7/1/13 Packaging Info | Glossary of Terms JIT : Just-in-time.aspx 18/32 . However. Kanban is a signaling system. White Mottled Kraft. other devices such as plastic markers (kanban squares) or balls (often golf balls) or an empty part-transport trolley can also be used to trigger the movement. L Labels: Labels for marking and identifying the packaging are available in many shapes and sizes. Kraft Liner Stock: Corrugated waste and old boxes used for recycling. Kraft (K): Kraft c onsists of at least 80% virgin chemical pulp fibre. JIT uses pull replenishment to ensure deliveries are completed at the right time in order to meet production and client schedules. The pieces of sheets are cut to size. clean surface and low moisture absorption. It was out of a need to maintain the level of improvements that the kanban system was devised by Toyota. kanban historically uses cards to signal the need for an item. Another major advantage is the low weight.
aspx 19/32 . Load Securing : The solution can be used to prevent damages during transportation. Plywood is not considered a phytosanitary problem according to international regulations. Put more simply.7/1/13 Packaging Info | Glossary of Terms yet good strength of the pallet. Loose Fill: Loose fill is a void filling and blocking packaging material. internal. It’s ideal to products packed in boxes. the process of planning. Simple. in-process stocks. added-value/pre-retailing services and IT solutions and covers inbound. low cost packaging material. or a manual application ideal to small and varied series. Put more simply. Low Charging Materials : Packaging material which minimise charge generation by separation www. see Corrugated. bags or even to frozen products that easily slide and create palletises problems. that works as an anti-slip. implementing and controlling the efficient and cost-effective flow and storage of raw materials. it is the science and art of ensuring that the right products reach the right place in the right quantity at the right time in order to satisfy consumer demand. proper for production lines. outbound. outbound. Dynamic systems. Benefits of load securing: Flexible solutions available. safe and fast applications. The plywood deck and the steel cylinders are manufactured in standard footprints of 1200 X 800 mm and 600 X 800mm. The way to use consists in an automatically application. Polystyrene is traditionally often used as raw material but loose fill can be made of different materials. therefore the pallet can be shipped to any destination. international and reverse product flows.nefab. Additional benefit of using the lightweight pallet is that there will be cost savings in Air Freight since it is much lighter than the traditional hard wood pallets. Corn starch and recycled paper are eco friendly raw materials which are increasing in popularity. Logistics encompasses warehousing. international and reverse product flows. added-value/pre-retailing services and IT solutions and covers inbound. Logistics: The process of planning. transport. internal. it is the science and art of ensuring that the right products reach the right place in the right quantity at the right time in order to satisfy consumer demand. transport. Nefab is able to customise the lightweight pallets up to 3100 mm. Lock’N Pop: Lock’N Pop is an adhesive of watery base and ecological to palletise. implementing and controlling the efficient and cost-effective flow and storage of raw materials. efficient. finished goods and related information from the point of origin to the point of consumption for customers. finished goods and related information from the point of origin to the point of consumption for customers. Liner: The inner and outer facing of corrugated board. Liner Material Liner materials are available in the following basic forms: · Kraft (K) · Test (T) · Chip (C) · Flutings · Glue LTL: Less-than-truckload Logistics. Logistics encompasses warehousing.com/Packaging_Glossary_Terms. in-process stocks.
aspx 20/32 . sheet/steel (tongues and klammerband) material Except these testing methods it´s worth mentioning some test methods used for corrugated packaging material. the pressure at the front of a horizontal stack amounts to eight times that of the stress in a warehouse. This type of energy is called kinetic energy.Box crush test Mechanical Strains: The most common mechanical strains on transported goods are force stresses like. SS 84 20 21:mom 6. As an example. ISO 2759 • FCT-Flat crush test. more detailed described below are: • Bending test-EPU: 4/86:89 • Moisture absorption test • Cutting–strength test. stacking pressure and shocks and energy stresses like vibration and dropping. the process of selecting the proper packaging material is one of the most important due to the varying degrees of costs and characteristics.com/Packaging_Glossary_Terms. Material Testing : Material tests are used for all kind of materials used as packaging material. The tests. Here we are focusing on tests used to qualify plywood for our ownly produced NEFAB ExPak and NEFAB RePak products. Low Charging material can therefore not be classified by measuring the surface resistance. This type of energy is called potential energy. Moisture Absorption Test: In order to determine the plywood box’s capability to protect the goods from moisture and to establish how moisture resistant the actual box will be a moisture absorption test is performed on the different batches of plywood used.1 • Joint test. as follows: • ECT-Edgewise crush test. this time for 72 hours. To start of the testing procedures the sheets. -shock absorber. ISO 3037 • Bursting strength. 100 by 100 millimetres. In packaging. the energy stress is depending on the mass of the product and the speed before slowing down. ISO 3035 • Cobb-Water absorption. BS 6566:part 8:1985 • Testing of glue–joints. M Material : Materials are physical substances used as inputs to production or manufacturing. with other material as well as itself. The submerging procedure is then repeated. -plastic foam… See ESD. for example a railway car that slows down to 0 m/sec. The change in energy the packaging is subject to while dropped is depending on the mass of the product and the height that the product is dropped from. The second step is to submerge the sheets in water for four hours.nefab. When stacking in a trailer or ship’s hold the stresses increase due to the movement of the carrier. -plastic foil. In a shock caused by a sudden retardation of speed. “Pink” bags. Examples on products. (triboelectrically). One of the most common energy stresses is dropping. are weighed and the thickness are measured. After the four hours have elapsed the sheets are weighed and measured again in order to determine the status of the moisture absorption. ISO 535 • BCT. after which the www.7/1/13 Packaging Info | Glossary of Terms or rubbing. Materials range from manmade synthetics such as many plastics to natural materials such as copper or wood. A material's low charging properties are not necessarily predicted by its resistance or resistively.
7/1/13 Packaging Info | Glossary of Terms sheets are measured and the final results noted. Over Packaging : Simply put.com/Packaging_Glossary_Terms. (Ethafoam ex. Emballage is Swedish for Packaging. the organization established a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defence in response to an attack by any external party. www. Belgium. or when the products have a sensitive or difficult design. Moulded Materials: Moulded materials are generally used when there is a high volume and a long lifetime of the products. usually given or shown as L (length) x W (width) x H (height). NIIN : NATO Item Identification Number NPPO : National Plant Protection Organization. transport. See Phytosanitary for more details. An important thing to clarify when talking OD.nefab. Logistics outsourcing is one of the most popular forms. Optimization : The procedure(s) used to make a system or design as effective or functional as possible. than actually needed for protecting the contents of the package. With headquarters in Brussels. NEFAB: (Nordgrens Emballage fabric) Nordgrens is the founding family name. is to determine if it is with or without pallet or base. too much more raw materials are used. The tooling costs are high compared to the tooling cost for Extruded materials. Fabrik is Swedish for Factory. O OD : Outer Dimension. Outsourcing : The sub-contracting to external companies of tasks considered to be outside an organisation's core competence.aspx 21/32 . “traditional” solutions taking into consideration many packaging & logistics issues. N NATO : North Atlantic Treaty Organization is a military alliance established by the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty on 4 April 1949. see Corrugated. Multi – Ply Paper: Paper made from a number of layers of pulped fibres. Factors in packaging where optimization is important is in warehousing. this is the organisation who implemented phytosanitary regulations for wood packaging.) Mullen Burst: A measure of tear resistance. OPTICO: OptiCo is an optimization program developed by Nefab to help demonstrate cost savings that can be derived by using the NEFAB ExPak line of packaging products vs. etc. containerization.
8 m (the strongest packaging!) for very dangerous goods.8 m for less (but still) dangerous goods. forklift. (Explosives.* for medium dangerous goods. Palletization is one approach for exploiting the "unit load" concept -. Different dangerous substances demand different strengths of packaging. (Poisonous substances like cyanide and infectious substances demand this packaging group. reduce time and labour costs of setup. · Packaging group I (X): shall pass a drop test from 1. (Ex. long storage) and can neither be opened nor removed by unauthorized persons without visible traces. Another concept – the Packaging Group refers to the strength of the packaging. Palletization : Using pallets to go through the whole manufacturing process. Paper pad is very suitable for irregular shaped products and fragile parts. Palletization is the assemblage and securing of individual items or work pieces on a platform that can then be moved by a conveyance such as a truck. The Packaging group determines which height is to be used at the drop test. This is usually done through the use of software programs such as CAD.com/Packaging_Glossary_Terms.) Packing: The process of placing a product or products in protective packaging. see Corrugated. Paper tapes: Use of gummed tape has the advantage of providing a better bond between the surfaces of the box than the adhesive tape: The liquid glue penetrates deep into the fibres of the box surface. The adhesive strip holds even when exposed to unfavourable environmental influences (extreme temperatures. Self-adhesive tapes are particularly efficient to apply and constitute an equivalent alternative for a normal application.moving work pieces in groups is much more economical than moving them individually. The Packaging group is a representation of the strength of the packaging.2 m. and conveniently stored (for example. Packaging Groups: Packaging Code refers to the type of packaging. batteries intended for air freight demand this packaging group) *If a box is intended for explosives it also must have a special judgement for explosives. moisture.) · Packaging group II (Y): shall pass a drop test from 1. This product can also be used for wrapping.nefab. dust. Pick-and-Pack: The process by which goods are picked against customers' orders and then packed for onward distribution. · Packaging group III (Z): shall pass a drop test from 0. Paper pad: Paper pad can be used for many applications and is suitable as a blocking as well as a filling medium. flammable fluids and batteries intended for road transport demand this group. Pitch: The distance from one flute tip to the next. Effective palletization can improve cycle times.7/1/13 Packaging Info | Glossary of Terms P Packaging Design : Designing packing solutions for customers’ specific requirements. www. Outsourced packing is often known as co-packing.aspx 22/32 . See testing for more details. or crane. in racks) between moves. and also often requires testing of the packaging under the specific conditions which the product would go through. and increase agility when dealing with rapid fluctuations in demand mix at low investment expense compared to upgrades of machines and fixtures.
Polyester Strap: Polyester strapping is designed for medium to heavy-duty palletizing and unitizing applications and can be applied by hand tools or power strapping equipment. making it ideal for products that shrink or compress. It is commonly used for palletized loads. The function of cushioning is to.7/1/13 Packaging Info | Glossary of Terms Plastic tapes: T his product group includes standard self-adhesive tapes. This strapping material yields higher break strengths and maintains a higher level of retained strap tension than polypropylene strapping. Deceleration is “negative acceleration”. thereby reducing the deceleration a(m/s2): A = v / t The lower deceleration a(m/s2) a product of given mass m(k g) is exposed to. designed to run through hand tools and power strapping equipment. equal to the acceleration of gravity: 1g = 9. One main feature with PE is the possibility to recycle it. of a dropped product hitting the ground. through its compression. or instance that serves as a model on which later stages are based or judged. Fragility is normally expressed in units of “G” and indicates the maximum deceleration the product can withstand without being damaged. Nevertheless. down to a speed of zero. the lower its G-factor.81 m/s2. These general-purpose. www. form. Polystyrene (PS or EPS): is a moulded foam with good insulation capability and good first drop cushioning performance.com/Packaging_Glossary_Terms. top-level-quality tapes are mainly used to seal cartons. with “fragility” and “G-factor” being the most common. extend the time t(s) for this speed reduction v(m/s).nefab. Polyethylene (PE or EPE): is the most widely used polymer that can be moulded as well as fabricated depending on the requirements. Polyurethane (PU or PUR): is commonly fabricated but can also be moulded. Product Fragility : The first step toward determining the amount of cushioning a product requires is to determine the amount of mechanical shock the product can survive on its own. Position Indicators: The position indicator is an indicating device for goods that must remain upright to ensure correct delivery and no damage. in this case the brak ing. such as top-iced food packages and newspaper bundles. to prevent product shifting during handling and transit. the adhesive coating properties make them suitable to be successfully employed on many other surfaces. It has excellent elongation recovery properties. the lower is the force impact F(N) on the product: F = m * a ] Prototype : An original type.aspx 23/32 . based on PVC (Polyvinylchloride) films. Polypropylene Strap: Polypropylene strapping. There are several common terms for this. [ G is a unit for acceleration. Polypropylene (PP or EPP): is a moulded foam that just like polyethylene is a moisture resistant and resilient material with good multiple drop cushioning performances. such as PET bottles. provides superior performance for light to medium-duty bundling and carton closure applications. The material is recognised as mattress or furniture material and is suitable as cushioning for light weight products and as interior packaging in cases. The more fragile a product is. It is a moisture resistant and resilient packaging material with good multiple drop cushioning performances.
while polyether urethane foams are typically cheaper. The producer combines two chemical components to form urethane plastic foam. A general rule of thumb is if the packaging goes through x # of destinations. very flexible and resilient. a Visual Basic software tool. As the central element of a packaging audit. RECO is the tool to use to make proper and detailed calculations related to the complex packaging situations with many parameters involved. RECO: Deciding whether reusable packaging will provide cost benefits can be a complex process.nefab. Often used in relation to tracking. RECO can help identify the optimum solution. Developed by NEFAB with the purpose of simplifying the evaluations necessary when considering reusable packaging. Rail transport is ideal for heavy goods and has a wide range of benefits. PU foams come in a variety of grades and price ranges. To help make this process easier NEFAB have developed RECO.aspx 24/32 . see Corrugated. Most packaging grades are open celled foams with a high degree of flexibility and resiliency. Relative Humidity (%RH): For a given temperature.com/Packaging_Glossary_Terms. as well as variations of density and firmness. Polyester urethane foams are usually stiffer and more expensive. softer and less abrasives. There are two types of urethane foams.7/1/13 Packaging Info | Glossary of Terms PU Foam: PU foam shapes are fabricated from large blocks of foam called buns. Real-Time : A real-time system provides an immediate response to external events. and are considered to be well suited for packaging extremely lightweight items. with higher load bearing capability. used mainly to optimise warehouse space. RePak: This is a Nefab brand name for its returnable wood and plywood returnable containers. Rail freight: Rail transportation offers many advantages and is (for obvious reasons) used for domestic use or inter-continental. R Rack : a series of one or more shelves. RECO is used by NEFAB to help organisations in the decision making process. treatment for static resistance and degree of flame retardant. www. A shipping and storage container which is designed for reuse without impairment of its protective function and which can be repaired and/or refitted to prolong its life or to adapt it for shipment of items other than that for which it was originally employed. see also track-and-trace. stacked one above the other. the Relative Humidity is the ratio between the actual amount of water contained in the air and the maximum possible amount of water – saturated air. than a returnable packaging is suitable and will achieve cost savings. Recycled Paper: Paper made from extracting used paper fibre. They are completely customizable and offer tremendous benefits pending the flow of goods. PU foam shapes are lightweight. Returnable Packaging : “Returnable Packaging are packaging designed to be reused in open and closed loops” A more deep definition could be as follows.
This procedure shall be repeated until all six sides have been impacted. The tags . you need an organization that takes care of: o the development and design of a packaging o the investment in a quantity of packaging to use instead of expendable packaging o the actors. reduced material usage and waste disposal) · reduced transportation costs (e. in order to make the sealing process “in Place” or complemented with special accessories like air suction devices or special sealing bars. The numbers are getting smaller as more and more companies export but it is still the most used mode of transport by a wide margin. Sealing Machines: These equipments are used to seal special flexible films like complex plastic (alu+PE+paper). Sea freight: Sea transportation is usually used by companies who ship a large amount of goods at once. due to better stackability) To operate a returnable packaging.enable the automatic track-and-trace of merchandise/assets throughout the supply chain. The package is placed on the impact surface standing on its normal base.7/1/13 Packaging Info | Glossary of Terms Returnables: Under the right conditions. Printing is done directly on the box or sheet. with longer lead times. a group of at least two users in a loop o the administration and tracking of the packaging o a setup for maintaining the system RFID : RFID is radio-frequency identification. by pressing the ink through a net template onto the plywood. batched products or transportation assets fitted with special electronic tags. Road freight: Road transportation is the most commonly used method in practice today. For packages which are tall in relation to their base dimensions and with high centres of gravity a toppling test may be more suitable. a system that uses radio signals to locate and identify merchandise. Then permit it to overbalance without thrust so that it falls freely onto the face opposite to the face to which the force is applied. An increasing load is applied above the centre of gravity until the package reaches a point of balance. The package is tilted with the edge 3-4 resting on the impact surface until the point of balance on this edge is reached.nefab.com/Packaging_Glossary_Terms. S Screen Printing: Screen-printing is often used to print on assembled boxes.also known as smart labels or intelligent tags .aspx 25/32 . yet is ideal for bulk shipments such as coal and minerals. This mode of transport is the longest. Some equipment can be more flexible like sealing pliers.g. Then it is permitted to overbalance without thrust so as to impact on the surface 4. Rolling and Toppling Tests: In a rolling test the package is placed on a horizontal impact surface with the resting surface down. www. returnable packaging solutions have several potential advantages compared to expendable packaging: · long term usage · reduced packaging material costs · reduced handling and packaging related labour costs · environmental concerns (recycling.
But to decrease the opportunities there are some questions to make.nefab.7/1/13 Packaging Info | Glossary of Terms Security tape: Reliably indicates in several languages when someone has tried to open a package. See ESD. When the train changes freight car. Steel strapping is the classic method of securing loads – and despite the numerous advantages of plastic strap it is sometimes the better solution. How fragile is the product? What is the value of the product? How will the product be freight? What is the estimate volume of the product? This is some question to make before you choose the packaging material. and in warehouses to save space. Strap machines: This tools and equipments are necessary to apply correctly the strap. see corrugated. See Corrugated Sourcing : The practice of locating and procuring raw materials. Sealing parcels with this tape will noticeably reduce theft. but the shock will appear for ex. Sizing: Sizing chemicals are added to fibres in the paper making stage to increase the resistance of the paper to the preparation and spreading of aqueous liquids such as inks.com/Packaging_Glossary_Terms. In this process the cardboard blanks are folded and connected at the butt joints. aluminium.aspx 26/32 . see Corrugated Sheet Plant: A corrugated box maker that converts sheet board only Shielding Materials : Shielding materials have a barrier or enclosure that limits the passage of current and attenuates the energy resulting from an electrostatic discharge. Steel Strap: Sometimes simple is better. To protect against shock and vibration. Shock: Shock will appear when the packaging with the product suddenly being dropped in some ways. when strapping very heavy loads or if the items have particularly sharp edges which might possibly damage a plastic strap. Shock and Vibration: Shock and Vibration is an environment the product will be exposed for under the fright. finished goods and services Stacking Strength: This refers to the amount of weight a box or pallet can withstand during transport and warehousing. nickel or copper. Stapling is an alternative to taping and is particularly fast and efficient when making cardboard boxes for transport purposes. or in the handling of the packaging. The advantage of stacking strength in transport is to optimize containers or trucks for savings opportunities. Stapling: From the cardboard blank to the cardboard box. Often there are bags with a lamination of metallic. Most of the time the shock appear in an accident. components. Single Face: A board or paper with one liner and fluting only. or the handling of the product/packaging is rugged. you have several opportunities. even today. Single Wall Corrugation: This is p robably the most popular corrugated board material used in carton manufacture. Manufactured in either B. Tension www. How to Protect against Shock & Vibration. For example. C or E flutes depending on the application. Semi-chemical: Fluting made by semi-chemical process with virgin wood pulp. In this way the both ends – after the filling process – are sealed.
the following definitions should serve as a useful guide between the three classes (NOTE: All types of test liner use predominantly recycled fibre): see Test Liner 1 (TL1). T Test (Corrugated): It is becoming common to categorise brown Test liners within three classes: TL1. Test Liner 3 (TL3): This will usually have the RCT value that is ca 75% of that of Kraft at the same grammage with a Burst index of over 2. For example.5 kPA per g/m2. They Usually have a Ring Crush Test value (RCT) similar to that of Kraft at the same grammage. TL1 should normally be suitable for use wherever Kraft liners may be used. These will be known by Nefab’s corrugated partners.) from one source to another. However. Listed below are the main tests carried out on board with a brief www. especially for those good which have irregular shapes and fragile parts. Structural Packaging : Structural design for packaging can protect the goods completely. Test Liner 3 (TL3). In the extreme solutions (big volumes and non standard sizes) it can be developed special machinery. with a Burst index of over 2. Manual tools are indicated for small volume applications while automatic machines are used for larger volumes. The final shade may be a result of dyes as well as the source of fibre being used. and TL3. Stretch foils machines and tools: These equipment and tools are very important when applying stretch foil.0 kPa per g/m2. we must confirm that he has the machine needed to perform this operation. Testing: A certified test house should carry out testing of any board.0 kPa per g/m2. The top surface of a TL2 will be almost indistinguishable from a Kraft liner in appearance and will contain a high proportion of long fibres. it’s extremely important that if we are offering a solution to a specific customer that has the advantage to use high stretch performance film. TL2. (Kraft is usually over 3.7/1/13 Packaging Info | Glossary of Terms is a very important aspect when we are developing a good and secure packaging process.aspx 27/32 . and/or White Mottled Test. White Top Test. The transparency allows for visual inspection and can in some cases speed up handling.nefab. The top surface of a TL1 will be almost indistinguishable from a Kraft liner in appearance and will generally contain a high proportion of long fibres. TL2 liners may be suitable for use wherever Kraft liners are used.5 kPa per g/m2). Stretch Film: Product shipments will have protection from damage since packages are kept together and no dust or dirt will get in. Manual applications are frequently made with simple plastic accessories that ensure a smoother operation. Stretch film is an easy and simple solution and it is possible to either manually wrap the film around the packaging or to use a machine.com/Packaging_Glossary_Terms. TL3 liners vary more widely than TL1 and TL2 liners in colour and appearance (spots etc. TL3 are most often used as inner liners or as outer liners where appearance is not critical. Precise and agreed definitions for the three classes are not yet available across the industry. Size of the packaging is important because there are some limitations. Test Liner 2 (TL2): This will usually have the RCT value that is ca 90% of that of Kraft at the same grammage. Test Liner 2 (TL2). with a Burst Index of over 3. Test Liner 1 (TL1): This forms the rarest group of liners. In order to provide the correct stretching to the plastic film with very important to have the correct machine.
delivering centralised command of the supply chain. If you’re looking for a workhorse that is resistant to crushing during storage and transportation. ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials ETSI: European Telecommunications Standards Institute ISO: International Organisation for Standardization ISTA: International Safe Transit Association TELCORDIA: Telcordia Technologies (former Bellcore) Track-and-Trace : The process of recording the progress of a consignment through the supply chain. are to be tested first.aspx 28/32 . Normally two layers of C flute and one layer of B flute.7/1/13 Packaging Info | Glossary of Terms description. Then comes the vibration testing. Normally associated with transit packaging. stretch wrap. Triple wall corrugation: Manufactured using different combinations of fluting dependant on the application. · Puncture resistance test – measures the strength of the case liner. at the arrival to the final customer. and dunnage (styrofoam peanuts and other cushioning media). Sophisticated control tower systems function as a single point of control. Most of the impacts occur when railway trucks are coupling together and the testing method for that is horizontal impacts. The highest strains on a packed product occur when a package is dropped during manual handling and handling with forklift trucks. These are the testing laboratory . this could be it. Out of the four transportation methods the highest vibration strains generally occurs during truck transports. · Box compression test – Determines maximum loading before collapse.com/Packaging_Glossary_Terms. The important thing when choosing the right standard and the right severity level is to have a dialogue between all the parties concerned. Testing Standards: There are a number of different testing standards on the market and each standard has different severity levels. · Mullen burst – A measure of tear resistance. the client and in some cases the clients customer. Transportation Testing: A transportation testing program is divided into different moments which follow the distribution chain. especially in the commercial and industrial sectors of our economy. shipping containers (corrugated cardboard. Transport packaging is a major source of solid waste. U www. The strains are increasing during the testing program. The lower strains. · Cobb test – Measures the absorption rates of the board. as handling during packing and stacking in warehouse.nefab. · Edge crush Test (ECT ) – A corrugated board strength test of vertical crush resistance. Waste reduction and recycling alternatives are available for many transport packaging wastes. Used for heavy applications were product protection is required. in order to track its status or trace its movements. · Drop test – A test for severe shock forces on a filled case. This section highlights some of the resources available to business and industry. which shall simulate the transports with truck and by air. usually in or near real-time. wooden crates). Transport Packaging : Transport packaging includes items such as pallets. with full visibility. The following standards are some of the most frequent standards for transportation testing on the market.
See also distribution centre. VMI. Vendor Consolidation : The process of managing various vendors in order to consolidate multiple LTL shipments into a single or smaller number of consignments to reduce costs and improve delivery efficiency. which are known to be sensitive to damage from vibration they might experience during transportation. By making this exchange on a more or less daily basis the system makes it possible to better monitor the warehouse and the expected demand.aspx 29/32 . Vibration is a normally expressed in unit of frequency range (Hz). to the replenishment of products based upon actual and forecasted demand. Water-Spray Test: In those cases the package is to protect the product from the penetration of www. where the replenishment of a warehouse takes place on the basis of information about sales/production. Vibration: For many products to be packed. Vibration Test: Various forms of transportation vibrations can be simulated in a laboratory by means of a vibration test. VMI is always based on the principal of "pulled" logistics. Vendor Managed Inventory: VMI is the spear head practice of partnering between distribution channel members. however. There is also the possibility to design the test from a transportation cycle viewpoint. The test-bench can be made to swing and vibrate in almost any direction with a number of frequencies and amplitudes to emulate the transportation being used. V Vacuum forming : Vacuum forming is a method for thermally shaping a flat plastic sheet in to a three-dimensional shape by heating the sheet and withdrawing the air between the sheet and mold. The joint goals of a VMI trading partnership are: · improved inventory turnover. During this type of tests the packaging goes through a simulated transport with the different means of transportation used during the haul from the producer to the end customer. · improved service levels. a package that provides protection against mechanical shock during shipment is all that is required.com/Packaging_Glossary_Terms. · and improved over all warehouse efficiency.7/1/13 Packaging Info | Glossary of Terms Unit Cost : The total cost of producing a single unit. · reduced number of stock-outs. · reduction in warehouse inventory. There are some products. W Warehouse: A covered place for the reception and storage of goods. It changes the traditional replenishment process from customergenerated purchase orders. The system is based on the exchange of information about current stock levels of both the customer and the supplier.nefab. based upon economic order quantities.
see Dangerous Goods 1H1: Plastics drum with non-removable head. see Dangerous Goods 3A1: Steel jerrican with non-removable head. White Top Test: These are usually Duplex* materials comprising a base layer of recycled fibre on which a layer of white fibre is laid. The test is designed so that each area of the top surface of the package is sprayed with water maintained at a constant temperature at a specified rate for a specified period. see Dangerous Goods 1H2: Plastics drum with removable head. as if ready for distribution. Some sources use recycled fibre in the white layer.com/Packaging_Glossary_Terms. White Mottled Test: These are produced by the same process as White Top Test liners. others use bleached Kraft fibre.7/1/13 Packaging Info | Glossary of Terms rain. see Dangerous Goods 1G: Fibre drum. usually China Clay based. a supplier of outsourced logistics services that www. see Dangerous Goods 3PL : A '3PL' or third-party logistics provider. with the skin of white being randomly distributed to give a mottled appearance. The test package shall be filled with its intended contents and closed normally. see Dangerous Goods 1A2W: Steel drum with removable head (deviating design).nefab. on a White Top Kraftliner or Bleached Kraft fibre base. This kind of liner was popular in mid 90’s. # 1A1 : Steel drum with non-removable head. Coated White Kraft – A white coating. see Dangerous Goods 3H2: Plastics jerrican with removable head. see Dangerous Goods 3H1: Plastics jerrican with non-removable head. see Dangerous Goods 1A2: Steel drum with removable head. White Top Kraft: This w as developed to produce a good white appearance with Kraft strength characteristics. tests with simulated rainstorms are carried out. see Dangerous Goods 1B2W: Aluminium drum with removable head (deviating design). but at a lower cost than traditional Bleached Krafts.aspx 30/32 . Coated White Top Test – have a China Clay based coating to give the smoothest. White Top Kraft – A top skin of Bleached Kraft fibres on a Brown Kraft fibre base. whitest surface for high quality printing. White Mottled Kraft: (sometimes known as “Oyster”) are produced by the same process as White Top liners with the skin of white being randomly distributed to give a mottled appearance.
see Dangerous Goods 4H2: Solid plastics box. see Dangerous Goods 4DV: Plywood box (special packaging) . see Dangerous Goods 11A: Metal IBC for solids. see Dangerous Goods www. see Dangerous Goods 4GW: Fibreboard box (deviating design). see Dangerous Goods 4C1: Box of natural wood. See also 3PL and lead logistics provider. see Dangerous Goods 4H2W: Solid plastics box (deviating design). water resistant.nefab. see Dangerous Goods 11H1: Rigid plastics IBC for solids. see Dangerous Goods 5M1: Paper bag multiwall. a supplier of outsourced supply chain coordination and management services that generally does not own or operate the underlying logistical assets and resources. see Dangerous Goods 4GV: Fibreboard box (special packaging).aspx 31/32 . 4A: Steel box. see Dangerous Goods 13H2: Flexible IBC coated. 5H3: Woven plastics bag. see Dangerous Goods 4D: Plywood box . see Dangerous Goods 4G: Fibreboard box.7/1/13 Packaging Info | Glossary of Terms primarily uses its own assets and resources. see Dangerous Goods 4PL : A '4PL' or fourth-party logistics provider. see Dangerous Goods 13H1: Flexible IBC without coating or liner. water resistant. see Dangerous Goods 6HA1: Composite packaging. plastics inner receptacle with outer steel drum. see Dangerous Goods 5H4: Plastics film bag. see Dangerous Goods 13H3: Flexible IBC with liner. see Dangerous Goods 11D: Plywood IBC for solids (IBC = Intermediate Bulk Container) . see Dangerous Goods 4AW: Steel box (deviating design) . see Dangerous Goods 5M2: Paper bag multiwall.com/Packaging_Glossary_Terms.