You are on page 1of 66

CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

INTRODUCTION
The ability to learn is one of the most stupendous human characteristics. Learning occurs continuously throughout a person's lifetime. It involves changes in attitudes and behavior. An individual's way of distinguishing, thinking, feeling, and doing may change as a result of a learning experience. Each and every one of us sees learning in a different viewpoint or angle. All learning comes from perceptions which are directed to the brain by one or more of the five senses: sight, hearing, touch, smell, and taste. Learning is a process on which procuring knowledge takes place. It may be defined as comparatively permanent change in behavior that transpires as a result of prior experience. Learning takes a vital role in distinct. It can be acquired through experience or by process. Since learning is an individual process, every human has their own unique past experiences that affects his/her habits or lifestyle, therefore, learning and knowledge cannot exist apart from a person. A person's knowledge is a result of experience, and no two people have had identical experiences. For instance, some experiences involve the whole person while others may be based only on hearing and memory. Learning style differences certainly depend on how students process information. Some depend heavily on visual references while others depend more on auditory presentations. Those students who rely on visual reference learn through reading and graphic displays while others who depend more on auditory presentations are find easily to learn through hearing the subject matter described.

A lot of studies have proven that academic performance of learners depend largely on the teachers knowledge including students readiness or competencies. The influence of school has also a big bearing on the learning process or result. Reading is thinking and the individual can read in as many ways and as far as many purposes as one can think. In teaching reading, it is important for the teacher to provide for the more important types or reading and reading purposes. The following grouping includes most of the important ones: (a) reading to get the main idea or general impression; (b) reading to note significant detail; (c) reading to note and remember precise directions; (d) reading to predict what comes next or the most predictable issue or conclusion; (e) reading for the purpose or evaluating the material (f) reading for the purpose of reproducing the material in some type of summarized form or substance of the selection read with other content; and (h) reading for the purpose of remembering.

Carole (2002) called reading a behavior, as he stressed that reading must be defined in the context of a proper understanding of the nature of language and its actualization is spoken as written messages. The behavior that we call reading may be described as the perception and comprehension characteristics of language. People who have learned to read can comprehend written messages. Comprehension of spoken and written messages is not entirely an independent process: so, an individual who learns to read a foreign language depends not on upon the ability to understand the spoken form of a language but also upon the ability to reconstruct the spoken form of written messages.

In the previous studies that were conducted, (Mamauag, 2011) concluded that sophomore students in PUPQC have an Average rating in Reading Comprehension. In line with this, the proponents from BBTE conducted comparative studies in regard with the past analysis of the researchers concerning Reading Comprehension.

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY


Reading is indispensable. No amount of learning will even take place if one does not know how to read. It is reading that helps man discover the answers to questions about existence; it stimulates him to further efforts to unravel of mysteries of nature; and it takes him into the world of thought and imagination, an adventure which enables him to acquire a clearer and deeper understanding of reality. Reading is a basic avenue for learning. It is the key to enlightenment as it opens the door to all disciplines (Caloma, 1984). However, there is no substitute for reading in achieving many types of personal development and social progress. The ability to read well is one of a persons most valuable achievements. Further, there are some students who are able to sound out words although they do not know what the words mean. Others can read fluently but fail to understand the meaning of what they read. In regard with this, the third year students of Bachelor in Business Teachers Education in Polytechnic University of the Philippines Quezon City Campus conducted a research study entitled: A Comparative Study of Reading Comprehension of Sophomore Students in Polytechnic University of the Philippines Quezon City Campus between A.Y. 2011-2012 and A.Y. 2012-2013 as it Correlates to other variables. By means of this study, the researchers found out the level of Reading Comprehension of the Sophomore Students and tested their reading capabilities. The findings of this study served as basis for which batch of sophomore is more skilled in reading or if there were improvements on this batch. The following results may help develop certain ways that the last batch possibly lack, that by means of this, incoming second year students will have ideas about the things they should and should not do in order to enhance their potentials in reading.

There are several facilitative factors that enhance the readers ability to comprehend and learn from the text. As a teacher considers the factor related to the acquisition and development of reading ability, he needs to determine how each of these factors affect the Reading Comprehension of the students. Some of the essential facilitating factors associated with Reading Comprehension are: prior knowledge that stories and texts have a basic structure, experiential and conceptual background, orchestration of many skills, automatic word identification, and flexible use of knowledge (Valencia and Pearson, 1987). By knowing the students strength and weaknesses in such facilitative areas, teachers can plan instruction that build on these such instruction would provide students the opportunity to apply their facilitative strength to get meaning and would increase the possibility that Reading Comprehension will occur. Velasco, in her study, The Integrated Reading and Writing Fluency of the College entrants of Divine Word College of Legaspi, An Assessment, determined the level of the students fluency in reading and writing. Included in her study was the identification of specific strengths and weaknesses of the entrants in integrating activities in reading and writings. The findings of her revealed that majority of the entrants had poor fluency in reading and writing, in organization of content, and in command of the English language. The strength of the students was their innate ability in processing information based on their experiences. The weaknesses of the entrants were enumerated: getting substantial information from the selection read, making logical plan or focus, making ideas flow logically, sentence structures and variety and in grammar and mechanics.

From the study of Herma Mammon, the significant differences between the attitudes of the first year high school students towards English subject when they were classified according to the categories of variables gender and type of campus are due to the fact that students have varied beliefs, feelings and outlooks towards the English subject. Every person is unique and possesses different levels of concepts and

perceptions, different levels of personality, different levels of mentality and eventually different levels of comprehension not only towards the English subject but even in other areas of concerns. The preparation of students for college education starts in the elementary level where English reading skills were presumed to have been mastered by the pupils. The skills learned at the elementary level are further honed and developed in the secondary level where the students English reading skills are much more needed as a tool for learning content subjects. Secondary school teachers are, therefore expected to have doubled their efforts to help the students acquire these needed skills. As a component of total tertiary curriculum, English as a subject aims to contribute to the achievement of the larger societal goals through out, his attainment of specific goals which were articulated by Gonzales and Escalaban (Gonzales et al, 1976). A student needs to be proficient in English in order that he uses it to: a. Learn other subjects in the school curriculum that are thought in English. b. Acquire further knowledge and information that will give him a better perspective of himself as an individual and as he realizes the need for vocational training in an economically developing country. c. Build a broad base of experiences with him and other cultures for integration of worthwhile Filipino values. d. Interpret environmental factors intelligently and rationally as means for independent judgment in his role as an agent of change in society.

e. Fulfill himself as an adolescent and young adult and enrich his life through a broader range of experiences in language reading and the arts. f. Establish for him, values, ideals and standards of individual and social conduct to develop character and interest. g. Acquire experiences in understanding other races, places, and times through opportunities for living vicariously with a wide variety of people.

Thus, a great need and demand for contextual orientation is called for the learning of foreign language, Robles explains: Language is a social tool for participation in the culture of which it is apart. It is an expression of culture. Authorities point out that the schools should help each

individual appreciate the fact that the new words he acquires are, in fact, tools he may use in the future control and extension of culture. Like all tools, Language must be kept in good repair and order, if it is to function properly. (Robles et al)

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
The framework of the study was anchored on the theory of Romero and Romero (1994) which states that reading comprehension takes place when there is communication between the author and the reader. In plain language, it understands what the author has written. As such, the reader begins to uncover some answers to questions, is stimulated to raise more questions, and continue his pursuits for deeper understanding. Further, one may only find satisfaction in reading if he has the skills in reading comprehension. It is also anchored on the following principles: Bottom-Up Theories and Cognitive Theory of Learning. The Bottom-Up theories of reading view reading as an essentially passive wherein the reader decodes the intended message of the writer by moving from the lowest level, such as letters or words, towards the higher levels of clauses, sentences and paragraphs. In Goughs model of Bottom Up theories, He used a number of processing components in order to process text. It is metamorphic description describes the reading process from the perception of the letters which make-up the next, through to an oval realization of the text. The reading begins with letters which are detected by the scanner. The strings of the letters are then converted into phonemes by the decoder the output of the decoder then arrives at the librarian where it is recognized as a word. The
6

reader then continues by fixating on the next word in the text until every word in the sentence has been analyzed. The final stage of the model is the vocal system, where an oval realization of the sentence is produced by the reader. A Schema theory according to Rumelhart, 1980 cited by Hermosa (1996) is basically a theory about is how knowledge is presented and about how that presentation facilities the use of knowledge in particular ways.

A powerful feature of the schema theory is that it helps us to better understand how new learning is integrated with the knowledge an individual already possesses. It tries to explain how he learn, modify and use information, acquired through our life experiences, including reading (Hermosa, 1996) In addition, Rumelhart (1980) indicates that a schema is a Data structure for representing the generic concepts stored in memory. It contains a network of interrelations that is believed to hold among the constituents of the concept of question. Indeed, schemata are active processes, complex, interacting. Cognitive Theory of Learning sees second language acquisition as a conscious and reasoned thinking process involving the deliberate use of learning strategies which are special waste processing information that enhance comprehension learning or extension of information metacognitive components address identifying goals and constructing strategies to accomplish goals. Thus, this theory provides teacher a guidance on classroom activities that would help students not only extend and refined their knowledge of the subject but also use their knowledge in meaningful ways; this theory also specifies that while these activities occur, the teacher should interact with his/her students to enhance their use of higher-level mental disposition.

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Input Respondents Level of Reading Comprehension Respondents profile such as:


Age Gender Course Type of school last attended Attitude towards English Language Students perception towards their teachers competency Teachers Competency

Process Reading Comprehension test Survey Questionnaires

Output To determine the level of Reading comprehens ion of the sophomore students of PUP Q.C academic year 20122013.

Statistical treatment Interpretation and analysis of data

In consonance with LITERA.

Theories: Rumelharts Schema Theory of comprehensio n Goughs model of Bottom Up

Feedback

Paradigm of the Study The paradigm shows the Input, Process and Output of the study. In the Input, it consists of the Respondents Level of Reading Comprehension, their Profile, such as: Age, Gender, Course, Type of School Last Attended, Students Attitude towards English Competency. It also includes the theories used to support the study such as: Rumelharts Schema Theory of Comprehension and Goughs Model of Bottom-Up Theories and Cognitive Theory of Learning. The Process consists of the different methodology and procedures use for this study. It includes the floating of Survey Questionnaires, Statistical Treatment, and

Interpretation and Analysis of Data. The Output consists of the possible outcomes and recommendation such as: To determine the Level of Reading Comprehension of

Sophomore Students of PUP Q.C Academic Year 2012-2013 and to generate a program that will enhance the reading comprehension of the students.
9

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM


The study aimed to determine the level of reading competence of the sophomore college students of Polytechnic University of the Philippines Commonwealth Quezon City. 1. What is the profile of the 2nd year college respondents of PUP-Q.C in terms of? 1.1 Gender 1.2 Course 1.3 Type of school last graduated 2. What is the students level in Reading Comprehension? 3. Level of Reading Comprehension in terms of Variables:

10

3.1 Gender 3.2 Course 3.3 Type of school last graduated 3.4 Attitudes toward English 3.5 Students perception toward their teacher competency 4. Is there any significant difference between the reading comprehensions of the sophomore students when it correlates to the variables? 4.1 Gender 4.2 Course 4.3 Type of School 4.4 Students Attitude towards English

4.5 Students perception towards teachers competency 4.6 Teachers competency 5. Is there a significant relationship between the sophomore students of academic year 2011-2012 and the sophomore students of academic year 2012-2013 in their reading comprehension in PUPQC?

HYPOTHESIS/ASSUMPTION
Based on the foregoing questions, this null hypothesis will be tested. There is no significant difference between the reading comprehension and other variables.

11

There is no significant difference between the reading comprehension of Sophomore Students in A.Y. 2011-2012 and A.Y. 2012-2013.

SCOPE AND LIMITATION


This study aimed to determine the comparison between the reading comprehension in English among the PUPQC Second Year Students, Enrolled in BBTE, BSIT, BSEM, BSBA-MM, BSBA-HRDM and DOMT courses during the first-semester of academic year 2011-2012 and academic year 2012-2013. The respondents of this study are the 180 second year students from the above mentioned course. They were classified according to the categories of variables, sex, course, type of school last attended, attitude toward English language and perception to teachers teaching competence. This study made use of the descriptive research design.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY


For the Students: For the students to be aware about the importance of reading, its different stages, and development. This study will help them develop their skills in reading after knowing their strong and weak points that would help them be more capable in the society, may help them to seek job be nationally and internationally competitive. For the Instructors: This study may help the instructors in any institutions and Universities be informed about the different ways, techniques and methods that they should improve more in order to enhance their potentials in teaching; as a result, development on their students may noticed.

12

For the Administration: The school administration may use the findings of this study as a basis in creating improvements for students reading comprehension and may apparently assist them in sustaining plans, strategies and programs that are needed by the students development in reading and are needed by the instructors to enhance their methods in teaching. To the Government: The findings of this study will help the government prepare certain assessments that will develop the reading competency of the students in each school. CHED/DepEd- The findings of this study will serve as an eye opener for the Commission on Higher Education and Department of Education in order for them to be informed about the development and standings of each learner in different schools and Universities, that by this, they can create certain assessments that can help to enhance the skills and comprehension of the students.

For the Parents: As for the parents, this study will help them understand what their children possibly lacks of, that may also, by this, parents will be updated and will prepare certain assessments for their childs development in reading To the Future Researchers: The results and findings of this study will help other researchers who are planning to conduct comparative or the same study that will serve as their resource to come up for a successful research study.

13

DEFINITION OF TERMS
Competency- The quality or extent of being competent, Linguistics a persons subconscious knowledge of the rules governing the formation of speech in their first language, Often contrasted with performance. Are being attained or obtain at the stage of developing stage in reading. Correlation- Have a relationship or connection in which one thing affects or depends on
another. Establish a correlation between. Used in the study in order to emphasize different variables.

Emergent- In the process of coming into being; emerging, Philosophy (of a property) arising as an effect of complex causes and not analyzable simply as the sum of their effects. Tremendous growth takes place as they begin to internalize purposes for print, concepts about words and the functions, letters serve.

14

English Proficiency- competent or skilled in English. General thing to consider in our study where under it is Reading Competency. Indispensable- Absolutely necessary. Technique to develop ones comprehension skills. Mature- Fully developed physically; full-grown, having reached a stage of mental or emotional development characteristic of an adult. A stage in reading development wherein the readers learned to use reading strategies to decode and understand the meaning of what he/she reads. Quota sampling- Specified number of persons of certain types is included in the sample. A type of Non-Probability sampling that we use in order to come up for the final list of respondents. Rapid- is defined as the happening in a short time or at great speed. It is the students ability to read and understand effectively the context of a reading material in a short period of time.

Reading- Is defined simply as understanding the printed word, the action or skill of reading, an instance, of something being read to an audience. An interpretation of a text, to study the level of reading comprehension or skill. Reading Comprehension- The level of reading capability of an individual, the ability or standards on how they decode and understand what they read. Refinement- Remove impurities or unwanted elements from make minor changes so as to improve (a theory or method). A skill developed in reading at the mature stage. Schema- it is a representation of a plan or theory in the form of an outline or model. A theory about is how knowledge is presented and about how that presentation facilities the use of knowledge in particular ways. A theory used to help us determine the reading comprehension of an individual.
15

Strategy- A plan designed to achieve a particular long-term aim. A teaching approach used in solving classroom problem or improving instruction. Strategies constitute all the teachers do in planning, implementing, and evaluating instruction. Sophomore- A second-year Student in any school or Universities. respondents in our study. Transitional- it is defined as the process of changing from one state or condition to another change. Is a stage wherein learners experience some difficulty moving back and forth between oral and silent reading. Serves as our

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter presents local and foreign literatures, references, articles, journals, magazines, and studies that are relevant to the study. These may help the proponents to gain empirical findings which could give an overview to the study and use to achieve the data analysis of the study.

Foreign Literature
While numerous materials can be found in the subject of reading, the following literature deal largely with teaching reading as a process of getting meaning and the
16

application of language learning as an indispensable technique to develop ones comprehension skills. On Developing Reading Skills and Language Strategies Websters New World Dictionary (1991) defines reading as getting the meaning of something written by using the eyes to interpret its character. Combs (1997) describe reading as a high-speed, automatic, simultaneous operation of complex linguistic and cognitive process. Generally, reading is defined simply as understanding the printed word. According to Harvey and Goudvis (2000), reading demands a two-pranged attack. It involves cracking the alphabetic code to determine the words and thinking about those words to construct meaning. These two processes however, are both complex and difficult. Hence teachers need to teach children how to decode-that is, master each letter

of the alphabet and mapping these letters to the sounds they represent-and to teach comprehension. Basically, comprehension relies on the ability to decode and master sight words. As many earlier studies claim, getting the learning to learn the basic sounds of the alphabet and developing automaticity power the way to understanding the meaning of the text. Some researchers however, such as Goodman and Smith (1967) argue that reading is not series of small skills fluently used, it is a process of getting meaning. Reading ability develops in clearly identifiable stages (Holdaway, 1980, in Combs, 1997): Emerging Developing Transitional Mature

17

According to Combs (1999), people are naturally emergent readers from birth. During this stage, tremendous growth takes place as they begin to internalize purposes for print, concepts about words and the functions, letters serve. Emerging readers typically read texts that range from beginning reading level to those that average midyear firstgrade students can comfortably read and understand. As learners gain competence with the directional nature of print, they begin to sense the patterns of language and match the visual cues of print with what they know as they read loud. In this stage reading is outside of ourselves because they have not yet learned to internalize thoughts through inner speech. (Vygotsky, 1978). Toward the end of the developing reader stage, typically around the early third-grade reading stage, learners move toward silent reading becomes more of a primitive, rather than public, affair. It is silent reading that let us focus on our reactions to a text, rather than on the words (Combs, 19997).

Combs (1997) points out that early in the transitional stage learners experience some difficulty moving back and forth between oral and silent reading. This is the time that readers move from picture books to chapter books or novels, which provide more extensive description and more development of plot and characters. Transitional readers typically read the texts that range in difficulty from early third grade to sixth-grade reading level. Successful, mature readers, by definition, are able to read unedited texts written by authors who make no accommodation to readers who are less than fully competent (Dubin, 1986, in Stoller, 1994). According to Combs (1997), this is the current reading stage for most literate adults. There is no upper limit to this stage, but rather it constitute a body of learning strategies which allow the mature reader to extend and develop new skills or refinements of skill to meet changing life purpose (Holdaway, 1980). It is during this stage that our reading becomes interest-and-vocation centered. Our comprehension becomes quite rapid, first in areas where we spend familiarity and understanding. Mature

18

readers not only read texts of sixth-grade reading level and above also use reading strategies in specific ways to make meaning (Combs, 1997). A compilation of strategies that good and bad reader use from Hosefeld (1997), et al. (1981), Chamot and Kupper (1989), Rubin (1981), and Carrell (1989). Good Readers: 1. Decide on reading purpose- for example following the development of a specific character in relation to the Plot line. 2. Choose a reading approach (i.e., skimming, scanning, reading for detail) appropriate to the given text and their purpose in reading it; 3. Read the title, look at illustrations, etc., and make inferences about the meaning; 4. Predict how the story will develop; 5. Check these predictions against what they read, and modify or reformulate predictions;

6. Use their knowledge of the world; 7. Adopt fuzzy Processing (Rubin, 1981) in that they tolerate vague meaning until they can clarify it more specifically by skipping unknown words and taking chances to guess at meaning; 8. Use dictionaries sparingly; 9. Summarize as they read along; 10. Organize the information in memory in some form so as to aid recall through the taking of notes, constriction of diagrams and semantic mappings, etc.

According to Hosenfeld (1977), the less successful reader: 1. Loses the meaning of sentence as soon as she/he decodes them 2. Reads (translates) in short phrases 3. Seldom skips words as unimportant since she/he views words as equal in terms of their contribution to total phrase meaning 4. Has a negative self-concept as a reader.

19

The Role of Teachers: There are certain ways by which teachers can help ESL students understand what they read (Stoller, 1994): State reading purpose Activate background knowledge Encourage own-language reading/discussion Outline textbook organization Emphasize the importance of presentational features. Encourage students to get help Teach subject-specific genres Raise awareness of internet pitfalls Get ESL advice and support Practice reading strategies

Goodman (1998) defines reading as a receptive language process. essential interaction between language and thought in reading. thought as a language and the reader decodes as a thought.

There is an

The writer encodes

Recognize to be as important as an oral skill is the ability to read the written language at a reasonable rate with good comprehension. Accordingly, reading consists of two major components: recognizing and analyzing words and understanding words and ideas. The first is often referred to as decoding; the latter is often called comprehension. Hence, reading is a combination of being able to recognize and analyze words almost instantly and to understand what the words mean when they are strung together in a sentence, a paragraph, or a longer passage. Levels of Comprehension. Arranged in order of hierarchy from the least to the most sophisticated level of reading, the following compose the three levels of comprehension or sophistication of thinking.

20

Level One. Literal or what is actually stated. It is concerned with facts and surface understanding only. Tests in this category are objective tests with true or false, multiple choice and fill-in-the-blank questions. Common questions used to elicit this type of thinking are who, what, when and where. Level Two. Interpretative, i.e., what is implied or meant, rather than what is actually stated. It includes drawing inferences, tapping into prior knowledge or

experience, attaching new learning to old information, making logical leaps and educated guesses, and reading between the lines to determine what is meant by what is stated. Tests in this category are subjective, and the types of questions asked are open-ended, thought-provoking questions like why, what if, and how. Level Three. Applied which refers to taking what was said (literal) and then what was meant by what was said (interpretative) and then extend (apply) the concepts or ideas beyond the situation. This includes analyzing, synthesizing and applying.

Gwadmah (1996) postulated that the attitude or mood of the learner is important to the learning process. According to him learning is effective when it is fun. That when there are negative feelings a negative attitude these feelings become blocks to the learning process. Reading is an interactive process that goes in between the reader and the text, resulting in comprehension. The text presents letters, words sentences, and paragraphs that encode meaning. The reader uses knowledge, skills, and strategies to determine what that meaning is. Reader knowledge, skills and strategies include: Linguistic competence: the ability to recognize the elements of the writing system; knowledge of vocabulary; knowledge of how words are structured into sentences Discourse competence: knowledge of discourse markers and how they connect parts of the text to one another
21

Sociolinguistic competence: knowledge about different types of texts and their usual structure and content

Strategic competence: the ability to use top-down strategies (see Strategies for Developing Reading Skills for descriptions), as well as knowledge of the language (a bottom-up strategy) The purpose(s) of reading and the type of text determine the specific knowledge,

skills, and strategies that reader need to apply to achieve comprehension. Reading comprehension is thus much more than decoding. A reading comprehension result when the reader know which skills and a strategy are appropriate for the type of text, and understand how to apply them to accomplish the reading purpose. Material for this section was drawn for Reading in the beginning and intermediate college foreign language class by Heidi Byrnes, in Modules for the

professional preparation of teaching assistants in foreign languages (Grace Stovall Burkat, ed.; Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics, 1998) Beeby (2006) says that competence of teachers in both subject matter and methods of teaching varies greatly. Beeby added that it is unlikely that students can learn much from teachers who do not thoroughly understand the subject they are teaching. Disimilacion (2007) pointed out that At the very heart of effective instruction is on effective teacher. It is he/she who exerts every effort in helping his/her pupils acquire knowledge, skills and attitude necessary for them to become productive, useful and law-abiding citizens of our country. For this reason, it is in the teacher that the greatest strength of education lies. (Mainggang, 1991)

Local Literature

22

The ability to read is a fundamental goal as well as the basic tool of education. As viewed by Romero and Romero (1985), reading makes a person well-informed can be a worthwhile form of recreation, and books read can be a source of inspiration. Lim (1998) contended that reading opens the door to the accumulated knowledge of centuries and that the ability to read enables the person to satisfy certain personal and functional needs to participate fully in contemporary society. Reading occupies a high place of significance in the childs development. It is his/her basic tool in both his/her learning process and personal growth, the key to other fundamental skills, being the means in the acquisition of more complex skills (Dela Cruz, 1993). Reading is a basic skill necessary for success in other areas of study and it can lead to a lifetime pursuit of learning, critical thinking, and enjoyment. On the other hand, Torres (1981) asserted that reading is a valuable asset for a pupil to develop. It helps him/her to avoid embarrassment due to incorrect pronunciation, gain self-confidence, and shine in class recitation, discussion, programs, and thus get high grades. Moreover, it

helps him/her command attention, respect, admiration, popularity, and satisfies the needs to belong and be accepted by the group.

Successful reading is dependent on the ability of the reader to apply comprehension skills. As described by Lim (1998) and Salazar (in Ulit, 1997) assessing readers comprehension will help the teacher discover each childs (a) independent or free reading level, (b) instructional reading level, and (c) frustrated reading level.

At the independent or free reading level, the pupil can read easily and fluently, without assistance, with few errors in word recognition, and with good comprehension and recall. The pupil does not need any special preparation in vocabulary or concepts to understand and enjoy what he is reading. Word recognition and comprehension should average 90% or better.

23

At the instructional level, the pupil can do satisfactory reading provided he/she receives preparation and supervision from a teacher, word recognition errors are not frequent, and comprehension and recall are satisfactory. At this level, a pupil needs guidance to learn some vocabulary and to understand basic concepts in the material. Word recognition and comprehension are 75% or better. At the frustration level, the pupils reading skills break down, fluency disappears, word recognition errors are numerous, comprehension is faulty, recall is sketchy, and discomfort becomes evident. At this level, the pupil finds the material very difficult. He/she shows signs of tension, and vocalization is present (even if the lesson is read silently). Word recognition and comprehension are below 75%.

Tadena (1987) claimed that comprehending a spoken word or printed paragraph involves a very complex mental operation which is far more than and far different from merely picking up or taking over a definite idea or set of ideas. Comprehension is always

partial, incomplete and highly personal in character. It is highly selective activity. An individual may listen or read at different times for quite different purpose

TEACHING STRATEGIES

Teaching methods, techniques and strategies are employed to attain instructional objectives and to meet the continuing challenge of the ever-changing teaching-learning situation. Aquino, Abellara and Hidalgo (1988, p.13) stated that: Methods are orderly procedures that direct learners in developing or acquiring cognitive, psychomotor and affective outcomes. Techniques are the practices and refinements of presentation which a teacher employs to make instruction more effective when using a specific method. Teaching strategy is a teaching approach used either in solving classroom problem or improving instruction. Teaching strategies constitute all the teachers do in planning, implementing, and evaluating instruction.
24

Serrano and Bello (2001) in their popular freshmen textbook, better English for college, stress that reading is the most important skill to develop in order to study well. They point out that one should learn to increase his rate of reading without decreasing his comprehension. Rates of reading and comprehension depend on the different factors and some of them are personal. What is difficult for a student to read may be easy for another. Rate of reading may also depend on the difficulty of material ones purpose in reading it. Gaerlan, et-Al. (1994) discussed group differences in intelligence which have been studied in terms of sex, race, rationality, occupation socio-economic status and geographical location-Women excel over men in verbal abilities but men excel over in certain spatial and mechanical abilities. Men and women differ widely in levels of achievement in social areas and personality. With regard to overall intelligence there are no significant differences between the sexes.

As cited by Pascual (2000), Guinto (2001), made a study of the difficulties of students in reading. It was concluded that the female respondents tend to be more competent than their male counterparts as manifested in their performance in different areas to comprehension skills.

Foreign Studies
On the study of Eldredge, Quinn and Butterfied (2002) examined the casual relationship between vocabulary and comprehension. Measures were obtained 504 second-grade pupils. A cross-logged panel analysis was used to test for such a pattern. Findings indicated that reading comprehension has a casual effect on vocabulary gains. Their study showed that vocabulary instruction, improved reading comprehension. From the study of Davis, he concluded that reading comprehension is not a unitary mental process. To confirm the findings of Davis and Dallman, Doeber suggested

25

that teachers should know the abilities and difficulties encountered by the students in reading most especially in comprehension. The teacher should also bear in mind that there is a great difference in every reading selection for every year level. Henrys study proposed a strategy for improving reading comprehensions. Again, the readers background knowledge is at issue. Reading is a question of employing the proper strategy; the readers have different means by which to accomplish comprehension. Krashens study suggested several useful strategies for improving reading comprehension. Following his sustained silent reading approach, students read whatever in class. This procedure is carried on daily for 5 to 15 minutes stretches. The results are not immediate, but refer a year or so significant improvements in reading comprehension and vocabulary are reached.

Bolantes findings (1990) that students enrolled in different courses did not exhibit the same level of performance in the test. She further claimed that students taking Bachelors degree courses performed better than those taking two year course. Sklar (1995), on the other hand attempted to exposure the attitudes and experiences of College Freshmen who lack of fundamental understanding of Literature and have little interest in reading. The study found out that these students do not read using this basic concepts, and are not aware that of how reflection is used in reading. This procedure was undertaken to examine how freshmen read, how they do not read what they read and was discovered that students who kept reading reflectively did do better on reading comprehension exam. According to Worlds Bank study on the efficiency of public and private schools in developing countries, private schools students on standardized math and language test. Not because for the type of school but because of such variables to scholarship (Jimenez, Lickhewed, and Paqueo, 1991). This was supported by Richard Murnanes study which reported that Private School students score higher on achievement tests
26

than Public School students because they came from more advantaged homes and bring more skills to school with them. (The Booking Review), on the other hand, according to the Coleman study, private school students outperform public school students because the private school more successfully engage students academically and enforce discipline more consistently.

Local Studies
Arcos and Blancas study on Teaching Beginning Reading to Grade One Pupils in Legaspi Port District, determined the techniques used by the teachers in teaching beginning reading to grade one pupils in selected schools in Legaspi District I. Their study investigated the dynamics used by the teachers in teaching reading along:

motivation, reading skills development activities, evaluation, and determined effective reading techniques. The study included prepared sample lesson plans employing effective techniques in teaching reading to beginners.

The findings of the study showed the most commonly used techniques in teaching reading. They are phonetic analysis, sight word meaning, meaning emphasis and structural analysis. Recommendations regarding teachers giving of intensive reading exercises to students were strongly suggested. Maldo, in her A proposed Development Reading Program for Freshmen Students of the Bicol University College of Education Laboratory High School, proposed a developmental reading program relative to the reading comprehension skills the students possessed. The researcher also identified the reading materials the respondents would like to read. The findings of her study showed the strength of the students reading skills; the students performed well in inferential reading.

27

Mammons study on the Reading Comprehension of the First Year students: its relation to their attitude towards the English subject concluded that the attitude of the first year high school students towards the English subject when taken as a whole in the cognitive and affective areas is highly favorable. In her findings, she stated that there is no significant relationship between the level of reading comprehension of the students and their attitude towards the English subject is attributed to the fact that when a student understands what he is reading, chances are that he will also be able to enjoy lessons in the English subject. Macabuhay (2004) conducted a study about Gender influences on the reading comprehension of selected freshman students of Dominican College and according to the study; the male respondents scored 3,272 parts or 34% in reading comprehension. The

female respondents scored 6,392 points or 66%. The findings indicate that the females have better reading comprehension than males. Mallari (1998) found out the relationship of the reading competencies of college freshmen in the study Reading Competencies of College Freshmen in Columban College, their personal related variables, namely: age, sex, course, high school graduated from, high school, final rating in English and parents educational attainment. The level of reading competencies were based on the following skills: noting, details, getting idea in the paragraph, reorganizing/ sequencing, and making inferences. The study of Fairodz Guiali Alabat (2011) about (The Reading Performance of the Fourth Year ward Students of the Cotabato Foundation College of Science and Technology Doroluman, Arakan, North Cotabato) concluded the following: Generally, the students have below average reading performance and the females performed better than the males.

28

Among all the variables, gender and grade in the previous school year were found to be related to the reading performance of the fourth year ward students. The social conditions of the students which affect their reading schemata affect their performance and they contribute to the reading difficulties of the students and the difficulties encountered by the teachers in teaching reading.

Chapter III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDURES


This chapter focuses on the discussion of research design instrumentation, validity of instruments, sampling procedure, data gathering procedure and statistical tools employed in the preparation of the instructional materials in this study.

Research Design
This research study used the descriptive research method. According to Gay as cited by Sevilla and Associates, descriptive research involves the collection of data in order to test hypothesis to answer questions concerning the current status of the subject of the study. They further stressed that correlation studies are designed to determine the extent to which different variables are related to each other in the population of interest. (Sevilla, et.al., 1992, p.94)

29

With the use of his method the researcher was able to find out the level of reading comprehension in English specifically the word attack skill, (decoding skill) comprehension skills and critical reading skill idea among the sophomore in PUP Q.C. And to determine if there were differences in their Reading Comprehension when the respondents were classified according to categories of variable: Gender, Course, and Type of School Last Attended, Attitude of Students towards English Subject and Teachers Competency.

Respondents of the Study


The respondents of the study were a sample of the second year students of PUP Q.C. for School year 2012-2013. According to the statistical data provided by the Registrars Office of PUP Q.C., as of the second semester SY 2010-2013 record showed that there were 412 sophomore students were officially enrolled. The sample size needed

to represent the entire second year student is 180 or of the total population. The sample size was determined by using a quota sampling. Table 1 Percentage Distribution of Respondent Drawn Out of a Population Course BBTE 2-1 BSIT 2-1 BSBA-ENT 2-1 BSBA-ENT 2-2 BSBA-MM 2-1 Population 52 42 42 46 48 Sample 20 20 20 20 20 Percentage 11.11% 11.11% 11.11% 11.11% 11.11%

30

BSBA-MM 2-2 BSBA-HRDM 2-1 BSBA-HRDM 2-N DOMT 2-1

50 44 50 38 412

20 20 20 20 180

11.11% 11.11% 11.11% 11.11% 100%

Total

Figure 1: Percentage Distribution of Respondent Drawn Out of a Population`

11% 11% 11%

11% 11% BBTE 2-1 BSIT 2-1 BSBA ENT 2-1 BSBA ENT 2-2 BSBA MM 2-1 BSBA MM 2-2 BSBA HRDM 2-1 BSBA HRDM 2-N DOMT 2-1

11%

11% 11% 11%

Research Instrument Used

31

The researchers utilized a questionnaire as its main instrument in conducting the study which is necessary for Descriptive Method. The instruments serve the researchers data to find out the Level of Reading Comprehension of Sophomore Students in Polytechnic University of the Philippines, Quezon City Campus A.Y 2011-2012 and 2012-2013. A questionnaire is a list of question which is intended to elicit answer to the problems of the study. The researchers use structured questions which is leaves only one way or few alternative way of answering it. The questions are simple, clear and

objective. All the respondent has to do is to check, identify and choose the appropriate answer. This is made possible by the questions adopted from the previous study

conducted by the group of Joey Mamauag, et. al., entitled: The Listening and Reading Comprehension of Selected 2nd Year Students of Polytechnic University of The Philippines, Quezon City Campus In Relation To Some Selected Variables A.Y 20112012.

Data Gathering Procedures


To gather data on the reading comprehension in English in PUP QC Sophomore Students, the researcher adopted a Reading Skills Test (Comprehension Component) from the study of Ms. Evelyn L. Galve to assess students ability in Word Attack Skills, Comprehension Skills and Critical Reading. The reading comprehension test was divided into 2 parts. Part 1 gather the data on the respondents gender, course, type of school attended, attitude towards English and students perception to their teachers competency. Part 2 was a test on Reading Skills in English. The Reading Comprehension Skill Test consists of 3 areas. Area 1 was on Word Attack, it contained 10 items. Area 2 was on Comprehension Skill, it contains 20 items. Area 3 contains 10 items.

32

The Questionnaire for teachers is divided into 5 parts. Part 1 consists of the teachers profile: gender, age and civil status. Part 2 consist of the teachers teaching preparation: Educational qualifications and seminars/workshops and trainings. Part 3 consist of the teachers teaching methods and techniques. Part 4 consist of the different instructional materials. Part 5 consist of their problems and difficulties encountered in teaching reading comprehension. The level of Reading Comprehension was based on the ratings as Excellent if the average score range from 31-40; Very Satisfactory: if the average score range from 21-30; Satisfactory if the average score range from the 11-20; and Poor if the average score range from 0-10. The mastery level for the reading skills test was set at a Very Satisfactory level which was 75% or 30 correct answers and of the total 40 items in the test.

The Reading Skills Test included the following subjects: Cloze test for the word attack skills allowed the students to use their knowledge of word order. Comprehension Skills test which tested the students ability to get the main idea of the paragraph, to arrange sentences in proper order, to not the details, to identify similarities and differences of words and to determine the meaning of words using context values. Critical Reading Skills test which tested how the students give the meaning of words using context clues, using fact or opinion, make generalizations, determine whether the statements inform, or entertain the readers.

33

To assess the level of reading comprehension in English among the sophomore students, the researcher used the ff. scale of means and description as suggested by Guilford and Fruchter. Reading Comprehension Scale of Means 31-40 21-30 11-20 0-10 Description Excellent Very Satisfactory Satisfactory Poor

The questionnaire was constructed and that the questions were made simple, specific and easy to answer. Care was taken that only questions which were relevant and pertinent to the study were asked.

The draft of the questionnaire was first shown to the formidable adviser for possible corrections, and suggestions for improvements. The corrected form was then submitted to the adviser for approval, after which copies were distributed to some college students for validation, which were not the subject of this study. Before the cloze test was administered, activities were planned using the time chat given below: Distribution test and answer sheets Directions for taking the test Testing time Extra time
34

5 minutes 7 minutes 20 minutes 3 minutes

Total

35 minutes

Before the reading test was administered, activities were planned using the time chat given below: Distribution test and answer sheets Directions for taking the test Testing time Extra time Total 5 minutes 5 minutes 30 minutes 5 minutes 45 minutes

The examinees were instructed to write down on their answer sheets all their answers and accomplish afterward the profile of the students which shows their gender, course, type of high school last attended, attitude towards the English language and Teachers Teaching Competency . After the accomplishment of the directions found on the first page of the test booklet the students were made to start time test at the same time and stopped at the same time.

Data Processing Procedures


After conducting the validity reliability of the questionnaire, approval to Administrator, the test was secured from the Academic Head, class adviser, and to the professors on duty. The students who belonged to the five courses were requested to answer the questionnaire and reading skills test.

35

After given the permission to conduct the test, the researcher personally administered the final version of the test. Upon retrieval, the tests then were scored. The score tallied and were subjected to computer processed statistical tool tabulated, analyzed and interpreted.

Statistical Treatment
The following Statistical treatments were use in this study: 1. Descriptive Statistics such as Percentage, Mean, Standard Deviation, were used to

describe the dispensing of date and to determine the general appraisal of the respondents on the different variables delineated in this study. 2. Analysis of Variance/ANOVA was used to test the hypothesis. The ANOVA was

used to compare the difference of reading skills of selected sophomore students in Academic Year 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 when categorized according to Gender,

Course, Attitudes towards English, Students Perception in Teachers Teaching Competency and Teachers Competency. 3. Inferential Statistics was used to test the hypothesis. The CHI SQUARE was

used to compare the difference of the reading skills of the students when categorized according to type of school last graduated. The simple percentage was used in the analysis and interpretation of data. It was obtained by dividing the frequency of responses to each of the different items on the same skill by the total number of cases and multiplied by 100, or through the following formula below: Percentage Formula: P= x 100
36

Where: P= percentage f= frequency of the respondents N= total number of the respondents Weighted Mean Formula:

Where: x = the mean = the sum of scores

N= the number of respondents Slovins formula:

n=

Chi-Square: this was used to test the null hypothesis of no significant difference for the Type of School Last Attended. Whereas:
37

X2 = chi-square Oi= observed frequency Ei= expected frequency

Analysis of Variance/ANOVA was used to test the null hypothesis of no significant difference for the variables Gender, Course, Attitudes towards English, Students Perception towards Teachers Teaching Competency and Teachers Competency.

THE ANOVA Table Source of Variation Between Sum of Square SSB df dfB = k-1 Mean Square MSB = SSB dfB Within SSW dfW = N-k MSW = SSW dfW Total TSS df = N-1 F = MSB MSW F

Where: N = sample size N = number of rows


38

K = number of columns X = observed value A= given factor or category i = individual observation TSS = Xi2 ( Xi) 2 N SSB = ( X Ai) 2 - (Xi) n N

SSW = TSS SSB

CHAPTER IV PRESENTATION, INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA


This chapter consists of the presentation, analysis and interpretation of data gathered to carry out the objective of this investigation.

TABLE 1.1 Percentage Distribution of Student According to Gender

39

GENDER MALE FEMALE TOTAL

Frequency 90 90 180

Percentage 50% 50% 100%

The table shows the percentage distribution of students according to gender. It shows that

50% of the respondents are male which are 90 of the total population and the female which is also 50% or 90 of the given population. The figure below shows that the respondents were equally distributed according to their number as they represent the respondents of this study. Figure 1.1: Percentage Distribution of Respondents According to Gender

Gender
male female 50% 50%

TABLE 1.2 Percentage Distribution of Respondents According to Course

40

COURSE BSIT BBTE DOMT BSENT 2-1 BSENT 2-2 BSBA-MM 2-1 BSBA-MM 2-2 BSBA-HRDM 2-1 BSBA-HRDM 2-N TOTAL

Population 42 52 39 42 46 48 50 45 50 414

Sample Frequency 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 180

Percentage 11.11% 11.11% 11.11% 11.11% 11.11% 11.11% 11.11% 11.11% 11.11% 100%

The table presents the frequency distribution of the respondents according to their course. The table shows the division of the respondents according to their corresponding courses which were divided into 9 with a total population of 414. From this data we equally distributed the samples from their respective courses and sections which is 20 or 11.11%. The figure shows the distribution of the respondents according to their courses.

Figure1.2: Percentage Distribution of Student According to Course


11.11% 11.11%

Course
11.11% 11.11%

11.11%

11.11%

BSIT BBTE DOMT BSENT 2-1 BSENT 2-2 BSBA-MM 2-1 BSBA-MM 2-2 BSBA-HRDM 2-1

11.11%

11.11% 11.11%

TABLE 1.3 Percentage Distribution of Respondents according to the Type of School they Graduated

41

Type of School Public Private TOTAL

Frequency 157 23 180

Percentage 87.22% 12.78% 100%

The table portrays the percentage distribution of respondents according to the type of school they graduated. It shows that 157 or 87.22% of the total population were graduated from Public School while 23 or 12.78% of them were 12.78% were from Private Schools. The figure below shows the percentage distribution of respondents according to the type of school they graduated.

Figure 1.3: Percentage Distribution of Respondents according to the Type of School they graduated

13%

Type of School
Public Private

87%

RESPONDENTS LEVEL OF READING COMPREHENSION

TABLE 2 Reading Comprehension Level of the Selected Second Year Students

42

Reading Comprehension Level Range of values 31-40 21-30 11-20 1-10 Total Description Excellent Very satisfactory Satisfactory Poor f 24 107 45 4 180

Total % 13.33% 59.44% 25% 2.22% 100%

The table clearly shows the reading comprehension level of the selected second year students. The table shows that most of the respondents have a very satisfactory rate in reading comprehension which is 59.44%. There is also 25% of who got a satisfactory level while 13.33% of them are excellent. The remaining 3.30% belongs to poor level. On the lights of the data it implied that the Reading Comprehension level of the selected second year students is Very Satisfactory level or Average level which means that they can still manage to give positive responses from what they had read.

Figure 2: Reading Comprehension Level of the Second Year Students

Level of Reading Comprehension


2.22% 25.00% 13.33% Excellent Very Satisfactory Satisfactory Poor 59.44%

TABLE 3.1 Reading Comprehension Level of the Selected Second Year Students When Taken According to Gender
43

Description
f

Male
% 6.67% 27.78% 13.88% 1.67% 50% f 12 57 20 1 90

Female
% 6.67% 31.68% 11.11% 0.55% 50% f 24 107 45 4 180

Total
% 13.13% 59.44% 25% 2.22% 100%

Excellent Very Satisfactory Satisfactory Poor Total

12 50 25 3 90

The table presents the reading comprehension level of the selected second year students

according to gender. The data showed that the respondents level of reading comprehension varies greatly when classified according to their gender. From this, 6.67% or 12 male and 6.67% or 12 females had an Excellent level, 27.78% or 50 males and 31.68% or 57 of females belongs to Very Satisfactory level, 13.88% or 25 number of males and 11.11% or 20 females is in the Satisfactory level, and lastly, 1.67% or 3 males while 0.55% or 1 female are under the poor level. This data further revealed that the overall reading skill level of both genders is in Very Satisfactory level. In comparison it is the Female who performed better than the Male, for 50 or 27.78% of total percentage of samples came from Males while 57 or 31.68% are from Females.

Figure 3.1 Percentage Distribution of Reading Comprehension Level of the Selected Second Year Students When Taken According to Gender

40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 6.67% 6.67% 10.00% 28% 31.68% Male Female 11.11% 1.67% 0.55%

44
13.88%

TABLE 3.2 Reading Comprehension Level of the Selected Second Year Students When Taken According to Course
Very Satisfactory f 15 11 2 18 11 10 13 14 13 107 % 8.83% 6.11% 1.11% 10% 6.11% 5.55% 7.22% 7.78% 7.22% 59.44%

Courses f BBTE BSIT DOMT BSENT 2-1 BSENT 2-2 BSBA-MM 2-1 BSBA-MM 2-2 BSBA-HRDM 2-1 BSBA-HRDM 2-N 5 6 0 0 0 5 2 0 6

Excellent % 2.78% 3.33% 0 0 0 2.78% 1.11% 0 3.33% 13.33%

Satisfactory f 0 3 15 2 9 5 5 5 1 25 % 0 1.67% 8.33% 1.11% 5% 2.78% 2.78% 2.78% 0.55% 30.19% f 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 1 0 7

Poor % 0 0 1.67% 0 0 0 0 0.55% 0 3.30% f 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 180

Total % 11.11% 11.11% 11.11% 11.11% 11.11% 11.11% 11.11% 11.11% 11.11% 100%

24

The table illustrates the reading comprehension of the selected second year students according to their course. From the tabulated data there are 13.33% or 24 respondents got an Excellent level in reading comprehension. There were 5 from BBTE and 6 in BSIT while 5 in BSBA-MM 2-1, 2 in BSBA-MM 2-2 and 6 in BSBA-HRDM 2-N.

45

With regards in Very Satisfactory level there is a total of 59.44% or 107 respondents. 15 of them were from BBTE and 11 were from BSIT. 2 from DOMT, 18 from BSENT 2-1 and 11 from BSENT 2-2. On the other hand 10 of them were from BSBA-MM 2-1 and 13 from BSBA-MM 2-2 while 14 were from BSBA-HRDM 2-1 and 13 in BSBA-HRDM 2-N.

In Satisfactory level there is a total of 25 of 30.19% respondents, no one from the BBTE students got a satisfactory level while 3 or 1.67% were from BSIT, 15 or 8.33% were from DOMT, 2 or 1.11% were from BSENT 2-1 and 9 or 5% were from BSENT 2-2 while the BSBA-MM 2-1, and 2-2 and BSBA-HRDM 2-1 has 5 or 2.78% and 1 or 0.55% were from BSBA-HRDM 2-N. Few of the selected second year students got a Poor level which is 3.30% or 7. No one from the BBTE, BSIT, BSENT 2-1 & 2-2, BSBA-MM 2-1&2-2 and BSBA HRDM 2-N got a poor level while 3 or 1.67% from DOMT and 1 or 0.55% from BSBA-HRDM 2-1. The table shows that Reading Comprehension Varies when classified into the courses. This is definitely because of different syllabus and curriculum involved and the approaches given by the facilitators or instructors. As cited in Bolantes findings (1990) the students enrolled in different courses did not exhibit the same level of performance in the test. She further claimed that students taking Bachelors degree courses performed better than those taking two year course.

Figure 3.2Percentage Distribution of the respondents according to their respective Courses Percentage Distribution of the Respondents According to their Courses
3.30% 30.19% 13.33% Excellent Very Satisfactory Satisfactory Poor

46

TABLE 3.3 Reading Comprehension Level of the Selected Second Year Students When Taken According to Type of School Last Attended
Type of School F Excellent Very Satisfactory Satisfactory Poor Total 19 94 40 4 157 Public % 10.56% 52.22% 22.22% 2.22% 87.22% f 5 13 5 0 23 Private % 2.78% 7.22% 2.78% 0% f 24 107 45 4 Total % 13.33% 59.44% 25% 2.22% 100%

12.78% 180

The table indicates the Reading Comprehension Level of the Selected Second Year students according to Type of the type of school. Base on the sample data 19 or 10.56% from the public and 2.78% or 5 from private has an Excellent level in reading

comprehension. 52.22% or 94 from public and 13 and 7.22% from private has Very Satisfactory level while 40 or 22.22% from public and 5 or 2.78% from private has Satisfactory level. There were 4 or 2.22% from public and none from private got poor level.

47

The table further illustrate that Reading Comprehension shows discrepancy when classified into the type of school. In comparison it is the public schools who shows a great level in reading comprehension.

Figure 3.3 Reading Comprehension Level of the Second Year Students When Taken According to Type of School Last Attended
60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.56% 10.00% 0.00% Excellent Very Satisfactory Satisfactory Poor 3% 7.22% 3% 2.22% 0.00% 22.22%

52.22% Public Private

TABLE 3.4 Students Perception towards their Teachers Competency

48

Attitude of the Students towards the Teachers Competency f Excellent Very Satisfactory Satisfactory Poor Total 15 51 23 2 91 % 8.83% 28.33% 12.22% 1.11% 49.99% All the Time

Most of the Time f 14 48 20 2 84 % 7.78% 26.67% 11.11% 1.11% 46.68% f

Sometimes

Never

Total

% 0 2.22% 0.55% 0 2.77%

f 0 1 0 0 1

% 0 0.55% 0 0 0.55%

f 29 104 43 4 180

% 16.11% 57.78% 23.89% 2.22% 100%

0 4 1 0 5

The table presents the Selected Sophomore Students Perception towards their Teachers Competency, 91 or 49.99% of the total population All the Time about having a positive attitude on the Teachers Competency while 84 or 46.68% Most of the Time, 2.77% or 5 Sometimes and 0.55 Never.

Indicators of the Perception of the Students in their Teachers Teaching Competence in English No. of Indicator Mean Rank Description

49

1. Discusses subject matter in English 2. Answers students question in English 3. Has sufficient knowledge on subject matter 4. Proficient in communicating ideas in the class 5. Presents lesson with visual aids. 6. Clarifies reading problems 7. Gives correction to wrong pronunciation of words 8. Gives immediate attention to students clarification 9. Unlocks difficult words 10. Offers consultation time regarding problems related to subject matter Overall mean: 3.5

3.33 3.28 3.28 3.33 2.72 3.13 3.11 3.54 3.08 2.92

1.5 4.5 4.5 1.5 10 6 7 1 8 9

All the Time All the Time All the Time All the Time Most of the Time All the Time All the Time All the Time All the Time All the Time

Description: All the Time

The figure shows the percentage distribution of the respondents perception towards English. It shows that most of the respondents have a Satisfactory Level or positive attitude towards teachers competence. Figure 3.4 Percentage Distribution of Respondents Perception towards Teachers Competence Perception towards Teacher's Competence
23.89% 2.22% 16.11% Excellent Very Satisfactory Satisfactory Poor 57.78%

TABLE 3.5 Attitude of the Selected Students towards the English Language
50

Attitude of the Students towards the English Language f Excellent Very Satisfactory 2 21 % 1.11% 11.67% f 23 85 % 12.78% 47.22% f 1 14 % 0.55% 7.78% f 0 0 % 0 0 1.11 % 0 1.11 % 0 0 0 0 f 0 0 % 0 0 f 26 12 0 0 0 33 1 18 0 % 14.44% 66.67% Strongly Agree Agree Slightly Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree Total

Satisfactory Poor Total

4 0 27

2.22% 0% 15%

23 1 13 2

12.78% 0.55% 73.33%

4 0 19

2.22% 0 11.11%

2 0 2

18.33% 0.55% 100%

The table clearly illustrates the Attitude of the selected sophomore students towards the English language. From the tabulated data 27 or 15% Strongly agreed about having a positive attitude towards the English language while 132 or 73.33% Agreed about the essence of their attitude towards English language while19 or 11.11% Slightly Agreed and 2 or 1.11% still dont know the essence of English language in their learning.

Indicators of Students Attitude towards English No. of Indicator Mean Rank Description

51

1. I find English an interesting subject. 2. My background knowledge in English makes me understand the subject easier. 3. I find the reading exercises boring. 4. I attend my English class regularly. 5. The reading materials assigned by the teacher are difficult. 6. Reading can be an effective tool in learning other subjects. 7. Relating ideas found in the selection is useful reading exercise. 8. I find difficulty of doing my assignments or project in English. 9. Vocabulary word building helps me understand the reading selection better. 10. I seldom submit projects and other requirements in English on time. 11. Our teacher gives us the chance to express our view freely which makes me participate actively in class discussion. 12. I do not participate in role playing activities because I do not know how to speak good English. 13. I find it difficult to express my ideas in English. 14. My imagination can be developed if I read some literary pieces. 15. I enjoy participating in group activities. Average

3.93 3.93 2.73 4.49 3.14 4.43 4.19 2.91 4.19 3.22 4.08

7.5 7.5 14 1 11 2 3.5 12 3.5 10 5

Agree Agree Slightly Agree Strongly Agree Agree Strongly Agree Strongly Agree Slightly Agree Strongly Agree Agree Strongly Agree

2.24

15

Slightly Agree

2.84 3.94 3.74 4

13 6 9 4

Slightly Agree Agree Agree


Agree

The table furthers accentuate that the persons attitude towards English that implicates his or her performance in acquiring knowledge.

Figure 3.5 Percentage Distribution of Respondents Attitude towards English Language

52

Attitudes towards English Language


18.33% 0.55% 14.44% Excellent Very Satisfactory Satisfactory Poor

66.67%

READING COMPREHENSION LEVEL CORRELATES WITH OTHER VARIABLES

TABLE 4.1 Difference between the genders according to the respondents Reading Comprehension Skills

Source of Variation Between Within Total

Source of Square 1.61 7.821.39 7823

Degree of Freedom 1 178 179

Mean Square 1.61

0.04 43.94 45.55

The table exhibits the statistical representation of respondents on Reading Comprehension Skills when classified according to gender. Having an ANOVA of 0.04

53

and a tabular value of null hypothesis of no significant difference between the level of reading comprehension and the gender was accepted. The table also shows that the gender of the students does not affect the reading comprehension skills of the students. TABLE 4.1.1 Computed Weighted Mean of Gender in Correlation to Reading Comprehension

GENDER FEMALE MALE

Weighted Mean 28.34% 23.51%

The table presents the computed weighted mean of gender in correlation to reading comprehension level. It shows that the female had a higher Reading Comprehension level for having a general weighed mean of 28.34 rather than male with a mean of 23.51. TABLE 4.2 Difference between the courses according to respondents Reading Comprehension Skills

Source of Variation Between Within Total

Source of Square 3022.81 937632.19 940655

Degree of Freedom 8 171 179

Mean Square 377.85

0.07 5693.76

The table reveals representation of respondents Reading Comprehension according to the respondents course. From the data, it shows that the respondents Reading Comprehension cloze test has no significant difference from the courses of the respondents. It is clearly shown

54

based on the computed ANOVA value of 0.07 and a tabular value of . Therefore the null hypothesis is accepted.

TABLE 4.2.1 Computed Weighted Mean of Students Course in Correlation to Reading Comprehension

COURSE BBTE BSBA-HRDM 2-N BSIT BSENT 2-1 BSBA-MM 2-1 BSBA-HRDM 2-1 BSBA-MM 2-2 BSENT 2-2 DOMT

Weighted Mean 28.27% 26.5% 26.47% 24.72% 24.5% 21.14% 20.5% 19.21% 15.2%

The table shows the computed weighted mean of selected sophomore students of their Reading Comprehension when in terms of their courses. It shows that the BBTE had the highest reading comprehension level for having a general weighed mean of 28.27 followed by the BSBA-HRDM 2-N having a weighted mean of 26.5 while the BSIT has a weighted mean of 26.47, BSENT 2-1 with a weighted mean of 24.72, BSBA-MM 2-1 with a general weighted mean of 24.5. The BSBA-HRDM 2-1 has a weighted mean of 21.14 and the BSBA MM 2-2 with a weighted mean of 20.5 % and BSENT 2-2 with a weighted mean of 19.21 and lastly the DOMT which has a general weighted mean of 15.2 TABLE 4.3

55

Difference between the Reading Comprehension Skills Level and type of school graduated

Variables
Public

Level of Significance

Degree of freedom

Tabular value

Computed value

Description

Interpretation

0.05 Private

106

16.919

0.88

The null hypothesis is accepted

There is no significant relationship

The table exposes the students level of Reading comprehension skills when classified to the type of school they graduated. Having a Chi-Square of 1.03 and a tabular value of 7.815. This means that the null hypothesis is accepted and there is no significant difference in terms of the type of school they graduated.

TABLE 4.3.1 Computed Weighted Mean of Type of School in Correlation to Reading Comprehension

Type of School PUBLIC PRIVATE

Weighted Mean 27.59% 22.54%

The table shows the computed weighted mean of type of school of the respondents when it correlates to their Reading Comprehension. It reveals that the respondents from public schools got the highest weighted mean ranging 27.59 while the respondents from private has a computed weighted mean of 22.54.

56

Contrast to Richard Murnanes study which reported that Private School students score higher on achievement tests than Public School students because they came from more advantaged homes and bring more skills to school with them. (The Booking Review), on the other hand, according to the Coleman study, private school students outperform public school students because the private school more successfully engage students academically and enforce discipline more consistently.

TABLE 4.4 Difference Between Respondents Attitude Towards English to their Reading Comprehension Skills

Source of Variation Between Within

Source of Square 166.26 1.83

Degree of Freedom 4 70

Mean Square 41.57

305.85 0.03

Total

168.09

74

The table exhibits the difference between Respondents Attitudes towards English to their Reading Comprehension Skills. From the tabulated data it shows that the selected respondents has an ANOVA of 305.85 and a tabular value of 2.50 which is noticeable higher than the tabular value. It states that hypothesis of the significant difference is rejected.

Congruent to Gwadmah (1996) postulated that the attitude or mood of the learner is important to the learning process. According to him learning is effective when it is fun. That when there are negative feelings a negative attitude these will block to learning process.

57

TABLE 4.5 Difference between the Teachers Competence levels according to Students Perception Towards English

Source of Variation Between Within Total

Source of Square 0.38 2.02 940655

Degree of Freedom 3 36 179

Mean Square 0.13

2.17 0.06

The table presents the difference between the teachers competence levels according to the respondents reading comprehension students perception towards English. Bearing an ANOVA of 2.17 and a tabular value of 2.87 which is lower from the given tabular value. Which means that the null hypothesis is accepted and there is no significant relationship in terms of the type of school they graduated. Contradict to Beeby (2006) says that competence of teachers in both subject matter and methods of teaching varies greatly. Beeby added that it is unlikely that students can learn much from teachers who do not thoroughly understand the subject they are teaching

58

TABLE 4.6 Difference between the Teachers Competence levels according to the Respondents Reading Comprehension

Source of Variation Between Within Total

Source of Square 628.88 37.6 666.48

Degree of Freedom 4 39 43

Mean Square 157.22

163.77 0.96

The table clearly reveals the statistical distribution of the difference between the teachers competence level according to the Respondents Reading Comprehension Having an ANOVA of 163.77 and a tabular value of 2.61 which is higher than the tabular value. Which means that the null hypothesis is rejected and there is a significant relationship.

59

Chapter V SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

Summary
This study aimed to determine and compare the Level of Reading Comprehension of the Selected Sophomore Students between Academic Year 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 correlates with other Variables. This study was confined to all bonafide students from Polytechnic University of the Philippines Quezon City. Descriptive design was used in this study. The instruments used contained four parts namely, Students Demographic Profile, Students Attitudes towards English, Students Perception towards Teachers Competency and the Reading Comprehension adopted from the work of Ms. Evelyn Galve of University of Iloilo. It determines students thinking process as well as their reading ability.

Students Profile With the used method of this investigation the proponents found out the profile of 180 respondents with the following distribution: The frequency distribution of the respondents according to gender is 90 total numbers of male respondents or 50% and 90 total number of female respondents or 50%. The frequency distributions according to Course, 20 selected Sophomore Students were drawn from different courses namely: BBTE, BSIT, DOMT, BSENT 2-1 & 2-2, BSBA-MM 2-1 & 2-2, and BSBA-HRDM 2-1 & 2-2 for a total of 180 selected Sophomore Students.

60

The frequency distribution according to the Type of School Last Graduated is 157 or 87.22% from Public School while 23 or 12.78% were from Private Schools. Levels of Reading Comprehension On the lights of the responses of the subjects and proper treatment of data the following results was revealed: Based on the data drawn from the respondents Reading Comprehension, 24 or 13.33% got the Excellent level, 107 or 59.44% of the total number of respondents fall into the Very Satisfactory level , 45 or 25% belonged to Satisfactory level, and 4 or 2.22% fall into the Poor level. In the Inferential Statistical Approach using the CHI-SQUARE, and ANOVA it is revealed that the following moderate variables are not significantly influential to the level of students reading ability, such as: Gender, Type of School Last Graduated, Students Perception towards Teachers Competency and to the Course of the respondents. On the other hand the study revealed that the variables: Students Attitude towards English and Teachers Teaching Competency significantly affects the reading ability of the students. Also, using the same statistical treatment, it is revealed that: On the light of the data presented the following findings were revealed. 1. The students have positive attitudes towards English Language and their attitude does affect significantly their reading comprehension. The results are the same with the study of Mr. Mamauag and company last year. It stated that 2nd year students of PUP QC had positive attitude towards the English Subject. This is closely the same to the belief of Gwadmah (1996). He postulated that the attitude or mood of the learner is important to the learning process. According to him, learning is effective when it is fun. That when there are negative feelings, these feelings become blocks to the learning process.

61

2. The Reading Comprehension Level of the Second Year Students of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines, Quezon City is Average Level which means that students can already profit from instructions though still need the guidance of teacher. 3. The Reading Comprehension of Second Year Students was not directly affected by the variables: Gender, Type of School Last Graduated, and Students Perception towards Teachers Competence and to their Course. 4. There is a significant difference between the Reading comprehension of the Sophomore Students when it correlates to the variables of Students Attitude towards English and Teachers Teaching Competency. On the other hand, there is no significant difference to the variables of Gender, Type of School Last Graduated, Students Perception towards Teachers Competency and Course of the Respondents.

5. The teachers are competent in teaching English. The more competent the teacher is, the higher is the level of the reading comprehension of the students which is congruent to the belief of Disimilacion (2007). He pointed out that At the very heart of effective instruction is on effective teacher. It is he/she who exerts every effort in helping his/her pupils acquire knowledge, skills and attitude necessary for them to become productive, useful and law-abiding citizens of our country. For this reason, it is in the teacher that the greatest strength of education lies. (Mainggang, 1991).

6. There is a significant relationship between the Sophomore Students of Academic year 2011-2012 and the Sophomore Students of Academic year 2012-2013 in their Reading Comprehension in PUPQC for they were both fall into the Average Level and the variables: Students Perception towards Teachers

Competency, Course and Type of School Last Graduated was not directly affects the Reading Comprehension of the students.

62

Conclusions
Based from the summary of findings, the researchers arrived at these conclusions: 1. That the following variables should not be treated as influential entity to the students Reading Comprehension and learning growth in general: Gender Type of School graduated Students Perception towards teachers competence Course

2. That the following variables directly affect students reading skills and should be considered as primary factor in determining students Reading Comprehension level : Students Attitude towards English Teachers Teaching Competency

Recommendations
Based on the findings that was revealed, the researchers came up with the following recommendations: STUDENTS Students should realize the significance of reading to their learning growth. It is always their focus and attitude that matters for them to acquire knowledge that will surely lead them to success. Student should participate constantly in classroom discussion, read English materials, watch English materials, and even speak with professionals if the opportunity is given for the enrichment of their vocabulary.

63

It is also desirable for the students to speak in English medium most of the time especially in class hours for them to apply every single word they had encountered in their reading. Student should provide a dictionary for them to consult for proper usage and spelling and make immediate correction. They should also be involved in the English Club Organization such as LITERA. Students should try to improve their speaking ability by joining contests such as extemporaneous speech, argumentation and debate; and Lastly, students should bear in their mind that studying is 85% more of reading on that note they should indulge in reading at least in their free time. English Tournaments (Programs).

INSTRUCTORS Efforts should be done to find out the circumstance of the students poor level of Reading and to make necessary corrective measures to improve such level of reading comprehension, necessary instructional materials should be provided for the students to utilize, hence teachers should be constantly encourage and motivate students to read and develop their reading skills. Seminars, Workshops, In-service trainings, and the like should be regularly provided to the English Teachers so that the knowledge and skills learned could be divided and imparted to the students. Appropriate Teaching Methodology and Techniques should be adapted by teachers to facilitate students learning and develop students interest toward the English subject.

ADMINISTRATION The School Administration and Academic Head should encourage the students to communicate in English Language to further widen the vocabulary of the students as well as their communications skills.
64

The researcher bearing the result of this investigation would like to recommend to the administration to implement an English policy in either selected areas or the campus itself. The findings of this study should be revealed to the teachers to make them aware of the level of reading comprehension of the student so that adjustment could be made to further improve the performance of the students. To come up with an English Program tournaments which includes the following: a. Vocabulary Development b. Quiz Bee (Reading Proficiency c. Impromptu d. Essay Writing e. Speech Choir f. Debate

GOVERNMENTS The Government should help the Institution for its continuous development. The benefits of the planned program would greatly enhance the communication skills of students. The Government should be able to support the needs of the students, the reading comprehension of students in Public and Private schools in the Quezon City to know the problem of the students learning English as second language before the problem progresses and at the same time as early as possible the Government will be able to support the needs of the students to develop good communication program. DepEd: Provide textbooks which are congruent to the curriculum and improve textbooks and produce more.

65

PARENTS Parents should prepare certain assessments that may help improve their childs reading comprehension and vocabulary. The findings of this study should serve as an eye-opener to every parent for them to be informed about the standards and level of reading comprehension of their children.

FUTURE RESEARCHERS The future researchers should be more innovative in creating programs that would greatly benefit the welfare of the students and also the community. The Future researcher should provide programs that are achievable by the students and the campus. The Future Researchers should be able to undergo study for the PUPQC students the other two modes of communication such as speaking and writing.

66