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Bosnia and Herzegovina From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia "Bosnia" redirects here.

For other uses, see Bosnia (disambiguation). "BiH" redirects here. For other uses, see BiH (disambiguation). Not to be confused with the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosna i Hercegovina Flag Coat of arms Anthem: Dr avna himna Bosne i Hercegovine National Anthem of Bosnia and Herzegovina Location of Bosnia and Herzegovina (green) in Europe (dark grey) [Legend] Capital and largest city Sarajevo 4352'N 1825'E Official languages[1] Bosnian Croatian Serbian Ethnic groups (2000[2]) 48% Bosniaks 37.1% Serbs 14.3% Croats 0.6% other Demonym Bosnian Herzegovinian[2] Government Federal democratic republic[2] Chairmen of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina Neboj a Radmanovi Member of the Presidency Bakir Izetbegovi Member of the Presidency eljko Kom i High Representative Valentin Inzkoa Prime Minister Vjekoslav Bevanda Legislature Parliamentary Assembly Upper house House of Peoples Lower house House of Representatives Independence First mentioned 753 / 950 Banate of Bosnia 1154 Kingdom of Bosnia 1377 Conquered by Ottoman Empire 1463 Bosnian uprising 1831 Jurisdiction transferred to Austria Hungary 1878 Annexation of Bosnia by Austria-Hungary 1908 National Day 25 November 1943 Independence from SFR Yugoslavia 1 March 1992 Observed 6 April 1992 Area Total 51,197 km2 (127th) 19,741 sq mi Population 2011 estimate 3,839,737[3] (128the) 1991 census 4,587,678

Density 79/km2 (130the) 194/sq mi GDP (PPP) 2012 estimate Total $31.909 billion[4] Per capita $8,215[4] GDP (nominal) 2012 estimate Total $17.326 billion[4] Per capita $4,461[4] Gini (2007) 54.1[5] high HDI (2013) 0.755[6] high 81st Currency Convertible mark (BAM) Time zone CET (UTC+1) Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2) Date format dd.mm.yyyy (CE) Drives on the right Calling code 387 ISO 3166 code BA Internet TLD .ba a. Not a government member; the High Representative is an international civ ilian overseer of the Dayton peace agreement with authority to dismiss elected a nd non-elected officials and enact legislation. b. Chair of current presidency (Serb). c. Current presidency member (Croat). d. Current presidency member (Bosniak). e. Rank based on 2011 official estimate of de facto population. Bosnia and Herzegovina (i/'b?zni? and h?rts?go?'vi?n?/; Bosnian and Croatian: Bo sna i Hercegovina, Serbian: ????? ? ???????????), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzeg ovina or simply Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe, on the Balkan Penin sula. Its capital and largest city is Sarajevo with an estimated urban populatio n of 430,000 people. Bordered by Croatia to the north, west and south, Serbia to the east, and Montenegro to the southeast, Bosnia and Herzegovina is almost lan dlocked, except for the 20 kilometres (12 miles) of coastline on the Adriatic Se a surrounding the city of Neum.[7][8] In the central and southern interior of th e country the geography is mountainous, in the northwest it is moderately hilly, and the northeast is predominantly flatland. The inland is a geographically lar ger region and has a moderate continental climate, bookended by hot summers and cold and snowy winters. The southern tip of the country has a Mediterranean clim ate and plain topography. Bosnia and Herzegovina is a region that traces permanent human settlement back t o the Neolithic age, during and after which it was populated by several Illyrian and Celtic civilizations. Culturally, politically, and socially, the country ha s one of the richest histories in the region, having been first settled by the S lavic peoples that populate the area today from the 6th through to the 9th centu ries AD. They then established the first independent banate in the region, known as the Banate of Bosnia,[9] in the early 12th century upon the arrival and conv ergence of peoples that would eventually come to call themselves Dobri Bo njani (" Good Bosnians").[10][11] This evolved into the Kingdom of Bosnia in the 14th cen tury, after which it was annexed into the Ottoman Empire, under whose rule it wo uld remain from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. The Ottomans brought Is lam to the region, and altered much of the cultural and social outlook of the co untry. This was followed by annexation into the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, which lasted up until World War I. In the interwar period, Bosnia was part of the Kin gdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes and after World War II, the country was grant ed full republic status in a newly formed Yugoslav Federation. Following the dis solution of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, the country proclaimed independence in 1992, which was followed by the Bosnian War, lasting until late 1995. Today, the country maintains high literacy, life expectancy and education levels

and is one of the most frequently-visited countries in the region.[12] Bosnia a nd Herzegovina is regionally and internationally renowned for its natural beauty and cultural heritage inherited from six historical civilizations, its cuisine, winter sports, its eclectic and unique music, architecture and the Sarajevo Fil m Festival and Sarajevo Jazz Festival, both the largest and most prominent of th eir kind in Southeastern Europe.[13][14] The country is home to three ethnic gro ups or, officially, constituent peoples, a term unique for Bosnia and Herzegovin a. Bosniaks are the largest group of the three, with Serbs second and Croats thi rd. Regardless of ethnicity, a citizen of Bosnia and Herzegovina is often identi fied in English as a Bosnian. The terms Herzegovinian and Bosnian are maintained as a regional rather than ethnic distinction, and the region of Herzegovina has no precisely defined borders of its own. Moreover, the country was simply calle d "Bosnia" until the Austro-Hungarian occupation at the end of the 19th century. [15] Bosnia and Herzegovina has a bicameral legislature and a three-member Presidency composed of a member of each major ethnic group. However, the central governmen t's power is highly limited, as the country is largely decentralized and compris es two autonomous entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republi ka Srpska, with a third region, the Brko District, governed under local governmen t. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is itself complex and consists of 10 federal units - cantons. The country is a potential candidate for membership to the European Union and has been a candidate for NATO membership since April 201 0, when it received a Membership Action Plan at the summit in Tallinn. Additiona lly, the country has been a member of the Council of Europe since April 2002 and a founding member of the Mediterranean Union upon its establishment in July 200 8. Contents [hide] 1 Etymology 2 History 2.1 Early history 2.2 Medieval Bosnia 2.3 Ottoman Bosnia (1463 1878) 2.4 Austro-Hungarian rule (1878 1918) 2.5 Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1918 1941) 2.6 World War II (1941 45) 2.7 Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia (1945 1992) 2.8 Bosnian War (1992 1995) 3 Geography 4 Government and politics 4.1 Military 4.2 Foreign relations 5 Demographics 6 Economy 6.1 Transport 6.2 Communications 6.3 Tourism 6.3.1 Tourist attractions 7 Education 8 Culture 8.1 Architecture 8.2 Literature 8.3 Art 8.4 Music 8.5 Cinema and theatre 8.6 Sports 8.7 Cuisine 8.8 Leisure activities 9 See also 10 References 11 Bibliography

12 External links Etymology[edit] The first preserved mention of the name "Bosnia" is in De Administrando Imperio, a politico-geographical handbook written by the Byzantine emperor Constantine V II in the mid-10th century (between 948 and 952) describing the "small country" (?????? in Greek) of "Bosona" (??????).[16] The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklj a from 1172-1196 of Bar's Roman Catholic Christian Archbishop names Bosnia, and references an earlier source from the year of 753 - the De Regno Sclavorum (Of t he Realm of Slavs). The name "Bosnia" probably comes from the name of the Bosna river around which it has been historically based, which was recorded in the Rom an era under the name Bossina.[17] More direct roots of the river's names are un known. Philologist Anton Mayer proposed a connection with the Indo-European root *bos or *bogh, meaning "running water".[18] Certain Roman sources similarly men tion Bathinus flumen as a name of the Illyrian Bosona, both of which would mean "flowing water" as well.[18] Other theories involve the rare Latin term Bosina, meaning boundary, and possible Slavic origins.[18] The origins of the name Herzegovina may be identified with greater precision. In the Early Middle Ages the corresponding region was known as Zahumlje (Hum), aft er the Zachlumoi tribe of southern Slavs which inhabited it. In the 1440s, the r egion - adjoined to medieval Bosnia since the early 1300s - was ruled by the pow erful Bosnian nobleman Stephen Vuki Kosaa. In a document sent to Friedrich III on 2 0 January 1448, Kosaa styled himself "Herzog of Saint Sava, Lord of Hum and Primo rje, Grand Duke of Bosnia"; Herzog being the German word for "duke", and so the lands he controlled would later be known as Herzegovina ("Dukedom", from the add ition of -ovina, "land").[17] The region was administered by the Ottomans as the Sanjak of Herzegovina (Hersek) within the Eyalet of Bosnia up until the formati on of the short-lived Herzegovina Eyalet in the 1830s. Following the death of it s founder and ruler vizier Ali-pa a Rizvanbegovi in the 1850s, the two eyalets were merged, and the new joint-entity was thereafter commonly referred to as Bosnia and Herzegovina. On initial proclamation of independence in 1992 the country's official name was the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina but following the 1995 Dayton Agreement a nd the new constitution that accompanied it the name was officially changed to B osnia and Herzegovina. History[edit] Main article: History of Bosnia and Herzegovina See also: Sand ak Early history[edit] Main article: Early history of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia has been inhabited since at latest the Neolithic age. The earliest Neolit hic population became known in the Antiquity as the Illyrians. Celtic migrations in the 4th century BC were also notable. Concrete historical evidence for this period is scarce, but overall it appears that the region was populated by a numb er of different peoples speaking distinct languages. Conflict between the Illyri ans and Romans started in 229 BC, but Rome did not complete its annexation of th e region until AD 9. Walls of ancient Daorson, O anii, near Stolac, Bosnia and Herzegovina (3rd century BC). It was precisely in what is now Bosnia and Herzegovina that Rome fought one of t he most difficult battles in its history since the Punic Wars, as described by t he Roman historian Suetonius.[19] This was the Roman campaign against the revolt of indigenous communities from Illyricum, known in history as the Great Illyria n Revolt, and also as the Pannonian revolt, or Bellum Batonianum, the latter nam ed after two leaders of the rebellious Illyrian communities, Bato of the Daesiti ates, and Bato of the Breuci.[20] The Great Illyrian revolt was a rising up of Illyrians against the Romans, more

specifically a revolt against Tiberius' attempt to recruit them for his war agai nst the Germans. The Illyrians put up a fierce resistance to the most powerful a rmy on earth at the time (the Roman Army) for four years (AD 6 to AD 9), but the y were finally subdued by Rome in AD 9. The last Illyrian stronghold, of which their defence won the admiration of Roman historians, is said to have been Arduba.[21] Bato of Daesitiates was captured a nd taken to Italy. It is alleged that when Tiberius asked Bato and the Daesitiat es why they had rebelled, Baton was reputed to have answered: "You Romans are to blame for this; for you send as guardians of your flocks, not dogs or shepherds , but wolves." Bato spent the rest of his life in the Italian town of Ravenna.[2 2] In the Roman period, Latin-speaking settlers from the entire Roman Empire settle d among the Illyrians, and Roman soldiers were encouraged to retire in the regio n.[17] The land was originally part of Illyria up until the Roman occupation. Following the split of the Roman Empire between 337 and 395 AD, Dalmatia and Pannonia bec ame parts of the Western Roman Empire. Some claim that the region was conquered by the Ostrogoths in 455 AD. It subsequently changed hands between the Alans and the Huns. By the 6th century, Emperor Justinian had reconquered the area for th e Byzantine Empire. The Illyrians were conquered by the Avars in the 6th century . However, the Illyrians did not entirely vanish from Bosnia and Herzegovina with the arrival of new cultures. A large part of the remaining Illyrian culture inte rmingled with those of new settlers, some of it is believed to have been adopted by the latter, and some survived up to date, such as architectural remains (e.g . Daorson near Stolac), certain customs and traditions (e.g.tattooing, the 'gluh a kola' dances, the 'ganga' singing, zig-zag and concentric circles in tradition al decorations), place names (e.g. apljina, from 'aplja', a south Slavic word for 'heron', coincides with 'Ardea', a Latin word for 'heron', and 'Ardea', in turn, bears striking similarity with the name of Ardiaei, the native Illyrian people of the wider Neretva valley region, where the town of apljina is situated), etc.[ 23] Medieval Bosnia[edit] Bosnia in the Middle Ages spanning the Banate of Bosnia and the succeeding Kingd om of Bosnia King Tvrtko I's gold coin (14th century) averse - with the state fleur-de-lis co at of arms. Main article: Medieval Bosnia Modern knowledge of the political situation in the west Balkans into the region in the late 9th century is scarce. The Slavic tribes also brought their mytholog y and pagan system of beliefs, the Rodovjerje. In particular, Perun / ?????, the highest god of the pantheon and the god of thunder and lightning is also common ly found in Bosnian toponymy, for instance in the name of Mount Perun (Perunova Gora / ???????? ????). Along with the Slavic settlers, the native Illyrians were Christianized. Bosnia and Herzegovina, because of its geographic position and t errain, was probably one of the last areas to go through this process, which pre sumably originated from the urban centers along the Dalmatian coast. Thus, Slavi c Bosnian tribes remained pagans for a longer time, and finally converted to Chr istianity. The principalities of Serbia and Croatia split control of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the 9th and 10th centuries, but by the High Middle Ages political circumstan ce led to the area being contested between the Kingdom of Hungary and the Byzant ine Empire. Following another shift of power between the two in the early 12th c entury, Bosnia found itself outside the control of both and emerged as an indepe ndent state under the rule of local bans.[17] The first Bosnian monarch was Ban Bori. The second was Ban Kulin whose rule marke

d the start of a controversy with the Bosnian Church, because he allowed an indi genous Bogomilism sect considered heretical by the Roman Catholic Church. In res ponse to Hungarian attempts to use church politics regarding the issue as a way to reclaim sovereignty over Bosnia, Kulin held a council of local church leaders to renounce the heresy and embraced Catholicism in 1203. Despite this, Hungaria n ambitions remained unchanged long after Kulin's death in 1204, waning only aft er an unsuccessful invasion in 1254. Bosnian history from then until the early 14th century was marked by a power str uggle between the ubi and Kotromani families. This conflict came to an end in 1322, when Stephen II Kotromani became Ban. By the time of his death in 1353, he was s uccessful in annexing territories to the north and west, as well as Zahumlje and parts of Dalmatia. He was succeeded by his ambitious nephew Tvrtko who, followi ng a prolonged struggle with nobility and inter-family strife, gained full contr ol of the country in 1367. By the year 1377, Bosnia was elevated into a kingdom with the coronation of Tvrtko as the first Bosnian King in Mile near Visoko in t he Bosnian heartland.[24][25][26] Following his death in 1391 however, Bosnia fell into a long period of decline. The Ottoman Empire had already started its conquest of Europe and posed a major threat to the Balkans throughout the first half of the 15th century. Finally, af ter decades of political and social instability, the Kingdom of Bosnia ceased to exist in 1463 after its conquest by the Ottoman empire. Ottoman Bosnia (1463 1878)[edit] Main articles: Ottoman conquest of Bosnia and Ottoman Bosnia The Eyalet (governorate) of Bosnia within the Ottoman empire in the 17th century . Courtyard to the Ba ar ija Mosque. The Sebilj is a pseudo-Ottoman style wooden fountain in the centre of Ba ar ija squar e in Sarajevo, Bosnia. The Ottoman conquest of Bosnia marked a new era in the country's history and int roduced drastic changes in the political and cultural landscape. The Ottomans al lowed for the preservation of Bosnia's identity by incorporating it as an integr al province of the Ottoman Empire with its historical name and territorial integ rity a unique case among subjugated states in the Balkans.[27] Within Bosnia the Ottomans introduced a number of key changes in the territory's socio-political administration; including a new landholding system, a reorganiz ation of administrative units, and a complex system of social differentiation by class and religious affiliation.[17] The three centuries of Ottoman rule also had a drastic impact on Bosnia's popula tion make-up, which changed several times as a result of the empire's conquests, frequent wars with European powers, forced and economic migrations, and epidemi cs. A native Slavic-speaking Muslim community emerged and eventually became the largest of the ethno-religious groups due to lack of strong Christian church org anizations and continuous rivalry between orthodox and catholic churches. The Bosnian Christian communities also experienced major changes. The Bosnian Fr anciscans (and the Catholic population as a whole) were to a minor extent protec ted by official imperial decree, while the Bosnian Church disappeared altogether .[17] As the Ottoman Empire continued their rule in the Balkans (Rumelia), Bosnia was somewhat relieved of the pressures of being a frontier province, and experienced a period of general welfare. A number of cities, such as Sarajevo and Mostar, w ere established and grew into regional centers of trade and urban culture and we re then visited by Ottoman traveler Evliya elebi in 1648. Within these cities, va rious Ottoman Sultans financed the construction of many works of Bosnian archite cture such as the country's first library in Sarajevo, madrassas, a school of Su

fi philosophy, and a clock tower (Sahat Kula), bridges such as the Stari Most, t he Tsar's Mosque and the Gazi Husrev-beg's Mosque. Furthermore, some Bosnians played influential roles in the Ottoman Empire's cult ural and political history during this time.[27] Bosnian recruits formed a large component of the Ottoman ranks in the battles of Mohcs and Krbava field, while n umerous other Bosnians rose through the ranks of the Ottoman military to occupy the highest positions of power in the Empire, including admirals such as Matraki Nasuh; generals such as Isa-Beg Isakovi, Gazi Husrev-beg and Hasan Predojevi and S ari Sleyman Paa; administrators such as Ferhat-pa a Sokolovi and Osman Grada evi; and Gr nd Viziers such as the influential Mehmed Pa a Sokolovi and Damad Ibrahim Pasha. So me Bosnians emerged as Sufi mystics, scholars such as Muhamed Hevaji Uskufi Bosn evi, Ali D abi; and poets in the Turkish, Albanian, Arabic, and Persian languages.[ 18] However, by the late 17th century the Empire's military misfortunes caught up wi th the country, and the conclusion of the Great Turkish War with the treaty of K arlowitz in 1699 once again made Bosnia the Empire's westernmost province. The f ollowing century was marked by further military failures, numerous revolts withi n Bosnia, and several outbursts of plague. The Porte's false efforts at moderniz ing the Ottoman state were met with distrust growing to hostility in Bosnia, whe re local aristocrats stood to lose much through the proposed reforms. This, combined with frustrations over territorial, political concessions in the north-east, and the plight of Slavic Muslim refugees arriving from the Sanjak of Smederevo into Bosnia Eyalet, culminated in a partially unsuccessful revolt by Husein Grada evi, who endorsed a multicultural Bosnia Eyalet autonomous from the aut horitarian rule of the Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II, who persecuted, executed and ab olished the Janissary and reduced the role of autonomous Pasha's in Rumelia. Mah mud II sent his Grand Vizier to subdue Bosnia Eyalet and succeeded only with the reluctant assistance of Ali-pa a Rizvanbegovi.[18] Related rebellions would be ext inguished by 1850, but the situation continued to deteriorate. Later agrarian un rest eventually sparked the Herzegovinian rebellion, a widespread peasant uprisi ng, in 1875. The conflict rapidly spread and came to involve several Balkan stat es and Great Powers, a situation which eventually led to the Congress of Berlin and the Treaty of Berlin in 1878.[17] Austro-Hungarian rule (1878 1918)[edit] Main article: History of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1878 1918) Sarajevo Tramway in 1901 Fojnica Franciscan monastery At the Congress of Berlin in 1878, the Austro-Hungarian Foreign Minister Gyula A ndrssy obtained the occupation and administration of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and he also obtained the right to station garrisons in the Sanjak of Novi Pazar, whi ch remained under Ottoman administration. The Sanjak preserved the separation of Serbia and Montenegro, and the Austro-Hungarian garrisons there would open the way for a dash to Salonika that "would bring the western half of the Balkans und er permanent Austrian influence."[28] "High [Austro-Hungarian] military authorit ies desired [an...] immediate major expedition with Salonika as its objective."[ 29] On 28 September 1878 the Finance Minister, Koloman von Zell, threatened to resig n if the army, backed by the Archduke Albert, were allowed to advance to Salonik a. In the session of the Hungarian Parliament of 5 November 1878 the Opposition proposed that the Foreign Minister should be impeached for violating the constit ution with his policy during the Near East Crisis and by the occupation of Bosni a-Herzegovina. The motion lost 179 to 95. The gravest accusations were raised by the opposition rank and file against Andrassy.[29] Although an Austro-Hungarian side quickly came to an agreement with Bosnians, te nsions remained in certain parts of the country (particularly the south) and a m ass emigration of predominantly Slavic dissidents occurred.[17] However, a state

of relative stability was reached soon enough and Austro-Hungarian authorities were able to embark on a number of social and administrative reforms which inten ded to make Bosnia and Herzegovina into a "model colony". With the aim of establishing the province as a stable political model that would help dissipate rising South Slav nationalism, Habsburg rule did much to codify laws, to introduce new political practices, and to provide for modernisation. Th e Austro-Hungarian Empire built the three Roman Catholic churches in Sarajevo an d these three churches are among only 20 Catholic churches in the state of Bosni a. Within three years of formal occupation of Bosnia Herzegovina, Austria-Hungary, in 1881, obtained German, and more importantly, Russian, approval for the annexa tion of these provinces, at a time which suited Vienna. This mandate was formall y ratified by the Dreikaiserbund (Three Emperor's Treaty) on 18 June of that yea r.[30] Upon the accession of Czar Nicholas II, however, the Russians reneged on the agreement, asserting in 1897 the need for special scrutiny of the Bosnian An nexation issue at an unspecified future date.[31] Plaque commemorating the location of the Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdina nd of Austria. External matters began to affect the Bosnian Protectorate, however, and its rela tionship with Austria-Hungary. A bloody coup occurred in Serbia, on 10 June 1903 , which brought a radical anti-Austrian government into power in Belgrade.[32] S erb attempts to foment agitation followed, advocating a unified South Slavic sta te, ruled from Belgrade. This gained little support among most of the population of Bosnia Herzegovina, and only found fertile ground with disaffected portions of the Orthodox minority. Also, the revolt in the Ottoman Empire in 1908, raised concerns that the Istanbul government might seek the outright return of Bosnia Herzegovina. These factors caused the Austrian-Hungarian government to seek a pe rmanent resolution of the Bosnian question, sooner, rather than later. On 2 July 1908, in response to the pressing of the Austrian-Hungarian claim, the Russian Imperial Foreign Minister Alexander Izvolsky offered to support the Bos nian annexation in return for Vienna's support for Russia's bid for naval access through the Dardanelles Straits into the Mediterranean.[33] With the Russians b eing, at least, provisionally willing to keep their word over Bosnia Herzegovina for the first time in 11 years, Austria-Hungary waited and then published the a nnexation proclamation on 6 October 1908. The international furor over the annex ation announcement caused Izvolsky to drop the Dardanelles Straits question, alt ogether, in an effort to obtain a European conference over the Bosnian Annexatio n.[34] This conference never materialized and without British or French support, the Russians and their client state, Serbia, were compelled to accept the Austr ian-Hungarian annexation of Bosnia Herzegovina in March 1909. Political tensions culminated on 28 June 1914, when a Bosnian Serb nationalist y outh named Gavrilo Princip, a member of the secret Serbian-supported movement, Y oung Bosnia, assassinated the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Archduke Fran z Ferdinand, in Sarajevo an event that proved to be the spark that set off World W ar I. Although some Bosnians died serving in the armies of the various warring s tates, Bosnia and Herzegovina itself managed to escape the conflict relatively u nscathed.[27] Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1918 1941)[edit] Main article: History of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1918 1941) Following the war, Bosnia and Herzegovina joined the South Slav Kingdom of Serbs , Croats and Slovenes (soon renamed Yugoslavia). Political life in Bosnia at thi s time was marked by two major trends: social and economic unrest over property redistribution, and formation of several political parties that frequently chang ed coalitions and alliances with parties in other Yugoslav regions.[27] The domi nant ideological conflict of the Yugoslav state, between Croatian regionalism an d Serbian centralization, was approached differently by Bosnia's major ethnic gr oups and was dependent on the overall political atmosphere.[17] The political re forms brought about in the newly established Yugoslavian kingdom saw few benefit

s for the Bosniaks; according to the 1910 final census of land ownership and pop ulation according to religious affiliation conducted in Austro-Hungary, Muslims (Bosniaks) owned 91.1%, Orthodox Serbians owned 6.0%, Croatian Catholics owned 2 .6% and others, 0.3% of the property. Following the reforms Bosnian Muslims had a total of 1,175,305 hectares of agricultural and forest land taken away from th em.[35] Although the initial split of the country into 33 oblasts erased the presence of traditional geographic entities from the map, the efforts of Bosnian politician s such as Mehmed Spaho ensured that the six oblasts carved up from Bosnia and He rzegovina corresponded to the six sanjaks from Ottoman times and, thus, matched the country's traditional boundary as a whole.[17] The establishment of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929, however, brought the red rawing of administrative regions into banates or banovinas that purposely avoide d all historical and ethnic lines, removing any trace of a Bosnian entity.[17] S erbo-Croat tensions over the structuring of the Yugoslav state continued, with t he concept of a separate Bosnian division receiving little or no consideration. The Cvetkovi-Maek Agreement that created the Croatian banate in 1939 encouraged wh at was essentially a partition of Bosnia between Croatia and Serbia.[18] However the rising threat of Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany forced Yugoslav politicians to shift their attention. Following a period that saw attempts at appeasement, the signing of the Tripartite Treaty, and a coup d'tat, Yugoslavia was finally invad ed by Germany on 6 April 1941.[17] World War II (1941 45)[edit] The railway bridge over the Neretva river, twice destroyed during the Battle of the Neretva. Monument commemorating the Battle of Sutjeska in eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina. Main article: History of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1941 1945) Once the kingdom of Yugoslavia was conquered by Nazi forces in World War II, all of Bosnia was ceded to the Nazi puppet regime, Independent State of Croatia. Th e NDH leaders embarked on a campaign of extermination of Serbs, Jews, Roma, Croa ts who opposed the regime, communists and large numbers of Josip Broz Tito's Par tisans by setting up a number of death camps.[36] The Usta e recognized both Roman Catholicism and Islam as the national religions, but held the position that Eas tern Orthodoxy, as a symbol of Serbian identity, was their greatest foe.[37] Bet ween 197,000 and 580,000 Serbs were killed.[38] According to the United States H olocaust Museum, 320,000-340,000 ethnic Serbs were murdered by the Usta e during t he Second World War.[39] The Yad Vashem Holocaust Museum and Research Center con cludes that "More than 500,000 Serbs were murdered in horribly sadistic ways, 25 0,000 were expelled, and another 200,000 were forced to convert" in the Independ ent State of Croatia (Modern-day Bosnia and Croatia).[40] Although Croatians wer e by far the largest ethnic group to constitute the Ustashe, the Vice President of the NDH and leader of the Yugoslav Muslim Organization D afer Kulenovi was a Mus lim, and Muslims (Bosniaks) in total comprised nearly 12% of the Ustashe militar y and civil service authority.[41] Many Serbs themselves took up arms and joined the Chetniks, a Serb nationalist m ovement that conducted operations against the Nazi forces and the partisans. The Chetniks were also known to persecute and murder non-Serbs and communist sympat hizers. On 12 October 1941 a group of 108 notable Muslim citizens of Sarajevo si gned the Resolution of Sarajevo Muslims by which they condemned the persecution of Serbs organized by Usta e, made distinction between Muslims who participated in such persecutions and whole Muslim population, presented information about the persecutions of Muslims by Serbs and requested security for all citizens of the country, regardless of their identity.[42] Later, many Bosnian Muslims served in the Nazi Waffen-SS units.[43] Starting in 1941, Yugoslav communists under the leadership of Josip Broz Tito or ganized their own multi-ethnic resistance group, the partisans, who fought again

st both Axis and Chetnik forces. On 29 November 1943 the Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia with Tito at its helm held a founding confere nce in Jajce where Bosnia and Herzegovina was reestablished as a republic within the Yugoslavian federation in its Habsburg borders. Military success eventually prompted the Allies to support the Partisans, but Ti to declined their offer to help and relied on his own forces instead. All the ma jor military offensives by the antifascist movement of Yugoslavia against Nazis and their local supporters were conducted in Bosnia-Herzegovina and its peoples bore the brunt of fighting. More than 300,000 people died in Bosnia and Herzegov ina in World War II.[44] At the end of the war the establishment of the Socialis t Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, with the constitution of 1946, officially made Bosnia and Herzegovina one of six constituent republics in the new state.[17] Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia (1945 1992)[edit] Main article: History of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1945 1992) See also: Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina Due to its central geographic position within the Yugoslavian federation, post-w ar Bosnia was selected as a base for the development of the military defense ind ustry. This contributed to a large concentration of arms and military personnel in Bosnia; a significant factor in the war that followed the break-up of Yugosla via in the 1990s.[17] However, Bosnia's existence within Yugoslavia, for the lar ge part, was peaceful and wery prosperous country,with high employment,strong In dustrial and export oriented economy, good education system and social and medic al security for every citizen of S.R.Bosnia and Herzegovina.Cooperation with Wor ld Brand names like Wokswagen,car factory Sarajevo,from 1972,Coca Cola from 1975 ,SKF Sweden from 1967,Marlboro U.S.with Tobacco factory Sarajevo,Holiday Inn hot els, and after all, organisation of Olimpic Winter Games 1984 in Sarajevo. Thoug h considered a political backwater of the federation for much of the 1950s and 1 960s, in the 1970s a strong Bosnian political elite arose, fueled in part by Tit o's leadership in the Non-Aligned Movement and Bosnians serving in Yugoslavia's diplomatic corps. While working within the Socialist system, politicians such as D emal Bijedi, Brank o Mikuli and Hamdija Pozderac reinforced and protected the sovereignty of Bosnia and Herzegovina[45] Their efforts proved key during the turbulent period followi ng Tito's death in 1980, and are today considered some of the early steps toward s Bosnian independence. However, the republic did not escape the increasingly na tionalistic climate of the time. With the fall of the Soviet Union and the start of the break-up of Yugoslavia, doctrine of tolerance began to lose its potency, creating an opportunity for nationalist elements in the society to spread their influence. Bosnian War (1992 1995)[edit] The parliament building in the centre of Sarajevo burns after being hit by tank fire during the siege in 1992. Sarajevo after the siege lifted in 1995. Detainees at the Manjaa Camp, near Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina. (Photograph courtesy of the ICTY) Gravestones at the Srebrenica Genocide memorial. Main article: Bosnian War See also: Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina On 18 November 1990, the first multi-party parliamentary elections were held. A second round followed on 25 November, resulting in a national assembly where com munist power was replaced by a coalition of three ethnically based parties.[46] Croatia and Slovenia's subsequent declarations of independence and the warfare t

hat ensued placed Bosnia and Herzegovina and its three constituent peoples in an awkward position. A significant split soon developed on the issue of whether to stay with the Yugoslav federation (overwhelmingly favored among Serbs) or seek independence (overwhelmingly favored among Bosniaks and Croats). The Serb members of parliament, consisting mainly of the Serb Democratic Party m embers, abandoned the central parliament in Sarajevo, and formed the Assembly of the Serb People of Bosnia and Herzegovina on 24 October 1991, which marked the end of the tri-ethnic coalition that governed after the elections in 1990. This Assembly established the Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina on 9 January 1992, which became Republika Srpska in August 1992. On 18 November 1991, the party branch in Bosnia and Herzegovina of the ruling pa rty in the Republic of Croatia, the Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ), proclaimed the existence of the Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia, as a separate "politic al, cultural, economic, and territorial whole", on the territory of Bosnia and H erzegovina, with Croat Defence Council (HVO) as its military part.[47] The Bosni an government did not recognize it. The Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herze govina declared Herzeg-Bosnia illegal, first on 14 September 1992 and again on 2 0 January 1994.[48][49] A declaration of Bosnia and Herzegovina sovereignty on 15 October 1991 was follo wed by a referendum for independence from Yugoslavia on 29 February and 1 March 1992 boycotted by the great majority of the Serbs. The turnout in the independen ce referendum was 63.4 percent and 99.7 percent of voters voted for independence .[50] Bosnia and Herzegovina declared independence on 3 March 1992. Following a tense period of escalating tensions the opening shots in the incipient Bosnian c onflict were fired when Serb paramilitary forces attacked Bosnian Croat villages around Capljina on 7 March 1992 and around Bosanski Brod and Bosniak town, Gora zde, on 15 March. These minor attacks were followed by much more serious Serb ar tillery attacks on Neum on 19 March and on Bosanski Brod on 24 March. It is disp uted between Bosniaks, Croats and Serbs who the first casualties of the war are. Bosniaks regard the killing of Suada Dilberovi, a Bosniak civilian woman shot de ad by a sniper in April 1992, as marking the start of warfare between the three major communities.[46][51] Serbs consider an attack by Bosniaks on a Serb weddin g procession and the killing of Nikola Gardovi, the groom's father, on 1 March 19 92 in Sarajevo's old town Ba ar ija, to be the catalyst for the war.[52] Secret discussions between Franjo Tuman and Slobodan Milo evi on the division of Bos nia and Herzegovina between Serbia and Croatia were held as early as March 1991, known as the Karaorevo agreement.[53] Following the declaration of independence o f the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbs attacked different parts of the country. The state administration of Bosnia and Herzegovina effectively ceas ed to function having lost control over the entire territory. The Serbs wanted c ontrol and possession of virtually all territories in Bosnia and Herzegovina, as a top priority of Milo evi's mastermind plan of a "Greater Serbia". The Croats and their leader Tuman also aimed at securing the remaining parts of B osnia and Herzegovina as exclusively Croatian.[54] The policies of the Republic of Croatia and its leader Franjo Tuman towards Bosnia and Herzegovina were never totally transparent and always included Franjo Tuman's ultimate aim of expanding Croatia's borders. Bosnian Muslims were an easy target, because the Bosnian gove rnment forces were poorly equipped and unprepared for the war.[55] International recognition of Bosnia and Herzegovina increased diplomatic pressur e for the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) to withdraw from the republic's territory which they officially did. However, in fact, the Bosnian Serb members of JNA si mply changed insignia, formed the Army of Republika Srpska, and continued fighti ng. Armed and equipped from JNA stockpiles in Bosnia, supported by volunteers an d various paramilitary forces from Serbia, and receiving extensive humanitarian, logistical and financial support from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Repub lika Srpska's offensives in 1992 managed to place much of the country under its control.[17] Initially, the Serb forces attacked the non-Serb civilian population in Eastern Bosnia. Once towns and villages were securely in their hands, the Serb forces mili tary, police, the paramilitaries and, sometimes, even Serb villagers applied the s

ame pattern: Bosniak houses and apartments were systematically ransacked or burn t down, Bosniak civilians were rounded up or captured, and sometimes beaten or k illed in the process. 2.2 million refugees were displaced by the end of the war (of all three nationalities).[56] Able-bodied men were separated from their families and interned in camps under a brutal regimen of abuse, murder, and sporadic group executions, whereas women a nd children were kept in unsanitary detention centers, deprived of food and wate r. Rape by Serb soldiers or policemen was commonplace at the detention centers, and victims included women and minors as young as 12 years old.[57] Though on a significantly smaller scale, war crimes would later also be committe d by Bosniaks and Croats as their military campaigns gained momentum, including the establishment of prison camps in which torture, murder and rape took place.[ 58][59][60][61] In June 1992, the focus switched to Novi Travnik and Gornji Vakuf where the Croa t Defence Council (HVO) efforts to gain control were resisted. On 18 June 1992 t he Bosnian Territorial Defence in Novi Travnik received an ultimatum from the HV O which included demands to abolish existing Bosnia and Herzegovina institutions , establish the authority of the Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia and pledge allegiance to it, subordinate the Territorial Defense to the HVO and expel Musli m refugees, all within 24 hours. The attack was launched on 19 June. The element ary school and the Post Office were attacked and damaged.[62] Gornji Vakuf was initially attacked by Croats on 20 June 1992, but the attack fa iled. The Graz agreement caused deep division inside the Croat community and str engthened the separation group, which led to the conflict with Bosniaks. One of the primary pro-union Croat leaders, Bla Kraljevi (leader of the Croatian Defence Forces (HOS) armed group) was killed by HVO soldiers in August 1992, which sever ely weakened the moderate group who hoped to keep the Bosnian Croat alliance ali ve.[63] The situation became more serious in October 1992 when Croat forces attacked the Bosniak population in Prozor. According to Jadranko Prli indictment, HVO forces cleansed most of the Muslims from the town of Prozor and several surrounding vil lages.[47] By 1993 when an armed conflict erupted between the predominantly Bosniak governm ent in Sarajevo and the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia, about 70% of the cou ntry was controlled by Republika Srpska. Ethnic cleansing and civil rights viola tions against non-Serbs were rampant in these areas. DNA teams have been used to collect evidence of the atrocities committed by Serbian forces during these cam paigns.[64] The single most prominent example was the Srebrenica massacre, ruled a genocide by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. An estimated 8,372 Bosnians were killed by the Serbian political authorities.[65] In March 1994, the signing of the Washington Accords between the leaders of the republican government and Herzeg-Bosnia led to the creation of a joint Bosniak-C roat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which absorbed the territory of the C roatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia and that held by the Army of the Republic of B osnia and Herzegovina. The Federation soon liberated the small Autonomous Provin ce of Western Bosnia. Bosnia and Herzegovina after the Dayton Agreement. Following the Srebrenica massacre, a NATO bombing campaign began in August 1995 against the Army of Republika Srpska. Meanwhile, a ground offensive by the allie d forces of Croatia and Bosnia, based on the Split Agreement signed by Tudjman a nd Izetbegovi, pushed the Serbs away from territories held in western Bosnia whic h paved the way to negotiations. In December 1995, the signing of the Dayton Agr eement in Dayton, Ohio, by the presidents of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Alija Izetb egovi), Croatia (Franjo Tuman) and Serbia (Slobodan Milo evi) brought a halt to the f ighting, roughly establishing the basic structure of the present-day state. A NA TO-led peacekeeping force was immediately dispatched to Bosnia to enforce the ag reement. The number of identified victims is currently at 97,207 (civilian and military c

asualties). These include 64,341 Bosniaks, 24,726 Serbs, and 7,602 Croats.[66] R ecent research estimates the total number to be no more than 110,000 killed (civ ilians and military),[67][68][69] and 1.8 million displaced. Those declared miss ing are being investigated by International Commission on Missing Persons. According to numerous International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) judgements, the conflict involved Bosnia and the Federal Republic of Yugo slavia (subsequently Serbia and Montenegro)[70] as well as Croatia.[71] At the International Court of Justice (ICJ), the Bosnian government charged Serb ia of complicity in genocide in Bosnia during the war. The ICJ ruling of 26 Febr uary 2007 effectively determined the war's nature to be international, though ex onerating Serbia of direct responsibility for the genocide committed by Serb for ces of Republika Srpska. The ICJ concluded, however, that Serbia failed to preve nt genocide committed by Serb forces and failed to punish those who carried out the genocide in particular General Ratko Mladi and bring them to justice.[72] Mla di was arrested in a village in northern Serbia on 26 May 2011 and, among other g enocide and war crime charges, accused of directly orchestrating and overseeing the slaughter of 8,000 Muslim men and boys.[73] The judges ruled that the criteria for genocide with the specific intent (dolus specialis) to destroy Bosnian Muslims were met only in Srebrenica or Eastern Bos nia in 1995.[74] The court concluded that the crimes committed during the 1992 199 5 war may, according to international law, amount to crimes against humanity, bu t that these acts did not in themselves constitute genocide.[75] The Court furth er decided that Serbia was the only respondent party in the case after Montenegr o's declaration of independence in June 2006, but that "any responsibility for p ast events involved, at the relevant time, the composite State of Serbia and Mon tenegro".[76] High-ranking Croat and Bosniak officials have been convicted or indicted for war crimes as well on charges related to the murder, rape, torture, and imprisonmen t of civilians.[77] Serbs have accused Sarajevo authorities of practicing select ive justice by actively prosecuting Serbs while ignoring or downplaying Bosniak war crimes.[78] Geography[edit]

Topographic map of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Various parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina: The coast of Neum; Igman mountain with the Olympic ski jumping hills covered in snow; some landscape near Treskavica mo untain and Mountain Prenj. Main article: Geography of Bosnia and Herzegovina See also: List of mountains in Bosnia and Herzegovina, List of lakes in Bosnia a nd Herzegovina, and List of rivers of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia is located in the western Balkans, bordering Croatia (932 km or 579 mi) t o the north and south-west, Serbia (302 km or 188 mi) to the east, and Montenegr o (225 km or 140 mi) to the southeast. It lies between latitudes 42 and 46 N, and longitudes 15 and 20 E. The country's name comes from the two regions Bosnia and Herzegovina, which have a very vaguely defined border between them. Bosnia occupies the northern areas which are roughly four-fifths of the entire country, while Herzegovina occupies the rest in the south part of the country. The country is mostly mountainous, encompassing the central Dinaric Alps. The no rtheastern parts reach into the Pannonian basin, while in the south it borders t he Adriatic. Dinaric Alps generally run in east-west direction, and get higher t owards the south. The highest point of the country is peak Magli at 2,386 m, at t he Montenegrin border. Major mountains include Kozara, Grme, Vla i, vrsnica, Prenj, R omanija, Jahorina, Bjela nica and Treskavica.

Overall, close to 50% of Bosnia and Herzegovina is forested. Most forest areas a re in Central, Eastern and Western parts of Bosnia. Herzegovina has drier Medite rranean climate, with dominant karst topography. Northern Bosnia (Posavina) cont ains very fertile agricultural land along the river Sava and the corresponding a rea is heavily farmed. This farmland is a part of the Parapannonian Plain stretc hing into neighboring Croatia and Serbia. The country has only 20 kilometers (12 mi) of coastline,[7] around the town of Neum in the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton. Although the city is surrounded by Croatian peninsulas, by the international la w, Bosnia and Herzegovina has a right of passage to the outer sea. The major cities are the capital Sarajevo, Banja Luka in the northwest region kn own as Bosanska Krajina, Bijeljina and Tuzla in the northeast, Zenica and Doboj in the central part of Bosnia and Mostar, the capital of Herzegovina. There are seven major rivers in Bosnia and Herzegovina[79] The Sava is the largest river of the country, but it only forms its northern nat ural border with Croatia. It drains 76%[79] of the country's territory into the Danube and the Black Sea. Bosnia and Herzegovina is therefore also a member of t he International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River (ICPDR). The Una, Sana and Vrbas are right tributaries of Sava river. They are located in the northwestern region of Bosanska Krajina. The Bosna river gave its name to the country, and is the longest river fully con tained within it. It stretches through central Bosnia, from its source near Sara jevo to Sava in the north. The Drina flows through the eastern part of Bosnia, and for the most part it for ms a natural border with Serbia. The Neretva is the major river of Herzegovina and the only major river that flow s south, into the Adriatic Sea. Phytogeographically, Bosnia and Herzegovina belongs to the Boreal Kingdom and is shared between the Illyrian province of the Circumboreal Region and Adriatic pr ovince of the Mediterranean Region. According to the WWF, the territory of Bosni a and Herzegovina can be subdivided into three ecoregions: the Pannonian mixed f orests, Dinaric Mountains mixed forests and Illyrian deciduous forests. Government and politics[edit] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve th is article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be ch allenged and removed. (February 2010) Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBi H); Republika Srpska (RS); and Brko District (BD). Bosnia and Herzegovina's government building in Sarajevo. The Presidency Building in central Sarajevo. Building of the government of the Republika Srpska. Main articles: Politics of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Political divisions of Bos nia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina has several levels of political structuring, according to the Dayton accord. The most important of these levels is the division of the co untry into two entities: Republika Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia and Herze govina. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina covers 51% of Bosnia and Herzeg ovina's total area, while Republika Srpska covers 49%. The entities, based large ly on the territories held by the two warring sides at the time, were formally e stablished by the Dayton peace agreement in 1995 because of the tremendous chang es in Bosnia and Herzegovina's ethnic structure. Since 1996 the power of the ent

ities relative to the State government has decreased significantly. Nonetheless, entities still have numerous powers to themselves. The Brko District in the nort h of the country was created in 2000 out of land from both entities. It official ly belongs to both, but is governed by neither, and functions under a decentrali zed system of local government. The Brko District has been praised for maintainin g a multiethnic population and a level of prosperity significantly above the nat ional average.[80] The third level of Bosnia and Herzegovina's political subdivision is manifested in cantons. They are unique to the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina entity, which consists of ten of them. All of them have their own cantonal government, w hich is under the law of the Federation as a whole. Some cantons are ethnically mixed and have special laws implemented to ensure the equality of all constituen t people. The fourth level of political division in Bosnia and Herzegovina is the municipa lities. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is divided in 74 municipalities , and Republika Srpska in 63. Municipalities also have their own local governmen t, and are typically based on the most significant city or place in their territ ory. As such, many municipalities have a long tradition and history with their p resent boundaries. Some others, however, were only created following the recent war after traditional municipalities were split by the Inter-Entity Boundary Lin e. Each canton in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of several m unicipalities, which are divided into local communities. Besides entities, cantons, and municipalities, Bosnia and Herzegovina also has f our "official" cities. These are: Banja Luka, Mostar, Sarajevo, and East Sarajev o. The territory and government of the cities of Banja Luka and Mostar correspon ds to the municipalities of the same name, while the cities of Sarajevo and East Sarajevo officially consist of several municipalities. Cities have their own ci ty government whose power is in between that of the municipalities and cantons ( or the entity, in the case of Republika Srpska). As a result of the Dayton Accords, the civilian peace implementation is supervis ed by the High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina selected by the Peace I mplementation Council. The High Representative has many governmental and legisla tive powers, including the dismissal of elected and non-elected officials. More recently, several central institutions have been established (such as defense mi nistry, security ministry, state court, indirect taxation service and so on) in the process of transferring part of the jurisdiction from the entities to the st ate. The representation of the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina is by elites who represent the country's three major groups, with each having a guaranteed share of power. The Chair of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina rotates among three member s (Bosniak, Serb, Croat), each elected as the Chair for an eight-month term with in their four-year term as a member. The three members of the Presidency are ele cted directly by the people with Federation voters voting for the Bosniak and th e Croat, and the Republika Srpska voters for the Serb. The Chair of the Council of Ministers is nominated by the Presidency and approve d by the House of Representatives. He or she is then responsible for appointing a Foreign Minister, Minister of Foreign Trade, and others as appropriate. The Parliamentary Assembly is the lawmaking body in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It c onsists of two houses: the House of Peoples and the House of Representatives. Th e House of Peoples has 15 delegates, two-thirds of which come from the Federatio n (5 Croat and 5 Bosniaks) and one-third from the Republika Srpska (5 Serbs). Th e House of Representatives is composed of 42 Members, two-thirds elected from th e Federation and one-third elected from the Republika Srpska. The Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina is the supreme, final arbiter of legal matters. It is composed of nine members: four members are selected by the House of Representatives of the Federation, two by the Assembly of the Repub lika Srpska, and three by the President of the European Court of Human Rights af ter consultation with the Presidency. However, the highest political authority in the country is the High Representati

ve in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the chief executive officer for the international civilian presence in the country. Since 1995, the High Representative has been a ble to bypass the elected parliamentary assembly, and since 1997 has been able t o remove elected officials. The methods selected by the High Representative have been criticized as undemocratic.[81] International supervision is to end when t he country is deemed politically and democratically stable and self-sustaining. Military[edit] Main article: Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina See also: Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina The Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina were unified into a single entity in 2005, with the merger of the Army of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina an d the Army of Republika Srpska, which had defended their respective regions. The Ministry of Defense had been founded in 2004. The Bosnian military consists of the Bosnian Ground Forces and Air Force and Air Defense. The Ground Forces number 10,000 active and 5,000 reserve personnel. Th ey are armed with a mix of American, Yugoslavian, Soviet, and European-made weap onry, vehicles, and military equipment. The Air Force and Air Defense Forces has 2,500 personnel and about 45 aircraft. All of its aircraft are utility helicopt ers and basic trainers. The Air Defense Forces operate MANPAD hand-held missiles , surface-to-air missile (SAM) batteries, anti-aircraft cannons, and radar. Almo st all of its anti-aircraft equipment is of Soviet origin, though it also operat es some U.S. and Swedish hardware. Foreign relations[edit] Main article: Foreign relations of Bosnia and Herzegovina See also: Accession of Bosnia and Herzegovina to the European Union EU integration is one of the main political objectives of Bosnia and Herzegovina ; it initiated the Stabilisation and Association Process in 2007. Countries part icipating in the SAP have been offered the possibility to become, once they fulf ill the necessary conditions, Member States of the EU. Bosnia and Herzegovina is therefore a potential candidate country for EU accession.[82] The implementatio n of the Dayton Accords of 1995 has focused the efforts of policymakers in Bosni a and Herzegovina, as well as the international community, on regional stabiliza tion in the countries-successors of the former Yugoslavia. Within Bosnia and Her zegovina, relations with its neighbors of Croatia, Serbia and Montenegro have be en fairly stable since the signing of the Dayton Agreement in 1995. On 23 April 2010, Bosnia and Herzegovina received the Membership Action Plan fro m NATO, which is the last step before full membership in the alliance. Full memb ership is expected in 2014 or 2015, depending on the progress of reforms. Demographics[edit]

A Roman Catholic church, a mosque, and a Serbian Orthodox church in Bosanska Kru pa. Main articles: Demographics of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Demographic history of Bosnia and Herzegovina Further information: Ethnic groups in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Religion in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and List of people from Bosnia and Herzegovina Religion in Bosnia and Herzegovina religion percent Islam ? 45% Serbian Orthodoxy ? 36% Catholicism ? 15% Protestantism

? 1% Others ? 3% Bosnia and Herzegovina is home to three ethnic "constituent peoples": Bosniaks, Serbs and Croats. According to the 1991 census, Bosnia and Herzegovina had a pop ulation of 4,377,000, while the 1996 UNHCR unofficial census showed a decrease t o 3,920,000.[citation needed] Large population migrations during the Yugoslav wa rs in the 1990s have caused demographic shifts in the country. No census has bee n taken since 1991/96, and political disagreements have made it impossible to or ganize one. Nevertheless, a census has been planned for 2012.,[83] but that date has been delayed until 2013. As almost all of the post-war data is simply an es timate, a census would be a statistical, inclusive, and objective way to analyze the demographics of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Most sources, however, estimate the population to be about four million, representing a decrease of 500,000 since 1 991. The last official estimate by BHAS (Agency for Statistics of BiH) for 2011 shows a decrease of the population to 3,148,000.[84] Other BHAS estimation of po pulation done on 30 June 2009 is 3,227,000.[85] Ethnically, according to data from 2000 cited by the Central Intelligence Agency , Bosniaks constitute Bosniak 48% of the population, Serbs 37.1%, Croats 14.3%, and others form 0.6%.[2] According to unofficial estimates from the Bosnian Stat e Statistics Agency cited by the US Department of State in 2008, 45 percent of t he population identify religiously as Muslim, 36 percent as Serb Orthodox, 15 pe rcent as Roman Catholic, 1 percent as Protestant, and 3 percent other (mostly at heists, Jews, and others).[86] Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian are official langua ges, but all three are mutually intelligible standards of Serbo-Croatian. v t e Largest cities or towns of Bosnia and Herzegovina 2012 estimate[87] Rank City name Division Pop. Rank City name Pop. ! Sarajevo Banja Luka 300,855 11 Tuzla 1 Sarajevo Istono Sarajevo Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Republika Srpska 28,443

Division

Zenica 2 Banja Luka Republika Srpska 238,353 Republika Srpska 26,781 3 Tuzla Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Republika Srpska 26,604 4 Zenica Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Republika Srpska 24,165 5 Bijeljina Republika Srpska 78,960 a Srpska 23,256 6 Mostar Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Republika Srpska 22,936 7 Prijedor Republika Srpska 43,307 Republika Srpska 22,058 8 Brko Brko District 38,968 18 Milii 20,136 9 Biha Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina ost Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina 19,060 10 Doboj Republika Srpska 31,794 20 snia and Herzegovina 19,044 Economy[edit]

12

Trebinje Derventa Zvornik Republik amac

99,543 13 93,233 14 15

Gradi ka

68,392 16 17 Novi Grad

Republika Srpska 37,511 19 Sanski M

Bugojno Federation of Bo

Graphical depiction of Bosnia and Herzegovina's product exports in 28 color-code d categories. The Avaz Twist Tower is the headquarters of the newspaper Dnevni avaz. Sarajevska Pivara, a Sarajevo brewery. Main article: Economy of Bosnia and Herzegovina See also: List of companies of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia faces the dual-problem of rebuilding a war-torn country and introducing t ransitional liberal market reforms to its formerly mixed economy. One legacy of the previous era is a strong industry; under former republic president emal Bijedi, an SFRY President Josip Broz Tito, metal industries were promoted in the republi c, resulting in the development of a large share of Yugoslavia's plants,and S.R. Bosnia and Herzegovina had a very strong industrial export oriented Economy in the 1970s and 1980s, with large scale exports in worth millions of USD$. For the most of Bosnia's history, agriculture has been privately owned farms;Fre sh food has traditionally been export from republic.[88] The war in the 1990s caused a dramatic change in the Bosnian economy.[89] GDP fe ll by 75% and the destruction of physical infrastructure devastated the economy. [90] While much of the production capacity never been restored, the Bosnian econ omy still faces considerable difficulties. Figures show GDP and per capita incom e increased 10% from 2003 to 2004; this and Bosnia's shrinking national debt bei ng negative trends,and high unemployment 44,6% and a large trade deficit remain cause for concern. The national currency is the (Euro-pegged) Convertible Mark (KM), controlled by the currency board. Annual inflation is the lowest relative to other countries i n the region at 1.9% in 2004.[91] The international debt was $3.1 billion (2005 est) the smallest amount of debt owed of all the former Yugoslav republics. Real GDP growth rate was 5% for 2004 according to the Bosnian Central Bank of BiH an d Statistical Office of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bosnia and Herzegovina has one of the lowest income equality rankings in the wor ld, ranking eighth out of 193 nations.[92] According to Eurostat data, Bosnia and Herzegovina's PPS GDP per capita stood at 29 per cent of the EU average in 2010.[93] The International Monetary Fund (IMF) announced a loan to Bosnia worth $500 mill ion to be delivered by Stand-By Arrangement. This is scheduled to be approved in September 2012.[94] Overall value of foreign direct investment (1999 2008):[95] 1999: 166 million 2000: 159 million 2001: 133 million 2002: 282 million 2003: 338 million 2004: 534 million 2005: 421 million 2006: 556 million 2007: 1.628 billion 2008: 1.083 billion From 1994 to 2008, 5.3 billion were invested in the country.[96] The top investor countries (1994 2007):[95] Austria ( 1,294 million) Serbia ( 773 million) Croatia ( 434 million) Slovenia ( 427 million) Switzerland ( 337 million) Germany ( 270 million)

Italy ( 94.29 million) Netherlands ( 63.52 million) United Arab Emirates ( 56.70 million) Turkey ( 54.81 million) All Other Countries ( 892.54 million) Foreign investments by sector for (1994 2007):[95] 37.7% Manufacturing 21% Banking 4.9% Services 9.6% Trade 0.30% Transport 1% Tourism The United States Embassy in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina produces the Count ry Commercial Guide an annual report that delivers a comprehensive look at Bosni a and Herzegovina s commercial and economic environment, using economic, political , and market analysis. It can be viewed on Embassy Sarajevo s website. Transport[edit] Main article: Transport in Bosnia and Herzegovina Train Trip from Sarajevo to Mostar via Neretva River scenery. Sarajevo International Airport (IATA: SJJ, ICAO: LQSA), also known as Butmir Air port, is the main international airport in Bosnia and Herzegovina, located 3.3 N M (6.1 km; 3.8 mi) southwest of the railway station[97] in the capital city of S arajevo in the suburb of Butmir. Railway operations in Bosnia and Herzegovina are successors of the Yugoslav Rail ways within the country boundaries following independence from the Former Yugosl avia in 1992. Communications[edit] Main article: Telecommunications in Bosnia and Herzegovina The Bosnian communications market was fully liberalised in January 2006. There a re three landline telephone providers, although each one predominantly serves a partile services are provided by three operators, with nationwide services. Mobi le data services are also available, including high-speed EDGE and 3G services.[ 98] Osloboenje (Liberation), founded in 1943, is one of the country's longest running continuously circulating newspapers. There are many national publications, only some of which include the Dnevni Avaz (Daily Voice), founded in 1995, and Jutar nje Novine (Morning News) in circulation in Sarajevo.[99] Other local periodical s include the Croatian newspaper Hrvatska rije and the Bosnian magazine Start, as well as the weekly newspapers Slobodna Bosna (Free Bosnia) and BH Dani (BH Days ). Novi Plamen, a monthly magazine, is the most left-wing publication currently. The international news station Al Jazeera maintains a sister channel that cater s to the Balkan region, Al Jazeera Balkans, broadcasting out of and based in Sar ajevo.[100] Additionally, the country is the most liberated in terms of freedom of the press in the region, ranking 43rd internationally.[101] Tourism[edit]

Various tourist attractions: Sarajevo, the capital and the largest city in Bosni a and Herzegovina; Marian shrine of Meugorje; general view of Mostar (with the St ari Most); Trebinje town and river; and the Mehmed Pa a Sokolovi Bridge in Vi egrad. Main article: Tourism in Bosnia and Herzegovina See also: Sites of interest in Sarajevo According to an estimation of the World Tourism Organization, Bosnia and Herzego vina will have the third highest tourism growth rate in the world between 1995 a nd 2020.[102]

In 2012 Bosnia-Herzegovina had 747.827 tourists an increase of 9% and 1.645.521 overnight stays which is an 9,4% increase from 2012. 58,6% of the tourists came from foreign countries.[103] In 2006, when ranking the best cities in the world, Lonely Planet placed Sarajev o, the national capital and host of the 1984 Winter Olympic Games, as #43, ahead of Dubrovnik at #59, Ljubljana at #84, Bled at #90, Belgrade at #113, and Zagre b at #135.[104] Tourism in Sarajevo is chiefly focused on historical, religious, and cultural aspects. In 2010, Lonely Planet's "Best In Travel" nominated it as one of the top ten cities to visit that year.[105] Sarajevo also won travel blo g Foxnomad's "Best City to Visit" competition in 2012, beating more than one hun dred other cities around the entire world.[106] Meugorje has become one of the most popular pilgrimage sites for Christians in th e world and has turned into Europe's third most important religious place, where each year more than 1 million people visit.[107] It has been estimated that 30 million pilgrims have come to Meugorje since the reputed apparitions began in 198 1.[108] Bosnia has also become an increasingly popular skiing and Ecotourism destination . Bosnia and Herzegovina remains one of the last undiscovered natural regions of the southern area of the Alps, with vast tracts of wild and untouched nature at tracting adventurers and nature lovers. National Geographic magazine named Bosni a and Herzegovina as the best mountain biking adventure destination for 2012.[10 9] The central Bosnian Dinaric Alps are favored by hikers and mountaineers, cont aining both Mediterranean and Alpine climates. Whitewater rafting is somewhat of a national pastime, with three rivers, including the deepest river canyon in Eu rope, the Tara River Canyon.[102] Most recently, The Huffington Post named Bosnia and Herzegovina the "9th Greates t Adventure in the World for 2013", adding that the country boasts "the cleanest water and air in Europe; the greatest untouched forests; and the most wildlife. The best way to experience is the three rivers trip, which purls through the be st the Balkans have to offer."[110] Tourist attractions[edit] Some of the tourist attractions in Bosnia and Herzegovina include: Sarajevo, the "Olympic City" or "European Jerusalem"; the scientific, cultural, tourist and commercial center of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Shrine of Our Lady of Meugorje, with Annual Youth Festival; the site of a Marian apparition and subsequent Catholic pilgrimage destination. Mostar, the "City on Neretva" or "City of Sunshine"; the location of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites of Stari most and old-town Mostar. Srebrenica, where the worst war crimes committed in Europe since World War II oc curred; features natural beauty, rafting and boat-rides along on the Drina river to Vi egrad via the second-deepest canyon in Europe. Vi egrad, location of the UNESCO World Heritage Site of the Mehmed Pa a Sokolovi Brid ge. Banja Luka, the "Green City", with sights such as the Kastel fortress and Ferhad ija mosque. Biha and the wateralls of the river Una within Una National Park. Jajce, city of the Bosnian kings and the place where Yugoslavia was founded. Prijedor, featuring its Old City Mosque, Kozara National Park and, at Mrakovica, Bosnia's largest World War II monument. The salt-lakes of Tuzla, birthplace of Me a Selimovi. The Neretva river and the Rakitnica river canyons in Upper Neretva. The Trebi at river and its waterfalls at Kravice and Kou a. The Buna with its spring and historic town of Blagaj. The Lower Tara river canyon, the deepest canyon in Europe. Sutjeska National Park, featuring the ancient forest of Peruica (one of the last two remaining primeval forests in Europe) and the Sutjeska river canyon. Poitelj historical village. Mount Bjela nica and Jahorina, sites used during XIV Olympic Winter Games in 1984. The coastal city of Neum. Doboj and its 13th-century fortress.

Stolac, featuring the Begovina neighborhood and Radimlja tombstones. Visoko, city of the Bosnian nobility and monarchy, historical capital of the Kin gdom of Bosnia and the site of the alleged Bosnian pyramids; Te anj, one of Bosnia's oldest known cities. Bijeljina, known for its agriculture and ethnic village Stani i. Lukavac, featuring Modrac Lake (Jezero Modrac), the largest artificial lake in B osnia and Herzegovina. Travnik, the birthplace of Ivo Andri and once the capital city of the Bosnia Eyal et. Jablanica, Museum of Case White and Old bridge destroyed by Yugoslav army in Sec ond World War. Ostro ac Castle, a 16th-century castle built by the Ottoman Empire and later expan ded by the House of Habsburg. Gornji Vakuf Konjic, featuring Tito's underground nuclear bunker.[111] Education[edit]

The University of Sarajevo's Faculty of Law. The University of Bijeljina Main article: Education in Bosnia and Herzegovina Higher education has a long and rich tradition in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The fi rst bespoke higher-education institution was a school of Sufi philosophy establi shed by Gazi Husrev-beg in 1531. Numerous other religious schools then followed. In 1887, under the Austro-Hungarian Empire, a Sharia law school began a five-ye ar program.[112] In the 1940s the University of Sarajevo became the city's first secular higher education institute. In the 1950s post-bachelaurate graduate deg rees became available.[113] Severely damaged during the war, it was recently reb uilt in partnership with more than 40 other universities. There are various othe r institutions of higher education, including: University "D emal Bijedi" of Mostar , University of Banja Luka, University of Mostar, University of East Sarajevo, U niversity of Tuzla, American University in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Academ y of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which is held in high regard a s one of the most prestigious creative arts academies in the region. Also, Bosnia and Herzegovina is home to several private and international higher education institutions, some of which are: Sarajevo School of Science and Technology International University of Sarajevo American University in Bosnia and Herzegovina Sarajevo Graduate School of Business International Burch University Primary schooling lasts for nine years. Secondary education is provided by gener al and technical secondary schools (typically Gymnasiums) where studies typicall y last for four years. All forms of secondary schooling include an element of vo cational training. Pupils graduating from general secondary schools obtain the M atura and can enroll in any tertiary educational institution or academy by passi ng a qualification examination prescribed by the governing body or institution. Students graduating technical subjects obtain a Diploma.[114] Culture[edit]

National and University Library of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Travnik-born writer Ivo Andri won the 1961 Nobel Prize in Literature for his nove l The Bridge on the Drina.

Main article: Culture of Bosnia and Herzegovina Architecture[edit] Main article: Architecture of Bosnia and Herzegovina The architecture of Bosnia and Herzegovina is largely influenced by four major p eriods where political and social changes influenced the creation of distinct cu ltural and architectural habits of the population. Each period made its influenc e felt and contributed to a greater diversity of cultures and architectural lang uage in this region. Literature[edit] Main article: Literature of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina has a rich literature, including a Nobel prize winner Ivo Andri and poets such as Antun Branko imi, Aleksa anti, Jovan Dui and Mak Dizdar, writ rs such as Me a Selimovi, Semezdin Mehmedinovi, Miljenko Jergovi, Isak Samokovlija, S afvet beg Ba agi, Abdulah Sidran, Petar Koi, Aleksandar Hemon, and Ned ad Ibri imovi. The National Theater was founded 1919 in Sarajevo and its first director was famous drama-play writer Branislav Nu i. Magazines such as Novi Plamen or Sarajevske bilje znice are some of the more prominent publications covering cultural and literary themes. Besides native Bosnian literature there are many books which cover the nineties Bosnian conflict written by international authors. A few books worthy of mention are: Slaughterhouse: Bosnia and the Failure of the West by David Rieff Love Thy Neighbor: A Story of War by Peter Maass Safe Area Gorazde: The War in Eastern Bosnia 1992 1995 by Joe Sacco, and Christoph er Hitchens The Balkans: Nationalism, War & the Great Powers, 1804 1999 by Misha Glenny Zlata's Diary: A Child's Life in Wartime Sarajevo, by Zlata Filipovi and in novels: From Bosnia with Love by Javed Mohammed, S: A novel about the Balkans by Slavenk a Drakuli. Art[edit]

Steci from Radimlja, near Stolac (13th century). Main article: Art of Bosnia and Herzegovina The art of Bosnia and Herzegovina was always evolving and ranged from the origin al medieval tombstones called Steci to paintings in Kotromani court. However, only with the arrival of Austro-Hungarians did the painting renaissance in Bosnia re ally begin to flourish. The first educated artists from European academies appea red with the beginning of 20th century. Among those are: Gabrijel Jurki, Petar Ti je i, Karlo Miji, piro Bocari, Petar ain, oko Mazali, Roman Petrovi and Lazar Drljaa , artists such as: Ismet Mujezinovi, Vojo Dimitrijevi, Ivo eremet, and Mica Todorov i among others came to rise. After World War II artists like: Virgilije Nevjesti, Bekir Misirli, Ljubo Lah, Meho Sefi, Franjo Likar, Mersad Berber, Ibrahim Ljubovi, D evad Hozo, Affan Rami, Safet Zec, Ismar Mujezinovi and Mehmed Zaimovi rose in popul arity. In 2007, Ars Aevi, a museum of contemporary art that includes works by re nowned world artists was founded in Sarajevo. Music[edit] Vedran Smailovi, the "Cellist of Sarajevo". Main article: Music of Bosnia and Herzegovina See also: List of Bosnia and Herzegovina patriotic songs Typical Bosnian and Herzegovinian songs are ganga, rera, and the traditional Sla vic music for the folk dances such as kolo and from Ottoman era the most popular is sevdalinka. Pop and Rock music has a tradition here as well, with the more f amous musicians including Dino Zoni, Goran Bregovi, Davorin Popovi, Kemal Monteno, Zdravko oli, Edo Maajka, Hari Mata Hari and Dino Merlin. Very popular are also the numerous Slavic Metal bands, performing an interesting combination of upbeat te mpos and traditional tunes. Among them Silent Kingdom, Emir Hot, D'n'K, Toxicdea

th, Agonize and Irina Kapetanovi, often performing with folk metal musicians from other neighbouring Slavic countries like Stribog (Croatia), Svarica (Croatia/Bo snia) and Arkona (Russia). Also, it would be unfair not to mention some of the t alented composers such as ore Novkovi, Al' Dino, Haris D inovi, Kornelije Kova, and man y pop and rock bands, for example, Bijelo Dugme, Crvena Jabuka, Divlje Jagode, I ndexi, Plavi Orkestar, Zabranjeno Pu enje, who were among the leading ones in the former Yugoslavia. Bosnia is home to the composer Du an esti, the creator of the cur rent national anthem of Bosnia and Herzegovina and father of singer Marija esti, c omposer Sa a Lo i and pianist Sasha Toperich. In the villages, especially in Herzegov ina, Bosniaks, Serbs, and Croats play the ancient Gusle. The gusle is used mainl y to recite epic poems in a usually dramatic tone. Probably the most distinctive and identifiably "Bosnian" of music, Sevdalinka is a kind of emotional, melancholic folk song that often describes sad subjects su ch as love and loss, the death of a dear person or heartbreak. Sevdalinkas were traditionally performed with a saz, a Turkish string instrument, which was later replaced by the accordion. However the more modern arrangement, to the derision of some purists, is typically a vocalist accompanied by the accordion along wit h snare drums, upright bass, guitars, clarinets and violins. Sevdalinkas are uni que to Bosnia and Herzegovina as they are not only a mix of Turkish and Bosnian music, especially Muslim religious melodies called ilahije/nasheeds. Example of songs mixing all three influences are "Kad ja pooh na Benba u", the unofficial anth em of the city of Sarajevo, and "Kraj Tanana adrvana". Though not as common as it once was, traditional Sevdalinka singers like Kadir Kurtagi, Emina Ahmedhod i, Ha im Muharemovi and Muhamed Me anovi-Hami are still popular to the extent that their recor dings are available. Cinema and theatre[edit] Main article: List of Bosnia-Herzegovina films Sarajevo Film Festival logo Sarajevo is internationally renowned for its eclectic and diverse selection of f estivals. The Sarajevo Film Festival was established in 1995 during the Bosnian War and has become the premier and largest film festival in the Balkans and Sout h-East Europe. Bosnia has a rich cinematic and film heritage, dating back to the Kingdom of Yug oslavia; many Bosnian filmmakers have achieved international prominence and some have won international awards ranging from the Academy Awards to multiple Palme d'Ors and Golden Bears. Some notable Bosnian filmmakers, screenwriters and cine matographers are Academy Award-winner Du an Vukoti, who won an Oscar for best anima ted short film in 1961 for Surogat ("Ersatz"), being the first foreigner to do s o. Emir Kusturica (won two Palme d'Or at Cannes), Danis Tanovi (known for the Aca demy Award and Golden Globe winning 2001 film No Man's Land), Golden Bear-winning J asmila bani, Ademir Kenovi, the late Benjamin Filipovi, Jasmin Dizdar, Pjer alica, Sra n Vuleti, Dino Mustafi, Aida Begi, among many others. Sports[edit]

Sarajevo 1984 Winter Olympics logo Bosnia and Herzegovina has produced many athletes, both as a state in Yugoslavia and independently after 1992. The most important international sporting event in the history of Bosnia and Her zegovina was the hosting of the 14th Winter Olympics, held in Sarajevo from 7 to 19 February 1984. Some notable local Olympians were: Rome, 1960: Tomislav Knez and Velimir Sombolac (football), Tokyo, 1964: Mirsad Fazlagi (football), Munich, 1972: Abaz Arslanagi, Milorad Karali, Neboj a Popovi, ore Lavrini, Dobrivoje Se e (handball) Moscow, 1980: Mirza Deliba i and Ratko Radovanovi (basketball) Los Angeles, 1984: Zdravko Raenovi, Zlatan Arnautovi (handball) and Anton Josipovi (

boxing). The Borac handball club has won seven Yugoslav Handball Championships, as well a s the European Championship Cup in 1976 and the International Handball Federatio n Cup in 1991. The Bosna basketball club from Sarajevo were European Champions in 1979. The Yug oslav national basketball team, which medaled in every world championship from 1 963 through 1990, included Bosnian players such as Dra en Dalipagi and Mirza Deliba i. Bosnia and Herzegovina regularly qualifies for the European Championship in Bas ketball. Jedinstvo Aida women's basketball club, based in Tuzla, has won the 198 9 European Championships in Florence. Bosnia has produced many world-class basketball players, notably Mirza Teletovi, the first Bosnian to play in the NBA, who has signed a three-year deal with Broo klyn Nets. Among others are, Elmedin Kikanovi, Nihad edovi, Ognjen Kuzmi, Jusuf Nurk i, Ned ad Sinanovi, and Nemanja Mitrovi. The Tuzla-Sinalco karate club from Tuzla has won the most Yugoslav championships , as well as four European Championships and one World Championship. The Bosnian chess team has been Champion of Yugoslavia seven times, in addition to club K Bosna Sarajevo winning four Chess Club Cup : 1994 in Lyon, 1999 in Bugo jno, 2000 in Neum, and 2001 in Kallithea Elassonos. Chess grandmaster Borki Pred ojevi has also won two European Championships: Under-12 years Litochoro (Greece) in 1999, and Under-14 years Kallithea Elassonos (Greece) in 2001, and in 2003 wo n World Championship Under-16 years Halkidiki (Greece). The most impressive succ ess of Bosnian Chess was his runner-up position in Men's Olympiads of 1994 in Mo scow, featuring Grandmasters Predrag Nikoli, Ivan Sokolov, Bojan Kurajica and Emi r Dizdarevi. Middle-weight boxer Marijan Bene has won several Championships of Bosnia and Herz egovina, Yugoslav Championships and the European Championship.[115] In 1978 he w on the World Title against Elisha Obed from the Bahamas. Another middle-weight b oxer, Anton Josipovi won the Olympic Gold in Los Angeles, 1984. He also won Yugos lav Championship in 1982, the Championship of the Balkans in 1983, and the Belgr ade Trophy in 1985. Association football is the most popular sport in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It dat es from 1903, but its popularity grew significantly after World War I. At the lo cal level, FK Sarajevo (1967 and 1984), eljezniar (1972) have both won the Yugosla v Championship. The former Yugoslav national football team has included a number of Bosnian players, such as Josip Katalinski, Bla Sli kovi, Du an Bajevi, Enver Mari, M ehmed Ba darevi, Ivica Osim, Safet Su i, Vahidin Musemi and Faruk Had ibegi. Today, the team of Bosnia and Herzegovina has modern footballers like Edin D eko, Zvjezdan Misimovi, Vedad Ibi evi, Emir Spahi, Asmir Begovi, Miralem Pjani, Sejad Saliho vi, Senad Luli, Miroslav Stevanovi and others. The independent Bosnia and Herzegovi na national football team has not qualified for a European or World Championship but has played twice in the play-off stages. For all time matches: Bosnia and H erzegovina national football team results (1995-Present). Bosnian national teams have struggled to draft the best national players. Many p layers born in Bosnia and Herzegovina choose to play for other countries because of their ethnic identification. For example Nikica Jelavi and Vedran orluka were both born in Bosnia and Herzegovina but play for Croatia. Other internationally famous players from Bosnia and Herzegovina, who have made similar choices, are: Dejan Lovren, Mladen Petri, Mario Stani, Neven Suboti, Zlatan Ibrahimovi (born and r aised in Sweden, his mother a Croat, his father a Bosnian), Marko Marin, Savo Mi lo evi, and Zdravko Kuzmanovi. Bosnia and Herzegovina was the world champion of volleyball at the 2004 Summer P aralympics and volleyball at the 2012 Summer Paralympics. Many among those on th e team lost their legs in the Bosnian War. Cuisine[edit] Bosnian evapi in somun Turkish bread. Main article: Bosnia and Herzegovina cuisine Bosnian cuisine uses many spices, in moderate quantities. Most dishes are light,

as they are cooked in lots of water; the sauces are fully natural, consisting o f little more than the natural juices of the vegetables in the dish. Typical ing redients include tomatoes, potatoes, onions, garlic, peppers, cucumbers, carrots , cabbage, mushrooms, spinach, zucchini, dried beans, fresh beans, plums, milk, paprika and cream called Pavlaka. Bosnian cuisine is balanced between Western an d Eastern influences. As a result of the Ottoman administration for almost 500 y ears, Bosnian food is closely related to Turkish, Greek, and other former Ottoma n and Mediterranean cuisines. However, because of years of Austrian rule, there are many influences from Central Europe. Typical meat dishes include primarily b eef and lamb. Some local specialties are evapi, burek, dolma, sarma, pilaf, goula sh, ajvar and a whole range of Eastern sweets. Local wines come from Herzegovina where the climate is suitable for growing grapes. Herzegovinian loza (similar t o Italian Grappa but less sweet) is very popular. Plum (rakija) or apple (jabuko vaa) alcohol beverages are produced in the north. In the south, distilleries used to produce vast quantities of brandy and supply all of ex-Yugoslavian alcohol f actories (brandy is the base of most alcoholic drinks). Leisure activities[edit] Coffeehouses, where Bosnian coffee is served in d ezva with rahat lokum and sugar cubes, proliferate Sarajevo and every city in the country. Coffee drinking is a favorite Bosnian pastime and part of the culture. Bosnia and Herzegovina is the tenth country in the entire world by per capita coffee consumption.[116] See also[edit] Geography portal Europe portal Mediterranean portal Bosnia and Herzegovina portal Outline of Bosnia and Herzegovina List of people from Bosnia and Herzegovina List of populated places in Bosnia and Herzegovina List of radio stations in Bosnia and Herzegovina Rail transport in Bosnia and Herzegovina Transport in Bosnia and Herzegovina References[edit] ^ Agency of Statistics of Bosnia and Herzegovina. "About BiH". Agency of Statist ics of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Retrieved 23 February 2012. ^ a b c d "CIA The World Factbook Bosnia and Herzegovina". ^ Bosnian Statistics Agency, Demographics and Social statistics, accessed 08.05. 2012 ^ a b c d "Bosnia and Herzegovina". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 201304-17. ^ "Distribution of family income Gini index". The World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved 2009-09-01. ^ "Human Development Report 2011". United Nations. 2011. Retrieved 29 November 2 011. ^ a b Field Listing Coastline, The World Factbook, 2006-08-22 ^ Bosnia and Herzegovina: I: Introduction[dead link], Encarta, 2006. Archived 20 09-10-31. ^ Paul Mojzes. Religion and the war in Bosnia. Oxford University Press, 2000, p 22; "Medieval Bosnia was founded as an independent state (Banate) by Ban Kulin ( 1180-1204).". ^ Robert J. Donia, John V.A Fine (2005). Bosnia and Hercegovina: A Tradition Bet rayed. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers., p. 71; In the Middle Ages the Bosnians called themselves "Bosnians" or used even more local (county, regional) names. ^ Pal Kolsto (2005). Myths and boundaries in south-eastern Europe. Hurst & Co., p. 120; ..medieval Bosnia was a country of one people, of the single Bosnian peo ple called the Bo njani, who belonged to three confessions. ^ "Lonely Planet's Bosnia and Herzegovina Tourism Profile". Lonely Planet. ^ "About the Sarajevo Film Festival". Sarajevo Film Festival Official Website.

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ia, 1878 1914 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007). External links[edit] Find more about Bosnia and Herzegovina at Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions and translations from Wiktionary Media from Commons Learning resources from Wikiversity News stories from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Source texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Bosnia and Herzegovina entry at The World Factbook Bosnia and Herzegovina from UCB Libraries GovPubs Bosnia and Herzegovina at Facebook Bosnia and Herzegovina at the Open Directory Project Bosnia and Herzegovina from Balkan Insight Bosnia-Hercegovina profile from the BBC News. Wikimedia Atlas of Bosnia and Herzegovina (French) Audio clips: traditional music of Boznia-Herzegovina Muse d'Ethnographie de Geneve. Accessed 25 November 2010. Geographic data related to Bosnia and Herzegovina at OpenStreetMap Key Development Forecasts for Bosnia and Herzegovina from International Futures. Backpacking in Bosnia and Herzegovina Food from Bosnia and Herzegovina Croatia Croatia Croatia Serbia Bosnia and Herzegovina Croatia

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