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Copyright, 1915, 1917, by




Latin for the First Year



intended to prepare, in a simple



manner, for the reading of Latin authors. achieve the utmost simplicity of treatment consistent with

thoroughness and to make the study of Latin interesting were the chief aims of the authors.


pupils speaking English only, a highly inflected

language naturally presents special

The variety


case endings, tense endings, and tense signs, grammatical gender, the agreement of adjectives, and the order of words, are all pracRealizing that for tically new to the minds of beginners in Latin.

the pupil the most important


of the first year is to learn the

have endeavored to present At the beginning only one case is these clearly and logically. declension is learned. In the third in until the first a given lesson, declension the difficulties have been reduced to a minimum. Only one tense is given at a time in the development of the verb. Experience seems to show that it is best to contrast the forms of one tense in the different conjugations and later to contrast the tenses of each conjugation as a whole by synopses. Declensions and conjugations
inflections of the language, the authors

are given in alternate lessons, so far as possible. Syntax. In the matter of syntax the authors have endeavored
to avoid the error of attempting to teach all in one year. Only the The independent uses of the subessentials, therefore, are given.

junctive are omitted entirely.

The subordinate

clauses are those

of purpose, result, indirect question, and the more common clauses of time, cause, and condition. Much use is made of the infinitive

with subject accusative. Prepositional phrases are carefully distinguished, and the important ablative absolute is fully explained.

Rules and principles are derived inductively. Comparison is constantly made with English usage, though a thorough knowledge of
the technicalities of English



not assumed.

Vocabulary. The vocabulary of the eighty-two lessons includes about seven hundred words, which with few exceptions are used by

60553 9

The many standard quotations from Latin writers be appreciated by pupils as part of their permanent possession. Harter. Exercises. Words related in meaning are associated. so far as possible. August i. as an excellent drill in forms.. Chicago. however. E. B. For variety many interrogative sentences are used in the exercises. and in a measure will form a connecting link between the study of Latin and its practical use in our present-day activities. Y. and to J. not only summaries of In the forms and constructions. and not dependent upon the context of an author. K. Many sentences have been adapted.. Much emphasis has been laid in the twelve special review lessons. The constant aim has been to fix firmly repetition in the exercises the important principles of syntax explained in the lessons. fied In Lessons of XLII-LXXXII first portions Caesar's Bellum Helveticum. Johnson. 111. Lane Technical High School. from the reading matter for the second year. Quotations. Erasmus Hall High School. whenever a series is terminated. but also in the upon reviews. A section of fables and short stories in Latin has been added for general interest. by frequent Reviews. Chatterton. will The authors wish to acknowledge their indebtedness to Mr. Head of the Latin Department. In the Latin exercises the purpose has been to make short sentences that are intelligible in themselves. N. Connected Reading. but with fewer changes from the exact words of Caesar. 1915.VI PREFACE Caesar. Lippincott Company for the privilege of reproducing illustration of a Roman warship from " Ships and Ways of Other Days." by E. and to Mr. of English words is emphasized. Walter E. W. and simple The derivation words are given before their compound forms. many valuable Brooklyn. Appendix the inflections and rules of syntax are brought together. these paragraphs are simpliFollowing the is lessons this story of Caesar's campaign repeated. . who have given suggestions during the preparation of the manuscript and the reading of the proof. Short paragraphs for reading begin in Lesson X. to these. answers should be given in Latin. Head of the Classical Department.

The Present Infinitive XIV. Syllables. The Present Indicative. The Ablative Case. . 3 5 7 II. The Third and Fourth Conjugations: tive 28 Present 31 of Adjec- Indicative. The Nominative Case. The Direct Object The Genitive VI. Apposi- and Predicate Nouns XIII. 42 46 Third Conjugation in -io . Review XVIII. . The Second Declension: Neuter Nouns.CONTENTS Page Introduction: Lesson I.• 20 23 X. -urn. Review XL Gender. Ablative of the Agent The Passive Voice: Present Indicative (Completed).. 15 18 Accusative with Prepositions . The Accusative Case. Order of Words IX. V. The Latin Language Pronunciation i The Alphabet. Adjectives tives in -us. The First Declension: Plural. Case 12 . Active Voice 9 11 . in Agreement -er. Prepositional Phrases XVII. The VII. The Passive Voice: 39 41 XIX. -a. The First Declension: Singular.. The Second Declension: Masculine 24 Nouns XII. 33 Adjectives Possessive XV. Nouns and Pro- nominal Adjectives 36 XVI. The Dative Case VIII. The First Conjugation: Present Tense. Accent III. The Verb sum IV. The Second Conjugation: Present Tense.

Synopses XL. Indicative (Conjugations III and IV) Adjectives of the Third Declension. Place from Which XXIX. The Ablative is of Cause . The Third Declension: Nouns Declension: perfect Indicative of XX. 49 51 in -s. . The Future Perfect Indicative. The Ablative Case: Separation. 92 94 of the In- XXXIX. Review 84 87 Case. -6. The Future Indicative of sum XXIII. The Predicate Accusative 54 56 XXIV. The Fifth Declension. 63 65 67 II) 69 72 XXX. Indicative (Conjugations I and . Clauses . Expressions XXXVIII. . The Relative Pronoun qui. ille. The Demonstrative Pronouns hie. 104 106 109 113 116 XLIII. tions and Answers XXV. The Locative Expressions of 89 of Place Reviewed XXXVII. The Future Tense. The Third Declension: Genitive Plural in -ium XXVII. The Im- sum XXII. . -us. The Demonstrative Pronoun 118 . The 81 XXXIV. The Pluperfect Indicative Time . The Perfect Infinitive. Future Tense. The Imperfect Tense. The Imperfect Tense. The Present Infinitive.Vlll CONTENTS Lesson Page Nouns XXI. Special Nouns XXVIII. Ques59 62 . The Third in -1. Review XLII. Pronominal Adjectives Review 97 102 XLI. -x. Indicative Passive. The XXXIII. Fourth Declension Prefixes. The Dative with Adjectives Perfect Tense. XXXV. The Interrogative Pronoun quis. Indicative Passive 74 77 XXXII. dicative. The Objective Genitive XLV. Complex Sentences. iste. The XXXVI. XL VI. Review XXVI. The Third Declension: Neuter Nouns in -men. The Uses of the Infinitive XLIV. Indicative Active. The XXXI. -r . The Third Declension: Gender. Indicative Active Perfect Tense.

XL VIII. Deponents pose The Ablative with Certain 133 Active. The Imperative Mood. The Genitive and Ablative of Description . Participles: The Present and the Perfect . . The Ablative of Com157 161 163 166 LX. Clauses of Result LVII. Irregular Comparison of Adjectives LXI. LI. The Imperfect Subjunctive. view of Prepositions Re178 181 LXVII.. Review. Review of Pronouns. Review of the Sub. LXX. 183 185 iSS 191 193 . XL VII. The Demonstrative Pronoun idem. LIII. The Perfect Subjunctive. or ne LVI. . Adverbs: Their Formation and Comparison LXII. Noun Clauses with ut. Cardinal Numeral Extent The Accusative of LXV. . junctive. . LXVI. The Ablative Absolute LXXL The Future Participles. The Verb possum. L. Ordinal Adjectives. The Vocative Case LXIX. Temporal Clauses with cum Adjectives. The Genitive of the Whole. Review The Ablative of Specification 122 Personal and Reflexive Pronouns 126 129 131 XLIX.. The Present Subjunctive The Present Subjunctive pose Clauses of Pur136 Negative Pur139 142 147 LIV. Compounds of sum. The Gerundive.CONTENTS Lesson iX Page of the Infinitive. LVIII.. The Pluperfect Subjunctive. . Passive. Comparison parison of Adjectives. LII.. The Future Infinitive. The Intensive Pronoun ipse Review Deponent Verbs. Review 150 153 155 LIX. The Dative with Compound Verbs. Certain Noun Suffixes LXVIII. The Dative <>f the Agent LXXII. The Gerund . The Dative of the Possessor . 176 Indefinite Pronouns. . Primary and Secondary Tenses LV. 168 173 LXIV. The Dative with Special Verbs. .. Indirect Questions LXIII.

Adapted Supplementary Reading New York State Additional Supplementary Reading . The verb eo. Temporal Clauses LXXVII. Review of Conjunctions. LXXIII. Impersonal Clauses Verbs. The Verb fero. Review Subordinate LXXX. The Supine. Chapters 1-29. 204 207 Conditional Sentences of 209 212 215 217 218 221 LXXIX. Book I. Caesar. The Verbs void and nolo. Review of the Dative and the Accusative . Causal Clauses LXXVIII. Review. Adjective Suffixes flo. Review of the Ablative The War with the Helveth.X Lesson CONTENTS Page of Purpose.. The Irregular Verb Idioms LXXVI. Review of Expressions The Three Stem Systems 196 199 200 LXXIV. LXXXII. — 234 253 267 Syllabus Appendix Table of Abbreviations Latin-English Vocabulary English-Latin Vocabulary Vocabulary for the First Year labus 302 303 — New 328 York State Syl- 338 345 Index . Review of the Nominative and Genitive LXXXI.. LXXV.

Narni. Switzerland 69 72 .. A bas-relief on Trajan's Column The Rhone and the Alps. as it looks today the wall about Showing part Rome Roman Horsemen The Roman Army Marching 48 53 out. Pontresina..LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS PAGE The Roman Forum. Switzer- 55 land Roman Foot Soldier 58 61 65 Roman War Ship Roman Bridge. A restoration Frontispiece A Roman Emperor on his Way to the Baths. Now known as the Porta San Paolo 14 15 17 18 22 25 The Appian Way An Ancient Roman Sword Signum (Aquila) 29 30 36 38 41 43 of Roman Youth Standard Bearers Books of Ancient Rome The Roman Forum Porta Asinaria. AlmaTadema xiv 8 A Roman Trumpet A Street in Pompeii Writing Materials used by Romans . Italy The Alps. St. Roman Girl Coin of Julius Caesar The Ancient Porta Ostiensis... Maurice..

. Forte . Coomans. A Scene along the Rhine Temple in the Forum Boarium Ruins of Palace of the Caesars. Levy A fountain near the Colosseum.. 124 13. . 103 105 112 115 Julius Caesar A Street Scene in Ancient Rome. Pompeii. Italy Statue of a Roman Matron Attack on a German Fortress.. 184 Panels from the Painting "The Triumph of Caesar." Andrea Mantegna 202.. Alma-Tadema . As depicted on the column of Marcus Aurelius Captives Pleading for Mercy from a Roman 85 86 91 97 101 Conqueror A Roman Festival. E. . 76 Military Attire 79 83 Cornelius Sulla House oe the Vetii.Xii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS PAGE A Standard Bearer A Roman Emperor in Scutum L. 203 210 219 220 233 252 Roman Eagle and Oak Wreath Looking toward the Palatine Hill from the Forum . View of Rome as it looks today A Roman Woman and her Maids. Double page map (colored) showing places mentioned in this book Following .. Rome Romans passing vetians.2 138 140 under the Yoke of the Hel146 Charles Gleyre View of the Rhine River Ruins of a Roman Aqueduct 159 172 The Meta Sudans. Palatine Hill. /... Statue of a Roman dressed in the Toga Lake Geneva.. The ancient Lacus Lemannus ... E.



The Latini inhabited Latium (la/shi-um). lawyers.d.LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR INTRODUCTION THE LATIN LANGUAGE Latin. was (121 5 a. which comprised the civilized world of that time. a district of central and became the founders of Rome. however. until the time of Shakespeare.c-17 a.c-476 a. including Caesar. and scholars in The Magna Charta general. 1 The English pronunciation on page 288. Rome extended her dominion over all Italy. Beginning in 753 B. Such men as Erasmus (1466-1536). who spoke it first. and others.) was the period of the best writers. discoverer of the law of gravitation. clergymen. and finally over all the territory surrounding the Mediterranean. leader of the literary world of his age.d. Cicero. the language of the ancient Romans. wrote their works in the language of Caesar and Cicero. the poets Vergil and the language changed greatly. written in Latin. of proper names is in accordance with the table of sounds x .). as all Horace. The Latin language. (the traditional date). Latin was the chief language of this vast empire. derived its name from Italy.d. In its did not end with the it Roman empire.C. and Sir Isaac Newton (16421727).) The languages do. physicians. their capital city. literary form continued to be used by statesmen. During the twelve centuries of Roman history (753 B. that It is mainly the Latin of this period we study to-day. ''golden age" (80 B. the Latini 1 (la-tl'nl). charter of the famous English liberties.

and Portuguese. and Romans. error. honor. the reasons for the study of Latin are the following: one a clearer knowledge of the meaning of English words. still from Latin elements goes on from year to year.2 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR As a spoken language Latin never ceased to be used in Italy. French. plus. . 3. as actor. but grew into different forms or dialects. modern forms of the language of the Romans. It trains 6. color. Our words have come from many different sources. helps one to appreciate more fully the civilization of the literature. an excellent training of the mind. changed in form or meaning for two thousand years. It has been said that English gets most of its strength from Anglo-Saxon and most of its refinement from Latin. It provides a better understanding of English syntax. as This coining of new words incubator. which we now call Italian. but chiefly from Anglo-Saxon and Latin. 4. called Romance languages. and other sciences. minus. 2. It makes clear the terms of law. thought. two-thirds of which are of Latin origin. The majority of the words in our Some of these have not dictionaries are of Latin origin. 5. Others have been coined in recent years. that is. It is of greater importance to us that our English this historic is also very closely related to language. animal. THE STUDY OF LATIN Among i. Spain. labor. superior. It affords 7. medicine. France. dirigible. It is the foundation of other modern languages and is It gives a good basis for the study of language in general. census. upon which our own are so largely based. and Portugal. It one in the power of expression. victor. SpanThese national tongues are together ish. locomotive.

A long vowel requires twice the time of a short vowel in pronunciation. Julius. i is used for either a vowel or a consonant generally a consonant between vowels: ma'ior. like eh'ee. as ou in our. e. and in the words suavis. vowels not marked are short. as oi in oil. The vowels a. The common diphthongs (double sounds) and oe. origin) is like French u or Ger- il. like oo'ee rapidly uttered. almost like we. It PRONUNCIATION according to the Roman method. in qu-. 2 u has the sound of w in -ngu. 3. suaded. are: I. are a. A vowel is either long or short. Short The sounds Long l a as in father e as in they l a as in along. has no j and no w. greater. are ae. pronounced as ai in aisle. In a few words the following occur: ei. o. as nearly as can be determined.preceding a vowel. suesco. u. except that 2. Vowels. au. Cuba e as in net i as in machine as in it 6 as in ode o as in obey u as in rude in u as in pull 2 y (found only words of Greek man 5. Diphthongs. i. e.THE ALPHABET 3 LESSON The Latin alphabet it I THE ALPHABET 1. The letter is sound. and ui. 1 eu. 6. a. Latin is now pronounced are marked thus: a. and at the beginning of a word when followed by a vowel: Iulius. The other letters are consonants. Long vowels 4. pronounced as in eight. u. 2 . major. is the same as the English. and y.

4. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR Consonants. pax. / bring together. nothing. in wet. b. as in (consonant) is like y in yet. poe'na. hi. prae. is long before nf. tii. is like x in extra. . 11. day. 2. ss. infant: is iunc'tus. quod. iam. rex. 1. from EXERCISE IN PRONUNCIATION 8. ni'hil. vir. seu. is We learn whether a vowel a. joined. me. dein'de. mm. tt are to be pro- distinct sound for each: mit'to. 13. The consonants are pronounced as in English. s is like s in son or this. ad. a double consonant ( = cs or gs). dux. A vowel vowel vowel is generally short before another vowel or h: short before di'es. always hard. not as in nation. por'tat. id. tu'us. nx. t is like in native. they carry. is. he carries. get. pes. 6. long: co'go. 10. 3. pul'cher. 7. ch is g i is always hard. v is like w x. ns. cui. is A A A nd or nt and before final m or t: por'tant. or net: In'fans. et. cen'tum.4 6. LENGTH OP VOWELS long or short chiefly by observation. vowel resulting from contraction co-a'go. 12. c. not as in / his. 5. Doubled consonants such nounced separately. 9. hii'ius. 8. with the following exceptions: b has the sound C is of p before s or t. aut. huic. like k. gens. d. 14. ab. with a as cc. as in can. but the following rules are to be noted: 7. 11. urbs. sol.

liquids. mag-ni-tu'do. master. 1. u is not a vowel in qu and sometimes gu and Exception. the next 12. A mute 2 followed by pu'bli-cus. their Prepositional compounds is are divided into component parts: ab'est. t. r: cas'tra. mother. father. d. the one before the penult. summer. syllable is 1 A 2 See page 3. The last syllable of a word is called the ultima. sees. without one or more consonants. a single consonant between two vowels goes with the second: pa'ter. Exception. water. 1 su these combinations are treated as single consonants: . the penult. Hence a word has as many 9. the is before the last consonant: ma-gis'ter. the to the last. vi'det. 10. LENGTH OF SYLLABLES Syllables are long or short. p. contains a short vowel not followed 13. greatness. r. b. g are called mutes. vinc'tus. nau'tae. footnote Of the consonants. A syllables as it has vowels and diphthongs: aes'tas. way.SYLLABLES 5 LESSON II SYLLABLES with or syllable consists of a vowel or a diphthong. bound. 11. 2. In dividing words into syllables. . division Exception. 1 or r goes with the 1 or camp. he 14. If two or more consonants occur between vowels. A syllable by two or is short if it more conso- nants: vi'a. c. he away. a'qua. long by nature if it contains a long vowel or a diphthong: ma'ter. sailors. antepenult. public.

10. Memorize : Integer vltae scelerisque piirus Non eget Mauris iaculis nee arcu. que. 2 Nee venenatls gravida Fusee. 9. 12. oppidum. milites. 17. a quiver laden with Moorish darts nor bow. nor. puella. Translation : "The pure in life and free from crime need no Fuscus. brevity. upon the syllable preceding them. mercatores. friend. merca* tor. and arms. saepe. sagittis. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR syllable is long by position if it contains a short in the same word by x or z. EXERCISE IN ACCENT 19. 7. obtinet. i. 2. fllius. boy. regardless of its length: ar-ma'que. A A word word of two syllables is accented on the is first: pu'er. homines11. : A narrow. wife. Germanus. sagitta. terraque. fllii. pharetra. exemplum. 18. tabula. poisoned arrows. proelium. 3. -que {and) and a few other words are called enclitics. nationes. obtinetur. 2 The first stanza of a famous ode by the Roman poet Horace. . footnote 2.6 15. or by any two followed vowel consonants except a mute 1 with 1 or r u'xor. on the antepenult the penult is short: bre'vi-tas." 1 my See page 5. 5. 4. causa. digitus. 6. ACCENT 16. 8. miles. nati5. silva. iiinior. of three or more syllables accented on the if penult if that is long: a-ml'cus. an-gus'tus. being joined to a preceding Enclitics require an accent word and pronounced with it. annus.

is no article in Latin. a long way. {thou art). it) is sumus. you are sunt. 21. and interjections. / am Second Person es. she. the way is long. the roads are. adjectives. THE VERB SUM Parts of Speech. and person. the ways are long. . in general. Latin verbs are conjugated to show voice. i. eight parts of speech: adverbs. mood. the long ways. CASE. the same meaning as in English. as a rule. but longa via. 2. there are nouns. long way. Conjugation. we are estis. There Latin nouns and adjectives and nominative case are have a singular or plural in number. 23. These terms have. and they are not to be used when the subjects of est and sunt are expressed by separate words: via est. VERB SUM III 7 LESSON THE NOMINATIVE 20. she. 22. INDICATIVE PRESENT TENSE OF SUM Singular Plural First Person sum. it. conjunctions.NOMINATIVE CASE. MODEL SENTENCES Via est longa. In some nouns and adjectives the nominative singular ends in -a. prepositions. Viae sunt longae. the plural in -ae: The Nominative Case. unless long way. pronouns. He. is A descriptive adjective. as in English. tense. long way. viae longae. the long way. 24. it noun. follows the emphatic: via longa. number. Word Order. via longa. the road is. long ways. you are Third Person est. verbs. In Latin. viae sunt. 25. (they) are a. (he.

4. sunt Estis flliae flliae. Filia bona. 8. long terra. country tuba. 29. parva. the verb and adjective with 26. 5. Ubi est sunt magnae. it are plural. with careful attention to the length of vowels and to accent. large way. Terra et silva tuba parva? 10. latae. Tubae parvae. 7. Case of the Subject. Viae latae. street great. Silvae sunt magnae. Ubi 5. 2. Terrae magnae. ubi? where? and EXERCISES (Pronounce. Via lata. road. good lata. Silvae 6. The forest is large. Translate. Tuba parva. 4. Via lata est longa. 2. Filia est bona. Rule. A verb has the same number and person as the subject. marking long vowels in written work. broad longa. Verb Agreement. The subject of a verb is in the nominative case. bonae? 6. Sumus flliae. (Give the Latin for the following. 10. 1 the broad road? 3. magna. A Roman Trumpet Ubi est 1 parva tuba? 12. 1. 1. Adjectives daughter silva. 3. 1. Flliae bonae. 3. The road is broad.) 28. 9.8 Notice that LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR if the noun is plural. small Interrogative Adverb Conjunction et. VOCABULARY Nouns filia. . 8. 11. Terra magna. 2. 4. 9. Flliae sunt bonae. land. trumpet via. 27. parva. Silva lata. Where are See 22. little. Es filia Terra est longa et lata. Rule. forest bona. 7. The the large 5.) 30. Where is countries are small.

am loving. filiae a. When a separate subject lacking. you Third Person a'mant. are loving. formed by adding the personal endings to a fixed part called the stem: ama-. The good trumpets The forests are long and broad. -nt are called personal endings. do love. but of the is . as. Final a of the stem becomes short in the third person and disappears before -o in the first person. they love. is loving. Stem. -s. / love. The present tense is 33. do love -6 -s -t Second Person a'mas. -t. we love. the daughters love. 32. you love. does love Plural First Person ama'mus. -tis. they indicate the subject.first conjugation: present tense. . do love love. are loving. The letters -6. are loving. do love -mus -tis Second Person ama'tis. The good trumpet is small. he {she or it). 8. The Present Tense. 7. we. they: amant. it) loves. Personal Endings. you. they love. LESSON IV THE FIRST CONJUGATION: PRESENT TENSE. are loving. she. do love -nt a. 9 ars small. am loving. active voice forests? 6. MODEL VERB Singular Endings First Person a'mo. I you (or thou). {he. verb amant. -mus. ACTIVE VOICE 31. Latin has no special words for the progressive and emphatic forms. Verbs having a stem ending in -a compose the first conjugation and are conjugated like amo. do love Third Person a'mat.


Direct Object. I give danuntia- nuntio. . 43. by exception to the rule. as a rule. as in sentence 2. name nounce The a in dant. victory do. the sailor calls (his) good the sailor calls daughter. and damus. her. The direct object of a verb is in the accusative case. datis. 41. dat. I report. your. Word Order. Ace. it differs from the nominative in form. Galba. in -a have the accusative plural in -as: Singular Plural flliae fflias Nom. of many. THE DIRECT OBJECT 39. bonas nauta vocat. in the stem da^ datis. i. fflia ffliam MODEL SENTENCES Nauta Fflias ffliam bonam vocat. 2. Rule. VOCABULARY Nouns Verbs Stent aqua. his. Nouns and adjectives ending singular in -am and the accusative 40. but when emphatic it stands out of this position. DAUGHTERS. and the like are sometimes omitted in Latin. (his) good The object. short. a man's a. stands between the a. das. an- Galba. subject and the verb. is present tense of do is: do. 42. b. water victoria. damus. when the meaning is clear without them. The case of the direct object in Latin is called the In the singular of most words and in the plural accusative.ACCUSATIVE CASE. The words for my. DIRECT OBJECT II LESSON V THE ACCUSATIVE CASE.

3. So we shall see different.12 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR EXERCISES Nautas vocamus. relation to other A from. the case of the subject. by. denoting possession. We is of a Latin noun differs have seen that the objective form from the nominative. nimtiat? 10. Who is reporting? reporting. 12. shall find also that there to. 47. are special endings to indicate the English uses prepositions. 14. Who carries the water? LESSON VI THE FIRST DECLENSION: SINGULAR THE GENITIVE CASE 46.. 1. amat. 8. When words are changed to show different cases and numbers. victorias 45. therefore. dative. Tubas Nautae magnas niintiant. 15. 4. You 6. They are the Where good water? are calling the farmers and is He giving. 2. . Quis tubam dat? 8. 5. amatis. or the object with of. they are said to be inflected or declined. Galba terrain magnam laudat. 3. 5. the to or for the of case. i. They 7. Cases. where noun. Regina fllias vocat. Galba magnam victoriam nimtiat. 1. Reginam filiae vocant. 3. The case. Qui tubas dant? 9. Reginam bonam report. Nautam laudamus. the case of the indirect object. 9. I love the broad forests. Declension. The The nominative. etc. in distinction we say from boy. 2. Agricolae aquam portant. Nautae reginas bonas laudant. Latin nouns have five cases: 2. longas portamus. Agricola silvam latam 44. 6. 7. genitive. 4. shows its words by its form or case. We give. is the sailors. Quis victoriam 13. We of. 11. just as in English that the possessive boy's.

The part of a declined word to which the endings are added is called the base: tub-. tu'ba. THE GENITIVE OP POSSESSION the Regina filiam nautae amat. genitive case 13 The The accusative. by or with a (the) trumpet 49. follows the noun that the it limits. Some nouns have another form 48. called the vocative case. tu'ba. 5. first Words declined like tuba are said to belong to the declension. a few have a locative case. tu'bae. daughter (or the daughter of the sailor) In this sentence the ending -ae of nautae has the same meaning as -'s in sailor's. tu'bae. or the objective with of. the from. Case Endings. answering the question Whose? A genitive so used is called a genitive of possession and is equivalent to the English possessive. 50.first declension: singular. -am. . ablative. -ae -ae tu'bam. a (the) trumpet -am -a AM. The genitive. the case of the direct object. the case used adverbially. Base. the where. Rule. denoting place a. by. 51. -a are called case endings of the singular number. -ae. Possession. a (the) trumpet Gen. as a rule. -ae. a (the) trumpet's. with. -a. or in case. of a (the) trumpet Dat. the denoting person addressed. MODEL NOUN _ Endings -a Norn. to ox for a (the) trumpet Ace. a. A word denoting owner or the possessor is in the genitive case. queen loves the sailors . 4.

supply. forces. 3. Copia aquae. 3. pacify Adverb accusapaca- Cornelia.14 52. 1. Filiam Galbae vocamus. terrae. Viae terrae sunt longae. plenty. Fllias agricolae Victoriam nau- . epistle Iulia. letter. Julia a. Street in Pompeii est Regina terrae bona. 5. 4. i. troops accuso. 7. 2. / subdue. 6. / accuse paco. Tuba nautae. laudamus. Cornelia epistula. and also those of 27. Decline like tuba the nouns of 43. Fllia agricolae. supplies. and EXERCISES 53. Terra reginae. Terra 4. 5. reginae est magna. 6. always 52. Aqua silvae. Epistula Iuliae. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR VOCABULARY Nouns Verbs Stem copia. Victoria Galbae. 2. semper. pi. A 54. Regina 8. 34.

55. I accuse does Who queen praise 5. Cornelia is the farmer's daughter. to or for (the) trumpets Ace. 8. by or with (the) trumpets -as -Is . (the) trumpets Nom. 7. agricolas 10. 15 Agricola copiam aquae portat. the troops of Galba. Galba always praises troops do not always fight. and stylus LESSON VII THE FIRST DECLENSION: PLURAL THE DATIVE CASE 56. Quis acciisat? Galba agricolas 11. Cornelia's letters are always long. (his) troops. Who is Cornelia? 2. Copiae est longa. tu'bas. tae nuntiat. Abl. (the) trumpets tu'bis. Dat. reginae acciisat. 7. -ae trumpets tuba'rum. not the of the great land ? 6. 1.first declension: plural. wax tablet. The Writing Materials used by Romans Showing ancient inkstands. 3. MODEL NOUN Endings tu'bae. Iuliae? Ubi sunt epistulae Nautae epistulas Corneliae portant. You are the queen's sailors. 9. 13. 4. Gen. dative case 8. Epistula Galbae non 12. of (the) -arum -is tu'bis. terram pacant. (the) trumpets'.

not Declension of Adjectives. Word Order. tubae longae tubarum longarum tubis longis tubae longae Ace. THE DATIVE OF THE INDIBECT OBJECT like give. an object to or for which something is given. -is are the plural Notice that -ae is case endings of the first declension. before the direct. they have the same case like nouns. Dat. 58. The word " 60. require an indirect object to complete their meaning. Galba gives his daughter a letter to his letter (or a daughter). Daughter and filiae in this illustration are indirect objects. Singular Plural Notn. primarily The indirect object. filiis. -arum. filiabus. and number. is meant. Case Endings. stands b. case. I give. Rule. the ending of three different cases: the genitive singular. and means the case of the object to which something is given. the rest of the sentence will determine which case a. is The dative and to distinguish it ablative plural of fHia from fHius (100). said. the dative singular. answering the question To whom? " dative comes from do. The indirect object of a verb is in the dative . -Is. -ae. tell. and the nominative plural. -as. or done. Verbs report may Galba filiae epistulam dat. as a rule. Adjectives are declined When used together.16 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR 57. tuba longa tubae longae Gen. 59. a. tubam longam tuba longa tubas longas tubis longis AM. that is.

island patria. Conjunction famous. Decline the nouns above and those of former lessons in both numbers. dative case Nouns 17 vocabulary Nouns puella. inhabitant insula. girl sagitta. native land arrow Adjective pecunia.first declension: plural. incola. 61. Roman Girl . renowned sed. {clear). but a. money clara.

with. Thus. 14. Sagittae agricolarum. what means The When . 9. VIII CASE. Agrilongam colae nautis copiam sagittarum dant. 3. 8. 6. 9. the troops fight with arrows in the forest is oopiae sagittis in silva pugnant. Silvarum 8. ORDER OF WORDS English uses from. 13. Latin uses the ablative. 7. Reginls 2. parvarum. Who is ing water to the queen's daughter? 6. i. Iulia puellae The 3. Filiarum Flliabus parvis. latarum. Incolae patriam amant. reginarum tubam do. -a (singular) and -is (plural). 10. Quis victoriam bonis. 6. 4. Galba agricolae sagittas dat. 5. bonae. The troops of the great countries are fighting. Where are the sailor's arrows? Where are the Coin or Julius Caesar arrows? giv5. sometimes with a separate preposition. Puellae 4. 5. Sagittae longae. 1. 7. Filiae sunt bonae. or with. Insula est parva. LESSON THE ABLATIVE 65. Sagittae nautarum sunt longae. 2. 12. sunt latae. or in and the objective case. 64. 1. Viae terrarum 63.i8 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR EXERCISES 62. They do not give the farmer a supply of money. 10. sed reglna incolarum est clara. agricolarum nuntiat? 8. in words of the first declension. 7. sailors' 2. Sagittis shows by. sometimes without. Peciinia nautarum. Incolae msularum sunt nautae. Cornelia and Julia are reporting the victories to the girls. You 4. This case. Puellls bonis. Galbae 3. always praise good girls. 11. Quis agricolis victoriam nuntiat? parvae pecuniam dat. girl is Galba's daughter. Puellarum bonarum. as given in sections 48 and 56. Puellls parvis tubas do. by. has the endings Ablative Case. Iuliae epistulam damus.

66. and not by their we transpose Galba copias laudat to copias Galba laudat. The means or instrument of action is expressed by the ablative without a preposition. 68. Jidia gives a letter to the queen in the road. with the preposition in. The normal order of words in a the subject. a. (4) the verb. however. The position of adjectives and of the genitive. we emphasize the act of praising. Most adverbs precede the word they modify: Copiae semper pugnant. an regularly expressed by the ablative with the preposition in. Any word becomes emphatic by standing out of its normal position. Order of Words. tells the place where they fight. Rule. Ablative of Place with In. (2) the modifiers of the This subject. VOCABULARY . and accusative cases has already been mentioned. the troops do not always fight. because the relation is: Latin sentence (1) of Latin words is shown by their endings. is often changed. if position as in English. ORDER OF WORDS 19 and is called an ablative of means. 69. If we say laudat copias Galba.ABLATIVE CASE. Ablative of Means. dat. dative. Silva. The place where is 67. Rule. non d. (3) the modifiers of the verb. Thus. we emphasize the object. Forms of sum stand practically as in English: Viae sunt longae. normal order. b. A word in the ablative normally precedes the object and other modifiers of the verb Iulia in via reginae epistu: lam c. they fight.

is warning. The farmers in the provinces 1 carry good arrows. 3. {he. are warning. . are warning. 5. In aqua alta. 72. Vulnerant. i. she. 12. do warn mone'tis. In Italia non sunt magnae silvae. 10. 6. am warning. 8. it) ' warns. MODEL VERB. Vulneratis. do warn 1 Omit words in parentheses. are warning. vulnerant. 11. 8. / warn. est in fossls. we warn. He gives the signal 2 with a trumpet. In provincia parva. Galbam Fossae Galba sagitta agricolam non vulnerat. There are great supare not aiding the queen with supplies. Galba is giving the daughters. 3. (There) is a good queen in Italy. Iuvant. Aqua non new trumpets? 2. Iuvas. We 6. 7. In provinciis parvis.20 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR EXERCISES 70. 6. STEM: MONESlNGULAR mo'neo. 7. 3. do warn mo'nes. In terra magna. are warning. 2. does warn Plural mone'mus. Copiae 5. 1. copias iuvat. In silvls latis. do warn mo'net. 2 SIgnum. 5. money is in the deep plies water. you warn. Parva puella aqua. {they) warn. In fossls altls. you warn. Where new trumpets to (his) LESSON IX THE SECOND CONJUGATION: PRESENT TENSE THE ACCUSATIVE WITH PREPOSITIONS 73. In provincia sunt fossae altae. Non 71. 4. are the 1 sunt altae. 2. 1. The land of the in the good queen. Filiae reglnarum 4. 9. sagittls pecunia. do warn mo'nent. 8. nautas iuvant. iuvat. In vils novls. 7. 4.

8. osition Rule. EXERCISES 78. The Accusative with Prepositions. across the road. I advise moneI timetimeo. after. 4. inter vias. 3. / see m0 ne6. He fears. gate per. a. verb notice that the personal endings are the same as those of the first conjugation (32). 10. In the last lesson we saw that a Latin preposition may be used with the ablative case (65). booty. A noun connected with another word by a prep- may be in the accusative case. 5. per viam. 9.THE SECOND CONJUGATION: PRESENT TENSE 74. Behind the We do Between . Prepositions may also be used with the ac- cusative: trans viam. 7. 76. You are fearing. Trans fossas. plunder pugna. The accusative and the ablative are the only cases used with Latin prepositions. Per silvam. 3. forest. They do not have. between the roads. 6. 11. or fight. between. 6. He 5. 75. through the road. Post pugnas. before (in space Verbs Stem time) post. / have habe- or time ) / warn. not fear. fear videvideo. Habes. 1. across. among porta. VOCABULARY Nouns Prepositions Governing the Accusative inter. 4. Videmus. 21 Verbs with stems ending in -e compose the second In the model conjugation and are inflected like moneo. i. sees. 77. battle ante. Videtis. beyond praeda. 7. 79. Habemus. Habetis. 12. Ante pugnam. Post portam. through trans. a. behind (in space habeo. Inter portas. 2. Inflect the nouns and verbs. 2. Vides.

Agricolls praedam non dant. Galba in 80. Across the country. The beaten path The Ancient Porta Now known as the Porta Ostiensis San Paolo i. Through the water. is Sagittas copiarum non times. 2. monent? est Ubi glnam 4. Puellae non timent. 8. Memorize : Via trlta. Qui reglnam 5. praeda nautarum? 6. 3. 1 is the safe path.22 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR 9. Retimemus. . Vias novas video. via tuta. 10. 8. Italia copias 1 habet. Before the victory. The verb often omitted in proverbs. 7. the countries.

23 Quis trans vias epistulam et pecuniam portat? 1 1 Copiae sunt ante portam. 1. (There) is a large forest between the countries. 13. LESSON X REVIEW 82. 14. 81. Praedam 10. gates are large.REVIEW 9. Who fears the deep water? 7. The 4. Copiam aquae bonae semper habemus. The following list includes the Latin words of les- sons III-IX. The new You do not see the gate. agricola . sailors' plunder is in the forest. . Post pugnam victoriam nuntiamus. Puellae longam trans provinciam portant. Galba and Julia warn the good queen. 12. 8. 5. 3. Who sees the farmer's little daughter? 6. except proper nouns. 2. epistulam habent. The victory is not before the battle.

pi. 6. aqua. The gender of such words is said to be grammatical and is determined by line or the form or ending of the noun. THE SECOND DECLENSION: MASCULINE NOUNS Gender. 2. 86. 3. femiEnglish words are masculine or nine. But in Latin many words are mascufeminine which are neuter in English. 1 Terra non insula. Italia est magna terra Europae. 5. 7. 2 longae. Incolae sunt agricolae et nautae. Reglna incolas iuvat. Thus. So in Latin nauta is masculine and filia feminine. .24 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR REVIEW QUESTIONS 84. and tuba are feminine. has the masculine. of video. Bonam reginam habent. feminine according as they signify male or female beings. of the accusative. How is the genitive case used? The dative? 9. How does the order of words in Latin from that in English? ITALIA 85. quae sunt antlquae et clarae. sed paenlnsula longa est. Which. and neuter genders. i. et vita est beata. Latin. two of the ablative. This is called natural gender. Name two uses Decline via lata. without regard to its meaning. This idea is not so strange as it may seem. differ 10. In Italia sunt viae LESSON XI GENDER. What What are the case endings of the first declension? the are personal endings of the present tense? is meant by base? 4. What is an indirect object? 8. of voco. if we recall that 1 8 For new words see the general vocabulary at the end of the book. like English. Patriam et linguam patriae amant. What is the stem of a verb? . What Conjugate the present tense of sum. for example. via. nom.

$ < 1-4 < Oh H w w 25 .

car'iis. to (the) carts of the carts -orum -is or for (the) carts Ace. Abl. Vir. the sun and his rays. a (the) cart Gen. The Second Declension. has declension ending of the nominative singu- The Singular . country and her glory. 87. car'rus. a (the) cart's. of a (the) cart Dat. car'ri. a. those in -um are neuter. (the) carts car'rls. -US -1 -o car'rum. MODEL NOUN Singular Endings Norn. a (the) cart -um -5 car'ro. car'ro. Gen. 88. Abl. carro'rum. Most nouns of the second Nouns in -us are masculine.26 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR speak of our we say She is a staunch vessel. to or for a (the) cart Ace. (the) carts -I 1 . by or with a (the) cart Plural Nom. -6s -is by or with (the) carts the base (49) of carrus? lost the is: What is 89. except a few which denote males. All nouns of the first declension are feminine. declension end in -us or -um. car'ri. a." and of a ship. car'ros. Dat. lar. man.

Marcus agri- 4. Marcus. Legatum et copias Amicos non accusamus. of nouns is indicated by M. Legatum timent. The base of equus regularly to this.. n. You are helping Marcus. cart 2 Marcus. 5. Qui legatum monent? Sagitta 2. 2.GENDER. 90. equus. The endings added Memorize : Vita sine litterls mors est. is death. M.. The farmers have carts. 94. 5. THE SECOND DECLENSION: MASCULINE NOUNS 27 VOCABULARY 1 amicus. M. Vir et servus sunt inter vias vicl. 7. 4. or N. carrus. -I. -I. Who is calling the man? We 93. viri. 1.. Sumus amlci legatorum et nautarum. 6. lieutenant. The horses and carts are in the village. Quis inter silvas vicos videt? cus Iuliae trans vlcum epistulam portat. vicus. 3. Pecuniam servls non dat. et carros habet. servant name servus.. ambassador -1.. Legati amicls Galbae et Marci victoriam magnam nuntiant. 3. in vlcls Italiae 8. equum vulnerat. 6. The girls give good water to the man's 1 2 The gender In the vocabularies the genitive ending is indicated after the noun. 4. is M. F. 2. 10. Light and truth. equi. 92.. 9. -I. 1. Non estis servl reglnae. i. 6. Marcus equos iuvat. 12. M. horse legatus. 1. M. Reglna servum laudat. (The motto of Yale University) EXERCISES 91. -I. man are equ-. M. Life without literature Lux et Veritas. village vir. -I. friend M. slave. . Viri colas cams Ami- legati epistulas dant. 3. 3.. amlc5 habemus. Galba amicos amat... see the men. Who sees the horses? 5. a.. The slaves do not fight. a man's M. Amid servos vocant. 2. I do not fear the friend of Marcus.

by -um -1 -6 Ace. filio. Dat. APPOSITIVE AND PREDICATE NOUNS Galba. son. The accented on the penult even genitive of imperium. pi'lis. Abl. of the javelins -orum -is or for {the) javelins Ace. to or for a {the) javelin {the) javelin or with a {the) javelin pi'16. command. Where are the lieutenant and the sailor? 5. of of the battle. a {the) javelin's. Plural pi'la. -i of the base: dat. a -um -6 AM. i. to {the) javelins'.28 horses. 1 MODEL NOUN Singular Endings Nom. pi'la. The lieutenant praises (his) new troops. {the) javelins pi'lis. a. Gen. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR 4. 7. of a {the) javelin pl'lo. is a sailor. a {the) javelin pl'li. 97. Galba. proell. . -1 Nouns -il) : in -ius and -ium have the genitive singular cases retain the in (not filius. Gen. Dat. est nauta. pl'lum. The other a son. a. proeiium. genitive singular of words in -ius and -ium is when this is short: impe'ri. LESSON XII THE SECOND DECLENSION: NEUTER NOUNS APPOSITIVE AND PREDICATE NOUNS 95. Galba's servants are warning the men. Nom. (There) are villages and long roads in the province. filius legati. by or with {the) javelins -a -is What is the base of pflum? 96. pl'lum. etc. 6. fill. proelio. {the) javelins -a plWrum. battle. the lieutenant's son.

To the brave and faithful. is an appositive Such nouns agree in case.. or a fflius b. standard (military) cur. M. 1 agrees with the subject. -i. -1.. battle oppidum. pi. Agreement pronoun agrees with of a Predicate Noun. Forti et fideli nil difficile. Rule. ward man's name nuntius. nothing is difficult.THE SECOND DECLENSION: NEUTER NOUNS 2. N. as nauta above. town message signum. N... Rule. N.. to define the subject. / see Galba. praemium. N. spear re- gladius. fill. Agreement noun of or an Appositive. a.. praemi. M. Luci. grain. A noun it in ap- position with another 99. frumentum. why? Memorize : Fortes fortuna iuvat. N.. A and noun in apposition. in case. proeli. as will be seen later (190).. Fortune favors the brave. 1 A predicate noun is usually a predicate nominative. in the predicate used with an intransitive or a It passive verb. -i. javelin. 29 Galbam. adv. is a predicate noun. M. crops N. fllium ant's son. filius. video. gladi. a -1.. the lieuten- A noun used noun to explain or define another noun. son pflum. VOCABULARY M.. (sign) signal. as 98. sroelium. legati. Lucius. messenger. but predicate accusative. may be a . fllium in the models. .. An Ancient Roman Sword 100. sword Lucius. predicate A noun agrees with the subject in case. nunti.



2. Puellae Regina praemia dat. pila timent. 4. Filil nautam laudant. 5. Fllios 3. Proelium nuntiant. laudat. 6. habent. nauta Virl gladios 7. Frumentum 8. Nuntius pilum portat. damus. videt. 9. Signum

i oi.



Qui oppida vident?



et flliae

Galbae, legatl, sunt



Cur nuntius regmam monet?
4. Ntintil

Legatus signum proell
epistulas dant. 6. Virl non sunt


et flliabus


Inter oppida et vicos est silva magna. servi; sunt nautae. 7. Gladios, pila, et sagittas

non habe-

mus. 8. Gladil, pila, et sagittae ante portam oppidi sunt. et flliam Marcl vocat. 10. Filil Galbae et 9. Fllium 11. Cur signa non videtis? Luci frumento viros iuvant.
12. Lucius, servus agricolae, magnam copiam f rumen tl non habet. 13. Agricola equis frumentum non dat.
2. The are fighting with swords and javelins. towns and villages are in the province. 3. The messenger reports the battle. 4. The farmers carry the grain through the towns of 6. The friend Italy. 5. The troops do not fight before the signal.




of the lieutenant gives a reward to the slaves. 7. swords and javelins? 8. Who are the friends of the


fears the



are aiding the sailor's sons.

Signum (Aquila)




model verbs
Fourth Conjugation
Stem: audl-

Third Conjugation
Stem: rege-

re'go, / rule
1 1 au'dio, / hear

you rule


you hear

re'git, {he, she, it) rules

au'dit, (he, she,


re'gimus, we rule re'gitis, you rule
re'gunt, (they) rule

audi'mus, we hear

you hear

au'diunt, (they) hear

in -e (not e) compose the third and are conjugated like rego verbs with stems conjugation in -1 compose the fourth conjugation and are conjugated like


Verbs with stems


a. Notice in rego that -e of the stem does not appear before -6, that it becomes -u- before -nt, and -i- before the other endings. In audio notice that -u- stands between the does the length of -i- differ in the two stem and -nt.




The Present Infinitive. Latin verbs have infinitive The present infinitive active is the stem plus the endto

ing -re: amare, to love; monere,

warn; regere,




to hear.


are the infinitives of laudo, porto, pugnd, voco;

habed, timed, video?

The four conjugations, the pres107. Four Conjugations. ent indicative forms of which have now been given, include


progressive and emphatic meanings


also be given.









3. Legatus oppida munire debet. 4. Nuntium trans provinciam mittunt. 5. Servi venire pa6. Reglna ante portam nuntium audit. rant. 7. Reginam bonam timere non debes. 8. Servus copiam frumenti parat. 10. Cur epistulas 9. Fllios et filias amicorum defenditis. non mittis? 11. Tubam audlmus et signum videmus.

Marci per vlcum

114. to fight.



girl is




You ought

to see the forest.

The troops are preparing 4. The son of the lieuten-

ant defends

(his) friends.

coming through the gate?

ought to praise the man. 6. Who Why do they not fortify the towns?


-US, -A, -UM.


Latin adjectives have different endings, denoting gender, number, and case; not because they have these properties themselves, but because they are used with nouns having them. We have learned
that adjectives ending in -a are declined like tuba (58). These are feminine. The same adjectives have masculine

Declension of Adjectives.

forms in -us, declined
declined like pilum.

like carrus,

and neuter forms

in -urn,


are called adjectives of the
in -us, -a,

and second declensions, ending







and Predicate Adjectives.

When an


jective stands with a noun, as in


attributive adjective.

He has a large sword, it is When it stands in the predia predicate adjective.

cate, as in

The sword

is large, it is





in Latin

Gladium magnum habet

Gladius est


Amlcis bonis. 3. Vici parvl. 6. In oppidls 4. 5. In oppido longo. 8. Inter multos agricolas. 7. Inter servos bonos. longis. vlcum latum. 11. Multum in 10. Trans 9. In silva densa.
i. 2.

Amico bono. Vlcorum parvorum.

2. The long battles. 1. The high walls. 3. The new farmWith a large horse. 5. To the bad slave. 6. To the bad



Of the

little son.


Of the




In the dense




Per silvam densam venit. 2. Estis fllii bonorum 4. Marcus, 3. Muri oppidorum sunt alti, non lati.

5. Oppida nova et agricola bonus, multos amicos habet. vicos parvos nunc defendunt. 6. Incolae Galliae sunt Galli. 7.

In Gallia sunt multl



Galli sunt bonl



9. Marcus non est Gallus, agricolae. Aedificia Gallica non sunt nova. 10.

sed Gallos laudat.

Legatus multa

praemia nautis Gallicls dat. oppidum muniunt.



longo et fossa alta

2. The friends send are reporting great battles. the to aid Lucius, good farmer. 4. 3. ought many sees the long walls? Who are not friends of the bad sailors. 5. 6. The messengers are now calling the men with new trumpets.





The Gauls do not have broad roads in the forests. farmer's horses are small. 9. The forests of the Gauls 10. You owe much grain to the Gallic sailor. large.



are not

Or adherent




Nouns in -er. Some masculine



the second

declension have lost

termination -us





puer, boy, gen. pueri,






ager drops -e- in the base. The base of

any declined word


the genitive singular

without the case end-

Learn the declension of puer and ager on page 267.


Adjectives in In the same

way, some adjectives have lost the termination -us: liber, libera, liberum, free, base liber-; pulcher,

Learn pulchra, pulchrum, beautiful, base pulchr-. declension of these adjectives on pages 270 and 271.


Possessive Pronominal Adjectives.



pronominal adjectives are possessive:
your; suus, his, her,

meus, my; tuus,

its, their; noster, our; vester, your.


Your is expressed by tuus when one possessor by vester when two or more are addressed.



to which

The meaning




shown by the subject

it refers:

Galba amlcum suum

videt, Galba sees his friend.



amlcum suum videt, Julia sees her friend. Galba et Iulia amlcum suum vident, Galba and
the meaning


see their friend. As was stated in 41 b, possessives

a Latin sentence

may be omitted in clear without them.

ager, agri, M., field 1 liber, libri, M., book

tuus, -a, -um, (thy), your

suus, -a, -um,


her, its,

puer, pueri, M., boy; or children
signifer, signi'feri,



noster, nostra, nostrum, our
vester, vestra, vestrum, your

M., stand-

liber, libera,

pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum,

liberum, free





magister, magistri, M., waster,

wretched, unfortunate






Memorize :
Alter ipse amicus. A friend is a second



probantur rebus adversis. Friends are proved by adversity.

EquI trans agrum veniunt. Ubi sunt multas sagittas dant. 3.

Nautae pueris 1 libri flliae meae?



magnum slgnum


slgna nova dat.
berl virl; servl

Mel amid sunt

non sunt

Legatus slgniferls amid. 7. Sumus llVirl pueros et puellas non

semper laudant.

In Italia sunt multl et 2 pulchrl

Distinguish liber from liber.

English omits the conjunction.

magistrum puero- suum laudant. The boy has a new book. The daughters lieutenant calls his daughcall their servant. Galll terram suam amant. Magister noster Marcum et Cor- neliam laudat. is books. Our country is not a province. The Note. n. defendunt. . 14. 7. Where 10. We a good friend of the boys. Cornelia praises your 6. 9. to protect our friends. The farmer has broad fields. 130. We We ought 8. Co- piae reginam terrae suae 19. Thus we may answer sentence 3 of 129 bv Cornelia libros flliae tuae habet. Quis agricolae in videt? agro 17. lieutenant calls his son. Magistri rum sunt Standard Bearers amlclvestrl. 12. Cornelia fllias suas et fllium Flliae vestrae sunt pulchrae. are the Gallic standard-bearers. 2. 1. Marcus 5. n. Gallia est terra libera. Where are my slaves? are your arrows? 12. The ter. 15. 18. 4. Who does not love our free country? 13. Marcus et Cor- nelia 21. As far as possible pupils should answer in Latin the interrogative sentences of the exercises. The see the beautiful streets of the town. 20. 15. 14. Ubi est liber tuus? equos 16. Flliam tuam et fllios meos laudo. 3.3« 10. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR Cur puerum miserum accusatis? nautae mittit. 13. daughters of Marcus aid the unfortunate slaves.

meaning into: 2. as we know. care -um.. 2. 1 is w. to cum. -ae. ness zeal. in. per. come. into. report. F. eager- 1 ad. and the like. VOCABULARY Romanus.PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES 39 LESSON XVI PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES 131. say to. and the ablative with in (meaning in. he gives a book to his son (indirect object). We have learned that the accusabe used with ante. is comes to the town (place to which). w. In oppidum venit.. Accusative with ad and the The place to with which regularly expressed by into which by the accusative with in. 135. w. accusative ad . abl. prep. place In section 65 to say with. send (verbs of motion). Roma. Ad oppidum venit. expresses to.. How to accusative with ad must be used: 1. boldness cura. the How it was shown that expressed by the with. Rome Romanus. ace. N. w.. . studi. he Rule. w.. in duco. audacia. lead How may to say into... In oppido est. prep. the dative ending.. ace. Fflio librum dat. he comes into the town (place into which) . the abbreviation for with. tive abl. Roman studium. trans (77). 67). M.. with in. denoting the means of an action. F. prep. F. in.. -a. post. -#e. a Roman 132. -ae.. ducere. but after verbs meaning go. the 133. 134. inter. he is in the town (place where). also The accusative is used with 1. -I. After verbs meaning give.

they fortify tlie town with 2. Accompani- ment is expressed by the ablative. 1 A preposition of one syllable. Rule. Magna (cum^cura oppidum muniunt. Galbam cum filiis mels video. ablative. they fortify the ner? These phrases answer the questions How? In what manCum may be omitted if an adjective modifies the Ablative of Accompaniment. 136. With may 1. . venit. This regularly requires cum and answers the question With whom? b. Cum care. Rule. Galll magno in cum studio oppida defendunt. they fight with swords. cura oppidum muniunt. Preposition SUMMAEY Denoting Expressed by • To To. Servl in vicum frumentum portant. but an adjective modifies the noun. regularly with the preposition cum. Ablative of Manner. cum may be 138. in. 1. The manner of an ac- tion is expressed omitted if by the ablative with cum. 5. -f accusative in -f ablative In place where [means (by means With of) ablative < accompaniment (together with) cum + ablative [manner (in what manner) (cum 4-) ablative EXERCISES Nuntium ad reglnam mittunt. 6. With may also denote manner: a. 137. into indirect object place to which dative ad. like cum. 2. often stands between an adjective and its noun: magna cum cura. with great care.40 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR ablative without a preposition: Gladiis pugnant. 3. Virl agrum pulchrum 139. town with great care. the boy is denote accompaniment: Puer cum amico coming with a friend. Copiae magna cum audacia pugnant. 4.

non debet. Lenon mittitis? gatus Marco amlco suo ''•lOifw. pulchros 14.IWLNI pecuniam 12. 10. slave (to the slave) a supply of 4. ad 9. We owe the (with care). 1. equos ducunt... They carry the new books carefully is coming into the street. sunt Roman!. .^lllr^<»»'"• ^l•1^:l:^JlJIM/1lrt•^' . the battle. The send letters to Julia. dat. Agricola flliabus suls libros 13. The messenger boldly (with boldness) reports LESSON XVII REVIEW OF LESSONS XI-XVI 141. 'I amicos vestros epistulas 11. Romana non 2. portam Multl puerl sunt in . Incolae 15 Books of Ancient Rome Galli signa Romae 140. portant. 41 veniunt. 7. Galba 6.x^-i. Legatus cum Gallls pugnat. with friends in Italy.REVIEW OF LESSONS XI-XVI Amici nostri 7. grain. 5. free men ought to fight very eagerly (with great eagerness).iraviw"'-"' . The farmer is leading the horse to the water. The 8. girls The girls are 3.. 8. Quis in provinciam copias ducit? Gallia. Cur ad ~'^</c.

et templa et hortl. Magna est fama Romae. How do adjectives agree with nouns? tributive and predicate adjectives differ? 13. Decline sigDecline altus. library comes from liber. Decline noster. Distinguish the. ways of express- ing with. Distinguish the ways of expressing Latin. Latin regularly requires a conjunction to connect two adjectives belonging to the same noun. For example. 10. infinitive? 7. filius. What four conjugations distinguished? mentary venio. Altos muros et multas portas habet. The verbs in the preceding les- sons have been in the active voice. Roma 2 est in Italia. of the world (the . The Passive Voice. Pulchra sunt aedificia Rulnas Fori RomanI nunc videmus. 14. free. is a comple6. ROMA 144. nifer. the form required when 1 Omit et in translation. " " 2 of lands).42 142. 9. 1. dominae orbis terrarum. to in 15. LESSON XVIII THE PASSIVE VOICE: PRESENT INDICATIVE THE ABLATIVE OF THE AGENT 145. liberal from liber. 16. circle Orbis terrarum. How does a predicate noun differ from an ap143. What are the case endings Of neuter of masculine nouns of the second declension? nouns? 3. Conjugate Decline agricola magnus. signum. Decline equus. 12. How How are the positive? 4. REVIEW QUESTIONS does the gender of Latin words differ from the gender of English words? 2. 5. How do at11. audience from audio. 8. In Italia sunt multa et 1 pulchra oppida. Conjugate defendo. book. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR Give English derivatives.

43 .

Plural / 1 -mur. am loved 3 mo'neor. give. Latin verbs have also a passive voice. I am being warned are sometimes used. you Third Person -tur. the -a. trary to rule (43 a). The boy sees (is videt. less common ending -re is omitted in this book. she. it) is loved ama'mur. nuntio. dantur. darnini. she. we -mini. praised. b. not to the stem. we are warned mone'mini. model verbs Second Conjugation Singular First Conjugation a'mor 2 / . video. damur. puer seeing). timeo. you are warned (he. you are loved mone'ris. added to the corresponding active form. The present indicative passive is formed by adding to the stem the following personal endings: Singular First Person -r. vulnero . we are loved ama'mini. daris. Plural 7" am warned 3 warned ama'ris. thou. (they) are loved mone'mur. the infinitive of do. Conjugate the present passive of laudo. The boy is laudatur. praising). 3 The progressive meanings / am being short. Passive Endings. she. Active Passive (is The boy praises puer laudat. when the subject is acted upon. (they) Second Person -ris (-re). it) 147. 146. it) is ama'tur. conThe passive present indicative is dor. (they) are warned a. you are loved aman'tur. (he. (he. datur. you are warned monen'tur. puer The boy is seen. mone'tur. In dare. 1 The 2 r is . you -ntur. puer videtur.44 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR the subject is represented as acting or being.

timentur. the Garonne. taris. The ablative of means (66) denotes a thing by or with which something is done. Accusamur. prep. Vocamini. Garumna.. et nos mutamur in illis.. M. abl. Memorize : Tempora mutantur. the is Notice that nautae. The times change. The 150. by numerus. M. a lay waste. docere. 2. EXERCISES Laudor.THE PASSIVE VOICE: PRESENT INDICATIVE 148. vastare. 5. docemur. timetur.. w. F. overcome. -1. 1. teach a or ab. THE ABLATIVE OP THE AGENT Nautae puerum laudant. 2. the subject of the active verb laudant. doceris. Celtae. defeat -ae. Iuvantur. and something ablative of the agent denotes a person by whom is done. M. 4. 6. river of Gaul doceo. with a (ab) meaning by. 151. the Celts. a is used before consonants except or consonants. With a passive verb the person by whom an act done is expressed by the ablative with a or ab. -ae. Datur. Puer a. h . -arum. nautis laudator. ab before vowels 149.. without a Latin preposition. devastate a river of Gaul the Seine. the sailors praise the boy. vasto. i. and we change with them. is Rule. 3. a people of Gaul superare. Sequana. the boy is praised by sailors.. put in the ablative with the passive verb laudatur. videor. The ablative here denotes the doer or agent of the action answers the question By whom? a. 45 VOCABULARY supero. . pi. Porvulneraminl. number a..

are called into the town. girls. I am praised by the Roman lieutenant. Copiae pueris dantur. Galli 5. 5. 1. 6. He aided. 4. servus a puero vocatur. model verbs Fourth Conjugation Singular au'dior. 8. man! 4. taught. are defeated. Victoria Romanorum a signifero nuntiatur. In agros copiarum vulneramur. 12. Multa praemia 11. magno numero puellarum amatur. Why is the good queen (pi. vocor. You (sing. Romanorum ab incolls non 13. she. timentur. i. Sagittis 154. ruled audi'tur. am ruled am heard heard you are ruled it) is you are heard it) is re'gitur. Many boys taught by Galba. You messenger. We are They It is re- ported. vocamini. 16. Cur nauta Romanus accufilia mea. (he. . 7. 3. copiis Romanls iuvaris.46 152. are seen. Regina a. 153. The grain is carried by slaves. a 6. she. Cornelia. 17. a Galba docetur. (he. They 2. Who is defeating the Roman farmers? LESSON XIX THE PASSIVE VOICE: PRESENT INDICATIVE (COMPLETED) THIRD CONJUGATION IN -IO 155. superant. You (sing. Gallos Ab amico meo A RoRdmanis superantur. satur? 9. / audi'ris. 7. 2.) are not seen by your friends. Third Conjugation re'gor. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR You are is 4. 8. of boys and 7. are wounded. Agri Celtarum a copiis Romanls vastantur. 10.) see. Multi equ! et cam in viis Romae videntur. 2. Ro15. 6. are seen. number We Galba teaches a great are 3. are seeing.) are warned by the 1. man! agros Celtarum inter Sequanam et Garumnam vastant. 8. I re'geris. We 5. 3. feared. Slgnum tuba datur. feared? 9. 14. Puer servum vocat.

(they) are ruled 47 audi'mur. we are ruled regi'minl. we are heard audi'mini. end in Verbs in -zo. capere. They are inflected like short throughout and becomes -e- in the second singular of the passive. . take. but the -i. (they) are heard 156. Some verbs of the third conjugation -io and are distinguished from those of the fourth conjugation by the infinitive ending -ere: capio. you are heard audiun'tur.THE PASSIVE VOICE: PRESENT INDICATIVE Plural re'gimur. you are ruled regun'tur.

8. Copiae pila iacere docentur.48 160. Gallis 12. A magno numero amlcorum A copiis Romanls vincimini. 2. 5. Roman! longam copias Gallorum debes. Celtae cum oppidanis bellum gerere cupiunt. Signa trans agrum non audiuntur. defendor. in 16. A reglna. 3. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR Roma munltur. oppidanos vincere cupiunt. Celtae . Epistulae Porta Asinaria Showing part of the wall about Rome magna cum mittitur. i. 10. 6. 14. non viam ducuntur. 15. 11. Nauta praedam capere parat. 7. vincere parant. cura. Epistulam scrlbere 4. 9. regimur. Vlcus magno cum studio defenditur. scrlbuntur. Magna muniuntur. 13. Puer in oppidum cum amlcls EquI agricolae oppida a.

Ace. nation. most nouns in -io are feminine: natio. con'sul con'sulis c5n'suli vic'tor victo'ris victo'ii pa'ter pa'tris pa'tii natio'nis natio'nl -is -1 con'sulem con'sule victo'rem pa'trem victo're natio'nem natio'ne -em -e AM. from the genitive. The 7. You are sent (as) a messenger (99) to (133) the queen. Nouns in -tor are masculine: victor. Dat. The third declension is composed nouns whose genitive singular ends in -is. have the same case endings. Gender. 5. LESSON XX THE THIRD DECLENSION: NOUNS IN 162. We are not conquered. 9. The base and declension are to be learned. province is ruled by the queen's friend. i. Why Roman troops hurl javelins? 3. F. Nouns of the third declension are mascuMasculine and feminine nouns line.) are heard by your daughters. therefore. victor M. father patr- nation nationEndings na/tio Base consul- victor- SlNGUXAR Nom. which is given after the nominative in the vocabularies. -6. pa'tre . the lieutenant. -R Genitive Singular. -I. MODEL NOUNS consul. victor. We are protected by the high walls of the town. or neuter.THE THIRD DECLENSION l6l. victor. of 164. M. 6. natio. we are free. 163. feminine. There is no common ending for the nominative singular. Gen. The town is being fortified by Marcus. consul M. You (pi. 8. 2. pater. Who is captured by the Gauls? 4. 49 do the The javelins are being hurled.

pater.. 165. F. called consuls. 3. father M. base. victor mater. corresponding to our regiment. general mercator. i.. nation commander. It numbered 6000 foot soldiers when fully recruited. natio. 4 sulibus Romanis. frater. M. vir means man as opposed to woman. ConSororis meae.. legionis. 3 Homo means man as opposed to lower animals or to the gods.. F. unless emphatic. 2. Singular homo. patris. F. A consule Romano. M.. ho'mines ho'minis ho'minum homi'nibus ho'mini Ace. victoris. con'sules victo'res pa'tres natio'nes -es con'sulum victo'rum pa'trum natio'num -um -ibus -es -ibus consu'libus victo'ribus pa'tribus natio'nibus victo'res natio'nes con'sules pa'tres consu'libus victo'ribus pa'tribus natio'nibus in the genitive. M. EXERCISES 167. legion imperator. Dat.. division of the Roman army was the legion. 5. solis. ho'minem ho'mine ho'mines homi'nibus VOCABULARY 1 consul. follows its noun. mother 2 soror. mercatoris. imperator noster. homo.50 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR Plural Endings Nom. Abl.. Consules Roman!. 4. M. race. 4 A possessive adjective.. Dat. fratris.. Abl.. man. imperatoris.. Plural Nom. hominis. nationis. M. as Some nouns in -6 have -inis hominis. 166. consulis. ho'mo Gen. human being. brother legio. Ace. In the Roman 2 The main . M. matris. legio nova. M.. trader a. Gen. man 3 Decline frater meus. sun M. republic there were two presidents. sister victor. sororis. 1 Cum sorore mea.. homin-. consul sol. F.

1. 3. 5. A the legions. Galba is the 5. scrlbit. To the free man. standing or -gs (6): dux. matrem Puerl servos patris sui Iulia epistulam matri dat. 9. 5. your brothers. 12. rex. Multae nationes a legionibus supecopils capiuntur. for dues. toribus magnis. We are good friends of the 3. from base virtut-. 1. LESSON XXI THE THIRD DECLENSION: NOUNS IN -S AND -X THE IMPERFECT INDICATIVE OF SUM Nominative Singular. Nautae 6. princeps. legions are led by the consul. The good commanders. Magnus hominum numerus trans provinciarn 14. The traders men to the town. 8. The commander is sending 9. Magna praemia victoribus dantur. 7. warn the farmers. Marcus est imperator legionum Romanarum. Solem non semper videnius. 6. 2. 1. 8. 6. mander. Cornelia epistulas fratres consulis iuvant. A mercaMatres nostrae. The is 7. manliness.THE THIRD DECLENSION 6. The boy is taught by his father. Of the Gallic com7. Pater noster. The traders. Fratres mercatoris a Regina sororem Marc! laudat. Of your brother. 7. ad 10. rantur. vocant. To 8. leader. Some nouns of the third declension have the ending -s in the nominative singular: 171. for peds. king. 10.or -g. 11. Between With the legions.or -t. 169. winter . 2. Of the small nations. girl coming with her sisters. 51 Sororum mearum. hiems. 13. 4.have -x in the nominative. Mercatori magno. chief. 3.drop these letters in the nominative: pes. 4. foot. from base due-. Bases in -d. Bases in -c. virtus. from base ped-. 9. 4. for virtuts. 2. 9. The Gauls are a great nation. for -cs . for regs. 170. venit. Galll in proelio non sunt victores. Many human beings. small nation. little son of the commander. from base reg-. 10. 8. Quis hominibus miseris proelium nuntiat? The sun is large. Agricolae a mercatoribus monentur. 168. a.

slavery. M. llbertas. miles. pes. 173. state. M.52 172. M. Nouns in -tas or -tus are feminine: civitas. lex. law. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR Gender. Nouns in -x are masculine or femi- nine: rex.. king. F. . dux. MODEL NOUNS rex. M. M. servitus. F.

Equites Romanos videre debemus. not gained without dust. Principes clvitatum ad regem 8. Consul in provincia mllitis boni. 3. iuvatis? 9. non erat rex. Dux militibus gladios et cum multis militibus erat. virtute pugnant. Multa plla a militibus iaciuntur. cum 4. success is not is won effort. 15. Civitatem pardat. Llbertas servls vulnerantur. plla dat. EXEBCISES 176. victore datur. a 5. 2. 10. Cur ducem clvitatis vestrae non Miles regi gladium novum 11. 7. 13. vam 14. Gallorum pills Puer erat filius equitis. 12. iuvare paramus. mittuntur. Caesar Milites magna erat consul Romanus. I. Erat magnus equitum numerus in Italia. Duces 6. Era- mus amid Roman Horsemen .THE THIRD DECLENSION Memorize : 53 Palma non The palm without sine pulvere.

work river tempus. time caput. flumi'nibus ope'ribus tempo'ribus capi'tibus flu'mina tem'pora ca'pita o'pera flumi'nibus ope'ribus tempo'ribus capi'tibus -ibus . Nouns in -men (gen. the nominative and accusative forms are alike and have no 178. (gen. Abl. Abl. are also alike In the plural the nominative and accusative and end in -a. 2. 5. 4. 3. The 8.54 177* !• LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR Caesar was the commander of the soldiers. case endings. have good horses. The victory is reported to the leaders. Dat. Gen. N. 7. The king praises the valor of his troops. MODEL NOUNS flumen. N. -minis) and -us 179. -oris) are neuter. In the singular of neuter nouns. -US THE FUTURE INDICATIVE OF SUM Special Endings. flu'men flu'minis flu'mini o'pus o'peris o'peri tem'pus tem'poris ca'put ca'pitis ca'piti — — -e -a -i -is tem'pori Ace. A messenger is sent by the chief. N. The queen's horsemen 6. flu'men flu'mine o'pus o'pere tem'pus tem'pore Plural ca'put ca'pite Nom. N. Gen. opus. flu'mina o'pera tem'pora ca'pita flu'minum o'perum tem'porum ca'pitum -um -ibus -a Ace. head capit- Base flumin- oper- temporSingular Endings Nom. Dat. -eris. daughter were in the forest. The king's son and conquering many states. Men ought to love liberty. soldiers are LESSON XXII THE THIRD DECLENSION: NEUTER NOUNS IN -MEN.

catores 9. equorum dant. capitis. N. annus. 6. river opus. EXERCISES 182. VOCABULARY -I. / shall be e'ris. we shall be e'ro. The Roman Army marching out A bas relief on Trajan's Column . dividere.. (ihou wilt be). 2. year agmen. divide separate. agricolae video. it) you will be e'ritis. w. N.. M. nomen. Propter numerum ducum bonorum clvitas erit libera. N. nominis. N. Opus bonum puellarum lau- Propter tempus annl mllites non pugnant. on capital a.. you will be will be e'runt. Nomen pueri Marcus. N. ace. opus magnum. time divido. army flumen. operis. work tempus. name head. she. Capita i. INDICATIVE OF SUM Singular Plural e'rimus. in vico erunt.. 4.. 3. agminis. 7. propter. (they) will be 181. est Lata provincia est inter fltimina.. (he. N. caput. e'rit. temporis.. Erimus cum mercatoribus. account of Decline agmen bonum..THE THIRD DECLENSION: NEUTER NOUNS l8o. prep. fluminis. Magnum agmen non habemus. 55 THE FUTURE TENSE. Mer8. 5.

Terra vestra agmine magno defenditur. Plural -bat amaba'mus. future. . 14. etc. n. INDICATIVE ACTIVE THE PREDICATE ACCUSATIVE 184. pluperfect.and the personal endings -m. (they) loved 186. we loved loved -bamus -batis amaba'tis. THE FIRST CONJUGATION: IMPERFECT INDICATIVE ACTIVE Singular Tense Endings ama/bam. -nt. corresponding to the English auxiliary words was. kings have large armies. There are six tenses in Latin: present. the capital of Italy. I was loving. Julia and Marcus The 3. A ing to the stem the tense sign -ba. names. you were loving. (they) were loving. 4. she. I loved loved -bam -bas she. it) was loving. im- perfect. The imperfect tense is formed by add- Tense Sign. -tis. it) ama'bas. will. you loved ama'bat. -s. you ama'bant. shall. -mus. Who will boys on-account-of (their) be the leaders of the armies? LESSON XXIII THE IMPERFECT TENSE. 185. 1 -t. we were loving. and future perfect. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR Terrae fluminibus dividuntur. to praise the soldiers. et in terra regis erit. Tenses. 7. Agmen trans provin13. is The position of the tense sign immediately before the personal ending. -t. -bant tense sign is an element in a verb to indicate time. Rome The town is fortified by the work of the 5.56 10. ciam venit 183. (he. 2. -nt (7 1 b). shortened to -ba. Praeda inter nautas dividitur. You ought good work. 1. rivers are 15. broad and deep. Ubi erunt amlci tui? The were is Roman 6.before -m. you were loving. perfect. Agmini magno copiam frumenti dant. -ba. (he.

Galliam a is a predicate nominative (97 Rule. Time of the Imperfect tive represents 189. Tense. dwell. w. -1. navigare. audie-bam. two accusatives: one the direct choose.of the stem (rege-) a.. -ae.. is In the sentence terram predicate accusative. I took. / was warning. tional -i. rege-bam. 57 In the other conjugations the models are mone-bam. first 2. 191. scribo. -ae. I warned.. the Rhine Rhodanus.THE IMPERFECT TENSE. name navigo. b. Germany ripa. ace. / was taking. M. navigate incolo. and that there is an addiverbs of the third and fourth conjugations. VOCABULARY F. appellant. M. a Ger- appello. German Rhenus. 188. The imperfect indicaan act or state as continuing in past time. M. I heard. Notice that in the third conjugation is final -e. incolere. venio. INDICATIVE ACTIVE 187. Learn the conjugation of these models given on page 281.. Conjugate also the imperfect active of -id lengthened (rege-). the other a predi- cate accusative. name). I ruled. like take In the second sentence Gallia b). capie-bam. the Rhone 190. -a. appellare. F. The verbs name. -1. 1 (by man Germanus. 1 To be distinguished from voco. . -1. Germania. the direct object. bank call Germanus. make. / was hearing. the land is called Gaul. inhabit THE PREDICATE ACCUSATIVE Terram Galliam Terra Gallia appellator. and the object. sail.. which means call in the sense of summon. iacio. / was ruling. -urn. call. Caesar was praising the troops. habed. they call the land Gaul. i. like the English past progressive: Caesar copias laudabat.

1. 4. Vocabatis. Mittebam.58 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR a. videbam. Vinceba- 193. You were fearing. I was They coming. writing. You were The Rhone and the Alps. 9. dividing. 6. vlvamus. 2. He was We were taking. Gaudeamus iuvenes dum sumus. Incolebant. Maurice. 3. were 6. Laudabam. Memorize : Dum vlvimus. iaciebam. 2. carrying. veniebatis. They were 5. EXERCISES 192. bat. Nuntiabamus. jnus. In the passive voice these verbs take two nominatives: the subject and a predicate nominative (99). Portabat. 10. Let us rejoice while we are young. 10. 9. 5. They accusing. 7. 8. Scribebatis. sailing. 1. docebatis. let us live. Switzerland . 7. You were. Dabam (43 a). were 8. 4. You were leading. While we live. muniehabe- bam. 3. St. muniebat. Defendebat.

2. civitatis Pueri equites Gallicos in via videbant. Pater pueros docebat. 9. Cur fratrem ducis capiebant? 14. 6. 2. Miles magna cum virtiite 7. ing large army a sword and a The slave was javelin. Multas epistulas Caesar. she. imperator Romanus. 5. LESSON XXIV THE IMPERFECT TENSE.THE IMPERFECT TENSE. Incolae Germaniae GermanI appellantur. carrying a long river of Gaul. 16. 4. we were {being) loved -bamur -bamini -bantur amaba'minl. / was {being) loved amaba/ris. Agricola equis f rumenturn dabat. Mercatores in vlco 10. 8. Quis trans flumen niintios mitmultos carros habebant. 8. 6. magno agmine regem superabat. 3. Magna cum ciira homines miseros iuvabat. pugnabat. The consul was leadThe sailors were into Gaul. 4. you were {being) loved amaban'tur. Fllil mercatoris ad ripam fluminis navigabant. {they) were {being) loved . 5. 3. INDICATIVE PASSIVE 59 194. it) was {being) loved -batur Plural amaba'mur. 15. {he. Prlnceps 12. THE FIRST CONJUGATION: IMPERFECT INDICATIVE PASSIVE Singular Tense Endings -bar -baris ama'bar. i. soldiers 1. 17. The lieutenant calling his son. The German were defending the towns. Viri pila iaciebant. GermanI trans Rhenum incolunt. We were coming across the street. 11. INDICATIVE PASSIVE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 196. The name of the boy's brother was Lucius. 195. The Rhone is 7. Roman! was Celtas Gallos appellant. you were {being) loved amaba'tur. ami cis tuis scrlbebas. I was coming with my friends. 13. a dividing the booty. Munire parabamus. epistulam scrlbebam. tebat? 9.

b. / was (being) warned. confirmare. and cur have been used to introduce Latin questions. b. capiebar. / was (being) heard. peditis. and that the personal endings are those already learned for the present passive (146). If the answer yes is implied. Thus audit or non audit an198. joined to the first (the emphatic) word. (18). F. 199. Learn from page 284 the conjugation of monebar. Questions. the question begins with num: Num puer audit? the boy does not hear. When there is no special ina terrogative word.. Belgians free. -ne has no meaning by itself. cap- nonne. peace (implying yes) -ne (enclitic. the Belgae confirmo. question may be indicated by the en197. regebar.6o LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR a. amicitia. I was (being) taken. the answer no. ubi.. (bel'je)... 197 a) pedes. /0c/ num. the libero.. Tubamne puer does the boy hear the trumpet? audit? does the boy hear the trumpet? the boy 3. qui. swers the questions in 197. vocabulary -ae. particle (implying no) soldier. by repeating the verb with a negative. not? prisoner pax. Hberare. (pes). adv. M. Auditne puer tubam? does hear the trumpet? a. pi. it is merely the sign of a question. M. interrog. the question begins with nonne: Nonne puer audit? does not the boy hear? If the answer no is implied. clitic -ne 1. -arum. (capio). set Belgae. infantry . friendship strengthen (liber). audiebar. pacis. liberate captivus. -1. the sign of the imperfect tense in the passive also. does he? Answers. / was (being) ruled. establish. tive. The answer yes is usually expressed by repeating the verb of the question. (make firm). (amicus). Puerne tubam audit? 2. M. interrog. Notice that -ba. F.

et Rhenum by many men. being conquered. Laudaturne? 8.THE IMPERFECT TENSE. Non erat cum amicis 3. 3. friend. you were 5. 2. Estne Marcus in via? Eratne Caesar rex Romanorum? 1. Laudabatur. 7. The towns were being announced to the men of the written to the king and queen? village. 201. 1. Nonne laudabat? 6. Multi in Italiam ducebantur. Vocabantur. 10. 12. I was advised by my brother. bantur. you give? 8. fortified Roman Foot Soldier Sequanam 203. 3. 15. Duce200. 2. We seen? 202. bus bonis docebamur. 7. 5. Cum peditum cum consule? civitatibus pacem et amlcitiam confirmare cupiebat. Was he seen? 10. Laudabatne? 3. civitatis liberabat. i. Eratne oppidanorum. Do They sending. 4. 4. 7. 1. 8. docebantur. 9. A consule Romano llberaminl. Pedites erant amici dux 13. 5. Defendemuniebatur. bamur. 6. were. You were being warned. were was being heard. 4. A patri- 9. being were 6. 11. tuis? Tela a militi- bus iaciebantur. You were being praised by the consul's 6. The captive's 4. timebamur. The victory was being sister was before the gate of the chief. captlvos Princeps 11. Did you give? 9. Was the letter being . Portabamur. Mittebatur. 14. you were sent. Puellaene erunt 5. iaciebantur. rex. He You aided. NSnne slgnum 7. Marcus was sent (as) a messenger. imperatoris audiebatur? Galll a Caesare superabantur. captlvl 10. videbatur. Belgae inter incolunt. Videturne? 2. capiebamur. INDICATIVE PASSIVE 61 EXERCISES Laudatne? 2. Was he not I was being accused.


Rhenum Belgae et Celtae et AquitanI Galliam incolunt. mountain. 208. b. decoration. LESSON XXVI THE THIRD DECLENSION: GENITIVE PLURAL 207. night. silvae latae et rlpls multa fliimina. Garumna. Gallia. The genitive plural ends in -ium in the following classes of nouns: a. animal. nox. mons. Matrona. Incolae Britanniae BritannI appellantur. contra Galliam est. enemy. nox. Sequana. Learn the declension of page 269. . Nouns in -s or -x having a base ending in two conso- nants: mons.THE THIRD DECLENSION! GENITIVE PLURAL IN -IUM 63 TERRAE EUROPAE Britannia. c. or -ar: Insigne. hostis. Hispania. Gallia inter flumen et Oce'anum posita 1 est. In Germania sunt Trans Rhenum incolunt German!. animal. Europae. in Galll et Roman! Britanniam navigant. Pulchr! vie! Germanorum in RhenI sunt. cloud. IN -IUM nubes. -al. Romana. 1 Situated. terra clara Hispanorum. sunt terrae Britannia. 206. The Genitive Plural. Genava et Massilia sunt oppida Gallica. hostis. Axona. insigne. Fliimina Galliae sunt Rhodanus. magna Insula. Nouns in -es or -is having the same number of syllables in the genitive as in the nominative: nubes. Neuter nouns in -e. animal calcar (spur). Germania. Hispania. Arar. erat provincia sed Germania non erat provincia.

classis collis (hill).. Agricola animalibus partem frumenti dabat. hostis. Ablative Singular. 12. pup- pis (stern). M. (fire). Equites ab filiae nautarum sunt in oppidum tenebant. 1 decern. in -1 or -e in some words: as avis (bird). decora- badge teneo. finis (end). copils tenebatur. personal enemy. mountain EXERCISES 212. The ablative singular ends Plural. 4. civis (citizen). navis (ship).64 209.. 13. (indeclinable). est FiliT et Roma. N. ignis (fleet). hold mons. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR The Accusative The in -is or -es. see 6. part tenth of a legion) hostis. capiebantur. Erant decern cohortes in legione Romana. 5. Milites gladios tenent. 1. noctis. adj.. F. Nonne urbs muris latis munitur? 8. The accusative plural ends In this book only -es is used. Nomen urbis 10. N. city 2 enemy tion. cohortis. -ia in the Neuters in -e.. urbs. urbis. Galll n. inimicus. insignis. Quis erat dux cohortium? 6. Parva pars montis a state. -al. 3 Hostis means enemy of the Pronounced urps .. turris (tower). sementis (sowing). 9.. a. enemy. animalis. F. tenere. partis. hostibus navT.. animal cohors. navis.. or -ar have -1 in the ablative singular. Dux hostium erat miles bonus. F. 3. pi.. . 2. 211. 210. RomanI multas naves non habebant. cohort (a nox. F.. Videsne pulchrum montem? 7.. montis. magna cum 1 virtute plla iacere parant. night pars. F. VOCABULARY navis. M. nominative and accusative plural. ten insigne. ship animal.

-e. boy has the soldier's badge. libertas. The 3. -oris) are Nouns in -al. -men. the third declension cannot be determined by the nominative singular.THE THIRD DECLENSION: GENDER. Gender. as in the first and second declensions. natio. 65 nights will not be long. Italy. (gen. are feminine: -do. 7. Rome is a large city of 4. altitudo. Abstract nouns in It must be learned with the word. . -io. 2. «^ ^ a ' : <. -tus.-' ~ '. tempus. -us neuter: animal. Many animals were seen on (in) the mountain. SPECIAL NOUNS 213. the gender of nouns of 214. -tas. opus. ! Roman War Ship LESSON XXVII THE THIRD DECLENSION: GENDER. The soldiers' badges 6 The general was conquering the enemy with ten cohorts. inslgne. SPECIAL NOUNS As we have seen. I. -eris. virtus. are new. 5. The The sailors ought to have a large number of ships. flumen.

Agmen per provinciam iter faciebat. multitude. and villages in our country. Ad portam castrorum pugnabant. Do you 3. number pons. Did you not have cities. route. et fossa i. 12. depth a.. English says over.. castrorum. of the river. 17. pi. Caesar ponte trans flumen agmen dticit. fear the deep sea? 2. He fears the great force see the mountains. parabant. Altitudo montis non est magna. Galli 217. force. 6. multitudinem equitum habebant. do. iter tus). (al- facio. height. castra itinere ducuntur. seas? 5. sea altitude). {great) camp iter. Learn the declension and vis. Vim facere 5 16. Pontem latum 15. Iter erit longum. strength march.. Signiferi slgna in castra portant. maris. 18. 3 2. .. The passive On. (multus). 2 make. the rivers. pontis. Erant multa itinera ad urbem. 3. of iter march page 269. bridge vis.. and the We towns. M. Milites Roman! castra defendebant. Consul vl viam facit. 10. way mare. Cur magnas naves non faciunt? 19. facere. multitudinis. facere.. 6 8 To use. 1.. Muro semper muniebant. is rarely used. 14. 2 3 * fort.66 215. of facio is The singular form tastrum. castra. Mons multittidine hominum tene- Multitudo Gallorum per terram ducebatur. 11. EXERCISES 216. N. Multae naves sunt in 4 marl.. journey. The king was 1 giving liberty to a great number of men. 4. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR VOCABULARY N. altitudinis. 6 in numine faciebamus. N. plural form castra has a singular meaning. Ten The At. F. vis. a multitudo. 9. 1 itineris. F. Copiae longo 7. Estne mare altum? 13. 5. batur. 8. non 6. pi. 4. F. irregular (597).

reach. be away. The ablative is also used to express from a person or thing: c. 2. wait for pertineo. means.THE ABLATIVE CASE! SEPARATION. out of. abl. de. We have seen that the ablative expresses: a. How to say from. w. by de. Cura regem liberat. teneo). ab. abl. consonants except h. w. PLACE FROM WHICH 67 cohorts were marching into the camp.. Flumen Rhenus Gallos a Germanis river separates the dividit. away absum from. or manner). with a person or thing (denoting accompaniment. adv. out from. stands before Ab means away 219. in a place (the place where).. ex. An From what ablative answering the question From what person? 1 thing? is called an ablative of separation. prep. prep. 7. exspecto. ex. They were coming to the bridge by many routes... like E.. PLACE FROM WHICH 218. 1. a. a. from. LESSON XXVIII THE ABLATIVE CASE: SEPARATION. . N. from e. far from." ablative " means 6 . he frees the king from care.. be distant (ab + sum). In the camp (there) were captives of the Romans. belong peril. for the case of " taking away.. down from. by a person or thing (the agent or the means). be absent. abl. down from. like a. " 1 The ablative case is named from this use. before vowels or consonants (148 a). b. ex. ab. extend. pertinere (per + from periculum. prep. expect. danger longe. VOCABULARY w. exspectare. -I. the Rhine Gauls from the Germans. 8. b.

1. or ex. 1. preposition is regularly omitted when the separation is figurative. Ablative of Separation. Place from which names of towns. de". a. is regularly expressed by the ablative with ab. Place from which. EXERCISES 224. preposition is regularly used when the separation is as in 219. divide. but the preposition is omitted with 223. Memorize : Factum fieri mfectum non What has been done cannot Facta non verba. 2. 2. differ. Deeds not words. set free. Plla de muro alto iaciebantur. from the city. literal.68 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR 220. Verbs denoting sepacomplete their meaning. 5. 9. lack. Terra longe aberat. deprive. potest. 11. b. A 222. aftsunt. Cur fratrem . Prlnceps bonus ab hostibus clvitatem defendit. The ablative expressing separation is used with such verbs as separate. Fratres mel a vico Epistulam ab amico exspecto. Vicus a ponte longe abest. defend. 4. 6. de. be undone. 221. be absent. Oppidum Gallicum a provincia Romana a. In the following sentences the Whence? From what place? Ab urbe venit. refrain. c. ration require an ablative to out ab. as in 219. or ex. he comes from Rome. he comes 2. novae e castrls 7. Rule. Legatus mllites ab opere vocabat. in oppidum iter faciebant. with or withused when the ablative denotes a A A preposition is person. Nonne perlculum puerorum vides? 12. ablative answers the question 1. Agricolae ex agris veniunt. Roma Rule. Legiones 8. 10. move. venit. montibus ad mare pertinet. 3.

Narni. Italy LESSON XXIX THE FUTURE TENSE. 2. Who was defending the bridge from the army of the enemy? 6. Nautae ex navibus 225.and the personal endings. The camp extended from the river to the mountain. 5. 4. In the first person singular -i.THE FUTURE TENSE.of the tense sign disappears before the ending 1 Defendo always takes ab. 13. The future tense of the first and second conjugations is formed by adding to the present stem the tense sign -bi. . 7. The slaves were being sent out of the villages. We ought to free our city from danger. 1. 3. The animals were not far away from the forest. He was expecting a messenger from 1 the consul. INDICATIVE (CONJUGATIONS 226. I AND II) Tense Sign. The boy throws Roman Bridge. a javelin (down) from the bridge into the water. INDICATIVE 69 fru- tuum et Marcum exspectabas? mentum capiunt.

weapons arms. Or she.. (decern). be loved will monebun'tur. -que. paratus. Passive Voice mone'bor. -bitis mone'bitis. 1 and 3 also Or / shall be loving. . conj.. exploratoris. speech. we ama/bitis.70 -6 . first decimus. we loved mone'bimur. Or I shall be warning. scout oratio. N. / shall be loved ama/beris. loved you 3 be warned will be ama/bitur. you will be warned (they) amabun'tur. (paro). -um. becomes -u. (he) will warn we shall warn -bimus mone'bimus. F. you will be -beris will ama/bor. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR in the third person plural it it ond person singular passive 227. we warned shall be -bimur -bimini amabi'mini. in the sec- the future indicative Active Voice Tense Endings ama/bo. you will be loved monebi'minl. and 2 atque or ac. arma. oration ready primus.. you will love a ma/bunt. M. -urn. (they) will love warn 2 -bo -bis mone'bis. . you will love ama/bit. tenth -a. warned (they) will be -buntur 229. or it. / ama/bis.. -a.and becomes -e-. -orum. (they) will warn -bunt shall 228. -um. (he) 3 will love shall cove ama/bimus. and. enclitic conj. orationis. explorator. -a. you will warn mone'bunt. / shall love 1 mone'bo. / shall be warned -bor mone'beris.. (he) loved mone'bitur. (he) 3 will be -bitur warned shall be ama/bimur. you will warn 3 -bit mone'bit. vocabulary pi.

Atque (ac) throws emphasis upon the second connected word or phrase: terra atque mare. INDICATIVE 71 a. 4. 6. 1. 1. i. the common conjunction. ac only before consonants. 2. I shall overcome. Parabunt. The boys will be taught by Galba. 13. 4. 2. 6. pertinebunt. They be seen. will be called. bit? Montemne 12.THE FUTURE TENSE. Who will report the first victory of our forces? . simply connects. Cura llberaberis. Vocabor. 6. videbimur. 3. 3. the land and the sea. 3. Arma mllitis Prmcipes civitatis orationemconsulis laudabant. 3. EXERCISES 230. pilumque. 7. will 10. Puella a patre sud laudabitur. Vo- habebimus. Decima legio iter facere erit parata. timebis. Et. 5. Laudabo. 14. tenebitis. 1. 11. the land and also the sea. 5. 5. docebit. Dabimus. You will teach. 2. docebor. A 8. 5. 9. The slaves will be freed from peril. He will be held. Multos amlcos in urbe ha- bebimus. 2. 9. Nationes pacem atque amicitiam confirmant. -que combines more closely and is attached to the second of the connected words: terra mareque. 7. Portabis. castra Exploratores prim! 11. regis appellabimini. You will see the high mountains. 8. 233. free. I shall have. They will fight. 4. 8. videbo. We 12. Atque may stand before a vowel or a consonant. 4. shall see. 231. I shall call the men out of the field. iuvabimur. cus noster. Quis ducem mone10. Romani erant gladius hostium videbunt. 15. ami232. 6. nationibus Gallicis Multi milites ante victoriam vulnerabuntur. 7. Marcus. Amid copiae nostrae tenebunt? Hostes civitatis vestrae superabitis. He will aid. The messenger will give a letter to the king. cabit. Laudabimur. You will set They will fear. 7. The trader will praise his daughter. Nuntiabitis. We You shall expect. pueros docebit.

Switzerland LESSON XXX THE FUTURE TENSE.72 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR The Alps. In the future of the third the tense sign is not -bi-. -e. 235. first and fourth conjugations and second conjuga- but -a- for the first person singular.or-e. as in the tions (226). the future indicative Active Voice / shall take / shall rule I shall hear re'gam re'ges re'get ca'piam ca'pies ca'piet au'diam au'dies au'diet rege'mus rege'tis capie'mus capie'tis audie'mus audie'tis re'gent ca'pient au'dient . Pontresina.for the other persons. INDICATIVE (CONJUGATIONS III AND IV) 234.

vin4. consilium. 3. confederate M. Scribimus. Multae 5. pi. We are making. A hostage was a person given by one nation to another. citur. will fortify. 1 finis. muniam. they will throw. 2. we shall make. Mittam. end. I shall be. 4. finis. Nonne films conagmen diicet? 7.. soci (96). regis perlculo defen240. bor liberi. 6.the future tense. 7. among. in the presence of -orum. (finis).. ducetur. N. shall lead. indicative 236. 1. capie'mur capie'mini capien'tur audie'mur audie'mini audien'tur Conjugate the future of mitto and munio. 10. They are throwing.. prep. 8.. territory finitimus. we shall be led. I shall be sent. M. 2. 1. 6. obsidis. dlvident. to be held as a pledge of good faith in keeping treaties. Dlvidunt. He We ad sordrem suam librum pulchrum mittet. ace. M. VOCABULAEY -1. M. scrlbemus. 4. neigh- apud. -1. Urbem magna a Flliae cum audacia defendemus.. cemini. Legatus in Galliam cum copils mittetur. 5. 6. away. Multis proeliis vincetis. sulis 1 Legiones ex castris ducentur. 237. Capient. plan obses. with. ally. Du5. 9. 7. I shall will be conquered. capientur.. boundaries. 2. 73 Passive Voice I shall be taken ca'piar capie'ris / shall be ruled re'gar rege'ris I shall be heard au'diar audie'ris rege'tur capie'tur audie'tur rege'mur rege'mini regen'tur a. 3. socius. w.. He will come. Vincimini. lulia dentur. You be 8. hostage pi. You will be defended. 239. 1. . 3. Defendis. M. children EXERCISES 238. defendes.

Adjectives of two endings one for the masculine and feminine. Rhodanus will est in flnibus Gallorum. acris. Adjectives of three endings.. Liberl mittentur obsides. clension are classified according to the number of endings in the nominative singular: 1.. 17. Galli portas urbium suarum Consilia sociorum ab exploratoribus nuntia2 buntur. runt? 10. . The 8.. 1. 2. powerful. acr-. Obsides erunt apud regem. 3. M. You will not be far away from the town. for N. 6. base. 241. Apud llberos 16. 3. Nominative Singular. Per terram novam iter facie tis. I shall come with your brother. Navesne a ponte longe abe11. The letters be written by the slaves. 7. base. N... F. -is or -es in the accusative plural. 2. acre. M. 15. 4. 5. Most adjectives of the third declension. 2 As hostages (99).74 LATIN FOK THE FIRST YEAR 9. -ium in the genitive plural. LESSON XXXI ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION THE DATIVE WITH ADJECTIVES Adjectives of the third de242. The boys will make new arrows. and F. base. civitates Galliae vincentur. M. Adjectives of one ending. We shall make a way into the forest.. The tribe will javelins will be thrown (down) from the wall. Marcus will write a letter to his father. N. F. sharp. 1 This expresses time. 243. make peace with the neighbors. differing for each gender: acer. erit fllius ducis. the other for the neuter: fortis. 14. forte. potent-. fort-. Mllites ante * signum plla non iacient. 12. have -i in the ablative singular. Endings. Fhlmen munient. 13... except comparatives. all genders: potens.

fortis. -a. paris). -um. like. is near. THE DATIVE WITH ADJECTIVES Civitas proxima Gallis est. forte. Fllius patri similis est. a. acer. powerful idoneus. 1 equal. suitable.. keen. audacis). bold. simile. . friendly. the son is like his father. acre. all -um. acris. called the dative with adjectives.. omnis. pleasing.ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION 75 masculine and feminine. place gratus. fortis. 1 every. 245.loca. 3. the place was suitable for a camp.. -orum. (gen. Locus castris idoneus erat. -I. and -ia in the nominative and accusative plural neuter. Notice that after proxima. suitable. next. natio potens. and idoneus the noun to which the quality is directed is in the dative. 2. brave. and 244. similis. like.). -a. i . as given on page 272. This construction 246. eager potens (gen. potentis). equal acer. fit Decline puer acer. (pl. proximus. and their Proximus and adjectives of quantity. The dative is used with adjectives meaning Rule. omnis puella. VOCABULARY M. a. the tribe is next to the Gauls. pleasing. like multus and omnis. strong N. nor- mally precede their nouns. last daring par (gen. omne. locus. Learn the declension of the models potens. -um. opposites. 1 similis. -a.. sharp. similar agreeable audax nearest.

Marcus and the leader's sons are brave men. everything. Epistulae tuae flliabus meis gratae Imperator videt. 5. The cohort will be captured by the daring horsemen. Niin- ad proxima oppida mittemus. Vir erit idoneus operl. navibus portant? homines habere Erat proelium acre cum copiis hostium. The 5. hominum 6. 1. The small pleasing to your brother. 1 In number. Romanis non erant tios 7. army is not danger equal 8. The letter is pleasing to the The beautiful books will be 3.70 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR Memorize: Vultus est index animi. 14. vincit. 15. The countenance is the index of Fideli certa merces. field was not fit for a camp. sunt. A Standard -Bearer trader. 13. ex et fortes 12. 2. 8. 2. pugnant. audacia. Sumusne reginae? Galll multitudine 1 pares. 6. dabimus. Labor omnia 2 1. castris idoneum locum grati 4. In Italia sunt multa et pulchra loca. 4. The captives are like the far away from powerful tribes. 10. . slaves. magna Potens cum tur. 9. clvitas Galliae a Caesare superabiomnibus 9. Copiae acres slgnum exspectabant. 3. 248. be 7. Our village is next to the river. The will for all the soldiers. 2 All {things). EXERCISES 247. Similia praemia puerls 11. Cur omne frumentum Multos debemus. Milites sunt audaces. the mind* The reward of the faithful is certain.

itive. s. They are the present indicative.THE PERFECT TENSE. . and the supine (a verbal Indicative noun form). INDICATIVE ACTIVE 77 LESSON XXXII THE PERFECT TENSE. so called because all forms of the verb may be derived from them. Principal Parts. Verbs have four principal parts. the present infin- the perfect indicative. INDICATIVE ACTIVE 249.

With the same endings conjugate and audivi.78 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR 252. / have taken. cepi. THE PERFECT INDICATIVE OF REGULAR VERBS I have warned I warned 2 / have loved I loved l I have ruled ama/vi amavis'ti ama'vit ama/vimus amavis'tis amave'runt a. / have heard. took. I heard. I .

. Veni. 6. 11. 7. Vocavit- 10. Laudavisti. Dedi- Docuit. Afuisti. Habuistis. 3 Duxit. 5. Misimus. Fecerunt. Vidimus. 9. mus. INDICATIVE ACTIVE 79 A Roman Emperor in Military Attire EXERCISES 254. I. 4. 12. 2. .THE PERFECT TENSE. vlci. 8. Muniverunt. vldi.

form the parts of accuso. appello. friends. horses have 5. 10. in the city. They have feared. Tuba slgnum dedit. Second Conjugation debeo doceo habeo pertineo teneo debere timeo vide5 .8o 255. Dux signa dabat. have been girls. taken. -are. exspecto. vulnero. Ubi fuerunt nautae? 6. n. voco. nuntio. I have given conquered the Gauls? 6. 13. paco. Did you see the beautiful buildings of the city? 7. idonea loca vldit. -avi. 1. 5. Servus bonus multas epistulas scrlpsit. Why have they devastated the fields of the neighbors? many rewards to the Who 258. 14. 4. 2. Via ab fmmine ad montem pertinebat. Opusne fecisti? 5. 4. 257. Dux 9. porto. I have praised. We fought. Incolae 1. We 3. Multa et Caesarem. que filiabus venit. paro. 10. 8. supero. You sent. 6. There were brave horsemen 4. He has heard. 2. pugno. 8. libero. Servos incolarum propter virtutem copias laudavit. legatos 3. imperatorem. They have heard. cum The finitimis bellum gesserunt. I defended. 7. navigo. principal parts of verbs thus far given First Conjugation - laudo iuvo a. 9. You We wrote. laudare iuvare laudavi iuvi laudatum iutum With the regular endings -6. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR He has taken. llberavimus. 1. Pater cum flliis at256. -atum. Celtae in fines Belgarum iter fecerunt. 12. Nonne consilium audivistl? 7. 3. conflrmo. 2. Ad miserunt. come to the bridge. vasto.

THE PERFECT PARTICIPLE Third Conjugation defendo divido 8l defendere duco gero incolo mitto scrlbo vinco cupio facio iacio .

-a.&2 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR 260. / have been warned. of the participle depends upon the gender of the subject: thus pater amatus est. VOCABULARY M.). Sextus. having been heard cap'tus. sive participle. loved. -1. Quintus hundred gravis. -a. you have been loved. -a. having been warned rec'tus. taken. -um) est. Perfect Indicative Passive. she.. The perfect indicative passive is a compound tense. -um. {they) have been loved. -um. / have been heard. -1. -um. centurion civis. rectus sum. b. scutum. having been taken audTtus. a.. Quintus. adj. {he. captus sum. -um. 261. consisting of the perfect par- ticiple and sum: amatus (-a) sum.. which supine (249) to -s: is Latin verbs have a perfect pasmade by changing final -m of the ama/tus. we have been loved. heavy -1.. M. 262.. centum. Perfect Participle. shield (indeclinable populus. -a. you were loved amatus (-a. civis. The ending and number amata est. grave. M. N. we were loved amati (-ae) estis. having been ruled -um. / have been taken. were loved a. -1. centurionis. you have been loved. -a. people. heard. / have been ruled. / have been loved. -a. Sextus . auditus sum. it) has been loved. ruled. nation M. citizen centurio. warned. but filia In the same way conjugate monitus sum. I was loved amatus (-a) es. This participle is declined like the adjective bonus. -um. you were loved amati (-ae. having been loved mo'nitus. M. was loved amati (-ae) sumus.. -a) sunt.

11. 265. Were they away from the town? 7 . Ab Castra a centurionibus munita sunt. 7. i. 1. Hostes a populo Romano defensi sumus. (or. 5. 4. A 13. has been seen (or. 14. tus sum. Many tribes in Gaul have been subdued. 4. You have been defended. laudatus Scu- tum Quint! non grave erat. Visi 6. was seen). civitatibus Galliae pacem faciet. 6. 5. Missi sumus. 264. 9. Laudatae sunt. 8. 2. I have been led He been heard. The animals have been seen in the forest. Who made the Roman shields? 9. Scuta nova mllitum vidl. tum men 4. Quintus a Sexto. Scuta nova mllitibus data 8. Doc- Iacta sunt. Capti estis. matre bona doctus 266. Quintus centurione. 3. Audltus es. urbe afuimus. Sextus erant elves est. They have been were called). It has been. 5. We have come to the gate of the city with many citizens. Where were the citizens? 10. 7. 1. Centurio cenmllites duxit.THE PERFECT PARTICIPLE 83 EXERCISES 263. A beautiful shield was carried into the camp. Who has seen the brave centurion? 6. es. erat et Sextus. 7. 2. The boy has been warned. 2. 5. Non victi sumus. 9. Magno cum perlculo superatl sunt. (or. 3. 10. Ad elves niintius missus sum. We have She has been expected. 4. Romanl. 6. It has been reported. sunt. 8. 12. The war has been carried on with great bravery. Miinltum est. 3. 8. was led). called 2. cum 10. 1. No- Scutum centurionis 3. Vocatus est. 7. Populus Romanus sunt.


Sclpio. ab omnibus laudati 1 About. oratores clarl. Quis de orationi- Vergilius et Horatius. Galliam. Multae f abulae de * septem regibus Romanis narrantur. 16. Decline omnis. Roman!.REVIEW OF LESSONS XXVI-XXXIII veni and veniebam differ in meaning? perfect indicative passive formed? the third declension of classified? 14. 85 How is the How are adjectives Decline acer. Graeciam. is With the what dative used? POPULUS ROM ANUS 269. 12. Cornelius Sulla Hispaniam vicerunt. Sulla. tionibus bellum gesserunt et Italiam. Roman! fuerunt populus Multls cum napotens. rex septimus. Romulus. ex urbe expulsus est. poetae sunt. iniurias tas Tarquinius Superbus. L. Post reges consules creati sunt. Magni imperatores erant Apud Romanos fuerunt bus Ciceronis non audlvit? Marius. urbem Romam Propter mulappellavit. Caesar. is How expressed? separation Place from which? adjectives 17. pri- mus rex. 15. . 13.

W o Oh H > 3 o w w o 86 .

manus. hand. 272. The fourth declension includes all nouns whose genin -us or -u. and a few others are feminine. MODEL NOUNS . Domus.THE FOURTH DECLENSION 87 LESSON XXXV THE FOURTH DECLENSION 270. The nominative ends Most nouns of the fourth declension are 271. itive singular ends in -us. Those in -u are neuter. masculine. house. Gender.

nua longa habent. portabitur. cornu dextrum. M.. band. domos pulchras vulnerata amicls 13. Caesar sent a message to the Roman senate. Domusne agri- Noster exercitus non vincetur. The victory has been reported to the senate. house. In portu naves longas saepe vidimus. force a. senatus. left army manus. Decern cohortes militum erant in dextro cornu. The consul was praising the brave army. lacus. Q. 3.. adv. The leader of the army will be seen with his lieutenants. in 11. abbreviated S. 1. R. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR VOCABULARY cornus. N. Senatus popu- lusque Romanus. P. 1. 1 The title of the Roman government. The brave chief led a large band village of Gauls. exercitus. 4. senate dexter. hand. urbe habebunt. (a trained body) F. colae longe a lacu abest? 9. horn.. In manibus servorum erant epistulae ab 12. amid mei. 6. Have you seen the beautiful lakes? is next to the lake (246). saepe. manus. Lacus et flumen provinciam Romanam a Gallia diviserunt. senatus. Iulia manu sua epistulam scripsit. 276. 6. portus. M. Dextrum cornu Romanorum hostes vlcit. M. civitatibus Galliae fuerunt principes et Consules duces exercituum saepe erant. M. 7. In 2. -trum. 8. lacus. lake wing an army) F.88 274. sinistrum cornu hostium superatum est. port portus. 10. domus. domus. home exercitus.. EXERCISES 275. -tra.. Sextus et Marcus. 14. . often Decline together exercitus f ortis . 2. 4. -trum. -tra. Animalia in silva cor3. Frtimentum 1 in portum multis navibus 15. (of cornu. 7. Manus dextra legati nostris... harbor. right sinister. senatus. The little 5.. est. 5.

(tra + duco). contentum (con hold together. VOCABULARY -1. ruris.. vinum. against (negative.. after. F. + porto). together. re.. (com together 1 + porto). THE LOCATIVE CASE 89 LESSON XXXVI PREFIXES. -drum. in (im-). through. come together. (com-. e (ex). live through). dis278. lead back traduco. trans (tra-). -a. continere. away. {come dwell. Prefixes.. -1. post. not used separately.. out. between. into. down. M. Helvetia.PREFIXES. comporto. bring Pronounced Hel-vc'shi-i. back. N. bound (geographically) Helvetius (Helveticus). assemble 2 -are. (im in. . prefixes are also used as prepositions and include the following already learned: a (ab). ad. ante. N. 2 pervenio. are conapart. 2 Helvetii. lead out reduco. Many compound verbs are made by com- Most of the bining simple verbs with adverbial prefixes. away. -ae.the Eel1 vetii. inter. de. the Helvetians restrain. reach. Geneva F. co-). 2 The principal parts are like those of the simple verb.. not). lead educo. Oce'anus.(red-). import teneo). wine -avi. before. per. (e rus. (Switzerland) contineo. arrive. (per + venio). Helvetian -um. M. F. + bring Genava. habito. Corinth Helvetia importo. atum. Other common prefixes. (di-). THE LOCATIVE CASE EXPRESSIONS OF PLACE REVIEWED 277. -ae. across. in. continui. (con + venio). (re + duco). Corinthus. -1. to. ocean + duco).. country (opposed to the city) across convenio.

regularly with names of towns. 280. at Home. and a few other words. in the second declension. they came from home. they came to Rome. venerunt. and rus the preposition omitted. or ex (223). 281. they came from the town. at have a special Corinth. -1: Corinthi. Marcus doml est. is Place from which ab. magna erat terra. but with preposition is omitted. run. i. domus. at Rome. to which is or in (134). Domus and rus have the locative forms doml. Gallia. 3. in the country. with in Place in which or at which is regularly expressed by the ablative (67). but with expressed by the accusative. rus. PLACE IN WHICH Marcus in oppido est. the locative (47 a). but the locative case is used for domus. Marcus is in Rome. Rhodano ad Oceanum et pertinebat. Place is venerunt. and names of towns in the singular number. place). Marcus is in the town. case. a. PLACE TO "WHICH Ad oppidum Romam venerunt. venerunt. Names of towns in the singular of the first and second declensions. batur. denoting place where The ending in the first declension is -ae: (locus. 2. domus. Marcus Romae est. they came home. they came to the town. and rus the 282. EXERCISES 283. de.90 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR 279. they came from Rome. The Locative Case. Marcus is at home. expressed by the ablative. Domum venerunt. PLACE PROM WHICH Ab Roma Domo oppido venerunt. Romae. regularly with ad names of towns. Helvetia montibus et fluminibus contine- Genava magnum oppidum proximum .

in Iulia urbe habitat.PREFIXES. 15. soldiers in the ships. Viri con- veniunt et ad lacum pul- chrum pervenient. has carried grain. 16. erunt catoris Filii mer- cus et Qulntus Romae in Italia 8. The Roman lieutenant is away from home. home a supply of The traders saw many 5. with homes their defended and the Celts great valor. Sextus. Flumen Rhenus Gera Gallia dividit. 4. comportabant. . The soldier 1. 7. maniam n. Agricolae ex agris fru- mentum 12. The Bellegions conquered the Germans and the Helvetians. There were ships at Corinth. THE LOCATIVE CASE 91 Ex pido pons ad opHelvetios eo * Genavae. run. Decemne cohortes ex castris eductae sunt? Legatus copias in castra reducet. suo habitabunt. The Roman 8. frater Iuliae. 7. Pueri Corinth! cum pa- tre 10. tradiicuntur. Helvetils. 3. habitaverunt. Statue of a Roman Matron 4. 5. 2 Habito. 9. Multae epistulae Genava mittentur. Mar6. live 2 Does your brother at home? 2. 284. Mercatorne in Galliam vinum importavit? 13. Caesar led his army to Geneva. pertinebat. Hostes trans Rhenum in Galliam 14. gians 1 That. many 6.

which is masculine in the plural. day.92 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR LESSON XXXVII THE FIFTH DECLENSION. in -ei or -ei. the fifth. MODEL NOUNS . EXPRESSIONS OF TIME 285. Nouns of the fifth declension are feminine. includes whose genitive singular ends ends in -es. except dies. 287. 286. but masculine or feminine in the singular. The last declension. nouns The nominative all Gender.

. army in battle array. matter to-day eras. a few meridies. army dies. exercitus. F. troops. adv. mensis. adv. Time when 292. breve. forces. while decern annis tells the time within which he has seen the cities. a trained force.. Duration of time is ex- pressed by the accusative case. pi. within ten years he expresses the time has seen many cities. day M. Decern annis multas urbes vidit. he lived at Rome last {for) many 2.. 293. 3. Rule. mansum. F. winter maned. The accusative phrase multos annos during which he lived and answers the question How long? The ablative proximo anno expresses the time when he lived. copiae. -ae. short acies. aciei. Duration of Time. Proximo anno Romae habitavit. Synonyms are words that have the same or nearly the same meaning: acies. 291.. -a. month 294. pauci. . Rule. adv. EXPRESSIONS OF TIME 93 290.THE FIFTH DECLENSION. to-morrow aestas. i. midday.. Time When or Within Which. mansi. M. army. F. Synonyms. aestatis.. diei. M. yesterday hodie. he lived at Rome year. heri. F. (on this day).. EXPRESSIONS OF TIME Multos annos Romae years. habitavit. VOCABULARY brevis.. line of battle. hiemis. manere. thing.. fact.. army on the march. summer hiems. abide mensis. -ei.. rel. agmen. noon res. remain. or within which anything is or is done is expressed by the ablative without a preposition.

Have you seen your brother today? 4. 12.94 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR Memorize: Non Not many multa. 1. legatl. Ab monte aciem hostium 295. Aestate dies sunt longl. ourselves. dies vidimus. hieme sunt breves. but much. Dies est in horas dlvisa. post meridiem (p. 7. m. Non Not merely for EXERCISES domi mansimus. m. 10. Multos 4.). We ought to be in the city to-morrow. The army will march a great part of the day. eras erit in provincia. 13. things. Agmen partem noctis iter fecit. Paucis diebus amicos nostros videbimus. In acie erant milites. A few slaves will remain in the village LESSON XXXVIII THE PLUPERFECT INDICATIVE 297. / had loved. nobis solum. partem oppido. It represents an act or state as completed in past time. saepe superatus 8. passive. Nautae multos menses domo Ante meridiem (a. Exercitus Romanus centuriones. 3. The next day Caesar sent his army to Geneva. aestatis. Marcus herl erat Romae. with the traders. 296. 3. 1. 7. Before noon they fortified the camp. 14. paucis mensibus aberunt. cum multis clvitatibus Non semper vlcit. Eramus run magnam Omnium rerum magna copia erat in 9. sed multum. The king's forces held the mountain many hours. 5. est. 2. 2. 7" had been loved. The pluperfect indicative corresponds in meaning to the English past perfect: active.). erit in Gallia. 6. 5. . imperator. 6. annus in menses. 11. sed non pugnavit.

With the same endings conjugate ce'peram. -t. / had been taken. / had been warned. it) had been loved Plural (-a) eras. fu/eram. you had been loved amati (-ae. amati (-ae) eramus. / had taken. Active Voice I had loved / had warned / had ruled ama'veram ama/veras ama/verat monu'eram monu'eras monu'erat re'xeram re'xeras re'xerat amavera'mus amavera'tis monuera'mus monuera'tis rexera'mus rexera'tis ama/verant monu'erant re'xerant a. -nt).before the endings -m. she. / had heard.THE PLUPERFECT INDICATIVE 95 In the 298. / had been heard. In the same way conjugate monitus eram. captus eram.(shortened to the perfect stem (250). {he. {they) had been loved a. active voice the pluperfect tense is formed by adding eram The tense sign is -era. to -era. / had been ruled. . we had been loved amati (-ae) eratis. (-a. consisting of the perfect participle (260) and eram. rectus eram. auditus eram. -a) erant. In the passive voice the pluperfect indicative is compound. The Pluperfect Indicative of Regular Verbs. audiVeram. / had been loved you had been loved -um) erat. / had been. 299. Passive Voice Singular amatus amatus amatus (-a) eram.

). M. magistrates. M. 1. had divided. 14. watch antiquus. i. Nonne ad vicum in montibus perveneras? 5.).. creavi. Diem Roman! in duodecim horas divlserunt. eras. elect. AntTquis postea magistrates a 2. You had come. They had been 10. 8. fourth quattuor. 13. -1. -um. 7. They had been heard. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR VOCABULARY quartus.. MunlDocta erat. Victi erant. We boys my friends. Munltum 10. 8. ancient duodecim. 3. orum a populo Romano amicus appellatus erat. 1. because creo. 7.. divlsa. Habiro- . I had called the called friends. 7. 4. afterwards quod. -us. Rex German6. quod oppidum muniverant. 8. had been elected. 6. 3. Mllites laudati sunt. adv. 6. had lived 2 ten years The boys had been in the district of Hel- 2 A watch was a fourth part of the night.96 300. Miseramus. OppidanI temporibus fuerant reges in Gallia. non timebant. district. magistrate pagus. He had been seen. Nuntius ad ducem equitum missus erat. Laudaveras. 9. quod magna cum virtute vigilias. -a. EXERCISES 301. 3. canton l four postea. Afueramus. -um. (indeclinable adj. civitatibus creatl sunt. You had held. creatum. It had been hurled. 2. 2. We I led. 2. 4. Vlcerunt quod fortes erant. 10. creare. -a. Fecerant. Equos ex agro eduxeramus.. create vigilia. conj. from sunset to sunrise. Pax cum Helvetia erat in quattuor Quarta pars ab exercitu Caesaris victa Celtis conflrmata erat. He had written. veratis. I had waited. 302. (indeclinable twelve adj. 9. Viderat. Vocatus erat. -ae. quattuor horas iter fecerat. 9. 12. pagos erat. 5. pugnaverant. F. Navesne in portum navigaverant? 4. noctem in quattuor n.. 5. 1 1. Agmen 303. 3. 304.

THE FUTURE PERFECT INDICATIVE vetia. 306. In by adding -ero . Marcus will be elected consul because A fended the people. 7. 305. We had desired to see the house of the merhe has often dechant. 97 supply of grain had been given to the men by the I love tribe's magistrate. Attack on a German Fortress As depicted on the column of Marcus Aurelius LESSON XXXIX THE FUTURE PERFECT INDICATIVE REVIEW OF THE INDICATIVE. I shall remain in the country because the broad fields. SYNOPSES future perfect tense in Latin corresponds to the English future perfect: active. The tense sign is -eri-. passive. the active voice the future perfect is formed to the perfect stem. 5. 6. The Future Perfect Indicative of Active Verbs. I It represents an act or state as comshall have been loved. 4. The pleted in future time. / shall have loved.

loved you will have you will have warned will have ama/verint. consisting of the perfect participle and ero. it) will have warned Plural amave'rimus. 307. (he. she. we shall have been loved amati (-ae) eritis. taken. / shall have heard. monu'erint. (they) loved a. / shall have loved ama/veris. you will have been loved amati (-ae. fuero. (he. shall have warned have you will have you (he. have loved will monu'erit. I shall have been loved you will have been loved (-a. she. -a) erunt. shall have amave'ritis. (they) will have warned With the same endings conjugate rexero.98 latin for the first year Active Voice Singular ama/vero. (they) will have been loved . is Passive Voice Singular amatus amatus amatus (-a) ero. (-a) eris. she. In the passive voice the future perfect indicative compound. cepero. / monu'eris. loved monu'ero. audivero. -urn) erit. it) will have been loved Plural amati (-ae) erimus. / shall have / have shall ruled. we loved shall have monue'rimus. will warned it) ama/verit. / shall have been. we warned monue'ritis.

rectus ero. / shall have been taken. / shall have been warned. indicative endings First Person Singular . / shall have been ruled. captus ero. I shall have been heard. auditus ero.THE FUTURE PERFECT INDICATIVE a. 99 In the same way conjugate monitus ero. 308.

possession of perfect indicative ubi. He will have been elected. adv. 9. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR VOCABULARY moveo. The used with the conjunctions postquam and Memorize: Homo I am a sum.. plete is accomplish. Opus 1 perficietur. 6. (per+facio). man and deem nothing that relates to man a matter of indifference to me.. Cupiiecerant. veritis. dedero. Dp* fenderit. (celer. light f daylight regnum. 3 What are the principal parts of iuvo? 4 Milites is often to be supplied. Frumentum celeriter a mercatoribus 3. bravely thoroughly). hasten -ficere. 2. oughly). -avi. movi. i. conj. Habueris. occupo. iecerint. They will have been absent. quickly fortiter. 4. movere. 6. 5. stretch + tendo. We shall have brought-together. i. Missus ero.IOO 310. as here. 5. like that of capio.. Munltum 312. 2. 7. Venerimus. scripserit. 1. after 1 perficio. with the masculine plural of possessive adjectives. -tendi. 8. either a conjunction or adverb. The . 9. -fec- ubi. quick). kingdom -1. 2 postquam. Capti erunt. EXERCISES 311. when. 3 3. (rego). seize.. adv. (fortis). Vocavero. passive of perficio is regular. erit.I shall 313. adv. celeriter. N. take a. 3. 10. have made. importatum erit. Ante 4 horam decimam multas res perfecerimus. human! nihil a me alienum puto. lux. strive. F. vlderis. (do thorcorn- -atum. contend. He will have led. according to its use in a sentence. lucis. move (con contendo. Iecerunt. turn. Ubi is 2 Nostrl fortiter contenderint. You will be sent. or conj. moturn. 4. pervenerimus. You will have aided. 2. where -are. royal power.. 7. You will have been sent. 4. -tentum. Docta eris. -tendere. -feci. 8. He will be elected.

they 2. had because completed home. The camp will be moved before the fourth watch.. Quis opus hodie perficiet? Captives Pleading for Mercy from a Roman Conqueror 314. Ubi civitates victae sunt. Postquam milites 8. footnote 4. When I was in the city. 4. After I arrived at (ad) the city. 1 See Daee 100. 5. suos \ plla iecerunt.THE FUTURE PERFECT INDICATIVE 5. The magistrates will have been elected by the citizens. pacem facere paratae Caesar trans Rhenum 11. They were hastening the work. 1. erant. gladiis conten10. Ubi 6. I saw the harbor and the ships. 9. quod magnum signum pugnae datum est. traduxit. regnum occupabit. Postquam pontem fecit. 3. 1QI Galli ante lucem castra moverint. . derunt. fortiter pugnaverunt. Hostesne montem heri occupaverunt ? 12. I wrote to my friends. 7. milites Princeps civitatis exercitum habet.

A masculine . or pulcher. a. any solus. another. In other cases and in the plural they are declined like bonus. -a. alii. alter. Learn the declension of alius. -um. all of the singular genders. alii Alter repeated (alter . others swords. . utra. sine. neutrum cornu. . one . -um.. Note the exceptional form of alius in the neuter. some . (of -um. utrum. -a. The pronominal adjectives of this lesson regularly stand before their nouns. without neither (of two) uter. sole totus. . liber. alius repeated (alius . which? two) Nine pronominal adjectives of the first and second declensions. . -um. one nullus. given in the above vocabulary. alii gladios portant. 318. 315. neuter. alterum. 319. . fortes fortuna iuvat. alius).. whole. . Decline tota navis. unus as 317. -a. others: Alii pila. neutra. for 316. the other (of two) neuter. . -um. the pi. . fortune favors the brave. no ullus. other. alter) means one . other alter. -a. . some carry spears. . abl. another. . uter puer. FOR THE FIRST YEAR LESSON XL PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES VOCABULARY alia. alius. -a. the deep (sea). w. neutrum. alone. Adjectives in Latin as in English are often used alone as nouns: altum. aliud. a. prep. entire unus.. Adjectives as Nouns. altera. . have the ending -lus in the genitive singular and -1 in the dative singular. none. instead of the regular endings. given on page 271.IOT LATIN. .

all (things). 1 soldiers) . totius Galliae ad niillae naves in portu. a neuter {men. Ubi victores pauci vlcerunt. they sailed to 1 (in) Italy. 4. After our friends arrived at (ad) 321. EXERCISES 320. Some Romans were The men of one district are ready 6. Belgae unam partem Galliae incolunt. 9. The a shield. country the whole summer. soldiers. 8. The boys were doing Neither of the consuls brave centurion fought without 5. care. 3. 11. 3. everything (all things) with great was aided by the other. Nostri castra fortiter Opus sine ullo perlculo defenderant. 6. domum pervenerunt. 7.PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES adjective so used generally implies adjective. perfectum est. Alterum oppidum erat in Gallia. 2. 10. omnes laudatl sunt. Legatus cum sola decima legione venit. omnes. Mercatores per provinciam venient. Multl contenderunt. quod aliud iter habent nullum. others were orators. Corinth. 2. Totam diem erant 7. Utrl puero epistulam dedistl? 5. thing or things: nostri. sentences 4 and A Roman Festival Alma-Tadema . i. 8. Prmcipes Caesarem venerunt. omnia. The sisters of Marcus will remain in the to come-together. aliam (partem) Celtae. Neuter locus castrls erat idoneus. 12. See 313. 103 man our or men. 4. 1. alterum in Italia. all (men).


Rhenum in- Most famous. qui trans 2 cum Pon- tem in flumine 1 Rheno fecit et Germanos. Post consula- tum Galliam provinciam civitatibus Gallicls bellum Turn octo annos accepit. miles.REVIEW OF LESSONS XXXV-XL I05 Julius Caesar VICTOR GALLIAE 324. a populo Romano consul creatus 2 est. . <5rator. Received. Gaius Iulius Caesar. vir clarissimus * Romae. et eas omnes pacavit. gessit.

N. Dat. of Dat. CLAUSES 325. or of which cm quern cui to cui or for whom or which Ace. The relative pronoun qui. Gen. quae quae l quod cuius quae who. Nom. or that. clined as follows: Singular is de- Plural M. whom? what? from (etc. or that cuius cuius quorum quibus quarum quorum quibus quibus whose. The interrogative pronoun quis. quo quo (etc. quis cuius cui 2 who? what? quid cuius whose? of whom? of what? cui to or for whom? to or for what ? quid quern AM. who. N. Nom. or AM. M.) kivee.) whom? from 2 (etc. quam qua. THE INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN QUIS.io6 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR Postea in Britanniam navigavit. which. LESSON XLII THE RELATIVE PRONOUN QUI. qui F. Gen. et colebant. superavit. which. what? Pronounced . which. in the singular as follows: M. who? what? is declined in the plural like the relative qui . N. quod quos that quas quae whom. 1 quo Pronounced quo coo'yus. whom.) quibus quibus quibus from whom or which 326. qui F. Ace. and F. cum Britannis pugnavit.

but qui is a subject nominative and quorum a possessive genitive without regard to the case of viri. were praised. or quod (because). a. qui oppidum defenderant. 330.THE RELATIVE PRONOUN. what? which? is declined like the relative pronoun in both numbers: qui vir? what man? quae Use of terra? what country? quod flumen? what river ? 328. for they have two clauses each. The Use of Clauses. In these sentences qui and quorum have the gender and number of the antecedent viri. ubi {when). A noun clause. Viri. 329. A 331. or compound. sentences are simple. as in English. the Relative Pronoun. Agreement of Relative Pronouns. laudati sunt. Relative clauses are used in this way. 2. whose town had been defended. Clauses may be used as nouns. We . With regard to form. case depends on its use in its own clause. The clauses of a complex sentence are connected by a relative pronoun. 1. noun noun is a connecting word relative prothat refers or relates to a preceding The or pronoun called its antecedent. Rule. the men. a. were praised. ad- jectives. The Latin sentences of 328. are principal or independent. Viri. An adjective clause is one that modifies a noun or pronoun. A relative its pronoun agrees with its antecedent in gender and number . is one that is used as the subject or object of a verb. Complex Sentences. a and a subordinate or dependent. laudati sunt. Latin predicate noun: illustrations are given later. or substantive clause. b. clause beginning with a relative pronoun is called a relative clause. The interrogative adjective qui. or as an appositive or know that the earth revolves. complex. or adverbs. and in former lessons those containing postquam. quorum oppidum defensum erat. or a subordinate conjunction. complex. the men. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN 107 327. who had defended the town.

The merchants. (ex -atum. Hostes tria oppida expugnaverunt. -are. 1 Neuter puerorum. EXERCISES 333. 4. follow the ablative of the relative pronoun. an adClauses introduced by quod another adverb. 5. quae sunt 2 Incolae. third attack tertius. Consilia. Puellae. 332. 2. The The leaders. Aqultanus. datum est Puer. cui scutum est. cultus. Miles. are short. page 272. 5. whom they will elect. the Aquitanians civilization + pugno). 11. 9. vocavit. quae vetil a cultii provinciae nuntiant. unlike (ob +\>ugno) y fight against. Aquitania three -avi. is new.. cupiebat. pi. Oppidum. Terra. -1. -um. -a. Romanae non longe aberant. -ae. take M. 1. ubi. which they to The consul. tanian. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR An adverbial clause jective. F. 8. which 3. lata. cuius frater veniet. -us. in 8. he gave the grain. which they 6. qui sunt altl. or is one that modifies a verb. Hel335. -are.. {because). sunt bona. lived. -ae. whom The villages. -e. quod 3. or postquam are illustrations. 2. an A qui- expugno. The queen. Via. Sextus amlc5s suos. dissimilis. by storm lingua. Amicus. proximum.. quam incolimus. 1 Aquitania. The sailors.. veneram. M. 2. 4. quos vlcimus. tongue. 6. 8. whose ship camp. . to 5. will see. Quis cultum Romanorum non laudat? 6. capture. 9. Quas linguas audlvistl? 4. 1.. VOCABULARY tres. 7. 334. multa oppugnaverant. language oppugno. tria. quos vidimus. 10. The days. 1. by whom we were sent. 7.108 c. -avi. Mllites The numeral 2 Cum may tres is declined like the plural of fortis. Quibus c5nsilia nuntiaverunt? quorum magnum numerum habebat. F. as an en- clitic (18). 7. Montes. -atum. quas vocabant. 10. Qui linguam Aqultanorum audlverunt? 3. qua venistl. navigare Cuius manu epistula scrlpta est? 12. whom the letter has been given. Aquitania est tertia pars Galliae. quocum Flumina.

Was the 5. 2. that I desire to see. GAUL 337. oppugnant. to be taken audire. which you see. Celtae Linguae civitatum lingua Romanorum Galli appellantur. monere. omnia signa. to be ruled capi. Active Passive amare. to love to amari. to take regi. and future. (There) are many animals in the 4. Gallos ab Aquitanis Garumna flumen (dividit). whose chief had been wounded. non expugnabitur. (There) were ten ships. to hear audiri. USES OF THE INFINITIVE 13. three tenses in each voice: present. except in the third conjugation. that carried the sailors. LESSON XLIII THE PRESENT INFINITIVE. We shall remain at home three days. aliam Aqultani. sunt dissimiles. warned regere. perfect. tertiam Celtae. 1. With what legions did the general attack the town? town quickly captured? 7. THE USES OF THE INFINITIVE The Latin infinitive has 338. Caesar made peace with the tribe. Gallia est omnis dlvisa in partes tres. The Present Infinitive. a Belgis Matrona et Sequana dlvidit. Urbs. to be heard . comportabunt. There are many other cities. quam 336. 3. quarum tinam incolunt Belgae. The present passive infinitive is formed by changing final -e of the active to -1. in which -ere becomes -I. to be loved to be warn moneri. to rule capere. 109 quae habent. To whom had they written the letter? forest. 8.THE PRESENT INFINITIVE. 6.

" . As stated the infinitive is in 109 used as the subject. In the first sentence there is a direct statement. the object. to see is to believe. in the nominative or accusative. The sub342. As a verb. / report {that) the moun- tain is high. without a subject. desire. As a noun 2. with a subject accusative. Audio montem esse altum. / see {that) the mountain is high. e. they ought 1 to come. Video montem esse altum. Subject Accusative with Infinitive. they desire videre est credere. 340. the mountain to be high). permit. with verbs of " mental action. compel. also with some verbs meaning order. 3. an ject of infinitive Rule. or the complement of a verb. i. to connect the clause. THE INFINITIVE WITH SUBJECT ACCUSATIVE Mons est altus. 2 meaning say. the mountain is high. * I.HO 339. The infinitive with a subject accusative is used with verbs tive.. is in the accusative case. Rule. / hear {that) the mountain is high (lit. 1 Review 109 and no. Nuntio montem esse altum. sometimes as an appositive or predicate nominative: Errare est humanum. think. the object of the main verb. 4. Notice that there is no Latin word for that. know. 2. Uses of Infinitive with Subject Accusa343. in LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR Uses of the Infinitive. used as tive. venire debent. perceive. 341. The Infinitive without a Subject. is In the other sentences montem esse altum an indirect statement. The Latin infinitive is used two ways: 1. to see. to err is human. videre cupiunt. having the verb in the infinitive with a subject in the accusaThis indirect statement forms a noun clause.

1. 3 3. dictum. copias fortiter pugnare. ditum. (that) the soldiers were 345. iussum. Dicit Puto 6. 2 3 and sometimes hope. iussi. infinitive refers to future time. habere. credere. Dicit. etc. scrlbere. dixi. he hears quer. that the soldiers con- (lit. USES OF THE INFINITIVE III The Meaning infinitive of the Present Infinitive. . epistulam scrlbit. he heard conquered. say puto. order disco. (that) the soldiers are con- 4. 9. didicl. or were conquering (lit. he heard that the soldieis conquered. ere- scire. he hears quered. iubere. Dixit puerum copias fortiter Puer 2 2. Scivimus puellas multos amlcOs habere." scrlbere. VOCABULARY dico. 3. the soldiers to be conquering). Audivit milites vinci. scitum. therefore. 344. think iubeo. Sclmus puellas multos amicos 8. -atum. Dis- cimus Galliam esse magnam terram. . The present denotes the same time as the verb on which it 1 depends (say. giving the exact words of the speaker.. promise. indirect statement. as in the following sentences: 1. learn scio. -are. epistulam Putavi pugnare. discere. 5. 7. the present The The direct statement.THE PRESENT INFINITIVE. the soldiers to be con- 2. credidi. think. Audit milites vinci. Audit milites vincere. or are conquering . Credisne natiOnem 1 With verbs like plan. believe know EXERCISES ' 346. quering) Audivit milites vincere. puerum epistulam 4. have a present or past meaning. -avi.)- It may.. credo. dicere. scivi.

Marcus said that neither of the men was living at Rome. 14. Rex servos llberari iubet. Nuntiatum est Gallos oppidum munire. ? n. They will that the (things).112 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR 10. I hear that my friends are not far away. 20. Frater meus Insulam esse pulchram agros vastari? scribit. Quis credidit nationem pacarl? n. The leader says army is marching into Gaul. 6. All men ought is to be free. 10. 5. The conjunction understood. Mercatores frumentum mittl iusserant. vidi? 22. whose horse 1 in the field 2 that (349). Leiussit. 21. 13. Do you know that is the farmer. Nonne putas nautam slgnum videre? 17. 7. We desire to learn many 4. We all know the boys desire victory. 1. Vidi elves quarta hora. Videtisne pacarl? 12. Do you think the place is suitable? 2. They often come to Rome. Did you think the place was suitable? 3. A Street Scene in Ancient Rome . 19. Quae navis est inVquam video? Romae 1 347. 18. convenire. Omnes sciunt magnum bellum gerl. 9. 16. 8. Esne puer quern giones iter facere paratae sunt. Legatus pila iaci 15. order the slaves to carry the grain.

idem.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS "3 LESSON XLIV THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS HIC. There are five demonstrative pronouns in Latin iste. this. ISTE THE OBJECTIVE GENITIVE 348. . ILLE. Hie. is declined as follows: : hie. is. ille.

adjectives to denote the object of an EXERCISES 354. ilia. she. i. Haec castra.. haec legio. ilia domus. hope for a long induco (in + duco). Ad hanc insulam. 2. 11. afuerunt. opposed to longe. there is great desire for (of) victory. Sine isto gladio. iste. Decline hie nauta. -tatis. it ille. 2.. 5. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR VOCABULARY -a. 1 that (of yours) diu. Istud hos equites. Ilia 6. Huic 3. 8. illud. Illlus aciei. adv. they desire victory. it memoria. spes. just as victoriam is the object of cupiunt. illae 12. 3. far. Cum his Apud opus.. 352. animalia. Magna cupiditas victoriae est. desirous. Victoriae is called an objective genitive. principe. desire he. THE OBJECTIVE GENITIVE Victoriam cupiunt. the victory. spei. ista. 111! opus Long in time. she. 355. long. 7. that (yonder). Cupidi victoriae sunt. 2. recollection F. 353. they are desirous of {eager for) 3. Illorum lacuum. istud. Hae 1 puellae venerunt. memory. 9. this. cupidus. Ab illo 1.114 351. F. ducibus. he. time influence a. lead on. 1. Rule. The genitive is used with certain nouns and action or feeling implied. -ae. eager -um. In the illustrations the genitive victoriae is related as an object to the adjective cupidus and the noun cupiditas. Illls nautls. istud pilum. servo.. . 10. hoc. hie. cupiditas. F. haec.

The attacking soldiers of that legion fought bravely. 3. qui nunti! venerant. victoriae diu manebit. 2. 13. vlderam. consilium. indue! dlcunt. I have not seen 5. 4. . Hoc didicimus. 12. quam amamus. 2 The en7. those they have captured. HIC. servl cupiditate libertatis in8. erat frater 10. facere facere 14. Hanc bonum. 8. 356. The memory of these things will be pleasant. illorum mlsistl. b. librorum. Who will do this? is This river is deep. ILLE. Hi fuerunt cupidl Hie locus idoneus. Neutrum quos 11. 3. 6. centurionis. erit castrls 7. those cities. 1 See 529.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS fecerunt. ISTE 115 non hi. ab illls civitatibus. 4. est terram. Istud quod ab exploratore nuntiatum est. quae 1 trans flumen incolebant. venit. 5. Unus ex his. IllI Cum hac natione Roman! pacem fecerant. We have often written letters to that man concerning these things. 2 Iucunda. are these emy towns. Who is not Statue of a Roman dressed in the Toga desirous of liberty? 6. Memoria huius regnl. 9. Nuntius duct! sunt. 15. that broad. Illud debeo. Nautas spe praedae 1. 9. defendemus. We shall remain in that village all winter.

to have ruled audivisse. 2 3 4 The bravest. or have been conquered. INFINITIVE. he said {that) the soldiers conquered. Active Passive amavisse. denotes time before that of the main by the perfect or the pluperfect indicative: perfect inIt is verb. to have heard rectus esse. to to monuisse. in the passive by combining the perfect participle and esse. proximlque 4 sunt Germanls. amatus esse. or have conquered. et merca- vlnum non important. to have been heard fuisse. he says {that) the soldiers conquered. or had conquered. quibuscum bellum gerunt. finitive Meaning of the Perfect Infinitive. tores LESSON XLV THE PERFECT 358. to have been ruled auditus esse. he says {that) the soldiers were conquered. qui trans Rhenum incolunt. to have been warned have loved rexisse. . THE ABLATIVE OF CAUSE The perfect infinitive is formed in the active voice by adding -isse to the perfect stem. Propterea quod See 229 a. for the reason that. The to be translated 1. Dixit mllites vicisse.Il6 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR THE BELGAE x 2 357. 2. The three divisions of the Gauls. . to have been 359. to have been loved have warned monitus esse. propterea 3 quod a cultti provinciae Romanae longe absunt. 1 3. Dicit milites victos esse. Dicit mllites vicisse. The Perfect Infinitive. Horum omnium fortissiml sunt Belgae.

food + voco). propter tempus tive anni. vetios fines angustos habuisse discimus. idea shown in English by because The ablative without a 362. timoris. -1. Hel8. Legatos fuisse dicit. fugere. lack. flee timor. of. fortes i. ob has causas. Rex principes convocaverat. M. The participle in the perfect passive agrees with the subject accusative in gender. on account is preposition from. For what The of. Legatum 3. 6. fuisse fortem scio. F. cause or reason. and case. F. number. fugi. 4. for (from) many reasons. sclvi. M. ace. goodness. dixit. bonitatis. Quis nuntiabit Regem principes convocavisse Romanos castra movisse? 7. -um. w.THE PERFECT INFINITIVE 4. fugitum. Regem nautas laudavisse 5. Rule. because of (from) this fact. a. VOCABULARY angustus. EXERCISES 363. (bonus). for these reasons.prep. excellence causa. -atum (con (timeo). -ae. Dixit mllites victos esse. on account of the time of the year. -ae.... 117 he said {that) the soldiers were conquered or had been conquered. -are. THE ABLATIVE OF CAUSE fortiter Spe victoriae pugnaverunt. -a. qua ex re. bonitas.. reason cibus. Nostra consilia . narrow ob. scarcity fugio. -avi. fear 361. The reason? and of cause is ablative here answers the question Why? is called an ablative of cause or reason. a. used to express Cause may also be expressed by de or ex with the ablaand by ob or propter with the accusative: multis de causis. on account of convoco. because of the hope of victory they fought bravely. 360. call together inopia. F. cause. 2.

8. I heard girls know (that) the letter was written. Does the leader fear the lack of food? 10. 20. 5. general is said to have been a large man. Multis de causis pontem in 1 flumine Rheno Incolae inopia cibl erant miserl. 19. 2. because there are few soldiers in the camp. esse Epistulas scriptas esse? pacem conflrmatam 13. The captives will 6. pi. 7. Hostes inoin perlculo fuerunt. hostibus nuntiata 10. IS this. 14. Agricolae propter bonitatem agrorum in ilia terra manebunt. that. The captives were fleeing because-of a desire for (of) liberty. The demonstrative declined as follows: is.n8 nuntiamus. tasne LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR esse dicit. pia ria navium magno Puerum arma- monebo. He said the boys had 4. 12. He The come. those. 1. Timore hostium oppidan! fugerunt. 15. 16. 9. is . Explorator mintiat oppidanos fugisse. 9. (that) the citizens had been called together. Oppidum munitum esse 11. 3. Puputavit. Incolas monitos esse audlverunt. They said the flee. fecit. 364. Ob hanc causam oppidum non expugnatum erat. these. 18. 17. Between the mountains there is a narrow road. says the boys have come. Whose work did you praise? LESSON XLVI THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN 365.

they of them eorum. Like hie and ille (350). this book or that book (of which I am speaking). of ei. earn. her. to (or for) him. she. from. y etc. refer to the subject of the verb.. There is no special word it. which used as personal pronouns. eae. of a relative pronoun: 1. of him. her. is. b. they. eum. ea. etc. Abl. e6 from. suus When is his. their. is may be used as a demonstrative pronoun or adjective. When a person . ea. ei (ii). The Use of Is.. Eius and Suus Compared. of her. those who are defending the camp. ille. As a demonstrative is is less definite than hie or ille and may denote any person or thing mentioned: is liber. he. to (or for) it her. edyfrom. of the third person. Is is often used as the antecedent or in agreement with the antecedent.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN IS 119 366. her. in Latin for the pronouns Of the four demonstratives.. may b? Singular Nom. ille liber. that book (there). qui castra defendunt.. Ei. Gen. 367. Ace. a. it it eius. eorum. he. eas. to (or for) them eos. him. earum. his. she. its. to (or for) it Ace. 2. ea. it Plural Nom. its. from. hie. Dat. Is as a Personal Pronoun. them eis (iis). quae in castris est. etc. } AM. him. that legion which is in the camp. this book (here). iste. eis (iis). etc. their used. is. Gen. or as a personal pronoun. hie liber. Ea legio. id. ea. Dat. id. her. them 368. is is the most common.

ory). memoria teneo. EXERCISES Eas puellas laudat. Consul filium eius laudavit. c. the verb is conjugated regularly. a. the boys 4. she. Eas laudat. VOCABULARY N. beginning it ea. her. the consul praised his 2. Fratrem tuum vldl. Memorize : Leve fit quod bene fertur onus. saw their (own) 5. The burden which is well borne becomes Ante victoriam ne" canas triumphum. Decline is lacus. -suasi. hold. 370. he. b. Amicos eorum vidimus. persuade In the phrase memoria teneo. -tinui. friends. id. the noun remains unchanged. this. he persuades the man. 3. his. 2. initium. Eos vocabit.. (own) son. true obtineo. i. (another man's) son. the consul praised his 3. oc- cupy persuaded. 369. {hold in mem- remember -suasum. 4. -1. is. Persuaded means "I give a persuasive reason to" and so takes an indirect instead of a direct object. Pueri amicos suds vlderunt. ex- i. Eius filii in oppido sunt. his sons are in town. -suadere. id flumen. we saw their friends. Eos 5. requiring the dative case instead of the accusative: Viro persuadet. . or its pressed by eius their is expressed by eorum or earum. verus. -tenturn (ob + teneo). light. -um. Do not sing your triumph before your victory. that. Consul fllium suum laudavit. -tinere. ea legio. . pueros vocabit. -a.120 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR is or thing other than the subject is meant.

qui vulnerati flnitimis suls facient. Scio eos fuisse amlcos mult5s annos. Qui erant 4. 12. est pulchra. His daughter was at home. Omnia. 15. at. 9. 4 Lower. erant. 1. Qui Galliam incolebant? 3. Helvetii ad eum legatos miserunt. finibus Belgarum. 2. 18. Their country is famous. vidimus. continetur Garumna. Pater eius consul creatus esse dlcitur. Ubi erat Aquitania? Quae 2 3 Initium capit a (takes a beginning from). Aquitania earn a# Garumna flumine ad Pyrenaeos montes et est partem Ocean! quae : ad 4 Hispaniam. flumine Rhodano. Caesar eas res. Is fuit 10. prlnceps civitatis. Some fled into THE BOUNDARIES OF GAUL x pars Galliae. quae discimus. Ea de causa pacem cum 14. memoria non tenemus. Answer in Latin fortissimi 1. the forest. . domus earum Liberl tui venient. vera. quas legati dlxerunt. Ob 16. 7. Did you persuade your neighbor? name? 7. pertinet. boys. 20. 6. Three cohorts of that legion were in Gaul. 4. 19. flumine. Mult5s eorum. Ea minis RhenI pertinent. 21. earn rem niintium misi. quam Celtae obtinent. 3. whom you see. begins Borders on. Celtae earn partem Galliae obtinent. are the merchant's sons. Those 371. cibum els dare debemus. Near.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN et el libros dedi. 8. 17. Scio ea esse 13. quis cum els veniet? 11. Do you not praise them? 6. Puellae in ea urbe habitant. IS 121 Fratri suo Fratrl eius persuasl. 8. 2 Oceano. memoria tenebat. Brave men defend their country. others across the river. initium capit a. persuadebit. Who remembers the man's 5. Incolae sunt miseri. attingit flumen Rhenum. 9. Gallorum? flumina sunt in Gallia? 1 Cur ill! erant fortissimi? 5. 3 Belgae ab finibus Celtarum ad Inferiorem partem flu- 372. 2.

2 Active Passive The future participle of sum is futurus. The future init denotes time after the main verb on which depends. finitive about to be Meaning of the Future Infinitive. ing 375. about to be.122 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR LESSON XLVII THE FUTURE INFINITIVE. go. The supine stem is found by dropping -um of the supine amat-. 375. •about to warn. is 374. It is to 1. recturus. audit-. the future infinitive passive is the supine with Iri. moniturus. to be about to monitum iri. rect-. hear to be about to auditum to be Iri. auditurus. be translated by ' will or shall. The future active partici1 ple is formed by adding -urus to the supine stem and is •declined like bonus: amaturus. to be about to be warn recturus esse. monit-. ruled to be about to be auditurus esse. would or should? Dicit milites victuros esse. to be about to be moniturus esse. 2 Iri is the present passive infinitive of eo. about to love. REVIEW OF THE INFINITIVE THE ABLATIVE OF SPECIFICATION Future Active Participle. love 3 to be about to amatum loved iri. 373. 1 : . he says (that) the soldiers will conquer. the future participle with esse. about to rule. " " 3 The to be about to is used only to give the literal meanphrase of See the infinitive form. about to hear. The Future Infinitive. rule to be about to warned rectum iri. The future infinitive active amaturus esse. to be about to be heard futurus esse.

a. .THE FUTURE INFINITIVE 2. iri. THE ABLATIVE OF SPECIFICATION (OR RESPECT) Puer virtute fratrem superat. TABLE OF INFINITIVE ENDINGS Active Passive -ri (-1) Present Perfect -re -isse -us esse 1 l Future a. -urus esse -um iri Write the infinitives of do. the boy excels his brother et hostes in courage. In the illustrations the ablatives answer the questions: In what respect does the boy excel? In what respect were the Romans equal? They the 378. Rule. venio. used to verb. 2. 376. Dixit mllites victum be conquered. 377. he says (that) the soldiers will he said (that) the soldiers would 4. the Romans the enemy were equal in number. iri. video. 1 meaning of a noun. Romani and numero pares erant. show in what respect applies. The ablative without a preposition is are called ablatives of specification. habeo. 1 23 Dixit mllites victuros esse. capio. mitto. i . scio. Dicit mllites victum be conquered. voco. The participle in the future active infinitive agrees with the subject accusative. or adjective Esse is often omitted in the perfect passive and future active in- finitives. he said {that) the soldiers 3. would conquer.

tn a a a o M w ^ W a < Si < -a a 124 .

the rest law spero. -are. Dicit Helvetios oppida incensuros esse. Our Did you know that your sons would In the village there was a sailor. -atum. noun. bum. incendi. undique. power lex.. (magnus). F. 1. He 3. incensum. legis. 5. 381. We is had begun to plan make camp? 7. -tatis. -avi. Via esse 9. size incendo. all sides. . ence.. as potestas. 6. 2. 10. esse nuntiant. 13. Explorator dixit Helvetios iter trans provinciam facturos esse. began defective verb coepi is used only in the perfect. . 7. The EXERCISES Helvetii oppida incendent.. -um. 4. 9.THE FUTURE INFINITIVE 379. 11. auctoritas. Urbs undique defendl dicitur. 380. to call the friendship. ing. I knew that the bridge had been burned. Puto auctoritate 15. set fire to. from on all sides a. authority rest M. see the together from-all-sides. adv. I know that the law was good. 12. coepi. greatness. longa dicitur. Hie prlnceps reliquos potestate superavit. The houses are unlike in size. 1 25 VOCABULARY F. eum non superatum esse. signum dari iussit. 1. 14. hope magnitudo. men . 2. 5. F. Reglnam missiiram Iri. -a. remainpi. Pila iacere coe- 10. have begun. 3. name. F. . influ- reliquus. -tudinis. Galli et German! erant lingua legibusque dissimiles. incendere.. -tatis. Sorores tuas Ven4. of. and future perfect tenses. perunt. 8. pluperfect. remain. They says the boys will come. Caesar scribit mercatores ad Belgas non saepe venisse.. He said the boys would are hoping that their friends will be at home. Cornelius by 6. turas esse spero. Ubi imperator haec didicit. Niintiatur copias a reglna missum 8. Nautas ad portum perventiiros copias esse speramus.

40. quod saepe proeliis cum Germanis con* tendunt. ego sum nauta. tertia (ex parte) lacu. te. you. . a. qui provinciam Romanam ab Helvetiis dividit. Reliquos Gallos virtute superant. ego. person. of the second. etc. Gen. to {for) us Ace. vos. you from. of you tu. from. : altera ex parte monte Iura. you vestrum. (vestri). thou. from. qui est inter Sequanos et Helvetios. First Person Singular Plural nos. /. ego. ex here means on (p. us Second Person Nom. tu. Helvetil sunt clvitas potens Galliae. etc. me {for) nostrum (nostri) . me me. me. Lemanno et flumine Rhodano.. vos are used only emphasis or contrast :Tu es miles. Undique Helvetil continentui una ex parte flumine Rheno. qui agrum Helvetium a Germanis dividit. to me nobis. you AM. us etc. nos. me nobis. Personal Pronouns. Abl. as already learned. to {for) vos. of us mini. and first tu.. te. of you you vobis. etc. you tui. to {for) you Ace. / Gen. you for 1 The nominative forms ego... and the reflexive sui (384) are used. tibi. of the For the third person the demonstratives. paTte Una ex = ex una parte. we Norn. you vobis. mei. foot note).126 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR THE HELVETII 382. nos. from. of Dat. LESSON XLVIII PERSONAL AND REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS The personal pronouns are 383. Dat.

VOCABULARY nobilitas. nos defendimus. etc. / defend myself. herself. When he. she. adv. -onis. themselves Abl. itself. because refers 1. from. to {for) himself. back to the subject of the main verb for its meaning: Puer se defendit. a. 1 27 the reflexive pronoun Third Person Singular and Plural Gen. a form of is (or of another demonstrative) when is required: 1. we defend ourselves.. of himself. you defend yourself. themselves Ace. Latin uses a form of sui. itself. themselves sibi. 2. 2. or they the main verb. herself. herself. herself. Comparison of Sui refers to the subject of and Is.. himself. (fugio) flight numquam. you defend yourselves. says he eum audire. F. the boy defends himself. (nobilis). distinguished . se (sese). 387. sui. the boy (another person) hears. se (sese). himself. themselves 385. Puella se defendit. F. noble. tis) . the children defend themselves. itself. 3. the nobles (collectively) nobilis. F.. Puer Puer dicit se audire. never . the girl defends herself. nobility.. te defendis. the dicit boy says he (himself) hears. vos defenditis.-e.personal and reflexive pronouns 384. -tudinis. For the first and second persons ego and tu are used in the predicate as reflexives: defendo. Dat. conspir- acy (a swearing together) fortitudo. -ae. these pronouns refer to a person or thing other than the subject. coniuratio. itself. -tatis.. Me 386. F. it The personal pronoun sui is called reflexive. it. Liberi se defendunt. (for- bravery fuga.

depart draw EXERCISES 388. coniurationem nobilitatis fortitiidine praecedunt. 3. fuga Eo die fuga se in proxima se- oppida receperunt. 8. Prmceps prlncipis. is 1. Hostes recipiunt. 12. + capio). (Because Lucius hopes you 4 will surpass all the rest. Nonne vobls per2. by themselves. Caesar Fortiter vos patriam vestram defendistis. re- cedo. quam tu se recipiunt. discessit. pleasing me. sunt fecit. Celts 5. take discedo. this. * See 362. with- away. ea ab parte 19. go back. 1 2 used as an enclitic (18) with the ablative of personal and reflexive pronouns. 13. Hi puerl sunt illos nobiles. (dis + cedo). suaserunt? 7. of himself. se recipere. 15. Ego 6. dixit. of) these things we will make The These brave soldiers flight of the horsemen has been reported. 7. retreat. is Cum See 369 b. Liberi amicorum meorum vobiscum 2 scripsisti. 8. recipere.128 ego. dlcit se Lucium vocaturam esse. yield ceptum. 18. Marcus Persuasitne tibi? l 5. Quis nos laudavit? 3. Helvetil copiam fnimentl cum earn filil 2 portaverant. go. This work These men are called Gauls by us. 1 Gratus. Scio 14. 4. Helvetiorum haec 389. itself recipio. se Mihi dedit epistulam. Ubi dux legionem 17. Dicunt se terram parvam habere. (prae + cedo. Hi milites sunt fortes. I 3 have done to you ought to do that. 9. go you surpass (re sui. non laudabit. / tu. give way. before). 16. 2 6. peace with you. cedere. recepi. -a. herself. cessi. 2. as well as with that of the relative. te laudo. cessum. Lucium vocavisse. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR praecedo. 10. -um. . vici discedere iussit. is it not pleasing to you? 4. Fllia legati n. have never learned to retreat. (betake one's self). se i. Our leader has persuaded us. venient.

THE INTENSIVE Idem. The demonstrative pronoun demonstrative is idem. not eumdem.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN IDEM 129 LESSON XLIX THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN IDEM. the same. PRONOUN IPSE 390. In the declension m to n before d: eundem. . Dis- tinguish the masculine idem from the neucei idem and note is changed the accent of other forms. is the + or adjective the suffix dem.

iste.130 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR noun. . (con + statuo. referring to the subject. VOCABULARY -us. qui Interrogative. aut. a. very easy keep (from) statuo. Notice the connection of the possessive adjectives meus. Haec epistula a regina ipsa scripta 8. -stitutum. -are. noster. -e. Demonstrative. -avi. suus. set . either . is. sui. prohibit statu!. se defendit. vos. -e. aut . conj. 11. rerum. 394. Mercatorl 4. 6. constituo. 3. Nos ipsi haec dem res didicimus. demonstro. -hibere. 395.. 10. the same aut. . hold forward). resolve up. 2.. Relative. prep. Consul ipse in eo proelio vulneratus Eas- memoria tene5. Consilia nostra ab elsdem nuntiantur. ille. ego. ipsa. -stituere. 1. sui is required in Latin: He himself defended the bridge. . himself. . Personal. 7. Naves in eundem portum pervenerunt. -hibui. tuus. ascensus. ipse pontem def endit . decide EXERCISES est. but He defended himself. 5. nos. point out. station. when these English words are used alone. 393. ipse 2. or of. determine. statutum. Iter per provinciam erat 1 facile. in front before. -atum. 9. Domum regis ipslus videbimus.. . The pronouns thus far learned are of six classes: 1. keep away.. -stitui. w. ipsum. 1 esse dicitur. statuere. prohibeo. ipse is used in Latin. climbing facilis. in proportion to ipse. easy (pro + habed. quis 4. 3. tu Reflexive. sui Intensive. or. hie. 6. pro. eadem. ascent. . station. explain put together). idem. abl. Non omnes sumus cupidl earundem ipsi persuasimus. idem. vester with ego. 5. perfacilis. idem tu. -hibitum. etc. M. Ascen- See 353.

The lieutenant explained the same things to me. Semper Idem. others* in the river itself. XL. 396. Have you seen the sailors themselves? 5.lX 131 illud 12. 13. Perfacile erit expugnare oppidum. Una legio manos prohibent aut 2 19. castra erat flumen latum. 14. 18. 17. 8. We You LESSON L REVIEW OF LESSONS XLLT-XLIX 397- VOCABULARY ascensus .ll-M. Caesar naves exspectare 16. ipsi in eorum flnibus bellum gerunt. 4. Explorator demonstrat perfacile futurum esse expugnare oppidum. same come (by) an easy road. Helvetil convenlre ad rlpam RhenI constituerunt. Some* were fighting on the bank. 3. quered. Helvetil aut suis flnibus 1 Ger- statuit. living in the same city. Post pro castrls constituta est. These girls are daughters ready man. 2. 6. Marcus and Quintus were nelia herself is shall yourselves have often con7. 15. of the 1.REVIEW OF LESSONS sus montis est facilis. Corto aid her mother.

depending on a verb of saying? 3. 2.132 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR REVIEW QUESTIONS 398. i. Give all is What . What are the chief uses of the Latin infinitive? the difference in meaning of the three tenses of the infinitive.

Facilius 5 3 els 4 persuasit. because " " (depono. 4 5 I. Dixit Cupidus regnl erat. quamcumque Deus Grata sume manu. Apud Helvetios virtute omnes praecedere. More easily. dulcia differ in annum. 7 flnibus suis cum omnibus copiis exire constituerunt. qui et auctoritate superabat. Deponent verbs ponents are: 1 2 3 Adverb. of an ablative of cause. THE ABLATIVE WITH CERTAIN DEPONENTS Some verbs are passive in form. Would.DEPONENT VERBS 133 used as object. lay aside) their active form.get-control (of) with gen. 400. nor think that your delights will keep till another year. Orgetorlx n5mine. Memorize : Tii. quod et fines 5 su5s angustos pro multitiidine hominum gloria belli atque fortitudinis putabant. reliquos prlncipes potestate et coniurationem nobilitatis fecit. Helvetiis. Enjoy thankfully any happy hour Heaven may send you. (id est). except that the future infinitive is active in form as The principal parts of the model dewell as in meaning.e. 7 Considering. nee tibi fortunaverit h5ram. very easily. They are called deponent. ORGETORIX Helvetios fuit prmceps. but active in meaning. Horace. they have laid aside are conjugated like the passive of other verbs. . et totlus Galliae perfacile l 2 potituros esse 6 esse. of an ablative of specification. To go out. pro Helvetil de Itaque LESSON LI DEPONENT VERBS. Deponent Verbs. 399. 6 Their renown (for). emigrate.

134 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR Perf. Inf. Ind. I conor cdnarl conatus sum. Conjugation Pres. Pres. try. Ind. attempt II .

135 The ablative is used like a direct object with the deponent verbs utor. secutus sum.. potltos esse. 12. 1 set out. follow EXERCISES 405. 404. a Sequa- polliceor. the sum. 406. 11. quod vlnum ad se importarl non patiebantur. Amid nostrl 18. sequimur. 4. go sum. 7. sequeris. 1. Nautae dicunt se altum mare non vereri. sequi. sequuntur. mllites hortatus est. 1 The present tense mini. usl sumus. polliceri. iussit. the Sequani. hortor. PollicitI erant se hoc facturos. passl sunt. potior. sequi- 2 3 A complementary infinitive 1. hortatus exhort. What case? . 5 3. Sequani erant proximi Hel4 iter per fines suos facere vetiis. 4 See page 123. 2. Nautae altum mare non verentur. his Explorator eos profectos esse nuntiat. Caesar decimam legionem imperatorem sequetur? 3. Aliis consilils esse. Helvetios 14. 1. a. Quae legio 10. fruor {enjoy). Tertia vigilia proriclscentur. proficlsci.DEPONENT VERBS 403. Pollicetur se ventiirum 3 8. They have not tried to persuade us. Sequani e castris 15. urge. VOCABULARY -l. Illae civitates Legatum cum una legione sequi erant fortes. Hoc facere 2 conabimur.. We ought to encourage these boys. 13. Rule. sequitur. nian. (no). 6. Imperator suds Imperator dlcit se milites hortaturum esse. pollicitus pi. depart. profec- Sequanians hortari. and vescor (eat). 5. M. footnote 6 See 246. is sequor. fungor (perform). promise proficiscor. courage en- sequor. nonne hoc consilio titi debemus? 9. Scio amlcos nostros his agris agrls potiti sunt. 17. Do you fear the dangers of the journey? 2. secutiiram esse dixit. Sequanus. Potior sometimes takes the genitive. 16. tus sum.

5 9. the imperfect. They will allow us to do this.136 4. LESSON LII THE PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE ACTIVE. the pluperfect. The citizens city. the others into the province. the perfect. The Romans got possession of the bridge which was near Geneva. would defend) 1 the will use many things that the merchants have brought-in. THE PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE ACTIVE may love 6 . CLAUSES OF PURPOSE There are three moods in Latin: the indicative. 8. The ambassadors are said to have gone (set 4 3 7. 2 6. 407. and 408. are four tenses: the present. and the imperative. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR to defend (that they The men promised 5. These men will follow out) from Rome at the fourth hour. the In the subjunctive there subjunctive.

THE PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE ACTIVE 137 conjugations final -a. city. The sub- junctive in Latin has many uses. 411. coemi." He comes to see the of his coming. b. The present subjunctive is used when the main verb present. depar- select emo. or by the indicative present or future.of the stem are shortened (mone-am. de- ma/. concerning.. 108). he is sending men to see {who shall see). Capio forms its present subjunctive like audio. venero) ut videam.. but by should. VOCABULARY -1.and -e. he comes to see (or that he a. if there is a convenient antecedent: Viros mittit. ture N. would. abl. ond and fourth conjugations final -e. prepare. When we say. but most by the indicative or the potential. rege-) are dropped before the tense sign (am-em. emptum. delegi. that. that." the infinitive expresses the purpose In Latin prose the infinitive is not used to express purpose. deligere. reg-am) in the sec. is 412. conj.and -1. but a subjunctive clause with the conjunction ut. as in the models (408).of the stem (ama-. / come {have come. buy de. The Latin present subjunctive is rendered not only by may. get ready . or future perfect: Venio (veni. co- emptum (co + emo). iumentum. shall come. veniam. Clauses Expressing Purpose. buy up comparo (com + paro. in order that coemo. see 218 ut. 410. qui videant. the relative pronoun qui may be used as the connective. in order that: Venit ut videat. some of which are expressed in English by the subjunctive. according to the nature of the clause in which the subjunctive stands. future. yoke-ani- deligo. beast of burden -onis.. shall have come) to see {that I may see). may see). Instead of ut. audi-am). F. of.. present perfect. coemere. choose. prep. lectum. about... Meaning and Use of the Subjunctive. profectio. emere. w. emi.

lit i. qui haec dlcant. Viri Romam venerunt. Magna cum celeritate navigamus. : ut ad portum perveniamus. dlcimus. Haec fendant. Nuntios mittemus. magnas naves comparant. 2 Present perfect. BritannI 12. 5. Ex1 See 319. Frumentum importabo. . 14. ut te laudemus. Mercatores omne frumentum non coemerunt. 7. 4.138 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR EXERCISES 413. Caesarl obsides daturam qui dlcant 11. Pugnant ut vincant. 8. ut se de1 6. 2 ut novum Temple in the Forum Boarium templum civitatem videant. esse. Mar13. see 411 a. 10. Imperator pontem facit ut exercitum traducat. cus dux deligetur. copiam habeatis. Cives frumentum ement. Prlncipes mittuntur. Dux tres legiones mittit. cur non delectus est Quintus? 15. Mllites castra muniunt. 9. 2. 3. quae oppidum oppugnent.

They are coming to praise the 10. We have sent ambassadors to make peace. Galba sends his slave to buy food. NEGATIVE PURPOSE 416. profectione Helvetiorum audiemus. 1. He will come to advise the lieutenant. 7. He says 5. THE PLAN OF THE HELVETIANS 415. TENSE ENDINGS OF THE PRESENT JUNCTIVE SUB- . Multa 2 de 414. conflrmant et Orgetorigem ducem 7 deligunt. Helvetil constituunt. LESSON LIII THE PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE PASSIVE. The men are assembling to hear the orator. 3. 2. ploratores 1 139 16. 6. cum proximls civitatibus pacem et amlProfectionem in 6 tertium annum lege citiam conflrmare. 3 4. In what country did Orgetorix live? victor. that the farmers have carts and beasts of burden. The boy will write a letter to persuade his brother. 8. in order that he may persuade you. ut in itinere copiam habeant. magnas sementes frumentl facere.THE PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE PASSIVE locum castrls idoneum deligunt. omnes 4 iument5rum res et ad 5 profectionem comparare carrorum magnum numerum coemere. 9. He does not say this. These are the friends of (de) whom I have spoken.

140 .

faith. / may be heard. audiar. The connective for negative purpose in Latin is ne. nothing collect. drive together). I may be ruled. The subjunctive is used with ut. egi. agere. / may use. or a relative^ in clauses expressing the purpose of an action. talk (drive). may be you may be (he. act cogo. 418. fidel. 421. (indecl.). etc. 1 I may be warned. may be you may be (they) may be Negative Purpose. coactum. N. 1 This is only one of the subjunctive meanings. ago. be sint. / may try. Conjugate also regar. / sis." the de. etc. PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE OF SUM sim. + ago. . The Subjunctive in Clauses of Purpose. In the sentence " They are may not be captured.THE PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE 417. PASSIA'E I4I THE PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE PASSIVE / may be loved. capiar. loqui. I may be taken. ne. utar. do. coner. cogere.. loquor. / may fear. that it 419. we sitis. pledge nihil. as explained in 410.) may l simus. coegi. pendent clause expresses purpose negatively. sit. speak. ne expugnetur. 1 amer ameris monear monearis moneatur ametur amemur amemini amentur moneamur moneamini moneantur a. that not. VOCABULARY (co fides. actum. verear. fortifying the town. lest: Oppidum muniunt. 420. compel locutus sum. etc. Rule. . Y. .

SequanI obsides regl Germanorum dederunt. SEC- Formation of the Imperfect Subjunctive. contendam. that they may My not be seen. fllias ut sit rex Helvetiorum. 9. ut cum consule loquar. 3. The soldiers are using good shields. Heri egl. Coniiirationem facit. 6. ne ab els videamur. multa Hi duces Galliae inter se 3 fidem dant. To one another (between themselves). 14. 3. In Italiam. LESSON LIV THE IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE. 4 See 6 See 8 See the de109. suas vocat. He who does not advance falls behind. 10. . ut urbe potiatur. ut appelle- tur rex. I shall send a slave to give you the book. PRIMARY AND ONDARY TENSES 424. Dlcit se nihil eras acturum esse. Never despair. 1 11. friend desires to speak 4 with you. hodie hoc ago. 12. 5. ne vincantur. that they may not be wounded. Consul ipse exercitum diicet. 6. ne capiantur. Hoc facimus. ne in perlculo sint. 2 15. 420. deficit. Rex Sequanos obsides dare coegit. 1. Magistrates exercitum cogent. Nil desperandum. ut eas hortetur. Who will 6 compel them to remain? Memorize : Qui non proficit. therefore. The words of an independent clause pendent clause standing between them. eras nihil agam. Prmceps conhlrationem facit. The tense sign. 7. I have sent him to speak 5 with you. The slaves are remaining in the forest. Mllites fortiter pugnant.142 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR EXERCISES Hostes fugiunt. The im- perfect subjunctive may be formed by adding the personal endings to the active infinitive. 2. Pater 422. 343. 2. 1 may 2 * Compelled. 5. 13. Liberos defendemus. be separated. 8. 423. Nothing should be despaired of. 4. 4. i. ne hie vir sit r£x. is -re-.

etc. 1 mone'rem mone'res mone'ret monere 'mus monere'tis mone'rer monere 'ris monere'tur monere 'mur monere 'mini moneren'tur mone'rent a. vereor. regerer. utor. audirer. Conjugate regerem. (they) might be esset. caperem. 1 amare 'mus amare 'tis ama'rent amare 'ris amare 'tur amare 'mur amare 'mini amaren'tur Second Conjugation 7" might warn. (he. 1 I might be warned. patior. potior. . Form . 1 I might love. conor.) might be 427. / might esses. In most subordinate clauses the imperfect subjunctive is to be translated like the imperfect indicative. you might be essent. caperer. etc. duco. Meaning of the Imperfect Subjunctive. ama'rem ama'res ama'ret I might be loved. ama'rer etc. as will be explained later. we might be essetis. venio the imperfect subjunctive of do. b. you might be essemus. 426. audlrem. imperfect subjunctive of sum be 1 essem. 1 See 427. etc. 143 the imperfect subjunctive First Conjugation Active Passive etc. as given on pages 282 and 285.the imperfect subjunctive 425. video.

tenses of past action are called secondary tenses. Primary and Secondary Tenses. Rule. The 430. that he might see. 2 From sequor. He comes (he has that he may see. he have come)." veniebat (venit. as in the following: i. present perfect. As was shown will in 411 a. a. ne viderentur. historical perfect. that they might see. ut videat. 429. In complex sentences primary ing upon primary tenses. The Sequence 2 (or Harmony) of Tenses. 2. venerit). venit (venit. future. "He was present subjunctive. The present indicative is 431.144 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAK In purpose clauses. then. Venerunt. They include the present. A an imperfect subjunctive is used when it depends on a main verb of past action. is used in a purpose clause when it depends on a main verb of present 1 or future action. ut viderent. tenses are used in clauses dependtenses in clauses depending This general rule will be more fully illustrated in follow- ing lessons. coming (he came. the imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive. men who should see. They include the imperfect. venerat). qui viderent. Viros misit. Venerunt. he come. ut videret. not be seen. secondary upon secondary tenses. come. veniet. often used to state or describe a past event more vividly. The Historical Present. 1 Including the present perfect. they came or they came to see. the present and perfect subjunctive. will we ' say. might or should is used to form the English equivalent. . 3. he had come)." So we say. and future perfect indicative. they came that they might 428. The tenses of present and future action are called primary tenses. and pluperfect indicative. he sent or he sent men to see.

. mission. Sub.w. 8. ut essent ut esset rex. lit cum eo loquerer.THE IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE and is J 45 then called the historical present: Orgetorix dux deli- gitur. under which a conquered army was made to pass. iugum. 6. qui hostes a castrls prohiberet. Haeduan M. suscipere.. -um. yoke F. takes the accusative to denote motion.. Quis erit legatus 6 ad clvitates? Gallic tribe west of the Helvetii. the Haedui.. -a. positum. 10. 1 Ilaeduans. EXERCISES 433. -1. like in. suscepl. -1.. up to. posui. 11.. Pontem faciebat. (prin- pono. (eques). 6 Ambassador. Haeduus. 432. ponere.. i. M. Sub monte fecit. -us. put. . at the foot of 2 principatus. under. ace. place. equitatum miserat. abl. M. venit. leadership M. a Haeduan. ut castra ponant.. cavalry Haeduus. Servl pugnaverunt. legatio. 2. ceps). 3. ut trans flumen exercitum tradu- Oppidum ceret. Puerum audiret. prep. was either an ox-yoke. Dumnorigis. vocavT. or a spear resting across two other spears fixed upright 2 A in the ground. pi. pitch (a Diviciacus. 4. Dumnorix. 7. 12. Puer ut Cur Galli oppidum incenderunt? incenderunt. 3 Caesar 5. N. the ablative to denote rest. ne ab hostibus expugnaretur. Orgetorix is (was) chosen leader. sub. erat 1 vlcus parvus. (sub undertake -f-capio). 9. 6 The yoke. -onis. 4 The same man. VOCABULARY -1. -us. Helvetil 5 exercitum Romanum sub iugum mlserunt. embassy equitatus. 3 See 221. Diviciacus camp) (div-i-shi-a/kus) suscipio.. M. Idem 4 coniurationem Mllites castra ponunt. 13. under. Idoneum locum deligunt.. llberi. Dumnorix susceptum. w.

3. 7. Dumnonx erat frater Diviciaci. He says they are pitching the camp. He said they 434. 1 that he might give the signal. Haedul erant proximi Helvetils. . 6. 4. 16. 18. 8. The sailor was using this trumpet. 17. princeps Haeduorum. He knew the camp had been pitched. 1. would pitch the camp. 1 See 403. Charles Gleyrc Orgetorlx legationem ad clvitates proximas suscipiet. PrTncipatum civitatis suae obtinebat. 2. Dlviciacus erat 15. These legions had been sent to pitch the camp. This is the trumpet that he used. He thinks they have pitched the camp. 5. We fled that we might not be in danger.146 LATIN FOR THE 'FIRST YEAR Romans passing under Yoke of Helvetians 14.

impe'ri (96). (per+mittd)... Noun Clauses with Ut or Ne. obey. weapon -1. help.. placed {please). please. believe. to . word studeo. indultum. 438. likewise impero. indulge noceo. N. suis arnlcis persuasit. persuade. persuaded. Clauses introduced by ut or ne are often used as nouns. but an indirect object in Latin: Mflitibus imperavit. resist restiti. imperium. parui. command resistere. indulsi. but iubed and iuvd govern the accusative. envy. harm. missile. serve. parere.. F. Special Verbs. verbs Rule. N. persuade. resisto. control matrimdnium. fleet VOCABULARY indulged. noci- tum. spare. -avi. resist require a direct object in English. indulgere. threaten. nocui. studere. resist. Such verbs as command. -1 (96). command. atum.THE DATIVE WITH SPECIAL VERBS 147 LESSON LV THE DATIVE WITH SPECIAL VERBS.. N. impero. they will 437. formerly item.. be eager for antea. N. allow resisto. pardon. a. submit verbum.. injure pared. -1. trust and their opposites. before. depending on principal 11 . (stand against) the enemy. . he persuaded The Dative with (made something agreeable resist to) his friends. studui. marriage telum. command. obey. permit. pared. -are. favor. noceo. 436. adv. permittd. hostibus resistent. . The dative of the indirect object is used with meaning favor. adv. he commanded (gave orders to) the soldiers. classis. NOUN CLAUSES WITH UT OR NE 435classis. studeo. These verbs include credo. nocere.

to do. Caesar 5. See 319. These verbs include hortor. b. 9. Principes eius clviBonus imperator suos 2 6. imperd. qui tatis Roma venit? 7. a. permit. new things. Sagittae copiarum oppidanis non nocuerunt. demand. EI persuasi. is EXERCISES His puerls persuadere conabor. 8. is the present or imperfect. ut castra muniant. ne in vico remaneremus. when he might take the current sideways. urge. or clauses of volition. denoting something that is wanted. Noun clauses with ut or ne are used as objects of verbs meaning advise. to come. credis huic servo. . Rule. decimae legion! indulsit. ab obliquo qui cum descendere possit. but iubeo and patior take an infinitive with subject accusative (343). command. persuaded. ut venlret. ut fortes sint. 10. as explained in 428: 2. Memorize : Stultus. Mllites imperatori parere debent. urge. 3. persuade. Such noun clauses are sometimes called volitive clauses. / persuaded him to come. and the tense 1. permittd. i. peto (request). semper hortatur. Pugnat in adversas ire natator aquas. moneo. Notice in these illustrations that the English subordinate verb is in the infinitive. persuade. to a. — He a foolish swimmer who swims against the stream. 4. ut tuo consilio 1 2 A change of government. ne hoc faciat. The mood of the subordinate verb is the subjunctive. and the like. literally. Monuistlne flnitimos. Legatus els imperabit. induce. novls rebus 1 studebant. / shall advise him not do this. Nonne 440. Ovid. command. 439. postulo (demand). Hi virl nobis persuaserunt.148 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR verbs meaning advise. Eum monebo. 2.

14. to 7. et totius Galliae fratrl DlviciacI. are not eager for a revolution (new things). 2 8 Denoting accompaniment Accusative. flliam 12. The imperfect is used because persuadet here has the force of a past tense (431). 10 Emphatic form of se. 11. ut regnum in clvitate sua occuparet. 9 Inter se. Orgetorix suam matrimonium Dumnorlgl. dedit. The magistrate will sail. eo tempore prlncipatum in clvitate obtinebat. You have persuaded me by these command the sailors. 5. Caesar classem convenire in 13. The general used these weapons to conquer 5 10. 2. See 403. Did you hear all the words of the consul? The lieutenant ordered 4 the fleet warn the traders not to set out from THREE GALLIC CHIEFS 442. (136). 8 quod pater antea habuerat. 1 49 Helvetil imperio 1 totius Galliae potirl conati iussit. who love their country. 3. They will urge these boys to come. itemque Dumnorlgl HaeduS. 4. Gallorum vastaret. Dicit se clvibus esse persuasurum. They We were urging them to come.THE DATIVE WITH SPECIAL VERBS uterentur? sunt. legatos mittant. 6 cuius pater regnum multos annos 7 obtinuerat et a. See 291. to one another. Orgetorix legationem ad clvitates suscipit. 9 Itaque hi tres prlncipes inter se fidem dant. He says he will resist the Roman 2 obeyed the chief. ut agros 441. Use iubeo. These men. 8. elque flliam suam in matrimonium dat. 11. ut idem conaretur 8 persuadet. senatu popull RomanI amicus appellatus erat. will 1. . the forces of the enemy. Rex equitatul suo permiserat. principi Haeduut orum. 9. 4 6 6 7 8 Expressing purpose. In apposition with Castico. These tribes words. 6. and sailed out-of the harbor with army. 15. 3 the whole fleet. the city to-day. Persuadet Castico Sequano. qui imperio sese 1 10 potlturos esse sperant.

indecl. VOCABULARY auxi'H. so great. accidere. effeci. such tantus. -um. They fought so bravely that they con- . sic. used w. expresses purpose. / am able. work out). that they might conquer. In the legere. CLAUSES OF RESULT 443. and the infinitive. as already learned (242). climb. fall to). adv. wise talis. adv. so ascendo. legi. read lectum 446.. terreo. The verb possum. adjec- bring about. we can (are able to) do this. in such a manner tarn. ascendi. effect tives and adverbs Result Clauses. help N. effec- many tum lego.. tale. so. I can. so ita. 445. adv. (ad + cado. (ex + facio. -ui. Hoc facere poteramus.. 444. happen much tot. auxilium. potui I have been a. as we know. terrify sapiens.15° LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR LESSON LVI THE VERB POSSUM. is used as an adjective. -itum. we could (were able to) do this.. aid. the subjunctive (present and imperfect). is composed ( of The principal parts are possum. adj. (gather). and the verb sum. powerful. ascendere. -a. the will of the soldiers. posse able). as The participle potens. 2. sentence " The soldiers fought bravely. so accido. . Hoc facere possumus. so." the subordinate clause.. ascend efficio. sapientis. given on pages 290 and 291. (to be able). efficere. able. -ere. frighten. accidi. but if we " say. ascensum. Possum (no): is usually found with a complementary infinitive 1. the adjective potis. Learn the conjugation of possum in the indicative.

oppidum muniebatur. urge. The tense in result clauses follows the rule stated in 430. clauses depending on verbs meaning advise. The negative is ne. Result clauses (447). b. sic. Noun mand. The clauses illustrated in 446 are adverbial. 2. Sic the the a. mountain is so high that we cannot climb (it). ut non expugnaretur. meaning accomplish. The presence of such a word helps to distinguish a clause of result from one of purpose. ut vincerent. c. The subjunctive is used with ut or ut non in clauses expressing result. Ita fortiter pugnaverunt. 447. as in purpose clauses. town was so fortified that it was not captured. bring about. 448. the consul about that there was a supply of grain. but in negative result clauses ut non is used. a. cause. so great (talis. not ne. and the like (439). but subjunctive in Latin. Noun Clauses of Result. they fought so bravely that they conquered. ut non ascendere possimus. The connective is ut. being the subject of verbs meaning happen and the subject or object of verbs 1. Consul effecit it brought ut esset copia frumentl. Summary of Ut Clauses. The negative is ne. tarn) or an adjective meaning such." the clause expresses a fact resulting from the main action and is called a clause of result. The verb in a result clause is indicative in English. Tarn altus est mons.THE VERB POSSUM. consul was in the camp. Other clauses of result are used as nouns. Rule. We have seen that ut may introduce the following: Purpose clauses (420). tantus). 3. compersuade. happened that the 2. The main clause upon which a clause of result depends often contains an adverb meaning so (ita. 1. The negative is ut non. b. . it Accidit ut consul esset in castris. 449. CLAUSES OF RESULT 151 quered.

Potesne slgna videre? 451. brave that he feared nothing. est tarn sapiens. ut in silvas fugerent. 3. Caesar ordered the scouts to climb the mountain. 1 ut paucl caperentur.152 d. nis. montem hoc oppido poterit. Ita hostes territl sunt. ut eum audire non posTalem consulem habetis. DumQuis 10. 6. 2. Tanta est altitudo flumi9. mus. So great is their valor that they always conquer. 452. 8. Nonne could. EXERCISES 450. Legatus 3. He says that you can. ut agmen sine navibus transire 3 norlx perfecit ut civitates inter se obsides darent. 1. 5. Milites se tarn celeriter receperunt. 7. 2 non possit. They not be able. The Romans fortified the city in-such-a-way that the enemy were not able to take (capture) it. omnia sciat? n. 5. 8. Can you throw the javelin across the field? 1 See 387. Enough. accomplish (448). 7. posse. ut timere non debeatis. The negative is ut non. to each other. poterant. Equites hostibus resistere 5. 9. 3. ut auxilium mittere4. 8. Dlcit se audire Galba dlcit non potuisse. 1. I shall have 4. els persuadere potestis? will We can. ascendere potest? 2. puella tot libros habet. ut est. been able. The king will send the cavalry to frighten the enemy's troops. 1. 6. 4. Haec 5. ut omnes legere non Orator tarn longe aberat. He said that you could. cause. You 3. Quis ilium potlrl 4. I have read the letter that you wrote at Geneva. Tantum erat perlculum puerorum. 8 To cross. 7. 2. He had been able. It happened that the journey was not long. Multa facere non potueram. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR Noun clauses depending on verbs meaning happen. possit. se telum iacere 7. 6. semus. . 6. He is so brave that he fears nothing. 12. sufficient. sit Accidit ut flumen altum. Verbum 4 sapientl sat Quos libros legistl? 2. 1. He was so 453. 8 4 Inter se. 8. They have not been able.

of the 2. currere. put in command 456. run praeficio. tamen. meet + curro. adsum.5/awJ turn (prae + facio.. -fec- statum. desum. iuris. . 454.. remain. occurro. be at the head of. fortification F. Verbs formed by combining with prepositions are conjugated like the simple verb Compounds Sum.command. praestitum.-!. munitio. (munio). THE DATIVE OF THE POSSESSOR of sum sum. be absent praesum. Marcus is-in. run N.. (ob against). nevermorior. away.COMPOUNDS OF SUM 1 53 LESSON LVII COMPOUNDS OF SUM. The datives in these sentences depend upon verbs compounded with prae and are regarded as indirect objects. trial ius. however. THE DATIVE WITH COMPOUND VERBS. Among be these are: absum. the legion. stand before. mori. virtute praestat. fail in charge {command) of supersum. steti. excel iudicium. i. -ficere. curro. praestare.. N. occurrere. -onis.. death F. be be near. legion! praeest. bond. Marcus omnibus in valor. be between 455. right mors.. stare. occurri. put before). adv. survive be over. fetter vinculum. THE DATIVE WITH COMPOUND VERBS Marcus legion. cucurri. Imperator legion! Marcum praefecit. N. mortuus sum. -feci. praestiti. theless -i. judgment. mortis. cur- sum. intersum. Marcus excels all a. VOCABULARY praesto. be present be lacking. occur sum. the general put Marcus in-command-of 3. die sto.

Equites et naves et proelio multl mllites superfuerunt. compounded with ad. Gallls praestare. frumentum Romanls deerant. de. ob. The Dative of the Possessor. 458. occurro. 13. tis 1. 4. copils in Britanniam navigare constituit. Helvetils erant duodecim oppida et multl vlcl. abesse vldit. b. exercitum tradiixit. Caesar Imperator nuntium qui decimae legion! quam fecerat. et eos celeriter superaverunt. ad castra cucurrit et 14. 9. is used with: 1. 1 cum Ex eo 6. ante. Caesar 5. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR Rule. as now learned. 3.154 457. the possessor is expressed by the dative. 8. proxima nonae stetit. 7. Verbs compounded with certain prepositions (457). Heri afuit pars aesta- Qulntus. The dative of indirect object. or Equus mercatori est. super take a dative of the Some verbs indirect object. inter. desum. misit. Nostrl hostibus occurre- runt. a. Orgetorlx dixit Helvetios reliquls praefecit. legatum Romanum el munltionl. Multl hodie adsunt. Quod pars aestatis 3. ad Labienum. con. in. suls eum adfuturum spero. praeerat. praeficio. pauci absunt. 1 . 10. which literally means A horse is (belongs) to the trader. 11. Among the verbs so used are adsum. EXERCISES 460. The dative is used with the verb sum to de459. pro. Labienum Postquam explorator has res vldit. Transitive verbs (59). praesto. Huic mllitl sunt scutum et quattuor 12. We may express the " sentence The trader has a horse " in two ways in Latin: Mercator equum habet. plla. prae. 15. note the possessor. Rule. 2. Ubi Caesar flumen non longe See 7 a. and that which is owned by the nominative. praesum . post. Decima legio in sinistra parte aciei legatos monuit. Verbs of special meaning (437). In the latter sentence. eras superest. 2. Magna supererat. sub.

LI-LVII VOCABULARY auxilium . i. Brutus was-put-in-com- The Romans fleet. fleet. conduxit. facere 8 conantur. LI-LVII 155 did not have a large fleet. Did the conqueror send the army under the yoke? 8.REVIEW OF LESSONS 461. et e finibus suis exire parant. 2 urged Caesar to put Brutus in- command-of the Can you see the fortification that our (men) have constructed (made)? 6. 7. LESSON LVIII REVIEW OF LESSONS 463. est. 3. Orgetorlgem indicium omnes suds clientes. ius ex 3 vinculis causam dlcere 4 Ad magnum numerum roegerunt. After the death of the chief. Labienus had-been-in-command-of the army. 6 Cum cl vitas armls eius suum exsequi conaretur. the tribe was conquered. 1 2. Per eos se eripuit. Who is absent today? THE DEATH OF ORGETOKIX 462. mortem tamen Helvetil 7 Orgetorix mortuus id. Many men 5. Ea coniuratio principum est Helvetils nuntiata. mand-of the 4. quorum 5 habebat. Post quod constituerant.


ut domum reditionis spem tollerent. boldest sapientissimus. movement. gravis. braver altissimus. Adjectives in -er form the superlative by adding -rimus to the nominative of the positive: acer. carry (See 373). wiser latus. the migration. Adjectives in Latin. bold sapiens. reliqua prlvata aedificia incendunt. wise a..COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES 1 57 THE HELVETIANS CONTINUE THEIR PREPARATIONS paratos esse arbitrate sunt. denoting place to which. Positive Comparative altior. as in English. potens. Frumentum omne. bolder sapientior. Compare densus.e. sharper liberior. bravest audax. to . ut eodem consilio utantur et cantur. 3 combiirunt. audacissimus. have three degrees: positive. -a. praeter (id) quod secum portaturl 2 erant. audacior. Comparison. oppida sua omnia. sharpest llberrimus. Portaturi. and feminine. freer acerrimus. THE ABLATIVE OF COM- PARISON 466. The comparative is formed by adding to the base of the positive -ior for the masculine alt-ior. highest. Persua465. -urn) to the base of the positive: alt-issimus. vlcos. wisest . The -um. high fortis. higher. comparative. higher Superlative altus. pulcher. and superlative. highest fortissimus. nobilis . sharp liber. 1 acrior. freest Compare miser. about 2 • Domum. longus brevis. Rem. cum els proficls- LESSON LIX COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. alt-ius. brave fortior. modifying reditionis (282). 467. -ius for the neuter: superlative is formed by adding -issimus (-a. free a. i. se Ubi ad earn rem 1 dent flnitimls.

flow 471. The by difficilis. pedis. pild being in the ablative case. fuit pflo. than THE ABLATIVE OP COMPARISON. Learn the 469. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR following adjectives in -lis form the superlative adding -limus to the base of the positive: facilis. fuit . sentence comparison is expressed with the conjunction quam. gladius and pilum being in the same case. Gladius brevior Gladius brevior Gladius brevior the sword was fuit quam pilum. fluere. a.. page 272. tower VOCABULARY celer. oppi- b. easy a. fluo. sword was four feet shorter (shorter by four feet) quam pflum than the javelin.. -e. quattuor pedibus. humilis. answering the question By how much? a. -urn.. useful vadum. 470. shorter than the javelin. unlike. easy. similis. Adjectives of the comparative degree belong to the third declension.. M. in the second sentence without fluxum. dissimilis. fluxl. Decline facilior and the phrases manus longior. conj. declension of the model altior. turns. Adjectives of the superlative degree are declined like bonus. celeris. low: facilis. swift ferax. similis. (utor).foot turris. the ablative of comparison. THE MEASURE OP DIFFERENCE the i. facilior. easiest Compare Declension of Comparatives. propinquus. -a. pes. celere. than. 2. b. In the first . In the third sentence the ablative phrase quattuor pedibus denotes the measure or degree of difference. easier difficilis. dum longius. like. fertile utilis. near quam. difficult. feracis. F. facillimus. -1.I58 468. N.

Cum militibus fortissimis. of difference. ex- View of the Rhine River EXERCISES 474. 6. Miiris alti- 4. The ablative is used with comparatives to 473. 1. 12. oribus. Belgae. Caesar . Militi forti- ori. Omnium Dimcillimum iter. i. the words denoting things compared are in the same case. Flumina 5. but A comparative without quam is followed by the when quam is used. Agri latiores. 2.COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES 472. 2. Lacus 9. 3. latiora. 7. Lacuum 10. longioris. J 59 Rule. Gallorum fortissimi erant 3. 8. Celerrimae naves. Apud Helvetios nobilissimus fuit Orgetorix. 475. In oppida pulchriora. Militi fortissimo. Per silvas densiores. longiorum. 11. measure the press the ablative. Rule.

6. legion! 9. pills? 476. 10 By much. 319. inter montem Iuram et flumen Rhodanum (mons tarn propinquus erat. Tres potentisl simae nationes totius Galliae potlrl conatl sunt. 9. 223. 2. 10 possent) fluit . angustum et difficile. You have never seen braver soldiers. Scimus agros huius clvitatis esse feracissimos. to emigrate. TWO EOADS FROM HELVETIA 477. 5. ut facile 9 paucl prohibere facilius.. 5. Iter per Alpes 3 7. Erant itinera duo quibus domo exlre 8 possent: tinum per Sequanos. Memorize: Silent leges inter arma. easily. The laws are silent in time of war. Terram Rhenum pulchriorem facilius est quam nostram non vidimus. u The Allobroges (a-lob'ro-jez). multo Helvetiorum et Allobro- gum 1 n Rhodanus 403 473. The shortest road is not always the easiest. u To prevent (a passage). Consul epistulam portarl Centuriones imperatorem alii Galbam praefectiirum esse putaverunt. Apud Romanos quis fuit clarior quam Caesar? 12. 4. 6. Domo Adv. The 7 king will use his swiftest ships. that he may reach the province in a few days. 4. We know that in winter the days are shorter than the nights. qui Roma veniunt. The tower was ten feet higher than the wall.l6o LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR esse latissimum atque altissimum putavit. . exlre. 10. a nuntio celeriore iussit. quam illud. Nonne sapientes 4 putant libros esse utiliores 1. 7. They will resist 6 the most powerful enemy. Who much Was he was the most famous orator of the Romans? 5 more famous than his brother Quintus? 3. 11. 8. a. Hoc iter erit difficile multo 2 merca- toribus. 7 8 9 2 8 4 6 * See See See See Pervenio ad. The Gauls were conquered by a more powerful nation. See 437. Is crossed. 8. propterea quod inter fines alterum per provinciam. 12 isque vado transltur.

pi.IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES l6l LESSON LX IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES 478. more comparatives: maximus. minor. very long. maioris). Some dubius magis dubius maxime dubius The comparative is sometimes 481. worst magnus. peior. lower exterus. . smaller plus. more. Special Meanings. following posterior. minus (gen. greater parvus. outside inferus. below extremus (extimus). 479. much. peius (gen. Learn the declension of plus. small multus. greatest minimus. The following adjectives are compared irregularly: melior. better peior. great maior. or rather long. The positive forms of the following are rarely used: exterior. best pessimus. outermost lnfimus (Imus). later postremus last (postumus). especially adjectives in -us preceded by e or i: idoneus. most. minoris). the superlative by very: longissimus. Decline melior. b. as given on page 273. maius (gen. outer inferior. bad optimus. too long. maxime. highest adjectives are compared by using the adverbs and magis. good malus. smallest plurimus. with the positive. above superior. a. dubius: 480. to be translated by too or rather: longior. superus. most melius. higher supremus (summus). lowest posterus. many the minor. In the singular this word is used only as a noun. worse bonus. peioris). maior.

unfriendly. F. nation excels in valor. 1 8. 2. top of. 3. 4. -um. cornua. 16. 4. 11. clvitates. 3. hears that those slaves are 2 It often happens that a smaller 7. I heard that the danger would be very great. Maior 10. -um. 1. This man has many horses and carts.1 62 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR 482. Haec Naves Gallicae multo humiliores erant quam Romanae. Extremi fines. Domus minima. Maius cornu. Postero die. friendly. Plurimae naves.. 10. . Existimasne milites minorem laudem quam imperatorem meritos esse? 5. The tenth legion was very-friendly to Caesar. recently existimo. 5. is better than that. 7. In colle copiae summo 1. 13. 18. 2. -a. EXERCISES 483. -tutis (servus). Scio te maximam laudem meriturum esse. F. VOCABULARY M. 17. ut locum magis idoneum castris deligant. -atum. Belgae sunt 484. Cives optimi. 3 of.. praise servitus. most suitable for the work. Ad hostium vlsae erant. adv. merit meritus sum. laudis. 1. mereri. -a. Magna cum laude.. -are. hostile slavery nuper. E pluribus unum. think. Insula Maiora Plures 12. x 485. mons. 14. Italy is much 6. 8. 2. collis.. inimicus. 3. 6. devoted laus. Inferiorem partem fluminis Rheni clvitas populo Romano inimica erat. 15. Peace is better than war. We think this plan 4. 5. 7. Express in two ways (459). 8. Altissimus mons. -avi. 9. Hie puer maiorem laudem quam ille meretur. believe mereor. In- ferior pars. hill amicus. Exploratores mittentur. spes. Summus l Homines nihil peius esse servitute putant. proximl Germanis. 9. pertinent. the He Summus 2 1 here means the highest part See 448. minor. Maximus numerus. larger than Helvetia. Consilium melius. Summa cum laude. collis. 6. deserve.

multum. Formation of Adverbs. at first. quintus dies ante) Kalendas Aprlles. wide. Diem dlcunt 2 qua die 3 Is dies erat ante qulntum (i. brave. Allobroges. a. fortiter. late. 3 A repeated antecedent. Adverbs are derived chiefly from adjectives. Some adverbs are formed from adjectives of the first and second declension by adding -e to the base: latus. a. is Adverbs are regularly com- pared thus: the neuter singular of the comparative of the adjective. e.adverbs: their formation and comparison 163 the way through the province 486. populo Romano 1 Extrenuper pacati erant et ob earn rem non erant amid. much. clvitas provinciae. 488. diem Turn LESSON LXI ADVERBS: THEIR FORMATION AND COMPARISON 487. declension Some adverbs are formed from by adding -ter (-iter) to adjectives of the third the base: audax. mum«~oppidum Allobrogum proximumque Helvetiorum bus est Genava. una. bold. boldly. 1 The comparative Adjective. bravely. b. together. easily. audacter. fini- eo oppido pons ad Helvetios pertinet. 12 . 2 They appoint. ad rlpam RhodanI omnes conveniant. fortis. widely. as the neuter accusative: facile. Helvetii se Allobrogibus persuasuros exlstimabant.. Some adverbs are case forms of adjectives or nouns. the superlative is the superlative of the adjective with final -us changed to -e. Comparison of Adverbs. ut per Ex suos fines e5s iter facere paterentur. Lucius Plso et Aulus Gabmius erant consules Romani. c. the ablative: primo.

freely acriter. as large as possible. best pessime. least diutissime. much parum. miser. most minime. wisely sapientius. more sharply acerrime. 491. more plus. celer. near propius. verbs. worse optime. more freely llberrime. as bravely as possible. magis idoneus. nearer In the expressions fortiter pugnat. 490. . Rule. little diu. next minus. the adjective idoneus. minus facile. most easily a. adjectives. The following adverbs are irregular in comparison: Comparative Superlative Positive bene. or other ad- 492. 489. most plurimum. sharply latius. badly. An adverb normally stands before the word it modifies. wisely most more easily facillime.164 Positive late. notice that the adverbs modify the verb pugnat. more sapientissime. long (in time) magis. wisely facile. less diutius. ill melius. better peius. easily facilius. a. quam fortissime. well male. greatly multum. longer prope. longest proxime. the largest possible. worst magnopere. most sharply sapienter. brevis. widely LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR Comparative Superlative libere. and the adverb facile. Irregular Comparison. clarus. Adverbs modify verbs. A superlative adjective or adverb may be used with the adverb quam to denote the highest possible degree: quam maximus. more maxime. Form adverbs from the following adjectives and compare them: audax. more widely liitissime. most freely acrius. most widely liberius. nearest.

. dat. Servus tarn celeriter cucurrit. their formation and comparison 165 VOCABULABT maturo. adv. 3 because had been wounded. 2 8 4 Severely. M. Hoc 495. ut non caperetur. nemi1 nem. 5. 7. This boy reads better than he writes. These farmers fields than their neighbors. matiirat Roma proficiscl et quam maximls 4 itineribus in Galliam contendit et Genavam pervenit. We ought to attack the more boldly. Haec 1. adv. Presses on. quam maximum numerum Haec parva natio quam fortissime 12. nemo. CAESAR GOES TO GENEVA 496. 9. 4. superlatives. nemini. illud minime facile. 1. The town was captured very 8. -avi. 3.adverbs: 493. easily. The messenger came as quickly as possible. Pater meus puerls facilius persuadebit. The legion fought less fiercely. Domus amlcl mei ab urbe longissime abest. Ubi captlvi legatum vlderunt. 6. restitit. have more camp many longer. The sailors could not remain home 6. sar prlncipes clvitatis graviter 3. Caesari ubi id nuntiatum est eos per provinciam iter facere conarl. destroy quam. quam 7. Helvetil carrorum coemerunt. only -atum. Acriter. Nemo sapientius 8. Uter niintius celerius pervenit? 5. faciemus. puella omnia maxima cum cura facit. 4. 2. and F. liberrime dlxerunt. rescindere. rescidi.. altogether... in all. as as possible (492) exercises 494. 10. Sextus dixit. Caesar was most friendly to the Haedui. Legiones diu atque acriter pugnaverunt. hasten -are. Cae2 accusavit. rescindo. facillime n. 2. no one omnino (omnis).w. rescissum. break down. Pro1 The genitive and ablative are not used. ace.

GATION ama'verim ama'veris ama'verit FIRST sim CONJU- amatus amatus amatus (-a) (-a) sis (-a. 497. captus sim. . / have loved. 499. I was loved. qui erat ad Genavam. Special meanings and the uses of the tense are to be explained later. Pontem. I loved. monitus sim. The perfect subjunctive is formed in the active voice by adding the tense sign -eri. amati (-ae) simus amati (-ae) sitis amati (-ae.1 66 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR vinciae toti erat quam maximum militum numerum in imperat. 1 Provinciae imperat.and the personal endings to the perfect stem. ceperim. iubet rescind!. LESSON LXII THE PERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE. INDIRECT QUESTIONS Formation of the Perfect Subjunctive. auditus sim. he levies upon the province. 1 omnino Gallia legio una. in the passive by combining the perfect participle with sim. The perfect subjunctive usually has the same meaning as the perfect indicative: amaverim. Meaning of the Perfect Subjunctive. rexerim. 498. amatus sim. rectus sim. audiverim. / have been loved. -a) sint In the same way conjugate monuerim. THE PERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE. The perfect subjunctive forms of sum and possum are fuerim and potuerim. -urn) sit amaveri'mus amaveri'tis ama'verint a.

shall have asked) 502. Sclsne utra puella laudata sit? 7. reversum. Rogo quid faciat. tell. wonder. (a adventus. -us. the Ides (i. Other tenses are active in form. The tense in indirect questions depends on the rule for sequence (430): 1.THE PERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE. / was asking (asked. or num. return animus. rogavero) quid faciat. In indirect questions the same words are used.. b. it is an indirect question. (rogabo. Potesne in portu naves videre? 4. except nonne. Utra puella laudata est? 6. arrival. INDIRECT QUESTIONS 1 67 VOCABULARY M. cur. ubi. If a question is dependent on a verb such as ask. passive forms are used with active meanings. had asked) what he was doing. Rule. -I. 1 In the present. see. Rogo 3. 2. revertl.. cognoscere. the fifteenth day of March. learn. turn back. The verb of an indirect question is in the sub- EXERCISES Quis fuit consul Romanus? 2. cog- approach Idus. rogaveram) quid faceret. Rogabam (rogavi. 1. without distinction. Rogat quis fuerit 3.e. Rogant num naves videre possis. ask revertor. shall have asked) what he is doing. uter. -atum. the thirteenth of other months) revert!. The verb of an indirect question in Latin is in the sub- junctive: a. cognitum. Indirect Questions. quis. mind. 1 May. to). rogavero) quid fecerit. -avi. F. -are. novi. Rogo (rogabo. 500. junctive. what he has done (what he did). 5. -ne. by In former lessons direct questions have been introduced nonne. but -ne and num mean whether. / ask (shall ask. 7" ask what he is doing. say. coming cognosco. / ask (shall ask. M. . -uum. imperfect and future of revertor.. find out rogo. July. and October. spirit 501. Ubi mllites castra ponebant? 503* consul.

The the 7. 2 3 Se rogare depends on dlcerent. 504. LESSON LXIII THE PLUPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE. Non vidimus n.. REVIEW OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE. TEMPORAL CLAUSES WITH CUM 506. quod memoria tenebat exer- citum Romanum temporibus antlquls ab Helvetils victum et sub iugum missum. flnitimorum facere habebant. 4. The scouts will be sent to find out the of river. Nonne RomanI pulchram urbem habuerunt? 12. Tamen legates ad 4 Idiis Aprlles ad se revertl iussit. Sibi liceret. . 2 propterea quod aliud iter haberent nullum. is The plu- perfect subjunctive 1 formed in the active voice by adding See 420. on the Ides of April. I think the river is not very deep. Did you learn the letter? 6. 8. Hostes de eius adventu cognoscere non potuerant. Which road is the easier? 2. Discemus ciir oppida incenoppida sua incenderunt? 8. els nihil pollicitus est. 3 Caesar. What does the leader intend (have in mind) to do? is asked the leader what he intended to do. qui dlcerent se in animo habere sine filla iniuria iter per provinciam facere. 5. they might be permitted (lit. 15. se rogare ut id sibi facere liceret. Do you know which road the easier? 3. 9. nobilissimos civitatis.1 68 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR ubi castra ponerent. We who wrote THE HELVETII SEND AMBASSADORS TO CAESAR Ubi de adventu Caesaris Helvetii cognoverunt. 13. 1. 14. 4 Ad Idus Apriles. le1 gatos ad eum mittunt. it might be permitted to them). Adventus Caesaris non cognitus erat. Formation of the Pluperfect Subjunctive. depth lake is many feet deeper than the river. Legimus urbem fuisse pulcherrimam. 505. Hostes in animo iter per agros derint. Cur Helvetil omnia 10.

cepissem. 508. In the same way conjugate monuissem. THE PLUPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE. -ar Present -em. FIRST CONJUGATION Active Passive amavis'sem amavis'ses amavis'set amatus amatus amatus (-a) essem esset (-a) esses (-a. captus essem. What stems of the . may have pluthe meaning of the pluperfect The amatus essem. rexissem. -urn) amavisse 'mus amavisse'tis amavis'sent amati (-ae) essemus amati (-ae) essetis amati (-ae. rectus essem. 507. in the passive by combining the perfect participle with essem. / had loved. -a) essent a. monitus essem . Meaning of the Pluperfect Subjunctive. -am Imperfect Perfect -rem -erim -rer -us sim -us essem verb are used with these endings? Pluperfect -issem a. or it may be translated with should {would) have: I should {you would) have loved. / had been loved. 509. perfect subjunctive indicative: amavissem.and the personal endings to the perfect stem. I should {you would) have been loved. audivissem. The pluperfect forms of sum and possum are fuissem and potuissem.THE PLUPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE 1 69 the tense sign -isse. auditus essem. subjunctive endings First Person Singular Active Passive -er.


He conquers who overcomes himself. Cum Cum oppida sua incendissent.THE PLUPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE b. 3. 1. country. Cum 2. 11. auxilium petent. 1 2 See 511 a. he wrote many letters to me. 10. 5. qui magno in perlculo sunt. slg- num 4. 6. ex finibus profecti sunt. as poneret and venisset in sentence 2. habitavisse. and with the Memorize: Vincit qui patitur. The men who live there are very 515. copiae multas horas fortissime proell dedit. 8. Cum imperator milites cohortatus esset. Cum Roman! castra munirent. He conquers who endures. mlsit. quo 1 facilius munitiones hostium videret. the subordinate verb is in the imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive. according to 512 a. Turn rex partem copiarum. Sclsne cur auxilium petant? 13. Cum to define the with the indicative subjunctive to occurred. castrls hostium potltl sunt. 9. time of describe the circumstances under which the action meaning when is used an action. I desired to see the 2 in the senate. Rule. Use the indicative. Sclsne cur auxilium petierint? quae castellum oppugnaret. EXERCISES 514. Hi When my friend was living in Italy. Helvetil pugnavissent. but under which a past main action occurred. When I had read these letters. legatus haec audivisset. 2. On that day when the consul spoke very many were present. 171 not only states the time. hostes in eos impetum fecerunt. Explorator collem ascendit. llberos regis vlderunt. a clause with describes the circumstances When cum 513. 4. elves. Vincit qui se vincit. Cum Temporal. 3. . tium mlsit. ad Caesarem nunCum amici nostri in Italia essent. Hie vir dicit se ibi quattuor annos 7. Fuistlne in Britannia? Legatus dicit se in castellls praesidia dispositurum esse. 1. 12.

172 .

itinere 3 Helvetios prohibere possit. 1. denoting which one of a series. as unus. 5l8. sedecim 200. quattuordecim quindecim 100. triginta septem octo a. mllia 275. first. Other cardinals are given on page 1 Constructs. There are three numeral adjectives: cardinal. THE ACCUSATIVE OF classes of EXTENT 517. quinque sex 30. tres. as primus. CARDINAL NUMERALS 9. 18. qui fines Sequanorum ab Helvetiis dlvidit. -ae. defend us. ducenti. 2. distributive. Classes of Numerals. pi.CARDINAL NUMERAL ADJECTIVES friendly to us. 2 3 See 511 a. Ablative of separation. mllitiex busque. denoting how many. 13. 12. as singuli. viginri 6. mflle. one. 16. 7. . one at a time. Interea in ad montem Iuram. qui 516. that 5. unus. qui provincia convenerant. duo quattuor novem decern 17. a lacu Lemanno. quo 2 facilius flumen 1 Rhodanum Influit. undecim duodecim tredecim 19. tria 4. 5. 15. septendecim duodeviginti 10. murum fossamque perducit. quam secum habebat. denoting how many at a time. x 73 will 7. They say they we may be defended. They will send Who commanded the garrison? CAESAR FORTIFIES HIS POSITION ea legione. 11. centum 8. 3. ordinal. troops. undeviginti 20. LESSON LXIV CARDINAL NUMERAL ADJECTIVES. 6. -um duo. duae. -a 1000. Ibi praesidia disponit et castella munit. -a. 14.

adv. interrog. -tudinis. VOCABULARY quot. Mllle in the singular is usually an adjective and is not declined: cum mllle viris. passus.. The plural milia is a neuter noun followed by a limiting genitive: cum quattuor milibus virorum. 521. how circiter. 1 By passus the Romans meant the distance between two successive positions of the same foot. the hill is many feet high. (Iongus). lie patui. above centum.174 519. indecl.. accusatives pedes and milia. The accusative is used 523. Tres declined like the plural of ducenti. patere. -us. about longitudo. thousands of men). bonus. with a thousand men. . multos pedes altus est. hundreds is cardinals declined are unus. It is therefore longer than the English pace. THE ACCUSATIVE OP EXTENT Collis 2.. pateo. M. adv.. like the plural of a. adj. i. miles (thousands of paces) 522. open sand paces) milia passuum. of mllle. with four thousand men (lit. to denote extent of space. tres. the The only duo. F. Learn the declension of duo and mllle. and the plural f ortis . 520. An accusative of extent is similar to The an accusative of duration (290). LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR Declension.. which are used in answering How high is the hill ? How far is the town ? are called accusatives of extent of space. a town of the Belgae was eight miles away. Rule. pace (about five feet) 1 quam. length many? how? . a mile (a thou- extend. mllle passus. Oppidum Belgarum aberat milia passuum octo. page 273.

Lucius will come home with 8. 4 2 See 4736 3 See 49 2 - Where. 1 See 290. 5. The lake extends a mile in (into) breadth and two miles in length. The army marched three miles. Hi puerl multos passus 7. 1. There were twenty-five ships in the and carts. RomanI 3. 5. Labietria nus iini legionl praefuit. 9. potest. i. transire conatl sunt. 2. three hundred men. Cornelia was the mother of two famous sons. 7. ad eum reverterunt. Quot puerl 5. 4. mllia passuum ab castrls hostium castra posuerunt. Ubi ea dies. The length of the camp will not be much 2 greater than the breadth. they were ready to sail. The army marched (for) five days. 1 2. fuerunt. 10. When the trader was in Gaul. Quam 2. et legati quam Caesar cum legatis constituerat. 9. he bought four 10. Quam longus est murus? hodie adsunt? via? est 4. dlcit se non posse iter Turn Helvetii Rhodanum navibus iilll per provinciam dare. Sclsne quot amlcos current. Quam latum est flumen? 3. habeas? 8. 3. 527. horses eight fleet.CARDINAL NUMERAL ADJECTIVES 1 75 EXERCISES 524. Quot puerl longa 526. . absunt? THE HELVETIANS ARE UNABLE TO CROSS THE ROMAN PROVINCE venit. Scio eos ducentos passus cucurrisse. 6. CCXL Orgetorlx mllia hominum (ducenta quadraginta) decern coegit. 5 4 et vadls. 4. sed munitione et militum tells repulsi sunt. Fuerunt in exercitu Caesaris sex legiones. qua minima altitudo rluminis erat. Marcus centum passibus longius quam Qulntus currere 525. Fines Helve tiorum in longitudinem mllia passuum patebant. Circiter mllia 6. To cross. When they had built (made) as many 3 ships as possible. Answer in Latin the following questions: 1. The brave leader was holding the fort with three other boys. hominum CXXX (centum trlginta) superHanc puellam rogavimus quot libros legisset.

THE GENITIVE OF THE WHOLE Pars terrae. Minus timoris. especially after cardinal numbers: unus ex pueris. one of the boys. two at a time. Belgae erant magna virtute. singuli. part of the land. or an adverb (of quantity. Quis eorum. Fossa trium pedum. The word denoting Rule. a. The genitive may denote on a word denoting a part. the whole. a ditch of three feet. or place). i. Vir a man 2. boys. secundus. 2. many of the 3. THE GENITIVE OF THE WHOLE. less (of) fear. 528. modifying a word denoting a part. great courage. 5. 530. an adjective. -a): one at a time.176 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR LESSON LXV ORDINAL ADJECTIVES. a part may be a noun. i. -1 -um): primus. 4. . the distributives in the plural only. a pronoun or (interrogative indefinite). (men) of 4. first ten ordinals and notice 529. distributives in (-ae. A genitive so used is called a genitive of the whole. THE GENITIVE AND ABLATIVE OF DESCRIPTION Ordinal adjectives end in -us (-a. first. The ablative with de or ex is sometimes used instead of the genitive. 3. bini. the bravest of the soldiers. the Belgae were virtute. depending 531. degree. second. Fortissimi mllitum. who of them? Multi puerorum. a. b. THE GENITIVE AND ABLATIVE OF DESCRIPTION Virmagnaevirtutis. Learn from page 275 the the formation of the others. In these expressions the genitive denotes the whole. magna of great courage. These adjectives are dedined like bonus.

Helveth erant inimico animo in populum animo C5nsul futuros meliore elves esse 9. ace. 532. winter the hiberna. . Secundus menbrevior est quam tertius. and weight are expressed by the genicharacteristics tive. prep. 4. Toward. physical by the ablative. (con + scribo.. Mercator dlcit satis frumenti esse in oppido. tones (san'to-nez) satis. around instructum. Romanum. enroll. -are. Measure. w. Meo amlco persuadere conabor ut mecum est 1 R5mae hiemet.. 1. Other descriptive phrases may be in either case. Rule. multitudinem Germanorum agros Galliae 1 8. -avi. a. (hiems). indecl. marshal EXERCISES 534. 533. N. enlist Santones. The genitive or the ablative. M. 5. VOCABULARY -drum. and fossa are described by genitive or ablative phrases and that there is an Genitives and ablatives so used adjective in each phrase. Un5 anno duodecim menses sunt. sufficiently circum. 2. Legio octava Italia 7. size. San- hiemo. Instru5. enough. sis ad Britanniam pervenit. may be used to describe a noun. -um. 10. Instruxi. structa est. ut hiberna munlrent. quarters write together).ORDINAL ADJECTIVES Notice in the illustrations that vir. Acies legionum quattuor Inin conscrlpta erat. 6. Nuntiatum vastavisse. Quarta hora classis Romana 3. arrange. 1 77 Belgae. are called genitives of description (or descriptive genitives) and ablatives of description (or descriptive ablatives). with an adjective in agreement. noun and adv. Labienus militibus decimae legionis imperavit. conscribo. -atum... pass the winter instruere. sperat.

abest. or pronouns refer some person 1 ticular one. Answer in Latin 2. tus huius legionis? CAESAR REINFORCES HIS ARMY 537.178 535. The commander is a man of great influence. 4. Many vetians. et trans qumque legionibus per Rhodanum exer- citum ducit. large 1. any thing. They are fortified by a wall of (sufficiently large) The wall is ten feet x high. Quocum loctitus es? 3. any one. ibi legiones conscribit. Ob earn facere. 2 3 some thing without indicating the parThey include quis. REVIEW OF PRONOUNS. 4 6 Why is A town To go. dabitur? Cui legion! Caesar indulsit? 5. 7. quarters are . The new winter 3. ex h!bern!s educit.) What case? (See 529 &. and What case? (See 523. REVIEW OF PREPOSITIONS The indefinite 538. Labienum legatum praefecit. 2. . causam sciebat provinciam magno in perlculo futuram. 3 Itaque el munition!. the following questions: domi vldisti? 4. Ipse in Italiam magnls itineribus contendit. duasque tres. 8.) the dative used? situated at the head of the Adriatic. quam fecerat. Three ready to-pass-the-winter. any. Cum Alpes in Galliam !re 5 contendit. 536. LESSON LXVI INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. 6. to Indefinite Pronouns. Quern Cuius virtus lauQuis erat lega- 1. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR The soldiers are legions are in winter quarters. Three of his sons 2 are soldiers. Caesar! nuntiatur Helvetios in animo habere per agrum Sequanorum et Haeduorum iter in fines Santonum Haec civitas non longe a provincia. thought the Germans were (men) of greater bravery than the Hel- enough 5. ten feet. quae circum Aquileiam h!s 4 hiema- bant.

b. Review the declension of 540. e (ex). As an adjective quisquam is not used. praeter. a certain soldier. trans. is The nominative singular as follows: Pronouns Adjectives M. quis aliquis N. some thing. qui aliqui F. There are about thirty Latin prepositions used with the accusative and twelve with the ablative. ante. aliquod qua (quae) quod aliqua quisquam quisque quidquam (quicquam) quidque quisque quaeque quodque quidam a. pro. sub. sine. quidam. each thing. a certain. Like other pronouns. the indefinites may be used as adquidam miles. any at all. quaedam quiddam quidam quaedam quoddam The full declension of these words is given on page 278. N. a (ab). apud. ob. each. inter. The compounds used most frequently are aliquis. every. jectives: 539. The indefinites form the seventh and last class of pronouns. With the ablative: ad. num). circum. a certain thing. per. contra. quisquam. quid aliquid M. quisque. b. Review ing lessons: a. propter. a.INDEFINITE PRONOUNS its 179 compounds. Quisquam has no plural. some one. b. of Prepositions. cum. The plural of the other words is is complete and the same for pronouns and adjectives. The following have been given in the preced541. ne. Declension of Indefinite Pronouns. each one. ullus taking its place. nisi. a certain one. de. 13 . With the accusative: in. Quisquam is used chiefly in negative sentences. some. post. in. sub. Quis is used chiefly after certain conjunctions (si. Review of Pronouns. the six classes given in section 393.

12. 1. by this time angustiae.l8o 542. adv. 7. I have not $44. 9. M. Ubi mercatores a Britannia 8. ut ad urbem veniat. Dlcit se sine con6. On account of the scarcity of water the camp will be moved. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR VOCABULARY iam. qui auxilium rogarent. Hoc bant. (angustus). There was no one in the field except the slaves. 4. defile paene. Some friends have come to see you. already. What mood and tense? Since. Caesar quemque rogavit quid vidisset. Puto quendam ex his pueris ducem futurum. Ablative of separation (220). Hae collis multo altior est quam ille. Hie naves non sunt eaedem quas herl vidisti. The king had his son with him. Quot nova verba hodie didicimus? 3 2. 3 4 See 529 b. consilium cuiquam non nuntiabimus. but I shall try to see many friends to-morrow.. itinere 543. domum revert! paratus erat. Do you know the name of each girl? men (as) guides. 7. quae Alpes incole2 exercitum prohibere conatl sunt. Helvetii iam per angustias et fines Sequanorum suas copiastraduxerant. pass. 4. Quisque sensu omnium non facturum esse quicquam. sight EXERCISES * Quis erit dux? 2. reverterunt. 9. 11. A PARLEY 545. We shall send certain 3. There is a beautiful village at the foot of the hill. expressing cause. almost conspectus. . 5. There were two consuls at Rome each year. -us. Marco ipsl persuadebimus. 10. F. adv. 1.. et in HaeduOrum fines pervenerant eorum4 que agros vastabant. seen any one to-day. Those ships are almost in 8. 6. In con- spectu imperatoris quisque miles fortius pugnavit. 3. 5. Quaedam nationes.. -arum. Haedul cum se ab els defendere non possent. legatos ad 1 1 Caesarem mittunt. sight of land. 10.

oppida expugnarl non debuerint.REVIEW OF LESSONS LIX-LXVI Hi dlcunt se ita l 181 depopulo Romano meritos esse. CERTAIN NOUN SUFFIXES VOCABULARY adventus . puerl in servitutem abducl. Eodem tempore socii Haeduorum nuntiant se non facile ab oppidls vim hostium prohibere. Propter has iniurias Caesar cum Helvetils bellum gerere constituit. LESSON LXVII REVIEW OF LESSONS 546. LIX-LXVI. utagrl paene in conspectu exercitus RomanI vastarl.

Decline unus. fru-mentum. victor.l82 4. boldness. the measure of difference. a commanding. as an adjective. -tas. . Illustrate the accusative of of the whole the ablative of description. introduce a subjunctive clause? 548. important noun suffixes: P a. denoting action: leg-io. amici-tia. vigilia. a collecting. noting quality d. 9. What is an indirect question? 19. a comtor. goodness. ing to. iumentum. friendship. adverbs formed? Compare latus. greatness. magnicivitas. mercator. iniuria. ag-men. -tus. 16. 12. -ia (-tia). one who writes. multus. altitudo. that which is led. fortitudo. bonus. Compare exterus. The following are English -er in writer. forming abstract nouns deor condition: audac-ia. -men. superus. that which is enjoyed. 17. 7. when. Decline Kberior. 13. denoting action. 10. tudo. 15. formed? Write a synopsis of hortor in the third person plural. How is the perfect subjunctive The pluperfect? 14. denoting the agent or doer of an action: impera- one who commands. memoria. as we have seen. orator. c. servitus. -tudo. . -tus (-sus). praesidium. victoria. Decline plus. facilis. magnus. third person singular. mflle. adven-tus. the extent. -io (-sio. nomen. Write a synopsis of duco in the active indicative and subjunctive. genitive 18. coniuratio. noun. Compare bonus. as the -tas. auxilium. -ium. studium. libertas. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR 5. Decline aliquis as a pro11. are formed by adding to stems a common suffix. -tio). multitudo. a flowing. Decline ducenti. cupiditas. munitio. Noun Suffixes. indicium. vir-tus. -tor. a speaking. tres. -men. Illustrate by a Latin sentence the ablative of comparison. lit. Many nouns. duo. manliness. imper-ium. longitudo. explorator. -mentum. boni-tas. such as -tor. 8. ora-tio. These suffixes have definite meanings. the means or the result of action: flu-men. How are the adverbs formed from acer. b. 6. When does cum.

THE IMPERATIVE MOOD. 549. 550. THE PRESENT IMPERATIVE Active . expresses a command. THE VOCATIVE CASE 1 83 LESSON LXVIII THE IMPERATIVE MOOD. as in English. The present tense has only the second person. THE VOCATIVE CASE The imperative in Latin.

Legatum monul. ut in Nuntium ad conForum conve- The Meta Sudans A niant. ut omnes copias educeret. iunc- abdo. amid. sulem celeriter mitte Hortare elves. this side of concisum (con + caedo. not yet iungo. adv. abdidi. 1 Fortissime defendite. ratis. ratis. put away). conj. citra. F. concidere. Edtic. 1 7. iungere. 2. 5. legate.prep. to pieces). conceal EXEECISES urbem 3.. abdere. fountain near the Colosseum 4. w.. tuas. for nondum. fratrl tuo. cur non venerltis. hide. raft VOCABULARY concido. ut noblscum Why subjunctive? . abdi- tum. omnes copias 6. ace. join tum (ab + do. concidi. Persuade 1 Dlcite nobis... iunxi. kill cut nam.1 84 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR 552. 553.

Boys. 2 (260). to the harbor. be brave. Tense Endings Participles. 5 6 Direction. 5. Tell me. Learn CAESAR DEFEATS PART OF THE HELVETIAN FORCES 555. translbant. Throw longer arrows. 9. THE PRESENT AND THE PERFECT of Participles. sailor. quae nondum flumen transierat. There are four: 2. 6. (See 43°-) In the course of. the javelins. 2. quod per Influit. are verbal adjectives. 1 3 The present active in -ns. Marcus. Having set out. . what books all these words with great care. quer. LESSON LXIX PARTICIPLES: 556. pervenit. Principes Helvetiorum multas rates iungl Puerl parvam ratem in 1 flumine habebunt. Reliqui fugerunt atque se in silvas abdiderunt. 3. 1. Ascendite montem.participles: the present and the perfect 185 maneat. 10. 1. as defined in section 259. Use 3 so will that conbravely Fight you you have read. nam omnis cl vitas Hel- vetia in quattuor pagos dlvisa est. 4. ut videatis quam in partem 2 agmen Come iter faciat. iusserunt. 4 7 Had crossed. quarta pars citra flumen reliqua erat. tae erant. The perfect passive in -us On. 554. soldiers. 8. Cornelia. 8. Ea pars clvitatis appellabatur Tigurlnus. fines Haeduorum et Sequanorum Rbodanum Id Helvetii ratibus. quas 4 Tres partes copiarum iam traduo iunxerant. Caesar de 5 tertia vigilia cum tribus legionibus e castris 6 7 profectus ad earn partem. Praise the farmer's sons. What Were tense in a result clause? crossing. 7. Flumen in est Arar. et magnum numerum proximas concldit.

557. passive in -ndus. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR 4. . a.i86 3. The future The future active in -urus (373). The endings of the present active and of the future passive are added to the present stem: ama-ns. ama-ndus.

7. Celtae profectl 6. % Towards. 1. 6. Castra in loco natura munlto ponunt. -um. prlncipis. Magnum numerum ani10. Magnus numerus n. 4.. sudden calamitas. OrgetorIx. 2. -a. vulneratorum in castrls erat. 3.. or by an adverbial clause with when. . I learned many things about 3 the Romans. 5. if (con + moveo.. / saw the bridge {that Romans. disaster Divico. sua eodem usl consilio. Did you see the boys aiding the sailors? 3. malium currentium trans agros videre poteris. coniurationem fecit.regnI cupiditate Flnitiml HelvetiOrum.. 562. although. conj. given by his friends. 4.participles: a. Divico was a man of great authority among the Helvetians. 1 See 557 a. 560. Nonne audlvistl consulem mllites laudantem? Marcus multos libros a Romanis scrlptos legit. the soldier fought bravely (though he was) wounded. 12. conj. Mercatores domo prima hora 2 x Genavam sub vesperum pervenerunt. if: 1. (if) the army (is) built Pontem a Romanis factum by the defeated. (it) will be sent under Miles vulneratus fortiter pugnavit. He had been a leader of the army for many years. ad reglnam ducebatur. inductus. since. 3 De. was) Exercitus victus sub iugum mittetur. 8.. 9. consequor . overtake EXERCISES 561. oppida vlcosque incenderunt. Fllia The boys (having been) sent by their father were aiding 2. 3. (While I was) living in Italy. F. vldi. but if follow up. VOCABULARY repentinus. ab hostibus capta. -onis. 2. the yoke. vesperi. move thoroughly) alarm (con + sequor). the present and the perfect is 187 A present or perfect participle often best translated by a relative clause. 1. 5. Divico commoveo vesper. -tatis. after. The lieutenant has a beautiful sword. M. Imperator suos hostes oppidum munientes terruerunt. evening si. sin. Servus territus ex urbe fugit. the sailors. M. cohortatus^Ignumproelldedit.

Dlvico. legio vicit. after the tribe had been con- 2. ibi 1 Romanus noblscum pacem inimlcos superare posse. since the tribe had been conquered. in these sentences illustrate the that is. like the English nominative abso1 In that place. Galba commanding. the legion 3. dixit: " Si populus manebimus ubi nos manere iubes. 2 You wish." LESSON LXX THE ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE 564. ut reliquas copias Helvetiorum consequl posset. with Galba commanding (or. pontem in Ararl facit atque ita exercitum tradiicit. Galba duce. the legion conquered. Si in proelio contendes. Galba being leader. 1. with Galba as leader conquered the (or. The ablative phrases ablative absolute. when Galba commanded. the legion will set out. quered. et omnes faciet. qui bello superiore dux fuerat. legatos ad eum mittunt. locus ex calamitate popull RomanI nomen capiet. Helvetii repentlno eius adventu commotl. the tribe having been conquered (or. since Galba commanded. under the leadership of Galba). legio proficiscetur. .1 88 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR THE HELVETIANS SEND DIVICO AS ENVOY TO CAESAR 563. if Galba commanded). having tribe). an ablative loosely connected with the rest of the sentence. legio in Alpibus hiemavit. wintered in the Alps. sin noblscum bellum gerere vis. 2 memoria tene Helvetios a patribus suls fortitudinem didicisse. Observe the following sentences: Galba imperante. Civitate victa. Post hoc proelium Caesar. quorum Divico prlnceps fuit.

Having spoken thus. these things having been said. while. being active in meaning. and notice that the noun participle (oppidum munitum) are not in the absolute construction in the last sentence. The absolute phrase may be rendered best by a clause expressing time {when. to express time. and . because). a. or other relation. is often a substitute for a subordinate clause. The sentence 3. The town having been fortified was easily defended. Rule. concession {though. the chief 2. princeps discessit. 4. 566. the troops resisted the enemy. an adjective. and takes the same construction as the participle in the English sentence. A noun or pronoun in the ablative. although). The ablative absolute. or a participle in agreement. ita locutus. c. Compare sentences 3 and 4. must be changed in translation to the passive form. oppido munito. cause {since. an ablative absolute The may adjective. a. cause. as shown in the model sentences. and a noun. copiae hostibus restiterunt. went away. b. Observe also the following: 1. condition. may be used 565. because the noun is also the subject of the main verb (defensum est). or a participle in agreement. an active phrase. such as having said these things. The town having been fortified. 1 89 be defined as a phrase consisting of a noun or pronoun in the ablative. in other words. princeps discessit. perfect participle of deponent verbs. Since the Latin verb lacks the perfect active participle. oppidum munitum facile defensum est. Having said these things. condition {if). is an exception to this rule.THE ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE lute. as locutus in 2. The tense of the participle in an ablative absolute is either present or perfect. the chief went away. his rebus dictis. after). with a noun.

. quando. et Pisone consulibus. 3 celerrime cucurrit. 2. 1.. clvitas superata est. satisfy etiam. respondl. domum revertemur. -are. Seize the opportunity. respondere. 5. 7. See 492. 9. legio decima impetum 2 1 fecit. Pills iactls. and 403. fecit. 10. Enjoy the present day. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR VOCABULARY responded. 6. a consule misCaesare consule. reply (de + pono). milites gladiis Gsi sunt. put away satisfacio (satis + facio) make . 2 1 . rex captlvos liberavit. Cave quid dicis. 1 a). et cui. Helvetil cum omnibus copils profecti sunt. third plural. even. Urbe capta. -avi. adv.) 568. -atum. Messala. Be cautious as to what you say. depono put -1. 3. Memorize : Carpe diem. EXERCISES (Translate each ablative absolute literally. responsum. amends. quam 11. cum vicos suos incendissent. coniurationem 12.. give a synopsis of tempto in the active. invitus. Navibus vlsis. N. 4. expugnare non potuimus. sus. -a. paucis defendentibus. elves fiigerunt. reply -um. Vicls in- censls. and to whom. also attempt a. tempto. id miinire coepimus. then form a better English equivalent phrase or clause. compare recens. third person singular. Nuntius. try. Translate with though (564 See 566 b. 8. fresh. and of depono in the passive. recentis. when. Piso. proficisci erant parati. unwilling recens. Pisonis. new. Potitl oppido. Orgetorix. Piso responsum. Slgno dato. Helvetil. Hoc oppidum. Decline hoc responsum. recent down. M. His rebus inductus.190 567.

I am going to praise. agros sociorum popull Roman! vastaverunt. de quibus locutus es. centurions having been called together. or intended: Laudaturus sum. discessit. but the word is limited to the above use. I saw the consul's daughter reading a new book. me invito. iter per provinciam temptaverunt. Having written the letter. After reading the letter (i. 4.THE FUTURE PARTICIPLES 569. 5. we shall easily conquer. Are accustomed. 3." 4 Hoc responso dato. The CAESAR'S REPLY TO DIVICO Huic legato Caesar ita respondit: " Eas res. memoria teneo. to express action about to occur. periphrastic tenses of the passive voice (261) are therefore periphrastic.e. cum clvitate Helvetia pacem faciam. Active Periphrastic. The combination sum 1 2 3 4 6 (in the indicative. of the future active participle and and infinitive) is called What case? What mood (439)? Have inflicted upon. / am about to praise. a. 2.. A " . Helvetil 570. 191 1. the lieutenant advised them. The letter having been written was given to the messenger. (With) Marcus (as) commander. The compound " form is a form consisting of more than one word. Sin obsides mihi dabunt. 2 6. 571. THE DATIVE OF THE AGENT The future active participle is used with forms of sum. the active periphrastic 5 conjugation. quas els sochsque eorum intu3 lerunt. non dare solent. the letter having been read) I persuaded the messenger l to remain. I called the messenger. LESSON LXXI THE FUTURE PARTICIPLES. subjunctive. et si Haeduis de iniurils satisfacient. Etiam recentium iniuriarum memoriam deponere non possum." Dlvico respondit: " Helvetil obsides accipere. I intend to praise.

(uneven). Slgnum daturl sunt. dred five insequor (in + sequor).pepuli. 3. est. low on). the sailor was to be {had to be) warned by me. (fol- hun- pello. cadere. The combination of sum with the future passive par- ticiple is called the passive periphrastic conjugation. the sailor is to be (must be) 2. 3. epistulam scrlpturus es? 6. 4. pellere. Mihi nauta monendus erat. fall praemitto(prae+mittd). Epistula tibi scrlbenda erit.. -um -a. he must be praised. I shall have to warn the sailor. casum. cecidi.pulsum. iniquus. With 574. a passive periphrastic form the agent or doer of the action is expressed by the dative instead of the ablative. The dative of the agent is used with the passive periphrastic conjugation. pacem his nationibus conflrmandam Agricolae . THE DATIVE OF THE AGENT Mihi nauta monendus est. Legio decima. he is to be praised. 7. I must warn the sailor. 2. Nonne putas hiiius terrae pacem conflrmaturae sunt. warned by me.192 572. 575. Nationes 8. put to flight cado. esse? 9.zd in advance EXERCISLS 576. Slgnum tuba dandum Caesarl omnia tino tempore erant agenda. the sailor will have to be warned by me. unfavorable quingenti. Mihi nauta monendus erit. Rule. 1. frumentum comportaturl erant. he has to be praised. is LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR Passive Periphrastic. Nonne 5. VOCABULARY -a. 573. pursue drive. The future passive participle used with forms of sum to express action as necessary or proper: Laudandus est. i. -ae. I had to warn the sailor.

Too eagerly. rarely in the dative. and ablative cases. when used as an attributive adjective. mihi. 4. Caesar suos a proeli5 continebat. et equitatum omnem ad numerum quattuor milium 4 5 praemittit. 1. must choose a leader to-day. 7 Elated. 2 are going-to-choose a leader. Die sit. The gerundive is used chiefly in the genitive. The future passive participle (557). quid acturus 577. Hac victoria sublatl 7 LESSON LXXII THE GERUNDIVE. Caesar 6. 6 case? 4 6 See 420. Helvetii. qui videant quam in partem hostes iter faciant. 1 See 457. 5. The traders had to be advised by the lieuhimself is going-to-command the legions. castra de quarta. singular and plural. Sextus dlcit se oratorem in Foro audlturum esse. Idem facit Caesar. cui 10. Die mihi quid agendum 2. THE GERUND The Gerundive. 579. ut hostium agmen a Romano qulnque aut sex mllia passuum abesset. accusative. audacius resistere coeperunt. 3 tenant.THE GERUNDIVE. The lieutenant The boys A CAVALRY SKIRMISH 578. quod qulngentls equitibus tantam multitudinem pepulerant. 6 agmen InsecutI inlquo loco cum equitatu Qui cupidius Helvetiorum contendunt. 1 THE GERUND vigilia 1 93 Labienus praeest. motura 11. Ita dies qulndecim iter fecerunt. The boys was about-toadvise the traders. is called a gerundive. Direction. He said that Caesar himself was going-to-command the legions. fuit. 2 3 Change this sentence to the passive What form before translating. Postero die castra ex eo loco movent. Sexte. sis. et paucl de equitibus Romanls cadunt. 12. . 3.

capiendi. -ing. urbem videndam sumus. we (lit. as well as gerundives conandi. Causa always follows the genitive phrase. Urbis videndae causa venimus. verendi.) loving amando. called the gerund. audiendL Deponent verbs have gerunds. the difficulty of Followed by causa the genitive expresses purpose: Audiendi causa venimus. Uses of the Gerund. by Decline monendi. The genitive of the gerund is used like other genitives: difficultas audiendi. b. a. hearing.194 i . LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR Cupidi urbis videndae sumus. for the sake. loving (etc. he spoke about the city (lit. 3. iitendi. The dative is rare. or by ad with the accusative.. of trying. we have come for the purpose of hearing. Noni.. are ready to see the city for the city to be seen). seeing Purpose is expressed by causa. (amare. for loving Ace. urbe videnda locutus est. we learn by hearing. of loving Dat. amando. of (557 a): using. The accusative is used with ad to express purpose: Ad audiendum venimus. for the purpose.. The neuter The nominative is supplied by the present infinitive. with the genitive of the gerundive. 581. Abl. to love) Gen. The gerund is active in meaning and is equivalent to the English verbal in 580. . about the city to be seen). singular of the gerundive is used as a verbal noun. we came to The ablative is used like other ablatives: Audiendo hear. of the city to be seen). we have come for purpose of seeing the city. see- 2. regendi. The Gerund. of fearing. amandi. amandum. we are desirous of ing the city (lit. discimus. De a. ParatI ad the 4.

4 6 make ways. VOCABULARY ostendo. to the A word wise is sufficient. Cives audiendl consulis causa convenerunt. -ficere. persuade ut hoc faciat. -feci. the gerundive a participle. ostendere. 582. qui alios docet. ostentum. Ad portum navium videndarum causa venient. Nemo Nonne x fortem virum loquenis. 3. -sedi. report sum. The boys are ready to climb the mountain. Caesar followed with the legions. 10. adv. Legatus dlcit legionem esse paratam ad bellum gerendum. that the gerund is singular and neuter only. show. This place is most suitable for pitching a camp. the gerundive singular or plural. EXERCISES 583. 2. at once conficio. Quis ad has res con5. 9. 2. docendo el discit? Hortare fratrem tuum. 4. settle. 1. 7. We learn to do by doing. Cum nullam spem vincendl haberent. Is the trader ready to sail? 5. 4 2 3 See 550. 6.. 4. fugerunt. statim. explain renuntio (re -f nuntio).THE GERUNDIVE. Express See 480. -fectum accomplish consido. to either an infinitive or in different gerund (gerundive) may be used. that the gerund is active. With paratus. audivit. the gerundive passive. Dux putavit hunc locum esse ido- ficiendas neum ad aciem Instruendam. They will aid the king by 3 sending grain. THE GERUND is 1 95 Remember that the gerund a noun. Having sent ahead the cavalry. a. i. The envoys had been sent to make 7. 3. tem de fugiendo ipse 8. Agere. and of all genders. 6. Hae civitates ad obsides dandos deligetur? paratae sunt. take position Memorize: Verbum sat sapient!. ostendi. 14 . Quinte. -sidere. -ses- (con + facio). 1 5 peace. 2 584.

equitatumque omnem ante se mittit. Deponent verbs have supines. Had gone. The supine in -u is used chiefly as an ablative of specification (378). It is more com- motion to express purpose: Victoriam nuntiatum venimus. we have come to report the victory.. captum. See 502. or the opposite: Difficile factu est. ad eos contendit. . 587. 1 At the foot of.I96 LATEST FOR THE FIRST YEAR CAESAR PREPARES FOR BATTLE 585. cum duabus qui iter cognoverant. vigilia eodem 5 hostes itinere. 4 legionibus et els du- cibus sibi 3 2 montem ascendere iubet. The Supine. veritum. with adjectives meaning easy. quid animo ostendit. The supine has two case forms. Exploratores Caesarl nuntiant hostes sub consedisse mllia passuum ab ipslus castrls octo. monly used with verbs of a. qui cognoscerent quae esset nattira Renuntiatum est ascensum esse facilem. strange. B 3 See 458. 1 monte Caesar montis. which may be formed from the perfect participle: conatum. Uses of the Supine. quo ierant. REVIEW OF EXPRESSIONS OF PURPOSE THE THREE STEM SYSTEMS 586. Tertia Labienum legatum. good. it is hard to do (lit. Three forms of the verb are used as nouns: the infinitive (109). 4 2 As guides. and the supine. the accusative in -um and the ablative in -u. the fourth of the principal parts: The accusative supine has been given as amatum. a. The supine in -um is used with iri to form the future passive infinitive (374). Ipse quarta. auditum. usum. rectum. sit in LESSON LXXIII THE SUPINE. monitum. the gerund (580). with re- spect to the doing). vigilia statim homines mlsit.

588. The various forms of the may be grouped into three systems. The subjunctive with ut (or qui) videamus. ut. Three Stem Systems.THE SUPINE. ne. according to the stem from which they are derived. 4. The gerundive with ad The gerund with ad The supine (587): or causa (579 Mittimur urbis videndae causa. qui. or quo (420): Mittia): mur 2. We have seen that four different forms of the verb may express purpose: 1. Thus for amo we may 589. THE THREE STEM SYSTEMS 1 97 Expressions of Purpose. Mittimur visum. or causa (581): Mittimur videndi causa. verb arrange: The Present System Active . 3.

impedio. procure grain.. hinder. (pes). 9. 13. i. think. domum revertar.198 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR The Supine System Ind. 15. 6. P. 12. Castella fecerunt. consider EXERCISES Quid. bag- (frumentum). con-Itum. Fut. Galba. 7. Inf. 10. (impepi. F. Arbitrabamur propter petierunt. N. His rebus confectis. F. 3. 4. Caesar dlcit sex mllia Helve- tiorum salutem fuga petlvisse. runt. 16. Ad haec cognoscenda Marcum esse idoneum arbitramur. est optimum factii? 2. -atus sum.. minore numero militum locum Multl amlci ad consulem gratulatum vene- quo 2 Una legio frumentatum missa erat. impedimentum. F. . safety tempestas. -Ivi. -atus gratulate gage (military) mulier. woman sum. frumentor. storm. Hostes non facile impedlmentls potientur. salus. 8. Subj. Per/. Plup. weather arbitror. 5. Magna pars equitatus frumentandi causa missa est. Vos monitum venimus. -ari. Difficile est dictu.. defenderent. amatum amatum Irl VOCABULARY -1.. dio). salutis. Supine 590. Prinl auxilium rogatum fugerat. Legati pacem petltum missl sunt. ceps Haeduorum Romam 591. muli'eris. gratulor. -ire. 14. incumber -ari. difficultatem navigandl futuram esse sum2 See 511 a. -atus sum. Rogasne quis hoc praemium mereatur? 11. Puerl mulieresque a Romanls 1 pacem tempestatem See 282. -tatis. amatus esse amatus amatus sum amatus sim amatus eram amatus essem amaturus esse amaturus amatus ero p . Part. forage -ari. hindrance.

I shall send men to do this. scouts. 3. will It is easy to see. Tell the women and of the children that there is safety in the town. 18. 6. I think you will see these things within a few come We days. 7. 592. 5. 593- ADJECTIVE SUFFIXES VOCABULARY calamitas . 8. 1 17. 4. Tempestas non est idonea ad navigandum. 2. The soldiers are aboutmust learn these things 2 to-forage in the neighboring fields. He to the city to see his brother. impedltum est. before evening.REVIEW OF LESSONS LXVIH-LXXIII 199 mam. The baggage whole army could be seen by the LESSON LXXIV REVIEW OF LESSONS LXVIH-LXXIII. Iter agminis densissimis silvls 1.

f actus sum. an active meaning: desiring. cupidus. may be believed (credo). -idus. derived from: bellicus. -nus. fit result. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR Adjective Suffixes. Arbitrarisne Romanos 3. -bilis. pertaining to the sea (mare). pertaining to war (bellum) patrius. pertaining to a soldier (miles). except in and before -er-. pertaining to a father (pater). navalis. . Quis has res Memorize : Ubi hostes se abdiderunt? 4. credibilis. . it is LESSON LXXV THE IRREGULAR VERB 597. b. -lis.200 595. Nonne recentem calamiconficere temptabit? Quid magis est durum saxo? Quid mollius unda? Ovid. pertaining to. Answer in Latin the 2. forming adjectives meaning belonging to. Notice that -i. -ris. audax. -cus. -ter. fraternus. forming adjectives with daring ( long. maritimus. -tivus. easy (facio). 596. c. — What is harder than stone ? What more soft than water ? hollowed by Nevertheless. Dura tamen molli saxa cavantur aqua. captured (capio). that may captivus. . be made. -ax. desirous (cupio). pertaining to a horseman (eques). hard though the rock the wave. meaning: that facilis. The passive of facio in the present system supine system tion of fid. happen. pertaining to a brother (frater). pertaining to a ship (navis) mllitaris. forming adjectives with a passive be done. -ilis. FIO. IDIOMS The Passive is is of Facio. be done. following: 1. be. The regular. Learn from page 292 the conjuga- fieri. saepe pulsos esse? Cur equites praemissl sunt? tatem audlvistl? 5. Among the suffixes used to form adjectives are the following: a. -timus. dare). -ius. formed from the irregular verb fid. equester.

eos certiores I informed them. a. sure. diligent dfligentis. -a.. in spem venio (I come into hope) for I have hope. favor N. such as equus est militi (a horse has a horse. 2. I am in- formed 1. and the gerund. -ae.. w. careful. the participles.. Messala consule (Messala consul) for in the consulship of Messala. make more sure). N. sure diligence contra. Prepositional compounds of facio. (lit. Comment vous portez599. -urn. IDIOMS 201 a. is used as a predicate adjective in the phrases certiorem facio.. prep. Every language has constructions or expressions peculiar to itself. dUigens. -1. carefulness. are usually conjugated regularly in the passive: conficior. damage diligentia. Certior fid (certiores fimus) equites venire. certior fio (7 am is to the soldier) for the soldier informed. 600. faithfully adv. kindness. called idioms. Idioms. dUigenter. sure): Eum certiorem I informed him. I inform (lit.THE IRREGULAR VERB FIO. Thus in English we say How do you do? in French. F. the infinitives. including the three moods. Write in review a synopsis of the active forms of facio. ace. vous? Latin has (How do you carry yourself?) many idioms. Notice that certior agrees with the person informed. certain. I am informed {we are informed) that the horsemen are coming. 598. b. certus. perficio. I entertain hope. feci. just as after a verb of saying. harm. made more sure) for I am VOCABULARY -1. diligently. certain.. confici. against . Certior. iter faciunt (they make a march) for they march. and certior fio. the comparative of certus. and that the information in sentence 2 is expressed by an infinitive with subject accusative. evil deed.. I am made more feci. beneficium.. maleficium. as conficio. confectus sum.

sustinere. interficere. iussit. 2. sustentum (sub + teneo) . feci. f actus endure. sustain sum.202 accurro. sustinui. be done. happen. to accurri. inter- accursum (ad to. Caesar pontem in flumine Rheno Helvetii de eius adventu certiores factl sunt. -avi. be made. run interfectum (inter + hasten facio). (con + iuro. swear together). conspire flo. + curro). -atum sustineo. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR accurrere. interficio. Caesar A Showing captives and war elephants ndrca Mantegna Panel from the Painting "The Triumph of Caesar" . 3. kill coniuro. -are. become EXERCISES fieri 601. fieri. i.

iter facturos esse. His rebus confectls. Sum- mam in spem victoriae venimus. de 8. 12. proficlscemur. n. Tuum iillo maleficio per provinciam beneficium semper memoria Andrea Mantegna Panel from the Painting " The Triumph of Caesar" spoils of Showing captives and war . fieret. Helvetil dicunt se sine 14. 5.THE IRREGULAR VERB certior flebat FIO. IDIOMS 203 omnes Belgas contra populum Romanum conFactum est multls de causls ut hostes impetum 4. Haec facta sunt Marco Messala et Marco Plsone consulibus. sustinere non possent. 10. ut uno tempore in hostes impetus 6. Niintiatum est multos interfectos esse. reges copias suas iunxerunt. tertia vigilia Fide inter se data. 9. 7. exspectabant. Duae legiones reliquum exercitum iurare. Quis legionl decimae praefectus est? 13. Nauta me certiorem fecit flumen esse altissimum.

8. 15. supine. 4. et 6 Considium. made. itum. 1. The children must be protected most faithfully. dicit montem. ab hostibus teneri. cum dlligentia nobis facienda 2. (Iv-). thoroughly Pro vlso. Prima luce. 1 cum summus 2 mons ab hostium castrls a Labieno tene- non longius mille et qumgentls passibus abesset. 7. aciem Instruit. Timore perterritum. monte occupato. is road 5. frightened. I think the scout will inform the leader. Having made the scout. Considius equo admisso 3 ad Caesarem accurrit. quod non vidisset 7 pro vlso nuntiavisse. Prima The luce. leader (make the leader more inform the will Who countries. Stems: present. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR Omnia magna. 6 7 Multo die. The leader will be informed by narrow. timore perterritum. nostros exspectabat proelioque abstinebat. No one will do that with greater diligence than this boy. ii EO. et Caesar ipse Gallicis armls atque Caesar suas insignibus cognovisse. He said that peace had been leaders returned to their (own) the peace. . at daybreak. certain) that the 602. LESSON LXXVI THE VERB 604. 9. id se tenerl. late in the day. it-. (or ivi). 4 pari voluerit. go. scout is 6. page 292. perfect. He wished. his horse having been let go).204 tenebo. quern a Labieno occuretur. 1 2 3 wp 4 5 Equo admisso. Multo die 5 Caesar certior f actus est montem a suls a. at full speed (lit. 1-. Labienus. sunt. THE BLUNDER OP CONSIDIUS 603. The coming to inform the leader. TEMPORAL CLAUSES i- Learn the conjugation of the irregular verb eo. copias in proximum collem subdiicit.. of. Peace has been made. ire. Note the contracted forms. 3. as if seen.

Review 513. itum. conj.. until moror. exeo (ex + eo). but the subjunctive of an expected event: Mansit domi dum veni. when. Dum. adlmur. aditur. Dum. Pedigree and ancestry and what we ourselves have not — achieved. duced anima est. spes est. delay antequam. takes the indicative historical present.THE VERB EO. ii vox. etc. Temporal Clauses. and priusquam. adiris. dum. a. before. before. turn farther transeo (trans cross + eo) . dum. he stayed at home until I came. Vix ea nostra voco. of should come). exspectavit dum venirem. go -out redeo (red + eo). VOCABULARY eo.. cross. Memorize: Nam genus et proavos et quae n5n fecimus ipsi. while he was a. conj. when. while. 606. adeuntur. visit. adimini. Clauses expressing time are introchiefly by the conjunctions cum. adj. they came.. and 310 a. comp. after. (ivi). adj. go back. b. Dum. as long as. until. may be transitive and therefore may be conjugated in the passive: adeor. ulterius. Dum Dum speaking. 605. instead of a past tense: loquitur. until. Ovid. F. voice citerior. I scarcely recognize as our own. go re- comp. venerunt.. go across. he waited for me to come (until I c. before -ari. hither ulterior. -atus sum. ire. priusquam. as long as. postquam. while. nearer. vocis. ubi. citerius. long life. while. go to. take the indicative an actual event. go across.. . takes the indicative: is there is as there as hope. TEMPORAL CLAUSES 205 Certain compounds of eo. as ad-eo. trans-eo. as long as.

Helvetil. 5. 4. shall go. Pater nobiscum 4. We CAESAE GOES TO BIBRACTE 610. 5. The messenger is now going to the camp. Remain in the village until we come. they have gone.206 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR EXERCISES 607. Ex opexeunt. Pater dicit se nobiscum iturum esse. 1. ubi impedimenta 6. Ea res per fugitlvos hostibus nunoppidum 1 tiatur. Genavam Ibunt. 3. quod erat maximum Haeduorum. 15. exercitus Hostes. Galba iturus est. 8. 3. 6. Caesar in proxi- collem copias suas duxit. 7. Pueri domum Ibant. Ire non possunt. dum milites conveniant. Non cognovi cur ierint. provinciam Helvetil pervenirent. quod Romanos timore perterritos discedere 1 a se existimabant. Ante redlbo. vesperum pido et 6. Belgae 4. mutato 1 consilio et itinere converso nostros sequl coeperunt. The traders are about to go into farther Gaul. 2. Cur ierunt? 9. Imperator Genavae manebit. Cum Caesar esset in Gallia citeriore. 16. Ite cum els. ibit. amid. Hoc fhlmen vado transltur. 2. 7. 14. celeriter impetum fecerunt. avertit 1 FOE. partes Gallia citerior et Gallia ulterior appel- latae sunt. we had crossed. 8. Provincia Romana Alpibus in duas partes divisa Hae 3. 12. . 9. 7. Ieramus tecum eant. nostra consilia cognosces. Puto eum Isse. 609. Eos euntes vldi. a Accusative. Cum venies. Postquam id audlvit. SUPPLIES Postero die Caesar frumenti causa iter ab Helvetils et Bibracte 2 ire contendit. de incolis certior factus est. i. . When they had gone three miles. 1. We had gone out. coniurabant. 11. 8. 5. 1 See general vocabulary. 10. He has gone out he were crossing the bridge. 2. viderunt. Dum paucos dies frumenti causa moratur. Persuade els ut venerunt ut hortum videremus. in dum 10. milites fortius pugnant. Voce imperatoris audita. they decided to return. erat. Non mum exspectare statuit. 13. Roma 608. The king said he would go with a larger army.

N. pedem referre. dfla-1. effero. it was easy to capture the town. be brought. -a. is called cum-causal. bear out. when so used. load. 613. the turn (dis+ fero). inlatum (in cum. feror. CAUSAL CLAUSES 207 LESSON LXXVII THE VERB FERO. be borne. ferre. differre. aid. bear. -um. Cum-causal takes the subjunctive: Facile erat oppidum expugnare. bring se betake conferre. inferre. referre. bring. elatum take middle of veteranus. veteran (ex + fero). as fero. extuli. bring back. and Cum. by the conjunctions quod. Quod takes the indicative to state the reason of the speaker or writer. conlatum (con one's self + fero). a. -um. 611. quod fortes non essent. ferri.. intuli. bring make upon conferre. confero. Causal Clauses. rettuli. assistmiddle. together. + fero). cum non defenderetur. onus. withdraw . along infero. ferre. tul-. burden subsidium. VOCABULARY differo. latum. ance N. bear. contuli. since it was not defended. since. he accused them because (as he said) they were not brave. postpone medius. b. the subjunctive to state the reason of another: Vicerunt quod fortes erant. conj. since. as. Clauses expressing cause or reason are introduced chiefly cum. tuli. distuli. bring upon. Stems: fer-. they conquered because (as I know) they were brave. in distinction from cum-temporal. relaturn. Eos accusavit. passive. -a.. difer. bear apart. tuli. efferre.THE VERB FERO. 612. latus sum. refero. lat-. oneris. CAUSAL CLAUSES of the irregular Learn from page 293 the conjugation verb fero. latum.. because.

they sent it to the 8. domo efferre iussit. unum locum qui in superiore acie erant. 1. Since we are not able to go. quas in Totum montem conferrl et eum ab iussit. CAESAR PREPARES FOR BATTLE 617. tulerint. 7. Perfacile erat totlus cum Helvetii virtute omnibus praestarent. i. quod sumus cupidl videndae terrae Helvetiorum. been borne. 2. 3. sed in summo iugo duas legiones novas. The consul will bring aid to you. Latus. celerius ire non poterimus. 4. ferebatur. When the farmers had brought together the grain. sibi Galliae potirl. city. Ferte signa. Subsidium nobis 9. Slgnum fertur. hominibus complerl et sarcinas in els. Ferebat. because he had no ships. Dux quemque frumentum 10. silvas conferrent. conlatasunt. you were bearing. way up. Fert. ferri. muniri half The middle of. qui sustineret hostium impetum. se in Prlnceps eos hortatus ut se in 4. ferunt. x mlsit. Bearing. runt. GermanI bellum Gallls intulerunt. 5. Postquam Caesar id vidit. 8. Qui eorum arma f ferre possunt? Agricolae conferunt. Propter onera. rumentum 3. Tu- relata sunt. Signa 10. copias suas in proximum collem dtixit equitatumque. feres. built (made) a bridge. Caesar 9. 1 conscripserat. quae ferimus. we are bearing. ferebant. Bear the standard bravely. 6. Nautae est. we will send a message. 7. 4. portum 615. 6. The inhabitants of that city did not make war on the Romans. Omnia impedimenta 7. . in unum locum 6. laturus. ut feras. to have 2. conferunt. Tule5. 1. tulerant. 9. Civi- tates Galliae lingua inter se distulerunt. You have borne. 2. 11. Gallia citeriore conlocavit.208 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR EXERCISES 614. 5. lisse. 3. Genavam ibimus. 616. 8. mllites. Fers. To have borne. Ipse interim in colle medio aciem instruxit legionum quattuor veteranarum.

the present infinitive. as given in the preceding lessons. and nolo. nolle. it is well. eos venire voluit. or with subject-accusative: Venire voluit. it b. Stated as a fact. fuit. present indicative: Si vincit. fio. unless. These verbs an to may take a complementary infinitive. be willing. complex sentence one clause conjunctions used in such sentences are nisi. 621. Conditions may be of the following kinds: Present condition: 1. be unwilling. a. eo. 618. infinitive 619. he wished come. 620. are: The sum.THE VERBS VOLO AND NOLO 209 LESSON LXXVIII THE VERBS VOLO AND NOLO. he will succeed. fero. bene fuisset. Contrary to fact. bene esset. velle. if. // If he tries The Latin is the condition. bene est. sin. to fact. volo. if he is conquering. he will succeed. possum and nolo. Notice that the irregular forms are the present indicaand the present and imperfect subjunctive. si. and their compounds including Conditional Sentences. pluperfect subjunctive: Contrary Si vicisset. it would have been welL . Stated as a fact. b. if he had conquered. 2. CONDITIONAL SENTENCES Learn from page 295 the conjugation of the irregular verbs volo. if not. imperfect subjunctive: Si vinceret. the conclusion. A conditional sentence is a of which expresses a condition. bene 2. if he conquered. would be well. he a conclusion: the other tries. tive. volui. a. Past condition: 1. a past indicative: Si vicit. but if. it was well. wish. nolui. he wished them to come. irregular verbs. if he were conquering.

> .

they would have been praised. 3. 623. well. If the soldiers are (will be) brave. More probable fect: {shall. x be brave. Quis hoc facere vult? 4. Si voluisset. 1. 8. If 7. would). 6. in Helvetia cum omnibus suls carrls sectitl impedimenta 4 unum locum 1 contulerunt. it would be EXERCISES 622. reiecto 2 See 621. faciat. if he should conquer. redlre volebat. sequar. ipsl confertissima 3 4 acie. 1. Ami- cus meus domum 1 voluimus. 3. Dlcit se velle. Si amlcos tuos laudaveris. domum Marcl 7. patriam vldit. they will be praised. 8. b 2. THE BATTLE OF BIBRACTE 625. te certiorem de itinere me5 faciam. will be well. Less probable (should. 2 1. they are praised. if he conquers (shall conquer). 3 10. vlcissent. 3 2. If the soldiers should the soldiers had been 3 brave. a 2. 9. Si proelio contendere voluissent. We shall be willing to go to-morrow. Manere nolunt. este fortes. Putat eos voluisse. Si 12. bene sit. it bene erit. future or future per- Si vincet. 5. ab els laudaberis. Si vis. te nolle. 6. 15 . 5. 7. multl elves interfectl essent. Caesar eos prohibebit. 4. Si urbs capta 624. Si eris dux. they would be praised. Si amatis. See 626 for new words. Si vellet. ab Helvetils dentur. 2. Si sunt amid regis. If the soldiers are brave. 8. 2. Dixit 5. Cum mercatore loqul Pueros esse in perlculo nolebamus. present or perfect subjunctive: Si vincat. velit. 1 Caesar cum els pacem Si obsides 9.THE VERBS VOLO AND NOLO c. 4. Si translre conabuntur. I wished to see the consul's sons. 211 Future condition: i. c See 621. You are always willing to send aid. 3 esset. 2. 11. 2. To-day we are unwilling to go. 3. See 621. will). Si fuit Romae. erunt fortes. 6.

REVIEW OF SUBORDINATE CLAUSES impersonal verb is one that has no personal subject.. -avi. finally new succedo. -atum. Tandem vulneribus confectl. -are. in close order renovo. take away. N. 4 Galll impetum fecepedem referre et mille passiis se recipere coeperunt ad montem. Exhausted.. adv. 6 A contraction of renovaverunt. reiec- tollo. ut spem fugae hostium aciem runt. -a. 5 et proelium VOCABULARY turn (re + iacio). gladils in eos reppulerunt. crowded. 8 From repello. et succedentibus nostrls.succedere. success!. 2 Milites. catch sight of successum advance (sub + cedo). In English such verbs are often introduced 627. 2 From resisto. reicere. subla- perturbo. observe. cohortatus suos proelium commlsit. 6 626. aberat. equis 1 tolleret. reieci. wound confertus. remove LESSON LXXIX IMPERSONAL VERBS. Impersonal Verbs. tollere. vulneris. sustuli. -um. -atum. sub Caesar. -avi. omnium ex conspectu remotis. socii Helve tiorum nostros circumvemre conatl sunt. nostrls restiterunt Id conspicatl Helvetil. qui circiter Cap to monte qui in montem renovarunt. at last. re- tandem. prlmam nostram aciem successerunt. facile 3 Ea perturbata. e loco superiore pills missis. An by the expletive 1 it: it rains. 4 B Began (committd). -atus sum. throw into confusion reicio. conspicor. se receperant. -an. . throw back. Hurled. and hence is used in the third person singular only.212 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR nostro equitatu. turn. it happens. drive back vulnus. -are.

traditurn (trans + do). 2. -avi. fieri. accidere. -ae. give over. it is per- mitted . licere. a. crime accidit. accidit. as accidit. fought). happens fit. is it M. oportuit. With ut or ne + a subjunctive (438). oportet. N. Intransitive verbs in the passive voice: pugnatur. c. fit. punishment scelus. N. 628.. condition (620). With a subject accusative + an infinitive (341). Verbs taking a phrase or a clause as their subject. result (446). oculus. licuit. oportere. eye necessary -are. it is 2. licet. time (605). Clauses used as nouns: 1. tradere. -1. aurum. and of infinitive. VOCABULARY -I. sceleris. it happens. it is permitted. determine trado. there is fighting (lit. Review Subordinate Clauses. With an interrogative word + a subjunctive (501). it comes to pass. -atum.IMPERSONAL VERBS 213 In Latin impersonal verbs include chiefly: 1. F. factum to judge. est. dicitur. 629.. it comes surrender pass licet. sub- junctive.. poena. We have learned the following kinds of clauses: a. usually beginning with relative pronoun.. cause (612). 3. tradidi. it happens that the river is deep. it iudico. expressing purpose (411). Impersonal verbs are found in the indicative. Clauses used as adverbs. it is said.. gold oportet. Clauses used as adjectives. b. Accidit ut flumen sit altum. it is necessary: Hoc facere licet. it is permitted to do this.

. in montem receperunt. Accidit ut imperator de perlculo certior fieret. 7. 9. in portum salutis peten- dae causa contenderunt. quos incenderant. 6 Helveet socios in fines suos. se defendere non poterant. pacem non petissent. 7 revertl. Victores 11. Nautae 15. Hel- ve tils iter per provinciam facere non licuit. 13. restituere iussit. tradita essent. Oculls itidicarl non potest in Factum est ut Helvetii ad fines suos reverterentur. Oportet poenam 2. allies of indicative. coeet perant. Dictum est nihil 4. fluat. 3 alterl se. esse potentius auro. omnium rerum inopia inductl legatos de deditione ad Caesarem mlserunt. Ut sometimes means as when followed by an The other division (the Far into the night. Acriter eo die 3. 10. arma tradita erunt. castris nostrl potltl sunt. Putasne poenam fuisse gra- \4orem? DEFEAT OF THE HELVETII 631. unde erant profectl. 1 8 4 6 One division (the Helvetii). 6 7 Con + iacio. Dlcitur Caesarem fuisse (virum) magna dlligentia. legionem Legatus missus ut novam 14.214 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR EXERCISE 630. the Helvetii). 5. utram partem Arar nisi 8. elves tores pacem cum civitate fecerunt. Si hostes fortiores fuissent. 1. victraditls. From posed. tios Obsides et arma poposcit. 5 Diu cum pugnatum Helvetii esset. Cum arma 12. 6. alterl ad impedimenta carros suos se contulerunt. est. et oppida vlcosque. From proficiscor. sequl scelus. conscrlberet. Diu atque acriter tinere nostrorum impetus pugnatum est. Diutius 1 cum ut 2 sus- non possent. Ad multam noctem 4 ad im- pedimenta pugnatum utebantur et de els in est. pugnatum est. pacem non Armls facient. propterea quod pro vallo carrls nostros tela coniciebant.

. Conjunctions Classified. -que. Genitive of the whole (530). . priusquam. . 2. for. . nevertheless. Conjunctions are either coordinate. . The genitive is used chiefly as follows: a. cum. neque . . With nouns. aut or. Causal. Consecutive. Temporal. nam. or subordinate. ut. sin. denoting purpose. b. . sed. . . b. ubi. . is The nominative used chiefly as follows: a. dum. Coordinate conjunctions: 1. et. 2. (353). nisi. connecting similar constructions. Subject nominative (26). 4. both . General Rule : A noun is limiting another noun. Conditional. and not. . 633. Objective genitive (353). 1. 2. REVIEW OF THE NOMINATIVE AND GENITIVE 632. Subordinate conjunctions: 3. . denoting result. Final. either and. postquam. b. connecting subordinate clauses with principal clauses. 3. Uses of the Nominative Reviewed. not meaning the same person or thing. 634. nor . Genitive of description (532). 5. Uses of the Genitive Reviewed. and. neither aut. Predicate nominative (99). neque (nee). . in the genitive. 1. ut. but. autem. si. et et. 3. . enim. but. moreover. a. 4.REVIEW OF CONJUNCTIONS 215 LESSON LXXX REVIEW OF CONJUNCTIONS. ne. Genitive of possession (51). tamen. quo. quod. atque (ac). With adjectives . . neque. cum. .

2. body young. venum convenerunt. corpus. Facultas incendendae urbis hostibus non danda est. custom. I hear that this is man is very skillful. 2 Tanta opera neque vide- 8. lingl 1. 8. M. Heard of.2l6 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR 635. Did not the Romans believe there were many who gods? 7. 12. skillful EXERCISES 636. 5. old means man -a. 1.. 3. militaris. Helvetil aut suis flnibus Germa- nos prohibent aut ipsl in eorum flnibus bellum gerunt. 2. Genava erat oppidum ulterioris pro vinciae. vast. opportunity. 3 Advise. German! di- cebantur esse ingentl magnitudine corporum. Multitudo 4. Accidit ut multl elves essent Galli cupidl rerum novarum. Tuiu- dlcuntur fuisse socii Helve tiorum. facultatis. -e. Who was the most famous of the Helvetians? 3. -um. In science. iuvenis. 4. Peritus governs the genitive (353). 13. youth senex. F. military peritus. Tell me of these 1 2 boys most skillful. 5. Caesar 9. rant neque audierant. as deus. as noun. Senes de multls rebus iuvenes monere 3 possunt. 10.. Facultas regnl obtinendl fllio regis data est. huge enced (in).. moris. erat peritus rei l ut patriam defenderent. del. ingentis. . Neither the boys nor the girls had been informed about the customs of Gauls. The daughter of Orgetorix is said to have been captured. haec consilio deorum facta esse crediderunt. noun. mos. VOCABULARY iuvenis. corporis. M. 11. old. manner militaris. RomanI Legatus 6. senis. multa de moribus Britannorum cognovit. expert- ingens. The consul will either go himself or send his son. 637. N. god facultas. The hill was not of great height.. 6. 7.

. -a. with sum (459). gift intellectum (inter + lego). F. . given for the dative: Dative of the indirect object. arboris. 7.dedidi. progredi. state. Accusative of duration of time (291). 3. arbor. Dative of the possessor.. with compound verbs (457)- 4. go forward. -urn. master N. 2. The following uses have been 1. sum (pro + gra- res publica. 2. The following uses 639. Subject of an infinitive (342). Accusative of place to 6. 64O. which (133). pro- gressus dior. 5. intellegere. deditum (de + do) . public -1. donum. dedere. Uses of the Accusative Case. understand publicus. Accusative of extent of space (523). republic give up. Accusative of the direct object (42). Uses of the Dative Case. rei publicae. Accusative with prepositions (541). intel- dominus. 4. have been given for the accusative: 1.. (do). lexi. tree VOCABULARY intellego. 6. -1. wT ith special verbs (437). F. progredior. Dative of the indirect object. 3. of the people. M. Predicate accusative (190). Dative with certain adjectives (245). with transitive verbs (60). surrender advance dedo. Dative of the agent. step). 5. Dative of the indirect object. with passive periphrastic forms (574).REVIEW OF THE DATIVE AND THE ACCUSATIVE 21 7 LESSON LXXXI REVIEW OF THE DATIVE AND THE ACCUSATIVE 638.

fuit. Ablative of place in which (67). Prlnceps Haeduorum est. Ablative of manner (137). fuit amlcissimus populo Ro3. The Belgians were next to the Celts. when (292). ad locum magis idoneum. pugnatis. 6. legati. Caesar understood that this man was wishing to make war on the Romans.2l8 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR EXERCISES 641. The following uses have been given for the ablative case: 1. Ablative of means (66). facerent. Will you surrender yourselves and your property to this nation? LESSON LXXXII REVIEW OF THE ABLATIVE 643. mano. Perlculum esse maximum intellegit. . Rex dlcit sibi nullam cum els 5. Se suaque omnia imperatorl Romano dediderunt. Ablative with prepositions (541). 4. 5. quibus pontem servos. 4. Ablative of time 2. Ablative of place from which (222). 12. Duo mllia passuum trans lacum navigavimus. 7. castrls Cui legion! Caesar indulsit? Tibi. Milites multas arbores ex silva portabant. 3. 1. 9. 5. 4. 6. 9. Dumnorix equitatui Romano prae7. Duas horas navigavimus. Progre- 642. 8. The farmer has a hundred trees in the field. 2. 11. milites. locus deligendus amicitiam esse posse. Uses of the Ablative Case. Pro re piiblica. 10. Dlcitur dominum habuisse multos 13. They will remain in the city a few hours and return home to-morrow. Ablative of accompaniment (136). legate. 3. 2. Ablative of agent (149). 6. Ablative of separation (220). i. The slaves call these men masters. 8. diemur.

width march out significo. Coomans A Roman Woman and her Maids . smoke carus. M. Ablative of specification (378). F. M. sum (e + gradior). Ignis. vivere. 4. vixi. luna. dear egredior. breadth. indicate Pompeius. -um. 219 Ablative of cause (362). Pompel peio). ignis. Ablative of comparison (472). VOCABULARY -1. (latus). -tudinis. 644.REVIEW OF THE ABLATIVE 0. Crassus. victum. Pom- vivo. live Pompey J. -atum. -ae.. -a. 1. Ablative with certain deponent verbs (403). egredi. latitudo. 6. Crassus show.. Ablative of measure of difference (473). 3.. fumus. F. Ablative of description (532). -are. -1. Ablative absolute (565). egressus go out.. 5. M. moon (dat. -avi.

You will not be able the width of the river. 646. Hostes et equitibus et peius erat magna auctoritate. Labienus? Sex erat 7. Si ante vesperum ad 15. Potes ita vlvere ut omnibus carissimus sis. In a few months we shall about the tribes many things read these things. illud oppidum perveneris. tate. I am going. non longius quingentis passibus castrls de tertia vigilia. 2. . Tu non capiendus es. non capieris. 4. annis erit with the general in-behalf-of those whom he has conquered. 5. 5. They went to the city forto cross on-account-of 8.220 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR EXERCISES 645. Quis 6. 1. 6. than the river. 11. stetit. 7. ductl sumus. 9. 3. 8. Die mihi ubi Pomarboribus -altissimls 14. 4. 12. Exercitus ex Labieno duce. Where was the standard of the tenth legion? 1 2 Predicate ablative of description (531. GermanI Rhenum transierunt. Domus parva sub peius vlxerit. We know that the 2 moon is with me to the Forum at the fourth hour. smaller than the sun. Caesar wrote of Gaul. Latitudo castrorum fumo et ignibus slgnificata Ab els. The lake is three feet deeper the-purpose of (getting) supplies. Nihil est hominibus carius llberpeditibus utentur. 3). 16. 2. Die mihi quis esset Pompeius. Pompeio et Crasso consulibus. 10. i. Vlcus abest. Pom1 9. Propter. 13. qui iter cognoverant. Go 3. est. egressus est.

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C. he held the important political offices of the Roman republic. and also invaded Germany and Britain.10 causa 1 eorum flnibus bellum gerunt. general. At the close of this year he became governor of Gaul. quarum unam incolunt Belgae. who in the early part of 58 B.. Hi omnes lingua legibusque inter se differunt. The history of his conquest was written by Caesar himself " in his Commentaries on the Gallic Wars. The Latin text following is Caesar's account simplified. had left their country to conquer the rest of Gaul. with men. cum aut suls flnibus eos prohibent aut ipsl in Heivetii reliquos Gallos virtu te fere cotldianls proelils cum Germanls con. Eadem de praecedunt. and repeats in a connected way the paragraphs for reading as given in the preceding lessons. Gallia est omnis dlvlsa in partes tres. Horum omnium fortissiml 5 sunt Belgae. After an education in Rome and Greece and a short career in the army. Gallos ab Aqultanls Garumna flumen. quibuscum continenter bellum gerunt. a. qui trans Rhenum incolunt. 221 . THE NATIONS OF GAUL I. propterea. and children. a large territory now including France. aliam Aqultanl. the last of which was the consulship for 59 B." The first war was fought with the Heivetii. a Belgls Matrona et Sequana dividit. and writer. Belgium. tertiam Celtae. quod cultu atque humanitate pro- vinciae longissime absunt. proximlque sunt Germanls. qui lingua nostra Galli appellantur. During the following eight years (58-51) he subdued the tribes of western Gaul. was born about ioo B. Switzerland. 1 For the same reason. and northern Italy.THE WAR WITH THE HELVETII Gaius Julius Caesar. quod tendunt.C. women. or ancient Swiss. the Roman statesman.C.

altera ex parte monte Itira altissimo. a. Apud Helvetios rent. duel clvitates suscipit. on one side. tertia Rhodano. Lemanno et flumine latitudinem clxxx 6 patebant. probat id esse perfacile factu. ut regnum in clvitate sua occuparet. cum omnibus praestarent. 5 virtiite Dixit perfacile esse totlus Galliae imperio potlri. In eo itinere persuadet Castico. qui est inter Sequanos et provinciam nostram ab Helvetils 2 lacii io Helvetios. Ducenta quadraginta. THE HELVETII PREPARE TO LEAVE THEIR COUNTRY His rebus adductl et auctoritate Orgetorlgis permotl constituerunt omnes res ad profectionem comparare. quod undique loci natura Helvetii continentur: una ex 1 parte flumine Rheno latissimo atque altissimo. Centum octoginta. THE HELVETIAN longe nobilissimus fuit Orgetorlx. 1 See 587. 1 Una ex parte. . Ad 5 ad Is legationem eas res conficiendas Orgetorlx deligitur. qui in longitudinem mllia passuum ccxl. Regni cupiditate inductus coniurationem nobilitatis fecit. Considering. Sequanorum. itemque Dumnorlgl Haeduo ut idem conaretur persuadet. 6 Renown (for). in dlvidit. quod pater ante habuerat. qui agrum Helvetium a Germanls dlvidit. 4 5 2 3 Tertia (ex parte). 3.222 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR THE PLAN OF ORGETORIX. qui Pro 3 multittidine hominum et pro gloria 4 fortitudinis angustos se fines habere 5 arbitrabantur. inter se fidem dant. et civitati persuasit. Facilius els persuasit. ut de flnibus suls cum omnibus copils exl2. et regno occupato sese totlus Galliae Illls 1 potlri posse sperant. quod ipse suae civiHac oratione adductl iotatis imperium obtenturus esset. atque cum proximls clvitatibus pacem et amlcitiam conflrmare.

alterum per provinciam nostram.. angustum et inter montem Iuram et flumen Rhodanum. Ea res 1 Helvetiis est enuntiata. about. Die constitute causae dictionis 5 Orgetorlx ad indicium omnes clientes obaeratosque suos. 3 Moribus 2 suls Orge- 4 torigem ex vinculis causam dlcere coegerunt. 2 Each man. ut e finibus suls exeant. trial). 3 Adv. 2 4 5 to their customs. reliqua prlvata incendunt. vlcos ad quadringentos. 4 As Together (in company). Rhodanus fluit. socios recipiunt. Erant itinera duo quibus domo exire possent: finum difficile. suls vlclsque incensis Boiosque. TWO ROUTES FROM HELVETIA 6. allies. Trium mensium frumentum una 3 cum quem- que domo qui trans 1 efferre iubent. multo facilius. qui nuper pacati erant. multitudinemque hominum ex agrls magistratus cogerent. and Casticus. quorum magnum numerum habebat Cum ci vitas armis ius suum condiixit. To plead his case (stand // condemned. per eos se eripuit. Orgetorlx mortuus est. 3 The conspiracy According of Orgetorix. . propterea quod inter fines Helvetiorum et Allobrogum. damnatum poenam sequl oportebat ut igni cremaretur. exsequl conaretur. Post eius mortem tamen Helvetil id quod constituerant facere conantur. For the pleading. THE HELVETII CONTINUE THEIR PREPARATIONS 5.WAR WITH THE HELVETII 223 THE TRIAL AND DEATH OF ORGETORIX 4. Helvetil arbi- trantur ipsum 1 sibi mortem consclvisse. isque nonnullis Locls 5 vad5 transltur. Rhenum 4 incoluerant. paratos esse arbitrati sunt. per Sequanos. oppida sua ficia 2 Ubi se ad earn rem omnia numero ad 1 aedisibi duodecim. Persuadent finitimis ut oppidis els proficiscantur. Dumnorix.

Well-disposed (of kindly feeling) 4 . 5 CAESAR GOES TO GENEVA nuntiatum esset. Caesari cum id 5 sine 10 ullo maleficio iter quod aliud iter haberent nullum. See 492. qui fines Sequanorum ab Helvetils dlvidit. Ubi de eius adventu Helvetii certiores factl sunt. In provincia quam 2 maximum militum numerum conscribit (erat omnino in Gallia ulteriore legio una). murum fossamque perducit. Eo opere perfects prae- . See 532. CAESAR CONSTRUCTS FORTIFICATIONS 8. Tamen.e. See 420.224 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR Helvetio- Extremum oppidum Allobrogum proximumque rum flnibus est Genava. ab urbe 1 proficiscitur et quam 2 maximls itineribus in Galliam ulteriorem contendit et ad 3 Genavam pervenit. Had levied. Pontem qui erat ad Genavam iubet rescind!. Ex eo oppido pons ad pertinet. 3 Seemed. temperaturos esse a maleficio non existima5 bat. Diem constituit. Helvetios 1 Allobrogibus se persuasiiros esse exlstimabant. 3 nondum bono animo 4 Omnibus rebus ad qua die profectionem comparatls. per provinciam facere. legafos ad eum mittunt. Interea. legatis respondit diem se ad deliberandum sumpttirum. 15 quos imperaverat convenlrent. ut spatium intercedere posset dum milites facere liceret. a lacu Lemanno. 2 Toward. 5 6 Until.. 7 Time. 2 quid vellent. propterea Rogaverunt ut id sibi Caesar homines inimlco animo. qui in flumen Rhodanum Influit. qui dicerent se velle 7. si 4 the vicinity of. 4 itinere per pr5vinciam dato. n5bilissimos civitatis. 3 In (to) from Rome. quod *in 2 populum Romanum viderentur. 1 6 7 I. eos per provinciam nostram iter facere conari. diem dlcunt RhodanI omnes conveniant. 5 1 ad ripam A p point. qua reverterentur. ut per suos fines eos ire paterentur. ad montem Iuram.

His cum ipsl propter angustias persuadere non possent. 1 3 By which. navibus ratibusque atque vadis Rhodanum translre conatl sunt. habitellegebat provinciam homines bellicosos flnitimos turam esse. Relinquebatur una per Sequanos 2 via. qua 1 Sequanls non poterant. Caesarl nuntiatur Helvetios habere in et agrum Sequanorum Haeduorum iter facere in animo per earn partem 1 Id si fieret. quae non longe a provincia absit. 2 See 565. 1 Disappointed in (lit. prohibittirum dare.. for a change of (lit. Ob eas causas el munltionl quam fecerat Labienum legatum praeficit. was very was able very much). quam plurimas clvitates suo beneficio Itaque rem suscipit et a Sequanls im4 petrat ut per fines suos Helvetios Ire patiantur. translre conarentur. Ipse in Italiam magnls itineribus contendit duasque 1 S ibi legiSnes conscrlbit. CAESAR REINFORCES HIS ARMY 10. powerful poterat. et tres. in apposition with homines. castella munit. government for new things). inGalliae. Munltione et mllitum si ad eum reverterunt. et conciliare volebat. conentur. legatos ad Dumnorlgem Haeduum invltls Ire Dumnorlx apud Sequanos plurimum poterat. Plurimum (lit. destiterunt..WAR WITH THE HELVE Til 225 si sidia disponit. ut hostes prohibere posset. ea spe deiectl. . non posse facere 5 tells repulsl hoc conatu. cast down from). et legatl iter ulll per provinciam ostendit. quod ex ea clvitate Orgetorlgis flliam in matrimonium duxerat. et. THE ROUTE THROUGH THE LAND OF THE SEQUANI 9. et cupiditate regnl adductus novls mittunt. S rebus 4 studebat. quae circum (As) neighbors. 3 et Helvetils erat amicus. 1 Helvetil. Ubi ea dies quam vim constituerat dicit se cum legatls venit. Novis rebus..

lintribus iunctls translbant. cum his qulnque In Segusiavos exercitum ducit. et. certior factus est tres partes 5 Ubi per exploratores Caesar 2 copiarum Helvetios id flumen traduxisse. fines cum 5 defendere non possent. quartam partem citra fliimen Ararim reliquam 1 esse. legionibus Ire contendit. THE ROMANS DEFEAT PART OF THE HELVETII Fliimen est Arar. of traduxisse. ioltem Allobroges. THE HAEDUI AND OTHERS ASK FOR AID 11. et in rumque agros vastabant. His rebus adductus solum praeter agrl Caesar Helvetils bellum Inferre constituit. fuga.226 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR 1 Aquileiam hiemabant. agros in servitutem abducl. quod per fines Haeduorum et Sequanorum in Rhodanum Influit. Haeduorum Haedul. qui trans Rhodanum vlcos possessionesque socil E5dem tempore habebant. Eos impedltos adgressus magnam partem eorum concldit. legatos ad Caesarem mittunt rogaDlcunt paene in conspectu exercitiis nostrl turn auxilium. Where. suos vastarl. of traduxisse. sibi se ad Caesarem recipiunt et demonstrant nihil esse reliqul. llberos expugnarl non debere. Secondary obj. Id Helvetil ratibus ac 12. ex hlbernls educit. qui sunt prlml extra provinciam trans 1 Rhodanum. Helvetil iam per angustias et fines Sequanorum suas pervenerant eose suaque ab els copias traduxerant. . depending on tra-. de tertia vigilia cum legionibus tribus e castrls profectus. reliqul sese fugae 1 mandarunt atque 2 in proximas silvas ab- Primary obj. oppida Haeduorum Caesarem certiorem faciunt sese non facile ab oppidls vim hostium prohibere. ad earn partem pervenit quae nondum flumen transierat. qua proximum iter in ulteriorem Galliam per Alpes erat.

bello cum Cassio Si cuius 4 5 dux cum Caesare manus cum Helvetiis Is ita locutus est: " pacem populus Ro10 faciet. eum mittunt. take a stand (in battle). 1$ praestare. CAESAR'S REPLY 14. tene memoria vetus incommodum Romanorum et prlstinam virtutem Helvetiorum. in earn 5 partem Galliae Ibunt atque erunt ubi volueris." rem noli 6 exlstimare 5 1 Having been fought. clvitas 227 pagus appellabatur Tigurlnus. atque Helvetios sine causa iniuriam populo Romano intulisse intellego. suls auxilium ferre non possent. quod Helvetil repentlno eius adventu com3 ipsl diebus xx confecerant. DEFIED BY Hoc proelio facto. 5 See 457. 107 B.C. 7 ex calamitate popull RomanI Is locus ubi constiterimus nomen capiet. Recentium iniuriarum memoriam deponere non possum. earn Ob Romanos Helvetiis virtute Nos magis virtute quam Insidils contendimus. imperative of nolo. die ut reliquas copias Helvetiorum Caesar pontem in Ararl facit atque ita 1 cum 2 id. 6 Do not (be unwilling). exercitum traducit. qui ibi flumen transierant. motl. quod me invito iter per 16 . sin els bellum Inferes. legationis Dlvico prlnceps fuit.WAR WITH THE HELVETII diderunt. Unum pagum adortus es cum el. This refers to the crossing of 2 3 the river. 7 The Roman army under comof mand the consul Cassius was From consisto. ilium uno legatos ad fecisse intellegerent. Since. qui Helvetiorum fuerat. Helvetia in quattuor pagos divlsa est. c5nsequl posset. 4 defeated by the Helvetians. IS Is nam omnis CAESAR HAVING CROSSED THE ARAR THE ENEMY 13. His verbis Caesar ita respondit: " Eas res illo memoria tempore teneo.

" 1 Although. quod qulngentls equitibus tantam multitudinem equitum propulerant. consuerunt. qui videant quas in partes hostes iter 2 J loco cum faciant. ad numerum quattuor milium.2 28 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR provinciam temptavistis. est ascensum esse facilem. are omitted. Caesar suos a proelio contineIta dies circiter qulndecim iter fecerunt. quod agros sociorum nostrorum ea ita sint. nostrls cadunt. A CAVALRY SKIRMISH 15. 3 Elated (from tollo). 1 Too eagerly. et paucl de Quo proelio sublatl 3 Helvetil. 2 A contraction of consueverunt. norix. Qui cupidius agmen Inseciitl alieno equitatu Helvetiorum proelium committunt. from consuesco." vastavistis. agmen a nostro qulnque aut sex mllia passuum abesset. Idem facit Caesar. 1 Cum 5 " Helvetil obsides accipere non dare Dlvico respondit: 2 Hoc responso dato discessit. praemittit. CAESAR'S PREPARATIONS FOR BATTLE 21. Tertia vigilia Labienum legatum monte consedisse mllia passuum ab cum duabus legionibus summum iugum 2 montis ascendere 1 Chapters 16-20. ut ea quae polliceamini vos facturos esse intellegam. quern ex omni provincia et Haeduis atque eorum sociis 5 coegerat. Postero die castra ex eo loc5 movent. fortius resistere 10 et nostros adorlrl coeperunt. tamen si obsides a vobls dabuntur. voblscum pacem faciam. ! Tandem ab exploratoribus certior factus hostes sub ipslus castrls octo. 2 Unfavorable. ut hostium bat. giving an account of the treachery of Dum- of qui Supply viros as the antecedent and object of mlsit. . equitatumque omnem. qualis 2 Renuntiatum esset natura montis qui cognoscerent mlsit.

Multo denique die per exploratores Caesar cognovit et montem a suls teneri et Helvetios castra movisse et Considium timore perterritum. visae essent.. three subjunctive verbs had been given to him). 22. Considius equ5 admisso ad eum accurrit. 1 15 Supply a connective (and). cum 3 exploratoribus 5 praemittitur. 1 Experienced in (353). 1 ipse ab hostium castris non longius mllle et quingentls passibus abesset. equitatumque omnem ante se mittit. 7 the implied ante- CAESAR MARCHES TOWARD BIBRACTE FOR SUPPLIES 23. quod omnino biduum supererat cum frumentum metlri oporteret. THE ERROR OF CONSIDIUS Prima luce. 2 5 id se a Gallicls armls atque Tnsignibus cognovisse. 5 He had been ordered is (lit. oppido Haeduorum longe maximo. are introduced 4 by cum. 2 Was regarded. I. et quod a Bibracte. ut 4 In- struit. 6 Pro viso.. cum summus mons a Labieno teneretur. ut undique tino nisi ipslus praeceptum copiae prope hostium castra tempore in hostes impetus fieret. e. pro viso 6 sibi renunEo die hostes sequitur et mllia passuum tria ab tiasse. Con2 rei militaris habebatur et in sidius. neque ipslus adventus nee Labieni cognitus 3 esset. 7 eorum castris castra ponit.WAR WITH THE HELVE Til iubet. 1 aciem Labienus. Supply exercitu. dlcit montem quern a Labieno occuparl voluerit ab hostibus teneri. 229 quo hostes ierant ad eos contendit. as if seen. quod non vldisset. The object cedent of quod. erat proelium committeret. non amplius milibus pasexercitu! . Postero die. qui perltissimus Ipse quarta vigilia itinere l eodem exercitu Sullae et postea in CrassI 3 f uerat. Caesar suas copias in proximum collem ducit. orders 2 3 The As. el 5 a Caesare ne io monte occupato nostros exspectabat proelioque abstinebat. Caesar.

THE BATTLE NEAR BIBRACTE. ipsl confertissima acie. Mllites e loco superiore pills missis facile hostium phalangem Caesar prlmum equls omnium perfregerunt. quod timore 5 perterritos Roman5s discedere a se exlstimabant. 58 B. quas in Gallia citeriore nuper conscripserat. reiecto nostro equitatii. ex conspectu remotis.23O LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR suum xvm l exlstiaberat. Helvetil. Ea res hostibus nuntiatur. 3 Accusative (282). ut spem fugae tolleret. Notice that iussit. cohortatus suds proelium commlsit. et eum ab his. mQnirl iussit. commutato consilio atque itinere converso nostros a 3 novissimo agmine InsequI ac lacessere coeperunt. FURTHER PREPARATIONS FOR BATTTjE Caesar in proximum collem dtixit equitatumque qui sustineret hostium impetum l mlsit. copias suas 5 2 legionum quattuor veteranarum. qui in superiore acie erant. On. sed in summo iugo duas legiones. 3 ac totum montem hominibus com4 plerl. 1 prlmam nostram aciem four infinitives 2 The middle The top of. on depend 4 Refers to locum. he ought to 2 provide for. 3 of. Helvetil 10 cum omnibus suis cams secuti.C. et interea sarcinas in iinum locum conferri. 1 Supply sibi esse. phalange facta. impedimenta in unum locum contulerunt. Ipse interim in colle medio triplicem aciem Instruxit 24. 25. . sub successerunt. Postquam id vldit. rei frumentariae prospiciendum 2 iter ab Helvetils avertit ac Bibracte Ire conmavit. Ea disiecta. itaque tendit. et omnia auxilia conlocari. gladils in eos impetum fecerunt.

i. qui in montem se receperant. They fought.WAR WITH THE Confertissima acie scuta Gallls HELVETII 23 1 magno impediments * erant. 3 coeperant. cum ab ad vesperum pugnatum sit. et id conspicatl Helvetii. Hi fugerunt cum propter vulnera mllitum et sorum nostrl trlduum moratl eos sequi non potuissent. flliam atque unum e fllils ceperunt. Multl etiam praeoptaverunt scutum manu 2 emittere et nudo 3 Tandem corpore pugnare. 3 1 * die quarto pervenerunt. aversum 6 hostem videre nemo potuit. the allies. qui aberat circiter 5 mille passus. on the ex- posed flank. or the battle raged (see 627). i. propter sepultiiram occl- 15 Although.. in montem receperunt. Nam hoc toto proelio.. . propterea quod pro vallo carros hora septima 5 5 obiecerant et e loco 7 superiore tela coniciebant. Turned in flight. Position. se recipere coeperunt. 1 2 sustinere nostrorum impetus non possent. alter! se. 5 6 7 about one o'clock. Ad multam noctem etiam ad impedimenta pugnatum est. latere aperto. Capto monte et succe- dentibus nostris. et ibi Orgetorlgis Ex eo proelio circiter et in fines hominum Lingonum mllia cxxx superfuerunt. DEFEAT OF THE HELVETII Diutius cum Ita diu atque acriter pugnatum est. for a hindrance). 2 One division.e. rtirsus resistere et proelium 10 renovare coeperunt. ut 26. quod sinistra impedlta commode pugnare non poterant. I. 1 Were a hindrance (lit. the Helvetii.. vulneribus defessi ad montem.e. alterl ad impedimenta et 4 carros suos se contulerunt. 2 Denoting separation.. Caesar trlduo intermisso cum omnibus copils eos sequi coepit. The other. sod Helveti5rum nostros ab latere aperto 4 adgressi circumvenire conatl sunt. 3 4 Ab Unprotected.e. Tandem 10 impedlmentls castrlsque nostrl potltl sunt.






omnium rerum inopia adductl legatos de ad eum mlserunt. Qui cum eum in itinere conl

seque ad pedes proiecissent pacemque petlssent, eos suum adventum exspectare iussit. Eo 3 postquam Caesar

pervenit, obsides et



nocte intermissa, circiter hominum territi aut spe salutis induct!, prima

ea conferuntur, 4 mllia vi aut timore per5


nocte e castris Helve-

tiorum egressl flnesque Germanorum contenderunt. Hos reductos in hostium numero habuit; 6 reliquos




obsidibus armlsque traditls in deditionem accepit.
Qui cum= when they.






2 3




Adv., there. See 605 b.

Early in the night (lit., in the part of the night). 6 Held (or treated) as enemies, a mild way of saying that he put



to death.


Helvetios sociosque in fines su5s, unde erant profectl,

revert! iussit; et,

quod domi

nihil erat

Allobrogibus imperavit ut

quo famem tolerarent, frument! copiam facerent;

ipsos oppida vlcosque quos incenderant restituere iussit. Id : 5 maxime fecit, quod noluit eum locum unde Helveti! dis-

cesserant vacare, ne propter bonitatem agrorum German! e suls flnibus in Helvetiorum fines translrent et flnitiml provinciae essent.


In castris Helvetiorum tabulae repertae sunt litterls Graecls confectae l et ad Caesarem relatae, quibus in



ratio confecta erat, qui

numerus 2 domo


out or written.

Showing what number.



item separatim fuerunt ad

eorum qui arma

ferre possent, et



Summa omnium












milium c

et x.

Stories and Fables

bonus erat puer sed 3 Agricola igitur puero calathum





malos amicos amabat.


4 plenum pomorum dat. Bona poma continebat calathus, 5 Puer donum dlligenter curat, pauca tamen erant putrida. sed mala poma bona maculant, 6 et mox cuncta sunt mala. Carolus maestus 7 adversam fortunam plorat. 8 Turn agricola " fllium ita monet: Mala poma bona maculant, certe mall


bonum puerum maculabunt."
5 6


Putridus, rotten.
Spot, spoil.





7 8





Sad. Laments.


7 2




mlram terram


saepe inundat.

Incolae fossls tumullsque

agros violentiam magnls




turbat erat tumulus non validus; iam apparet parva rima; 8 mox via magna patebit et undae terram superabunt. At periculum videt puer parvus; sta-

coercent; aliquando et terram vastat. Forte


tamen aqua


tim dextra


rlmam implet


coercetque aquam.
6 7

The Cimbri, a people

of Ger-

Tears down.

many. 2 Tumulus, -l, mound. 3 Unda, -ae, wave. 4 Now and then.





Supply manu.



Claustra, -drum, dike.






lam rigebant 2 memDiu puer praesidium servabat. Postridie bra, et parva dextra aquam semper coercebat. 3 agricolae loco appropinquant. Puer frigidus et moribundus dextra tamen aquam coercet. Saxls 4 tumulum celeriter 5 6 conflrmant, et limo rimam implent. Turn umeris puerum sublevant 7 recreantque cibo. Cimbri tantam constantiam 8
9 saepe commemorant, narrantque suls llberis puerl factum.


5 6




2 3 4















Medicus quondam, 2 longo labore fessus, breve otium 3 4 apud msticam villam amid petebat. Interea filio curam
clientium committebat.
5 6 Iuvenis, labore superbus, iocoso comiti 7 fortunam ita narrat: "Pater mihi clientes suos " " ubi pater urbem committit." At," respondet amicus, " repetit, ex clientibus quot supererunt?



2 3

Once upon a time.


Country house. Proud.



Comes, comitis, companion.



Societatem iungunt


iuvenca, capra, ovis.


praedam capiunt, et in unum locum comportant. Turn in " Prima quattuor partes praedam dividunt. Leo, autem, " nam animalium mea leo est. Et rex est; pars," inquit, mea est pars secunda, propter magnos meos labores. Tertiam partem vindico, 2 quoniam


maior mihi







ovis, lion, heifer, goat,






animalibus imbecillis
nique, partem

et parvls,


quis sibi

fames est. Quartam, de2 arrogat, mihi inimlcus erit."


Claims (unjustly).


tecto "



stans in



reddit. 5

Cui lupus, Non tu," inquit, Saepe locus et tempus homines timidos audaces

praetereunti sed tectum mihi









Lupus, -i, wolf. Passing by.









habebat galllnam, 1 quae el cotldie aureum. Mulier ita exlstimabat: " Mea
galllnam possidebo." Itaque earn occidit.

massam 3 occldam, omne aurum statim
gallina sine dubio

aurl intus




Sed nihil in ea repperit nisi quod 6 in aliis galllnis reperitur. Maioribus divitils 7 inhiabat; 8 minores etiam perdidit. 9

Quantity. Inside.

6 6

2 3

7 8

Conceals. Nisi quod, except what. Wealth.


Longed for.





1 Agricola senex filios suos convocavit, qui interdum discordabant. 2 Fascem 3 virgularum 4 adferrl iubet. Turn filios

hortatur, ut hunc fascem frangerent.
5 celeriter



n5n po"


distribuit senex singulas




Turn exclamavit

flrma res est concordia, 8


agricola: imbecillis 9 discordia!

Quam 7




to each. Perf. of frango.

Virgula, -ae, small rod.




How. Harmony.






THE FOX AND THE GRAPES ad uvam 2 subsiliebat 3 sed earn attingere 4 non
Tandem, defatigata

" At nunc etiam

labore, exclamavit: acerbae sunt, et eas edere nolo." Haec




fabula docet multos ea contemnere, 8 quae assequi







of grapes.



Leaped up. To reach.

7 8

Exhausted. Vain. Nunc etiam, after



THE MICE AND THE CAT concilium habebant, nam quandam Mures aliquando

felem magnopere timebant. Multa consilia proposita sunt, sed muribus non placebant. Denique una e muribus ita " Tintinnabulum 2 caudae 3 istius felis annectere 4
lociita est:

necesse est,




eius n5s admonebit,

pinquat, et fugere poterimus. nemo respondit, multi etenim
sed in perTculo ipso timidl.

ea appro" Sed Quis hoc facere vult?




audaces sunt,


4 5 6





the tail.

Sound. For as you know.




" ab hostibus captus est. Cur me," inquit, " 2 interficitis? nam inermis sum, neque quidquam habeo tubam." At hanc hostes, "Propter hoc ipsum," praeter



pugnandi imperltus, 4 Non solum malefic! sunt alios ad pugnam incitare soles." 5 piiniendl, sed etiam el qui alios ad male faciendum incitant.


te interficiemus quod, ipse



Neque =

et non.

4 B

You are accustomed. To be punished.








qui caseum

rapuerat, in altam arborem sub-

Vulpecula, quae caseum appetebat, corvum ita " Formam tuam magnopere laudo et pennarum adloquitur: tuarum nitorem. 5 Pol! 6 si cantus tuus pulchritudinl 7 tuae


Turn corvus, laudibus vulpeculae Inflatus, cantare conatus est. Sed e rostro aperto de10 est statim devoravit. Verba caseus, quern vulpecula lapsus 12 u adulatorum sunt ut haec fabula docet.






2 3

Crow. {Some) cheese. Flew up.
Little fox. Brilliance.

7 8 9 10

Beauty. Is equal


6 6



n Of flatterers. n Of value.

Puffed up. Slipped out.



Canis iacebat


a pabulo 5 Quanta ista invidia est! )> pateris alios edere, et tu ipse edere non potes!

in praesepe, 2 et

boves latrando


Cui unus bourn











keeping away. That jealousy (you feel).



Urbanus mus, qui rus ad fratrem







atque edere noluit.



vis," inquit,

"domum mecum

redlre, sexcentas delicias habebis." Itaque totius diel iter media nocte fecerunt, postquam parietem

splendidl aedificl rlma angusta ineunt.

Turn mus urbanus

rusticum in lecto purpureo 3 adfert, magnificas dapes At subito ingens auditur clamor; panduntur 4 porlocat.


With difficulty. Sumptuous (magnificas) ban-


Purple couch



Are opened,


qui omnia conspicit. audivit quis flliam abduxisset.SUPPLEMENTARY READING 239 1 tae. et vix in perfugium se recipit. playing. Tandem Ceres a Sole. Daedalus ipse Icard filio in hunc labyrinthum a rege con- iectus sibi et alas Icarus altius volat. Cereris aliquando in 1 Sicilia 2 ad urbem Hennam bus. 5 Suppressed. cuius currum equl atrl in agris flores carpebat. per partem alteram apud inferos esset. CERES AND PROSER'PINA fllia. 3 Fastened. cum ignoraret ubi fllia esset. clamorem puellae com5 5 pressit. 1 2 Was Was plucking. DAEDALUS AND ICARUS 1 Daedalus. e terra emersit. 4 Came forth. ad Cretam fugit. cera solis calore calefacta. in. ut per partem annl apud ma10 trem. 3 ego certe saluSolus. * Warmed. 3 et avolavit. 3 2 4 Enjoy. Fugit perterritus mus 2 uterque. Itaque statim iter ad Iovem flexit et precibus animo eius persuasit. 3 Black. 5 Prefer. . 4 in Artist. 1 Dum cera aptavit. Deinde rusticus. Mater. mare decidit." inquit. Daedalus. Proserpinae permissum est. expulsus. l6. Proserpina. ludebatque cum comiti3 Inferorum Subito Pluto. irruunt decern servi nigerrimi. quod ex eo Icarium mare est appellatum. uxor sua et Inferorum regina esset. " " vltam urbanam carpe. 4 Deus Proserpinam abduxit. ut vehebant. 2 Winding. tem et glandes 4 meas malo. in Siciliam pervenit. 15. autem. Ibi labyrinthum plenum viarum flectuosa- rum 2 fecit. a Graecia. totum orbem terrarum frustra peragravit. Acorns. artifex perltissimus." 5 1 Rush Each. deus. ut fllia a Pliitone remitteretur.

3 longum mirumque gladium rinthum. 4 Thread. 1 Inter miseras victimas quondam erat Theseus. Labor dimcillimus erat. Crime. Thelonga gladio *o seus cum filia regis navl trans latum mare f ugit. habitabat. To be thirsty. plena misericordiae dat. Nam. sed. tarn carus fuit dels. quae ab love audlverat. certam viam in vasto labyrintho servat. In medio labyrintho. id Ob crimen 2 dicitur 3 apud Inferos in 4 caput eius pendent. facile occidit. HERCULES AND THE GOLDEN APPLES poma ex nymphae horto Hespe- ridum Herculi imperatum est ut aurea auferret. semperque sitire. captivis saginabat. 1 From ab + fero. TANTALUS Tantalus. quern Daedalus partim taurus. . filumque ad portam adligat. Monstrum autem rex Cretae. Ariadna. Turn etiam poma super cabat. 1 Hesperides erant pulcherrimae. 3 Pity. Itaque iuvenis. eumque ad epulas deorum admitteret. quotiens haustum 5 aquae sumptiirus est. partim homo. Prince. Turn auxilio fill. saevus homo. aqua recedit. 1 6 conatur. monstrum. l8. quibus poma ab Itinone commissa erant. At ille. 19. quotiens ea decerpere rami vent5 motl recedunt. 2 3 Banquets. iuvenl Intrat igitur labyet 2 Fed. 5 tamen. cum mortalibus commiini5 aqua conlocatus esse. THESEUS fecit. ut Iuppiter 1 el consilia sua dlceret. 6 To pluck. A 5 As often as.240 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR 17. Draught. nam hortus muro ingentl circumdatus 2 erat. Iovis fllius. 2 Surrounded. fllum 4 filia regis. Nee monstrum mora est. regulus 2 Graecus. 1 amoris.

At postulavit ut. habent oplnionem: 6 Apollinem morbos depellere. 2 3 Dragon. Huius sunt plu2 rima simulacra. 3 hunc viarum atque itinerum ducem. . 8 Gift (abl. quam reliquae gentes. quae est proxima Ibi stabat vir. ut poma traderent. Call. ne in terram decideret. 21. Iovem imperium calestium b 6 4 7 tenere. Images. hunc omnium inventorem artium ferunt. Pursuits of trade. 2 Extraordinary.SUPPLEMENTARY READING atque draco.). THE TOUCH OF GOLD. Hercules auxilium ab eo petiit. nihil tamen certum orbis reperlre potuerat. 7 Of the gods. custodiebat. qui caelum umerls suls sustinebat. 1 I Midas. dum 2 ipse abesset. tus esset. egregio 2 munere 3 a deo donatus est. rex Phrygiae. Tandem 5 ad extremam partem Oceano. Diseases. qui erat pater Hesperidum. 20. Minervam operum initia tradere. pecuniae et mercatiiras Post hunc Apollinem et Martem et Iovem et Minervam." inquit 1 Bacchus. se ad hortum iturum et flliabus persuasurum dixit. 1 24 1 dlligenter cui centum erant capita. rex magne. hunc ad quaestiis 4 5 habere vim maximam arbitrantur. quod Baccho placuerat. THE GODS OP THE GAULS 1 Deorum maxime Mercurium colunt. nomine Atlas. Gain. While. portam A Praeterea Hercules ignorabat quo in loco hormultls mercatoribus quaeslverat ubi Hesperides habitarent. Martem bella regere. ingentl magnittidine corporis. 1 2 3 Worship. Flliae diu patrl parere nolebant. 3 From re + fero. Hercules caelum umerls sustineret. terrarum. De his eandem fere. pervenit. " Delige. Atlas. IC Atlas tamen els persuasit et poma ad Hercjilem 1 rettulit.

omnia enim. THE TOUCH OF GOLD. 9 quod nihil nee edebat." inquit. Prayers. 8 9 4 6 6 Surveys. cuius in faucibus 6 rigida haerebat massa. 7 vlnum poscit." pugnabimus. Throat. oculls orat. cibus in aurum statim mutatus est. in laetus 5 aurum mutata 4 impetravit. 2 3 House. . Fish. 3 7 pro tanto beneficio Baccho persolvit. Lump. " Solem Spartano dixit: propter iaculorum multitudinem et sagittarum non vide" " In umbra igitur. nee bibebat 10 compluribus diebus. Inde ubi nihil ligni manuque mensas. Happens. Joyful. hoc tibi libenter dabo. 10 u 12 Drank. 7 Wood (gen. 4 5 6 Forthwith. bitis. Feast. vir LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR id quod maxime cupis. SPAKTAN VALOR " ' Rex Spartanus ' dixit: ' Mel x elves numquam ' quaeslverunt. Eager. idem evenit. Thanks. Dishes.242 " deus. rex igitur. manebat. 13 Fated. 23. maximis precibus n Bacchum 1 avidisque tamen ubi piscem poscit. Protinus * rex regiam domum 6 omnia tangebat. 8 Tandem rex esuriens. Rendered." hostis 1 Quot sunt hostes? sed Ante pugnam Perses Ubi sunt? " A Persian. cenam 4 1 II 2 5 Tandem 3 labore fessus Mox ad os dapes splendidas lustrat. Suffering hunger. aut argent! in aedibus 5 vasa. gratias 1 percurrebat. admovet. 2 3 Dinner. Laughter. Inde cum rlsu 12 deus fatale 7 13 donum amovet." Turn avarus mirum 2 donum corpore tangebat. quae suo sunt. 22.).

Took. 26.I5 Learned. Urbs. THE FOUNDING OF ROME Antiquis temporibus Latinus in Italia regnavit. Lupa 3 4 et pueros curavisse dicitur. quam a nomine uxoris Lavmium atque el filiam 5 Ascanius. si me oblivlsci 4 multa docueris. "Magis." A Spartan. placebis. 2 5 An Athenian Ability. 3 4 Learned. Sic fratres inter pastores educatl sunt. Ibi rex Latinus eum benigne 1 Lavlniam in matrimonium dedit. "facere potest ut omnia memoria teneas. flliae Amiilius Numitoris." Themistocles autem. 2 To forget. Aeneas urbem condidit. Dry ground. "mihi tu. filius Aeneae. THE ART OF MEMORY Olim eruditus3 homo 'Haec ad eum venit artemque memoriae eum docere voluit. . donee pastor eos sustulit uxorl dedit. mortem patris quam condidit. 25. recepit. Romulus et Remus. statesman. Rheae SiKdae. Postea Numitor in Alba regnavit." inquit." inquit. Sub hoc rege Troia in Asia a Graecis expugnata est.SUPPLEMENTARY READING 24. compererunt 1 quis ipsorum avus 3 * esset. incolarum fortium virtutem. erant duo Mil. 5 Forte interfe. IO regnum occupavit et pueros in Tiberim abici iussit. 243 THE WALLS OF SPARTA x Quldam Sparta?" Cur muros non habet "Nostra urbs muros optiSpartanus respondit: ex Spartano quaesivit: 1 " mos habet. ars. regnum in alium locum transtulit. Until." 1 Themistocles 1 fuit vir magni ingenl. et Aeneas cum multls sociis in Italiam venit. post appellavit. Sed Tiberis ultra ripas fluxit et pueros in sicco 2 rellquit. Amulium 5 2 n Kindly. Alba Longa appellata est.

centum alios addidit. Annos trlginta septem regnavit. 7 8 9 10 2 3 Enlarged. et eos legit. 5 populum in trlginta curias distribuit. Montes Servius Tullius. primus rex Romae. 1 1 Restored. 11 Cloacas et muros fecit. quam Romulus a nomine suo Romam vocavit. 12 Multa A fllils bella gessit. creaverat. Sabmos ad poeosque pulum Romanum adiunxit. cerunt et Numitori avo regnum restituerunt. gessit. et sacra plurima mstituit. 9 Tarquinius Prlscus ex Etrtiria Romam demigravit. rellquit. Post hunc Ancus Marcius regnavit. Commenced. Walls. Age. 13 Arranged. 10 Turn per Insidias quos Romulus 20 And interfectus est. Centum senatores els 4 cum ob aetatem 2 l turn 3 ob reverentiam debitam patres appellavit. Guardian. Removed. Secundus rex erat Numa Pompilius. 7 et nova moenia 8 fecit. tamen clvitatl profuit. . qui eum flliorum suorum tuto- rem regnum occupavit. n Sewers. Latinos superavit. Benefited. 5 Nam leges 6 flnltum est. prlmusque triumphans urbem intravit. qui bellum Albanls Hoc bellum Horatiorum et Curiatiorum certamine iointulit. Nullum bellum bonas dedit. vir magna iustitia. templum Iovl incohavit. Primus omnium censum ordinavit. et 15 amlcitiam And regis petiit. Annum in decern menses descrlpsit.244 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR Turn in monte prope Tiberim condiderunt urbem. 12 Sacred riles. 27. THE SEVEN ROMAN KINGS vicit. urbem ampliavit. Senatoribus. fllius captlvae. Romulus. Numae successit Tullus Hostilius. 4 5 * But also. erat rex sextus. 13 tres urbl adiunxit. Wards. 1 Not only.

2 3 4 Show. quod in sinistrls manibus 6 5 At hostes. autem. Septimus rex. occldit. sctitls Tarpeiam obruerunt. in arcem ab ea perductl. est * et portas Ita Romae regnatum tres. 4 Keep THE FAITHLESS TARPE'IA Cum Sabinl Romae appropinquarent. As Finely. parvos adhuc " " Carissime frater. Bracelets. Citadel. l monstraret. ROMULUS AND REMUS x 2 muros Romae multa cum dlligentia Remus muros saepe transilit. aedificat. habuit octoginta. Tullia. Overwhelmed.SUPPLEMENTARY READING Sub eo 245 Roma cum els qui in agrls erant. gererent. anulos aureos et armillas slgnificans. 2 Leaps over. Rex fugit eum ex urbe expelleret cum uxore et llberls suls. off." inquit. 5 6 7 • 1 Rings. 2 Ilia petiit. erat fllius TarquinI Priscl. arcem ceret. 7 nam et 8 ea in sinistrls manibus gerebant. Turn fellciter 3 Romulus. 1 per septem reges. Dative. tria mllia civium Romanorum Servius a fllia sua. Tarquinius Superbus. et Tarquinio Superbo interfectus est. plenus muros conficit. El 3 permlserunt ut miinus 4 sibi pos- ut sibi darent. Tarpeiam puellam Romanam rogaverunt. 1 3 arcent! " 4 Remum yet. ut urbem caperent. ut viam in 29. centos quadraginta The throne was 28. annos duhe'd. Reward. quam magnificl sunt murl tul! Dum Romulus inimlcos tuos egregie Irae. Propter multas iniurias Lucius Brutus et alii elves populo persuaserunt ut clauderet. 8 . Also.

sed ad agrum revertit. dative. 32. Denique pons in Turn fortis vir armatus in Mmen desilit. CINCINNATUS Cincinnatus agricola Romanus fuit. victls. Mox auxilium Porsena magno cum exercitu Romam oppugnavit. 5 4 decim. duodecim llctoribus 3 pro more antecedentibus. positus in statione pontis. verunt. verecundia paternae maiestatis. 5 Stationed as a guard. HORATIUS AT THE BRIDGE expulsus Tarquinius Superbus a Romanls Porsenae. qui patriam amavit. et nunc in 2 10 ponte sunt. A tergo. (as he 4 5 Swims across. Parva Solus imparte pontis relicta. elves ab agro eum voca31. 2 Fabius.246 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR 30. petum hostium sustinet. Pons hostibus urbem tium et duos socios. Horatius pontem rescindl a tergo iubet. * Out of respect for. 5 ut esset dictator et eos ab hostibus defenderet. hostes unum collem capere Mllites fugiunt. 3 Hostes in eum 3 Falls down. muniunt. Horatius noa mllitis periculo llberavit. . tacitl praeterierant. sed incolumis 4 ad suos tranat. EtruscI appropinquant. Hostibus ab omnibus clvibus laudatus est. fllio suo consull legatus Fllius obviam patrl progressus est. regis Etruscorum. x mine. multa tela iaciunt. et conIam ex llctoribus unsule appropinquante non descendit. used w. Safe. et elves in periculo erant. 2 1 Tiberim decidit. A LESSON IN DIGNITY iam 1 Qulntus fuit. 3 1 Was borne. senex. Senex equo vehebatur. To meet. praeter Horaet ad pontem venire videt. soci5s suos discedere iubet. sed virtus unius Hie vir. Cum Roma in periculo esset. RomanI ex agris in urbem demigrant et summo studio earn 5 iter dare poterat. behind him faces the enemy). 2 According to. petivit.

mea ornamenta sunt." Pater turn desiliens. 2 cum Carthagine captlvos non ablret. el ostenderet." 1 num 3 Last. iuravit se eo 4 3 reditiirum nisi sul condiciones esse At ille in senatii Romano commutandos declaravit. there. 5 quam 7 4 5 fidem hostl datam The Carthaginians. 7 2 3 From Adv. Rather than. THE ROMAN ARMY FIGHTS A SERPENT bello 1 Punico Roman! castra aliquando in Africa apud Bagradam flumen ponunt. de cap tl vis commutandls Romam missus est. . Carthage. 3 Whether. 35. elves 1 belld Piinico Regulus." the con2 Scipio Africanus." inquit. inquit. 2 Vocative. To break. Cornelia erat mulier 2 sapien- Cum Campana femina orna- menta duos 1 sua. REGULUS KEEPS HIS WORD Primo Poenis. CORNELIA AND HER JEWELS fllil Tiberius Gracchus et Gaius Gracchus erant Sclpionis tissima et mater optima. AfricanI l filiae." 2 equo descende. Cornelia " " Haec. 6 ad supplicium redlre maluit.SUPPLEMENTARY READING 247 Consul proximum l llctorem iussit dlcere Fabio patri: " Ex " Non ego. propinqui et amici fallere. ex urbe decessit. captus a 1-. 34. sclres consulem te esse. Deinde. queror of Hannibal. fill. sed experlri volul. 6 Preferred. dux Romanus. A Campanian. fllios vocavit.. Terms (of agreement). 1 eum retinere conarentur. cum fecissent. 33. multisque proem's copias Primo 1 Once upon a time. Corneliae. quae pulcherrima erant. " tuum imperium contempsl.

'si mihi fidem. esse.' 5 Dum 6 hoc a in castra proficiscl. reliqul perterriti tellsque serpentem petunt. Seizes. 5 2 3 4 6 7 Hurling engines. Id cum quaesivit vellemne secum libenter audlvissem. born). quam me ad aram addiixit.248 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR 1 hostium egregia mllitum virtiite superant. (it). Romam mittunt. quln sim futurus. Diu 6 et acriter pugnatur.' tenentem. crebris Cives corium in templo ponunt. 4 ^Faciam. 7 8 Corium. apparet serpens ingentis magnitudinis. HANNIBAL INFORMS THE KING OF HIS OATH cum regi 1 Hannibal. Oath. Sanguis autem monstrl viclnum flumen imbuit. Milites prlmo ex vallo sagittls 5 magnam manum Regulus 2 multos multos Serpens ingenti ore corripit. 6 7 Sacrifices. 8 . 2 Hamilcar. hoc adiunxit: Pater meus. Was offering. Coils. et exercitum fhiminis usu prohibet. puerulo me non amplius novem annos nato. Sed. deinde edticit." ita 1 Little boy. catapultas lapidum vulneribus serpens iointerficitur. patrl datum. 3 " 5 immolabat. 5 2 3 Old (lit. in Hispaniam imperator proficiscens Carthagine Iovi hostias facit.. dederis. Dyes. Id con- ioiusiurandum. longum pedes centum et vigintl. usque ad hanc diem 8 eadem mente servavi. eamque numquam me in amicitia cum Romanis futurum Simul 7 postulo. paucis post diebus. 4 Will grant Altar. iurare iussit. Catapults. Crushes. 3 4 caudae voluminibus ad castra elldit. That. ut neminl dubium esse debeat. in Poenorum multa de fide sua et odio Romanos commemoravisset. me inquit. consul celeriter fugiunt. 36. Tandem ballistas et admovent. 1 Extraordinary. 8 The skin. Proximo die totus exercitus in campum 5 educitur. turn ille.

Maid. longo vidit. Tied. 4 inducebat etiam currus cum falcibus. Turn " Satisne sunt Romanls rex Hannibalem aspicit 7 et dlcit: " 8 haec omnia? Hannibal. respondet: omnia. sed domum revertit. quas comparaverat. Romanorum oratorum staturae 3 Lentulum 1 gladio inquit. Glittering. 249 HANNIBAL'S JEST 1 Antiochus. Huic ipse Nasica exclamavit. Paucis post diebus ad Nasicam venit Ennius. ostendebat Hannibal! in campo 2 copias ingentes. "NOT AT HOME" Olim Nasica ad Nasica et Ennius poeta 1 amid erant. And was Chariots. " Quis generum meum. generum suum. maneuvering. qui ignavos AntiochI mllites de" 9 Satis sine dubio sunt Romanls haec spiciebat. es • " Non sum domi. 39." 4 5 Anti'ochus." Videbat autem Ennium nius. TWO OF 2 CICERO'S JOKES clarissimus." " cognosco vocem tuam? -11 ipsi. Girded. Inactive. etiam 1 si avarissiml sunt. Cicero. exiguae accinctum 1 hominem." "ad gladium adligavit? 3 " 4 2 4 Lentulus was Cicero's son-in-law (gener). convertebatque et aurels 3 exercitum Inslgnibus argentels 5 micantem. qui bellum cum Romanls gerere parabat. 6 Scythes. ego ancillae Ennius was an early Turn Ennius: " Quid? Nonne " Homo Nasica autem respondit: tuae credidl: tu non mihi credis 2 Roman poet. . king of Syria. Nasica." inquit. ancilla 2 En" domi non est.SUPPLEMENTARY READING 37. equites cum armls splendidis. 38. 9 Despised. Ennium venit et ad portam de eo quaeslvit. 2 3 A plain. Small. 7 8 Looks at. 1 impudens. 6 elephantos cum turribus. nihil tamen dixit.

" ut aiunt. ego valeo. dictitabat 2 se triginta tantum 3 annos habere. Io. quod horam ab hora aequis spatils Io. unde magis etiam timeam. Vale. 4 cui Cicero dixit: " Verum 1 3 est. Si. "Cur Si. 1 XLVI. iuniorem se esse simulans * quam erat. actum est de pelle mea. quidquam certi habemus. to tetigit piinctum. Si. qui campanae vocem audlvi. Nos neque de Caesaris Si vales." 2 4 Pretending. 2 bene est. Inspice Modo prae- terita est qulnta h5ra. 6 2 You 4 Health. nisi adfuero in tempore ante recitatum catalogum. nam hoc viginti annos audio. Hac quidem ex parte nihil est pericull. Si. horologium. 40. 41. "pro canibus?" hoc Quid proverbium est? Io. 3 Be sure. Horam Io. 5 1 adventu neque de ( His) wife. Red- . quas Philotlmus habere diciSi quid erit certi. manus nondum dlvidit. Si. Io. Quid loquebatur? esse quintam. faciam tg tur. Was. Ioannes? 5 lepus. ON THE WAY TO SCHOOL SlLVIUS. Kept saying.250 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR Femina quaedam. At ego vix habeo fidem horologiis. are well. Quia. Goodbye. IOANNES Cur adeo curris. 3 statim certiorem. Fac ut valetudinem 4 tuam cures. epistulls. Only. A LETTER OP CICERO Ante Christum ClCERONIS EPISTULA AD TERENTIAM UXOREM. Sed est et aliud. At mihi fide.

of the Colloquies of Erasmus (A. Ut possim. Horologium. At in Fac praesentl sis animo. Reddamus inter nos lectionem. five Quidem. because. Lectio. 5. the calling of the . satis longa. who is walking. 13.SUPPLEMENTARY READING denda Si. o'clock. from which. at least. Punctum. score. to be repeated. Actum . Si.Quia. 14. nam metus nocet memoriae. Io. 6. common . perlculum narras. Io. Io. 16. Modo. (to both). igitur in su5 loco constituit? Cornelium. bell. Campanae. Recitatum catalogum. 15. 1466-1536). at.). perniciem. Pulchre mones. Silvius. lesson. . hence Inspice. 25 sum Si. supply currit. Facile deponerem pavorem. Commune Et est. Verum dlcis. mea. of the Unde. altero librum Inspiciente. nostl saevitiam magistri. Io. LINE 1. . Lepus. that I cannot. si non adesset perlculum. D. Si. Reddenda. Omnis ill! culpa capi2° tals Nee magis is parcit nobis quam si corium esset bubulum. nam et ipse vix satis teneo. Si. Verum Quern non aderit in ludo. hare (nora. et ideo non raro illlus bracchio precatus alter5 recitante. 4. the 2. Vereor iS ut possim. Adeo. Si. whence. Quinta: Erasmus reckons time in the modern way. 251 est memoriter hesterna lectio. Vae nostro corio! Is Orbilio plagosior est.). Parte. Fide. are on the way to school between five The two and six in boys. 10. 8. took point. Commune. 7. John overtakes Silvius. tanto discrlmine quis possit esse securus animo? 30 NOTES One John and morning. trust (imper. roll. Io. just. so. clock. it is all up with my skin.

. hide. Saevitiam. Plagosior. seldom. woe. fault. dread.252 18. 32. spares. Culpa. Discrimine. sin. but. take care to 30. Capi- talis. perdiciem. . danger. therefore. school. Securus. . 19. Raro. Parcit. 21. Metus. 31. fear. Fac animo. . show presence of mind. let us repeat. truth. capital. skin. Verum. Ludo. cruelty. of an ox. Ideo. more fond of whipping than Orbilius. untroubled. / have prayed for ruin to his arm. . Bracchio 25. 27. 24. Bubulum. you know. deadly. Corium. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR Nosti. Verum. the severe schoolmaster of Horace. Reddamus. . 20. Pavdrem. Looking toward the Palatine Hill from the Forum . Vae.

Perseus . avus eius Acrisius appellabatur. Here they were rescued and taken to Polydectes. the latter fled in terror. shut her up in prison. who sought in vain to win the love of Danae. . Comprehendit igitur Perseum 1. Iovis. in w hose court Perseus grew to manhood. Turn 5 arcam ipsam in mare coniecit. having been warned by the oracle that he slain by his grandson. Perseus filius erat maximl deorum. king of Argos. When Perseus afterwards reached the city of his grandfather Acrisius.ADDITIONAL SUPPLEMENTARY READING Suggested by the New York State Syllabus of 19 17 PERSEUS Acrisius. Perse! mater. 260. magnopere territa est tempestas enim magna mare turbabat. would be king of the island. for at the games held in Thessaly he was accidentally struck by a discus thrown by Perseus. 7 The Latin text following: is one of Ritchie's '. Acrisius volebat Perseum nepotem x suum necare nam propter oraculum puerum timebat. 1 For notes and special vocabulary. as the story relates.-> " Fabulae Faciles. which the waves of the sea carried to the island Seriphos. This difficult task he accomplished. and on his return home saved the beautiful Andromeda from a sea-monster. The king. . autem in sinu matris dormiebat. Danae." The Ark Haec narrantur a poetis de Perseo. saying that she should not be released until Perseus brought to him the head of the Gorgon Medusa. et cum matre in area lignea inclusit. adhuc Infantem. placed his daughter Danae and her infant son Perseus in an ark. but was unable to avert the fulfillment of fate. see p.

nam naturam loci ignorabat. ex insula discessit. Quo usque hie manebis? TemHinc abl. Turn. 30 Minerva viam demonstraverunt. . Tranquillum igitur fecit mare. Polydectes Turn iuvenem ad se vocavit et haec dixit "Turpe est hanc ignavam vitam agere iam diidum tu adulescens es. Htiius Insulae Polydectes turn rex erat. Danae in harena quietem Post breve tempus a piscatore quodam reperta est capiebat. ad continentem venit. Iuppiter tamen haec omnia vldit. et f Ilium suum servare Toconstituit. : Perseum dlmittere . Medusam quaesivit. capita enim earum anguibus omnlno talaria pedibus induit. . et pro tanto beneficio regi gratias egit. sorores Medusae. postquam Diu frustra quaerebat. Ille matrem et sedem flnibus sins dedit. Perseus 3. Perseus ubi haec audivit. postquam 35 aera volabat Diu per tandem tamen ad eum locum venit ubi Medusa cum ceteris Gorgonibus habitabat. Medusae mihi refer. Perseus Gets His Outfit 4. pervenit. et arcam ad Insulam Serlphum perduxit. Postquam area ad litus adpulsa est. et. At Polydectes Danaen magnopere 2oamabat. et cum matre sua vitam beatam agebat. Gorgones autem monstra erant specie horribill. Danae hoc donum libenter accepit. in aera ascendit. contecta erant. is Sent on His Travels ibi Perseus igitur multos annos habitabat. Manus etiam ex aere factae erant. Hoc tamen consilium Perseo minime gratum erat. Tandem Apollo et Primum ad Graeas. Ab his talaria et galeam magicam accepit. et els tutam in 15 puerum benigne excepit.254 latin for the first year Jupiter Saves His Son 2. et caput 25 pus est arma capere et virtutem praestare." igitur constituit. Apollo autem et Minerva falcem et speculum dederunt. et ad domum regis Polydectis adducta est. atque earn in matrimonium diicere volebat.

rem Perseum ubi 45 dum galeam magicam et.additional supplementary reading 255 The Gorgon's Head Res dimcillima erat caput Gorgonis abscldere. statim e conspectii earum evasit. et fugit. Arma rapuerunt. Dum haec . Volebat tamen elves suos e tanto perlculo extrahere. ubi lacrimas vidit. Nepttinum. Turn fake sua caput eius uno ictu abscldit. Ibi 5c virgo formosissima erat. dum monstrum exspectant. illo 6. 5. At subito. atque a deo iussus est filiam monstro tradere. causam doloris quaerit. Hie causam Minerva speculum igitur tergum^ hoc modo ad locum venit ubi in et vertit. mlserat. geruntur. ubi hoc fecit. Ceterae Gorgones statim e somno excitatae sunt. Perseo dederat. 55 A Human 7. . nomine Andromeda. Ob hanc causam pavor animos omnium occupaverat. Ubi ea dies venit. et. The Sea-Serpent Cepheus maris Hie deum. Cepheus igitur oraculum del Hammonis consuluit. magnum dolorem percepit. Post haec Perseus in fines Aethiopum venit. viderunt. olim offenderat. Eius autem fllia. induit . Neptiinus autem monstrum saevissimum Hoc cotldie e marl veniebat et homines devorabat. Andromeda ad litus deducta est. atque ob earn causam imperata Hammonis facere constituit. 111! rem totam exponunt et puellam demonstrant. simul monstrum horribill Eius conspectus timorem maximum 65 . et in conspectii omnium ad rupem adligata est. Omnes fatum eius deplorabant. Hie autem occidere volebant. Cepheus ubi haec audlvit. Ira commotae sunt. fremitus terribilis auditur specie procul conspicitur. eius enim Propter hanc conspectii homines in saxum vertebantur. 60 nee lacrimas tenebant. speculum Inspiciebat Medusa dormiebat. . quldam tempore regnabat. Perseus accurrit et. Sacrifice Turn rex diem certam dixit et omnia paravit.

. primum talaria exuit Ea autem turn ad rupem venit ubi Andromeda vincta erat.256 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR iniecit. Monstrum magna celeritate ad litus conten- iamque ad locum adpropinquabat ubi puella stabat. et puellam Cepheus ob hanc rem maximo gaudio adfectus patrl reddidit. Tres dies per totam Insulam . est. Mare autem interea undique sanguine Inncitur. gladium suum eduxit. 70 monstrum impetum subito fecit. Andromedam ipsam el in matrimonium dedit. neque The Reward of Valor Perseus postquam ad litus descendit. ubi haec vidit. cum uxore sua in ea regione habitabat. Meritam gratiam pr5 tanto beneficio Perseo rettulit. visa est. omnibus dit. bilem edidit. et sine mora. Ille Paucos annos 85 libenter hoc donum accepit et puellam duxit. POLYDECTES 90 10. Ille vincula statim solvit. et. et. in aera sublatus est. sed domum invenit vacuam et omnlno desertam. At quam Perseus. 75 reditum eius exspectabat. terrore paene exanimata erat. ubi Perseus adiit. Post breve tempus belua rursus caput sustulit mox tamen a Perseo ictu Perseus dum circum litus volat. IS TURNED TO STONE adpulit. totum corpus in aquam mersit. fremitum horriter vulneravit. Turn iterum se in undas mersit. se Postquam Perseus ad Tnsulam navem ad locum contulit ubi mater olim habitaverat. 9. et gladio suo collum eius graviMonstrum ubi sensit vulnus. Magnopere tamen matrem suam rursus videre cupiebat. est. Tandem igitur cum uxore sua e regno praeterea Cephei discessit. 8oomnem spem salutis deposuerat. The Rescue 8. postTurn desuper in talaria induit. . et in magno honore erat apud omnes Aethiopes. graviore vulnerata postea.

ADDITIONAL SUPPLEMENTARY READING . Post paucos annos rex Larisae ludos magnos fecit nuntios in omnes partes dimlautem ubi Perseum vidit. who In the following account. Tiberius et Gaius Gracchi nep5tes erant. however. avum suum casii occldit inter spectatores eius certaminis forte stabat. In Thessaliam igitur ad urbem Larisam statim refugit. 100 . Perseus caput Medusae monautem simul atque hoc vidit. 1 Maximum p. Ipse Perseus inter alios certamen discorum Acrisius . from Lhomond's "Viri Romae. puerls doctl et Graecls litterls erudltl. matronlss For notes and special vocabulary. 105 serat et diem edlxerat. enim TIBERIUS GRACCHUS AND GAIUS GRACCHUS Tiberius Gracchus and his brother Gaius were famous Romans. statim in atrium .C. . As a fact. as the aristocratic party of Rome regarded them. they resorted to revolutionary means only to improve the condition of the common people and make the government democratic. Multl ex omnibus urbibus Graeciae ad ludos convenerunt. . in saxum versus est. see . iniit. stravit. dum discum conicit. At. friistra tamen neque enim fa turn suum vitavit." they are represented as rebels. Perseus ubi haec cognovit. Horum omnium spe exacta est Sclpi5nis AfricanI ex fllia adulescentia bonis artibus et magna 1 accedebat educati5. pervenit. inrupit. Ira magna commotus est ad regiam 95 Polydectis sine mora contendit. Polydectes magno timore adfectus est et fugere volebat. quod Polydectem timebat. 257 matrem quaerebat tandem quarto die ad templum Dianae Hue Danae refiigerat. lived in the second century B. ubi eo venit. et. 1. nam magno propter oraculum istud nepotem suum adhuc timebat. ad egregiam enim indolem optima Erant enim dlligentia Corneliae matris a . The Oracle Fulfilled 11. Ille Post haec Perseus cum uxore sua ad urbem AcrisI terrore adfectus est rediit. 262. Dum ille tamen ille fugit.

senatus atque equestris ordinis pars tur ! maior. tentione. Cum autem tribuniciam potestatem sibi prorogarl vellet. sua. inlre consilia. MortuI Tiberl 30 corpus in 3. redirent ioliberl. 2. vir rumen tariam dlxisset. Gaium Gracchum Idem furor. quo usque e schola. ostentaret el muliebriter. et palam dictitasset interempto senatu omnia per plebem agl debere. "Haec. manum ad caput referens. qui fugiens decurrensque cllvo Capitollno fragmento subselll ictus vltam. popull favorem profusis largitionibus sibi conciliavit agros plebl dividebat. apud illam hospita. neque a natiira neque a doctrlna def uit sed ambo rem publicam. Qua re cum convocati 2opatres dehberarent. quam creatus. quidnam faciendum esset. His Gracchi consilils. provincias novis colonhs replebat. patriam cognation! praeferens sublata dextra prou Qu! rem publicam salvam esse volunt. tribiinus plebis 15 descivit . obsistebant omnes bonl. immatura morte flnlvit. saeculo pulcherrima. et Scipio Naslca. Tiberius Gracchus. Quos reversos hospitae ostendens. cum esset consobrlnus Tiberl Gracchi. quanta poterant conf maxime Plso. clvitatcm omnibus 35 legem de Italicls necis seu dabat. " his adulescentibus ornamenta sunt. Hoc nobilitas ita accepit. aerarium efftidit. lege tamen lata. in quibus . tuerl poterant. quam gloriosissime degere potuerat. vit. pessima coepit maximas largltiones fecit. quo signo salutem suam populo commendabat. qui fratrem Tiberium. flumen proiectum est. me sequan*5clamavit: " Dein optimates. statim Tiberius Capitolium petit.occupaTribunatum enim adeptus." inquit." Nihil ornamenta illo mea quidem . a senatu . perturbare maluerunt. in Gracchum inruunt.258 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR esse llberos ornamentum ilia sapientissima. Is cum multa contra legem consularis. Cornelia traxit earn sermone. ad regnum pa rare videbatur. frumento plebl dlvidendo tulit. quasi viam sibi diadema posceret. Cum bene Institutos merito putabat mater Campana matrona. seu vindicandae fraternae comparandae regiae potentiae causa. ad frumentum cum ceteris accipiendum venit.

obsecuttirusne illlus voluntati " fuistl propter istam. cum ea lege frumentum petas. vocato ad arma populo. 4. Blossius quldam.55 Septimuleio. sum fertur. causam adferens. lege. quas Roma proficlscens plenas . ut videret consul Oplmius. me potest vere dlcere. partem petam. hanc." inquit . Gaius Gracchus. "Quid?' " inquit. qui cum senatus consulibus mandasset.ADDITIONAL SUPPLEMENTARY READING 259 Gracchus ubi animadvertit in contione Pisonem stantem. eurri4o compellavit audiente populo Romano: "Qui tibi constas. ita Gal . ut. in Tiberim deiectum est caput autem amlco Gracchi. quam iactas. non quomodo ambition! meae 70 conducere arbitrabar. Turn Gracchus templo Iovis in Capitolio faces subdere iussisset." da to aperte declaravit vir gravis et sapiens. ne quid detrlmentl res piiblica caperet quod nisi in maximo discrlmine . Gracche. cum iam comprehenderetur. Quo responso quam tulerat4$ Gracchus. in Versatus sum in provincia. iugulum servo praebuit. quam dissuasistl?' sic . Sunt qui tradant. tlnum occupavit. ut in eos. 5. animadverteretur. armata. decernl non solebat. quo gravius efficeretur. quomodo qua haec de se narrat ex usu vestr5 esse exlstimabam. "Nolim quidem. Gaium 50 aggressus est. cum Graccho consenserant. quod tantl Gracchum fecisset. si te faciendum putaret. f amiliaritatem ? "Num-65 quam. quidquid ille vellet. sed si fades. qui dominum et mox se super dominl corpus interemit. Occlso Tiberio GracchS. patrimonium publicum dissiparl. Cui Piso. quemquam sumptum Zonas. Tiberl amicus. AvenConsul. Infuso plumbo eum partem mlra crudelitate victorum capitis. assem aut eo accepisse aut mea causa. Decretum a senatu est. familia. voluisset id quidem. pro se deprecatum venit.' 6. a. ad Oplmium relatum auro repen. Piso. explesse." inquit. Exstat Gal Gracchi e Sardinia a : Romam reversl oratio. qui pulsus profugit et. " Blossius. 60 ut sibi ignosceretur. Ut Tiberl Gracchi antea corpus. sibi consul. pa^^issem. sed si voluisset. "mea bona tibi virltim dlvidere liceat." plus 18 Nemo in muneribus fecisse.

sJwre. dudum.. -ire. -entis. 23. ignoro. -oris. -a. F. turpis. argent! extuli. infant. excipio. imperative of ab + eo (go). oraculum. nepos. 17. 12. oracle. house. hie. ark. quies. pi. hence. lap. need. + pello). -a.260 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR ?5 Alii amphoras. 7. piscator. inactive. magic. tranquillus. F. F. .. -are. benigne. dormio. adulescens. yet. -um. -cepi. Seriphus. sinus. -ae. N. helmet. safe. receive. NOTES AND VOCABULARY PERSEUS The numbers LINE 3. mainland. Graeae. for a long time. F. a youth. ligneus. -I. tamen. -cipere. home. case. quo usque. -hendere. however. how long? 25. drive to. -ae. 29. 15. first decl. put to death. fisherman. turbo. thank. sleep. eas ex provincia inanes rettull. sand. -e. grandson. -um. nepotis. -a.. -a. pi. -1. 8. quas vinl plenas extulerunt. still. praestare. kindly. disturb. domum. Danae. -um.. 10. continent. inclose. harena. -um. continens. Greek first decl.. Danae (dan'a-e). wooden. 31.-clusi. -hensum. bosom. -arum. includo. -a. ace. passed. 11. magicus. -hendi. adpello (ad rest.. -en. infans. -fantis. hinc. gratias ago. -are. ignavus. -e. -ae.. comprehendo. calm. galea. tutus. -um. 6. seize. 4. quietis. disgraceful. -oris.-cludere. -es. agebat. 5. 24. 30. Greek noun. 9. lazy. shore. abode. 13.. without ad. -entis. adv. the Graeae. -us. Danaen. -are. adv. F.. abi. 19. here. sedes. N. eas argento repletas domum reportarunt. refer to the lines of text. sedis.-clusum. -ae. be ignorant of. -ium.. talaria. litus.. led.. 28. adhuc. F. adv. area. -ceptum. winged shoes.. adv. show. 14. Seriphos (se-rl'fos).

-vasum. -feci. arouse. . -turn. appearance. sult. horribilis. saxum. 43. 75. offendd. -trahere. -1. explain.. 54. -vasi. rescue. feel. extraho. mirror. turn. formosus. -1.. 63. -ceptum. 35.. fremitus.ADDITIONAL SUPPLEMENTARY READING LINE 32. -1. -ui. -ere. bronze. -i. grief. -spicere. -spexi. adv. aes. -is (citizen). 70. -onis. evado. virgin. perfect of tollo. beast monster. beautiful. from above. -ere. blow. stain. Hammon. -a. -us. -are. -oris. inspire (in). 65. neck. con- 53. 47. return. M. desuper. 52. an Aethiopian. 40. versum. fate. sickle. rupes. species. sleep. edidi. inicio. 46. -a. adj. -a. maiden. autem. ofend. -tractum. -ere. pred. imperatum. 69. look modus. serpent. percipio. M. com- mand. see F. aeris. -icere. inficio. 60. -fendi. now. verto. cut off. manner.. -us. participle of tollo. escape. volat 73.. -iectum. roar. 531. mersi. copper. back. Inspicio. anquis. Hammon. 41. -cepi.. subject. -ae. ictus. -dui. M. somnus. 33. into. stroke. -i. -e. ceteri. -spectum. F. -duere. 56.. see 457. -cipere. 39. -fensum. Aethiops. -are. -cisum. 42. pavor. 55. tergum. -1. sublatus. reditus. 36. aer. terrible. -ficere. : for tense see 605. speculum. a era). procul. sensum.. b. Gorgo. induo. stone. Gorgon. virgo. F. 51. M. or F.. -traxi. sustulit. lament. dolor. -vadere. deploro. aeris (ace. -dutum. mersum. cliff. collum. 49. the other. -ieci. rock. dip.. verti. -us.. way. 74. -is. -cidi. Gorgonis. -I. -ere. virginis. -is. air. contectus. fatum. 37. M. feel. -fendere. -urn. consulo. 71. terror. titter. -fectum. 66. put on. edo. plunge. falcis. civis. sentio. -oris. sensi. 64. F. editum. -opis. -urn. excito. -el. covered. F. sentire. at a distance. N\. 72. mergo.. -cldere. expono (ex + pono). belua^ -ae. abscido. adv.. 26 1 falx. -i. panic. 38.

justly. invenio (in + venio). 108. adv. -um. -utum. Acrisi. childhood. show. nepos. -uere. -a. -rumpere. that oracle I told vito. regia. see p. -pull. enter. -i. adv. solutum. 94. 96. exanimatus. 2. flee. AND GAIUS GRACCHUS : Gracchi: nom. TIBERIUS GRACCHUS 1. erudio. 86. -ere. 6. -igere. proclaim. hall. Africanus fHia : a surname . show.. -ae. adiit. of the lime (saeculum). 90. palace. 96. from ad + eo. simul atque. edico (e died). 79. of P. adficio (ad -ff acid). like a woman. F. solvo. ostento. -ae. approach. gaudium. 97. -um. 7.. F. game. quality. 78. 105. bring to. -a. Campanus. spend. illo 8. made his as soon as. 28. wave. -rupi. adpello. show gratitude. (// the. empty. redditum. 91. Campanian. -are. adulescentia. adv. merito. 83. deserted. grandson. put off. bound. -ae. loosen. to this place. iniit. restore. perfect of in -f eo. again. . -um. -I. -um. ludus. -pulsum. oraculum istud. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR iterum. -ire. 95. the conqueror of Hannibal. -are. unda. litteris. refugid (re + fugio). take of. -ae. casus. escape.. se contulit. country. 80. chance. + discus. gratiam refero. Cornelia see line 4. instruct. -egi. exuo. hospita. burst (into). -us. -actum. literature. -onis.. -I. -potis. discus. adv. pueris. 82. par. -are. 102. inrumpo. 107. atrium. 104. -ui. -a. joy. guest. region.. vacuus. -is. find. 81. desertus. 106. 5. as women will. apud. -a. vinctus. exigo. hue. Cornelius Scipio. quoit. -um.262 LINE 76. -ere. reddidi. -i.. monstro. indoles. -ruptum. you of. -a. muliebriter. saeculo. natural 3. -pellere.. house of. 99. exhausted. solvi. regio. _/*//. 100. reddo. youth. 92.

the senators. -onis. ordo. might have protected. " " tribune of the in 133 B. -mere.. proclamo. -evi. . adv. -atis. tueri poterant. of means. the Capitol. tutus. detain.. or. salvus. 18. indeed. instruction. -rui. M. -urn. -imere. 19. doctrina. -emptum. ictum. degi. generosity. quidem. sitting. clivo Capitolino. equestris ordinis. -ae. -emi.. diadema. of the equestrian order.. 12. -onis. seu . colony.. subsellium. low seat. . palam. -I. quasi.ADDITIONAL SUPPLEMENTARY READING LINE 9. could not lawfully tribuneship dictito. -are. of a tribune.e. -a. prolong.. The senators broke up the seats and armed themselves with the fragdegere potuerat. adipiscor. -6. descisco. tip. the knights.. untimely. withdraw. c. cognatio. order. 21.C. 31. prefer. -a. tion. immaturus. M. in 123 B. what? referens.. nobilitas. kill. The prorogo. -a. M. -urn. Tiberius was 15. 28. lavish. 20. 13. openly. obtain. quidnam. -onis. : abl. then. safe. sermo. Capitolium. 25. qua re. entrust. -1. protect. although. let them follow. 17. M. -ere. -are. tueor. adv. a youth. both.C. traxi. by the ascent (clivus) to the Capitol. -are. 14. -us. strike. therefore. commendo. -I. repleo. cousin. whether . if. -a. bench. -oris. ambo. vindico. conj. malui. -inis. colonia. extend. 26. -urn. raising. The tribunes people were originally appointed to protect the common people. the aristocrats. . conversaused like dum.. F. cry sequantur. on which they had been ments. dein. 32. until. F. malle. 605. adulescens. favor. -urn. -atis..e. madness. -oris. tribunicius. optimas. 11. make an attack. fraternus. 24. N. -etum. aristocrat. royal crown. might have spent. be held for two successive years. inruo. cum. -eri. as 23. -ere. adv. 29. 27. adeptus. i.. tribuneship. 263 traho. 22. -entis. ici. -urn. relationship. avenge. tractum. interimo.. M. favor. -sciscere. coloniis fill largitio. -ae. tribunatus.. -ere. ic6. -ae. . 16. say often. : patres i. consobrinus.. adj. furor. of a brother. M. -scivi. -a. profusus. -ere. . -1. frenzy. but graduallyacquired other powers. out. maid. Gaius was tribune seu.. -are. M. -scitum. -are. dego. quo usque. spend.

would you have yielded ? . should suffer. to each man separately. : Gracche 44. contio. supine of deprecor. undertake. cruelty. discrimen. 54. aggredior. -are. (from in proposed. -onis. largitiones. partem. advise against. -vertere. see 551. praebeo. N. detrimentum. + eo). injury. 47. -sensi. expleo. -versum. my gravis. 62. to plead. 59. -ere. -are. 51. concerning grain. -gressus. that pardon be quidquid. Aventinus. : plumbum. effundo. was on -ui. deprecatum. -cretum. peril. aerarium. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR inire -I. caperet. the point of being taken. compello. the state's inheritance. : i. -fundere. rependo. ignosceretur. qui tibi constas. cum. eum 511. explesse = explevisse. -sensum. expose. -sentire. how are you consistent? 42. 37. repensum supply esse. -fusum.. -stitum. 52. notice. 46. patrimonium publicum. given. throat. -i. 40. solitus.. the money in the treasury. -crevi. -fundere. pay with the same weight. public money. one of the hills of Rome. waste. lead. soleo. -onis. enter upon. quo: -etum. crudelitas. 38. decerno.. the Aventine. -suadere. -cernere. -fudi. 60. iugulum. Italicus. -stiti. to set f re to.. boni. 61. -ere. -verti. 55. 49. infundo. fertur. might be made. of authority. decree. adv. is reported. -suasi. 57. punishment should be inflicted. / shouldn't like you to be allowed. -i. hold forth. -gredi. a. 45. 36. -sistere. lit. 43. F. effort. mass-meeting.. -ere. -inis. nolim quidem tibi liceat. be accustomed. -e. tulit. -i. comprehenderetur. -i. see fill efficeretur. whatever. the aristocrats. gifts. an Italian. conspire. -pendi. address.. -pensum.264 LINE 34. consentio. viritim. squander. crisis. -fudi. animadverteretur. dissipo. Septimulcius. -i. -pendere. frumentariam. obsecuturusne fuisti. -tatis. -itum. 35. contentio. share. although. dissuadeo. F. F. obsisto. up . 48. pour into. the good men. -fusiun. of consular rank. consularis. attack. 64. oppose. assembly. animadverto. faces subdere. -evi. 56.e. man by man. -suasum. 41.

was put money-belt. -eris.. -atus. -a. belt. we might say. penny.. service. 71. munus.. to 73. . -ae.ADDITIONAL SUPPLEMENTARY READING LINE 65." as serve. sumptus. boast of. office. oratio : Gaius was famous for his oratory. -e. 68. -are. -onis. M. expense. inanis. sumptum fecisse. 69. adv.. F. ambition. N. ambitio. 74. assis. 75. amphora. ex -f sto. M. " a red 72. exist. repletus. jar. 265 iacto. -um. filled. versor. quomodo. 70. conducere. -arl. -us. zona. -ae. as. cent. be profitable. conduct oneself. assem.. expense. be. empty. as.



N. Gen. time caput. N. Dat. F. dux. M. Abl. head Singular Nom. miles. work tempus. Ace. reges regum regibus reges regibus duces pedes ducum ducibus duces ducibus pedum pedibus pedes pedibus A bl. Abl. Nom. Dat. Gen.268 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR Plural Nom. flumina opera tempora capita fluminum fluminibus flumina fluminibus operum operibus opera operibus temporum temporibus tempora temporibus capitum capitibus capita capitibus . N. Abl. N. consules victores patres nationes homines consulum consulibus consules consulibus victorum victoribus victores victoribus patrum patribus patres patribus nationum nationibus nationes nationibus hominum hominibus homines hominibus rex. river opus. Ace. pes. M. M. rex regis regi dux ducis duci pes pedis pedi miles mllitis militi llbertas libertatis llbertati regem rege ducem duce pedem pede Plural militem mllite libertatem libertate Gen. liberty king leader foot soldier Singular Nom Gen. Dat. Gen. M. Dat. Abl. Ace. llbertas. flumen fluminis flumini opus operis operi tempus tempo ris tempori caput capitis capiti flumen flumine opus opere tempus tempore caput capite Plural Nom. Dat. milites mili turn mllitibus milites mllitibus libertates libertatum llbertatibus libertates llbertatibus flumen. Ace. Ace.

APPENDIX 6. 269 .


APPENDIX 12. 271 .

acres F.272 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR THIRD DECLENSION 14. Gen. acria Nom. fortis. M. brave . Ace. F. sharp Singular Plural N. acre acris acri M. Dat. Abl. acer. acer acris acri acris acris acri acres acnum acnum acnum acrem acri acrem acri acre acri acribus acribus acribus acres (-is) acres (-is) acria acribus acribus acribus 15. N.


less plus. oldest minimus natu. nearer ulterior. greatest minimus. better peius. former propior. worse maior. before] [prope. within] citimus. suitable exterus. ill magnopere. little diu. worse magis. badly. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES Positive Comparative melior. near] [ultra. superior. near saepe. citra. longest proxime. below magis idoneus exterior. greatly multum. best pessime. most bene. in. nearer saepius. last j posterus. outward Inferus. sharply facile. more Superlative optime. greater Superlative bonus. youngest maxime idoneus much young senex. more senior. worst magnus. younger idoneus. intra. farthest ADVERBS 21. most plurimum. IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADVERBS Positive Comparative melius. pro. next ultimus. easily acrius facilius acerrime facillime sapienter. REGULAR COMPARISON OF ADVERBS Positive Comparative latius llberius Superlative latissime llberrime late. later lmus postremus postumus lowest "I . outer. good malus. wisely sapientius sapientissime 22. first proximus. farther primus. well male. beyond] prior. multus. above [cis. often propius. oftenest . hithermosf intimus. minime. inner supremusj summus J s on this side] [in. great little minor. old plus. next saepissime. / superus. least plurimus. lower extremus extimus Infimus ) "I outermost. bad optimus. older iunior. most maximus natu. worst maxime. longer prope. following posterior. widely llbere.274 20. hither interior. freely acriter. exterior Inferior. inmost [prae. less maximus. parvus. oftener diutissime. long (in time) more minus. higher citerior. best pessimus. better peior. much parum. iuvenis. least diutius.

APPENDIX 23- 275 .




you were {being) loved amabaXyliewas loving. you were amabantur. been loved amatus eras. they had loved . they were Future amabant. you have loved. loved. amati sumus. / have loved. loved. you will be loved amabitur.APPENDIX Imperfect Imperfect 279 amabam. loved. we have been were loved loved. loved. loved. you had been loved amatus erat. / was {being) loved amabas. loved. did love amatus loved est. loved. he has been loved. did love amabatur. Future amabo. they shall love will love amabimur. / had. they will be loved Perfect Perfect amavi. you had loved amaverant. we had loved amatus eram. / was love love loving. did love Pluperfect amati estis. you have been were loved loved. I shall be loved amabis. were loved have been loved. you had been loved amati erant. we have did love loved. did amabar. you will be loved amabuntur. loved. did love amavisti. / have been was loved amatus es. lie will love amaberis. you have been t/tey loved. loved. amavit. you will love amabimini. amabamur. you will love amabit. they were did love loving. loved. you were loving. was amavimus. you have loved. Pluperfect amaveram. amavistis. amabaris. you were loving. we amabunt. they had been loved amaveratis. loved. / had loved amaveras. loved. did love amatus sum. they have loved. did loved. he will be lovod amabimus. amabamini. we were {being) loved {being) loved {being) loved amabatis. he had loved amaveramus. we had been loved amati eratis. he has loved. did love amaverunt. you had loved amaverat. he had been loved amati eramus. we shall be loved amabitis. he was {being) loved amabamus. / shall love amabor.' were loved amati sunt. we were did love did love loving.

we shall have been loved amaverimus. / shall have been loved eris. / shall have loved amaveris.280 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR Future Perfect Future Perfect amavero. you will have loved amaverit. you will have been amaverint. we amaventis. he will have loved amatus amatus loved ero. you will have been amatus erit. they loved will have been . they will have loved Subjunctive Active amati erunt. he will have been loved amati erimus. you shall have loved will have loved amati loved eritis.

rectum. for amandum. take audio. Abl. to be loved (Ge- rundive) Gerund Gen. rexi. to love to love 35. AND FOURTH CONJUGATIONS Active Voice Principal Parts moneo. THIKD. audivi. having been loved loved. cepi. Fut. rule capio. of loving amando. Abl. Fut. capere. Ace. SECOND.APPENDIX Participles Active Pres. monitum. amandus. captum. auditum. Supine (Active) amandi. monui. loving amaturus. Dat. amatus. hear advise . rego. amando. warn. audire. amatum. about to love Ferf. monere. amatu. loving loving by loving Ace. regere. 28l Participles Passive amans.

282 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR Perfect monui monuisti monuit .

APPENDIX Perfect 283 monuenm monueris monuerit .

regor. be warned. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR SECOND. be ruled capior. captus sum. moneri. capi. regi. THIRD. be heard be advised . audiri. monitus sum. AND FOURTH CONJUGATIONS Passive Voice Principal Parts moneor. be taken audior. rectus sum. auditus sum.284 36.

APPENDIX Pluperfect 285 monitus eram monitus eras monitus erat .

tried. does try conetur conamur. he tries. monitus esse Pres. trying. do try Imperfect did / was try conabar. monere Plur. monitum iri rectum iri captum iri auditum audltus iri Participles Perf. you try.286 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR Pluperfect monitus essem monitus esses monitus esset moniti essemus moniti essetis moniti essent rectus essem rectus esses rectus esset recti recti captus essem captus esses captus esset capti essemus capti essetis capti essent audltus essem audltus esses auditus esset auditi essemus audlti essetis auditi essent essemus essent recti essetis Imperative Mood. did try c5narer conareris conaretur conabamur. is trying. do try conatur. he was trying. do try coner coneris conaris. First Conjugation Principal Parts conor. / try. conaremur conaremini conarentur did try . did try conabantur. monemini regere regimini Infinitive capere capimini audlre audimini moneri Perf. they were trying. tried. conatus sum. are trying. you were trying. are trying. they try. regi capi audlri rectus esse captus esse auditus esse Fut. we were trying. monitus rectus Fut. tried. did try conabatur. conabaris. tried. monendus regendus captus capiendus audiendus DEPONENT VERBS 37. we try. try Indicative conor. are trying. do try conamini. did try conabamini. conemur conemini conentur are trying. Present Tense Sing. tried. conari. you were trying. Present Subjunctive am trying. you try. tried. do try conantur.

we had tried conati eratis. they will have tried Present Imperative Sing. he had tried conati eramus. conans. they have tried. Act. about to try conatus. did try conatus es. we shall try conabimini. tried. you have tried. he will try 287 conabimur. I had tried conatus eras. to try conatus esse. did try Pluperfect conatus sun conatus sis conatus sit conati simus conati sitis conati sint conatus eram. he has tried. Pass. did try conati sumus. he will have tried conati erimus. conandus. did try conati estis. / have tried. we shall have tried conati eritis. trying Fut. tried. cdnare. to have tried conaturus esse.APPENDIX Future conabor. they had tried conatus essem conatus esses conatus esset conati essemus conati essetis conati essent Future Perfect conatus erd. did try conatus est. conamini. did try conati sunt. / shall have tried conatus eris. to be tried . tried. they will try Perfect conatus stun. you had tried conatus erat. I shall try conaberis. having tried Perf. conaturus. you have tried. conari. you had tried conati erant. you will try conabitur. try (ye) Fut. we have tried. tried. tried. Fut. you will have tried conatus erit. you will try conabuntur. tried. try (thou) Infinitive Pres. you will have tried conati erunt. Plur. to be about to try Participles Pres. Perf.

allow. passus sum. Ace. vereri. conandi. get possession of . potiri. fear utor. for trying conandum. of trying Supine conando. potitus sum. uti. to try conando. suffer potior. Dat. use patior. Third. by trying to try 38. usus sum. Abl. trying conatum. pati. Second. veritus sum. and Fourth Conjugations Principal Parts vereor.288 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR Gerund Gen. conatu.

you were erant. they were Future ero. it) is Imperfect eram. eris. / shall be erimus.APPENDIX Participles Pres. Perfect tliey will be I have been. thou hadst been fuerat. he (she. was fuisti. was fuimus. / am es. you have been. . / was eras. Pass. he was eramus. Principal Parts: sum. we have been. / had been fueras. you will be you will be he will be erunt. am } be ful. they had been fueratis. were fuerunt. they are sum. you are est. they have been. fuistis. were you have been. futurus Indicative Present Singular Plural sumus. erit. Act. verendus usurus usus utendus patiens passurus passus potiens potlturus potltus patiendus potiendus Gerund verendl utendl Supine patiendi potiendi ventum usum passum potltum IRREGULAR VERBS 39- sum. he had been fueramus. we are estis. we were eratis. you are sunt. were ful. 289 verens veriturus veritus uteris Fut. were Pluperfect fueram. you were erat. fuit. esse. Perf. we shall be eritis. Fut. we had been you )tad been fuerant. he has been.

290 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR Future Perfect fuero. / shall have been .

APPENDIX Perfect 291 potui. you had been able potuerant. they will have been able Subjunctive Present Imperfect Singular Plural possimus possitis Singular Plural possim possis possit possint . I could potuimus. / had been able potueras. you you have been able. I shall have been able potueris. he will have been able potuerimus. they have been could able. they had been able Future Perfect potuero. we you potuisti. you will have been able potuerint. we shall have been able potueritis. you have been able. he had been able potueramus. you will have been able potuerit. could potuit. tliey Pluperfect potueram. able. he has been able. we have been could potuistis. / have been able. ycu had been able potuerat. he could could potuerunt. we had been able potueratis.

be done fio. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR fio.2Q2 41. factus Principal Parts: sum . fieri. be made.

APPENDIX Pluperfect 2 93 ieram .

2Q4 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR Future feram feres feret .

APPENDIX Indicative 295 .

/ am about to praise 47- . LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR ACTIVE PERIPHRASTIC CONJUGATION laudaturus sum.296 46.

please. obey. (26) predicate noun is in the nominative case after the verbs be. be called. is in the genitive case. 4. (532) 5. These verbs in Latin may be intransitive. The nouns and adjectives so used denote memory. A 50. 297 subject of a finite verb is in the nominative case.) the ing 2. and the like. (246) 53. (437) 3.RULES OF SYNTAX 49. serve. and their opposites. con. of the person or thing addressed is The name (5Si) in the vocative case. Genitive Case. 6. (General rule. is used with the passive periphrastic conjugation (574) to denote the agent. or their opposites. 1. command. spare. and the like. threaten. be chosen. desire. choose. like. 52. suitable. A word denoting the owner or the possessor is in the genitive case. (51) genitive may denote the whole. Dative Case. in connection with the accusative of the direct object. Accusative Case. a. The dative The dative is used with the verb sum to denote the possessor. (353) The noting a part. in. 51. A noun limiting the meaning of another noun. help. equal. 2. (459) 5. ob. prae. pleasing. inter. 1. pounded with ad. friendly. make. The 2. super. Vocative Case. knowledge. (60) 2. fulness. and their opposites. trust. de. may be used to describe another noun. with an adjective in agreement. 3. and not denotsame person or thing. post. (42) The verbs name. The dative of the indirect object is used with verbs meaning favor. envy. Nominative Case. The direct object of a verb is in the accusative case. The dative of the indirect object is used with transitive verbs. pro. 1. The genitive of a noun. (99 and 191. The dative (457) of the indirect object is used with some verbs comsub. The genitive is used with certain nouns and adjectives to denote the object of an action or feeling implied. take two . believe. persuade. ante. become. depending on a word de(530) 4. resist. call. The dative is used with adjectives meaning near. a) 1. seem. pardon. and the passive verbs be made.




accusatives, one of the direct object, the other a predicate accusa(191) 3. The accusative is used with certain prepositions, forming prepis

ositional phrases. (541) 4. The place to which

regularly expressed

by the accusative

with ad or in


but with names of towns, domus, and rus, the prep(282)




The accusative is used to denote duration of time. (291) The accusative is used to denote extent of space. (523) The subject of an infinitive is in the accusative case. (342)

54. Ablative Case.




used with certain prepositions, forming prepo-

sitional phrases.


The means

or instrument of

an action


expressed by the abla-

tive without a preposition.

Accompaniment is expressed by the ablative with the preposicum. (136) 4. The manner of an action may be expressed by the ablative with cum, but cum may be omitted if an adjective modifies the



With a passive verb the person by whom an expressed by the ablative with a or ab. (150)





Verbs denoting separation require an ablative to complete meaning, with or without ab, de, or ex. (221) 7. The place from which is regularly expressed by the ablative with ab, de, or ex; but with names of towns, domus, and rus, the
is omitted. (281) place in which is regularly expressed by the ablative with the preposition in; but the locative case is used for domus, rus, and the names of towns in the singular number. (279 and 280) 9. Time when or within which anything is or is done is expressed by the ablative without a preposition. (292) 10. The ablative without a preposition is used to express cause or reason. (362) n. The ablative without a preposition is used to show in what respect the meaning of a verb, noun, or adjective applies. (378) 12. The ablative is used with the deponent verbs utor, fruor, fungor, potior, and vescor. (403)



13. A comparative without quam is followed by the ablative; but when quam is used the words denoting the things compared

are in the






used with comparatives to express the measure

of difference.



15. The ablative of a noun, with an adjective in agreement, may be used to describe a noun. (532) 16. A noun or pronoun in the ablative, with a noun, an adjective, or a participle in agreement, may be used to express time, cause,

condition, or other relation.





noun clauses introduced by ut or ne, and having the verb in the subjunctive, depend on verbs meaning advise, command, demand, induce, permit, persuade, urge. (439) 2. Noun clauses of result introduced by ut or ut non, and having the verb in the subjunctive, depend on verbs meaning happen,

accomplish, cause.


56. Adverbial Clauses.
1. Clauses expressing the purpose of an action take the subjunctive with ut, ne, quo, or a relative. (420) 2. Clauses expressing the result of an action take the subjunctive with ut or ut non. (447) 3. Temporal clauses with postquam or ubi take the perfect indicative. (310, a) 4. Temporal clauses with cum take the subjunctive imperfect or pluperfect to describe the circumstances of an action. (513) 5. Temporal clauses with dum, meaning while or as long as, take the indicative. (605, a, b) 6. Temporal clauses with dum, until, or priusquam, take the indicative of an actual event, but the subjunctive of an expected event.

(605, c)
7. Causal clauses with quod take the indicative to state the reason of the speaker or writer; the subjunctive, to state the reason of another. (612, a) 8. Causal clauses with cum take the subjunctive. (612, b) 9. Conditional sentences take the indicative in both clauses,



the condition is stated as a fact. (621) Conditional sentences take the subjunctive in both clauses, the condition is stated as less probable, or contrary to fact.





be used to complete the meaning of another

verb, as, be able, begin, dare, decide, hasten, hesitate, prepare, ought, (no) seem, wish, 2. An infinitive with subject accusative is used with verbs meaning say, think, know, perceive. (343)

Expressing an act wanted.


of Tenses.

In complex sentences primary tenses are used in clauses that depend upon primary tenses, secondary tenses in clauses that depend upon secondary tenses. (430)

Questions and Answers. Questions may be introduced by interrogative pronouns,
(197, 198, a)


terrogative adjectives,

interrogative adverbs, especially -ne,

nonne, or num.


negative), or

non, no,

be answered by repeating the verb (with non, by using the adverbs certe, certainly, ita, so, yes, minime, by no means. (198)



indirect question has its verb in the subjunctive.






The normal order of words in a Latin sen1. General Rule. tence is (1) the subject, (2) the modifiers of the subject, (3) the modifiers of the verb, (4) the verb. (68) 2. A genitive normally follows the noun that it limits. (50, a) direct stands before the indirect An object. object normally 3.
(59, b)

An ablative normally precedes the object and other modifiers the verb. (68, b) of A vocative normally follows one or more words of the sentence. 5.

(SSi, *)

adjective normally follows its noun. Adjectives of quan(22 and tity and demonstrative adjectives precede their nouns. page 75, footnote) 7. An adverb normally stands just before the word it modifies.
(68, c)




Any word becomes

emphatic by standing out of


normal po-


Special words: Causa follows a genitive; the adjective R6follows its noun; fere usually follows the word it modifies; one or more words of a quotation. follows inquit 10. A preposition of one syllable often stands between its noun and a modifying adjective. (Page 40, footnote) 11. The preposition cum, when used with a personal, reflexive, or relative pronoun, follows the pronoun and is joined to it as an












. .



M., masc.
N., neut


conj dat

conjunction dative
















future perfect























In the English pronunciation of proper names the sounds of the vowels are as follows:


a as in jat a as in j'ate a as in jar a as in jail





as in pin as in pine




o as in not 6 as in note
as in democrat

a as in idea
e as in met e as in




o as in move


3. e as in episcopal 4. e as in her 5. e as in prudent



u u u

as in tub as in mute as in singular


acriter, adv., sharply, fiercely.
a, ab,

prep. w. abl.,

away from,







on the side of; as adv., from, as a prefix, away. off; abdo, -dere, -didi, -ditum [ab+do],
put away, hide.


against, near; adv. (w. nu-

merals), about; as prefix,


addidi, + [ad do], give to, add.



abduco, -ducere, -duxi, -ductum [ab + duco], lead away. abicio, -icere, -ieel, -iectum [ab +

addiico, -ducere, -duxi, -ductum [ad + duco], lead to, bring to, influence.

throw away.

adfero, adferre, attuli, adlatum[ad
+fero], bring
to, offer.

abstineo, -tinere, -tinui, -tentum

[ab+teneo], hold from, keep from,






step, go], dep., go

absum, abesse,



toward, attack.

be distant.

adiungo, -iungere, -iunxi, -iunc-

ac, and, used only before conso-


[ad-fiungo], join
to, tie to.



nants; see atque.

adligo, -are, -avi,
bind], bind

-atum [ad+ligo,

accedo, -cedere, -cessi, -cessum
[ad + cedo, make way], go


proach, be added.
accido, -cidere, -cidi,
cado], fall

admitto, -mittere, -misl, -missum [ad+mitto], send to, let in, let go,


equo admisso,




accidit, impers.,


admoveo, -movere, -movi, -mo-

accipio, -cipere, -cepi, -ceptum [ad +capio], take to, receive, accept;


[ad + moved],



apply, move up.
adorior, -oriri, -ortus

sum [ad+

accurro, -currere, -curri (-cucurri),

orior, rise], dep., rise against, aU,





accuso, -are, -avi, -atum, accuse,
find fault with.
acer, acris, acre, sharp, keen, active. acerbus, -a, -um, bitter, sour.
acies, -el, f., edge, line, battle line,

adpropinquo, see appropinquo. adsum, -esse, -fui [ad + sum], be


hand, be near, be present. adventus, -us, m. [venio], a coming



adversus, -a,


[adverto], ad-


verse, opposite, unfavorable.


amoved, -movere, -movi, -mdtum [a+moveo], take away.
amplius (comp. of ample), adv.,

advertd, -vertere, -verti, -versum [ad+verto, turn], turn to, turn


n., a building.

farther, longer, more.

aedifico, -are, -avi,

-atum [aedes,






house, facio], build.

Aeneas, Aeneae,
aestas, -tatis,

h., Aene'as.

angustiae, -arum, f. [angustus], narrowness, a narrow pass.


ager, agri, m., field, territory.

angustus, -a, -um, narrow. animal, animalis, n., animal.

agmen, -inis, N., an army (on the novissimum agmen, march) the rear (of an army). ago, agere, egi, actum, put in mo;



m., soul,

mind, feeling,

spirit, courage.

m., a year.






tion, drive, do, discourse.


agricola, -ae, m., farmer.
ala, -ae, f., wing.

antea, adv., before, formerly.

antiquus, -a,


[ante], ancient,

alienus, -a, -urn [alius], another's,
foreign, unfavorable.

former. apertus, -a, -um, open, exposed, unprotected.

aliquando, adv., sometime, once.
aliquis (-qui) , -qua, -quid (-quod) , indef. pron., some, any.

appareo, -ere,




-ud, another, other


appello, -are, -avi, -atum, call (byname), address.

more than two). Allobroges, -um, m.,
Alpes, -ium,
f., the

the Allobroges

appeto, -petere, -petivi, -petitum [ad+peto], seek for, have a desire

(a-lob'ro-jez), a Gallic tribe.








alter, the one



one party

appropinquo, -are, -avi, -atum [ad +propinquo], draw near to, approach.
Aprilis, -e, of April.



apud, prep. w. ace, among, near,






aqua, -ae,

with, in the presence f., water.


-um, high, deep. amicitia, -ae, f. [amicus], friendaltus, -a,

Aquileia, -ae, f., Aquileia (ak-wile'ya), a town at the head of the




-um, friendly ;

as noun,

m., friend.

Aquitani, -drum, m., the Aquitaui (ak-wi-ta'ni), Aquitanians, a

amitto, -mittere, -misi,

let go, lose.

nation of southern Gaul.
Aquitania, -ae, f., Aquitania. Arar, Araris, m., the Sadne (son), a river of Gaul.

[a+mitto], send away,

amo, -are, -avi, -atum, amor, -oris, m., love.


m.. n. tree.. ness.. hear. -i. well-doing. f. help. autem. beneficium.. fertility... grandfather. adv. calor. aid. -drum. m. Gains Julius pi. -tatis. f. n. disaster. goodness. Caesar. -um. Britanni. . fly -atum [a + void. greedy. as. -i. caelum. silver.. think. silver.. Belgae.. -avi. away. -a. capere. the Belgae nation of a (bel'je). -um. -i.. -atum. -um. Britannia. but.. like. f. -verti. avus. [audax]. pi. -versum [a+verto. arbor. boldly. boldness. short. -ere. bovis (gen. cado. auctoritas. f.. two days. f. -i. -I. n. -um. [dies]. governor Gaul 58-49 B. a town of the Haedui. m. Bibracte (bi- atque (ac). [ad+tango. cecidi. audio. -are. Brutus. avarus. reach. cattle. audacis. ascend. -i. away. 3°5 -an. -atus sum. iliaries. artis. Caesaris. at. avolo. and brak'te). bene. -itum. -ui. -atum. -ae. -um [bellum].. adv. Aisne (an). biduum.. Belgians. keep of.VOCABULARY arbitror. n. aux- Caesar. m. -are. ... bourn). m. happy. good.. gold.conj. [bonus].. n. m. stateswriter. but. benefit. a climbing up. n. attingo. on the other hand. or f.. arms (equipment) anno. of silver. -ae. turn of. avis. m. man and of born ioo B. ars. a river of Gaul. -a. bos.or. bold.. -vertere. excellence. sing.. -ivi. defeat. Brutus. N. also.. f. bellicosus. . -us.. f. ox. conj. cow. audax. war- -arum. canis. a Roman general. ascendere.C.. au- bonus. campus. song. audacia. climb.aut — aut. averto. -is. -ae. arm.. field. fly]. ascensus. kind- censum. m. -us. [bonus]. border upon. arced. touch].. -tactum bonitas. drma. cepi. dog. -a. -I. conj. ascent. -i. golden.. influence. heavens. -um. f. canis. avis. captum.. turn]. -tigi. -i. arboris. aurum. either — or. -tatis. argenteus. touch upon. judge. aut. x. dep. pi. art. . thority. Britain.. furthermore. of gold. warmth.. war... aureus. auxilium. -a. audacter. ascendi. -orum. Bibracte. take. capio.C. f.. ascendo. argentum. well. equip. -tatis. calamitas. -avi. -ire. retreat. conj. northern Gaul. B beatus.. m. n. the Britons. advice. cantus. -avi.C. cadere. the canto. sky. Axona. m. -i. -e.. as- bellum. m. fall. -oris. -a. brevis. plain. -are. besides. turn assassinated 44 B. bird. -tingere.. -a. casum. seize. heat.

hither. m. Casticus. have learned. Lucius Cassius. def. -urn. tivate. m.. f. Carthago. goddess of agriculture. clear. cogere. Cereris. civis. captive. for the sake. mous. citizenship. quickly.. restrain. f. f. surround. Ceres. -atus sum. -us.. -ventum come [circum +venio]. m. quick- cliens. m. dear. colere. -tatis.. to inform. n. inhabitants of central Gaul. coemo. verb. control... -ae. -ui. recognize. speed. adv. food. tail. causa. coegi. contest. (citra). dep.. census. colo. adv. -itum. cultum. celer. fort]. m. [capio]. -gnoscere. cart. m. or f. citizens. circumvenid.. -diicere. ness. -veni. close. tribe. -arum. -I. cera. colui. client. about. fort.. citra. -ductum [circum +duco]. cohortor. -ere. or prep. fleet.. clamor. shouting. m. certain. w. -ius. celeritas. Celtae. celerrime) . citerior. -I. go from. w. encourage. check. coactum [con+ ago]. capitis. Ceres (se'rez). cessum. claudo. cohort. surely. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR m. -a. hence. buy up.. nearer. enumeration. m. -emptum [con+emo]. Roman castellum. prisoner. cohortis. -emi. -gnovi. census. civitas.. comburo. m. [centum]. lead around. f. within. Cassius. certamen. -venire. Cauda. cibus. n. coepi. perf. f. circumduco. tum. wax. m. drive togetlier. castra. circum. clarus. (sis' e-ro). a redoubt. exhort. a chief of the Sequani. bright. civis. -atis. -a. clausum. celeris.. comp. this Casticus. -I. caput. centum.. cognosco. m. patient. -gniindecl.. the Celts.. head. clamor. coepisse. cogo.. hill.. rapid. adj. causa. f. -inis. Cicero circiter. -urn. hundred.. celere. purchase. compel. cer- cohors. fa- cause. tiorem facere. centurio. prep. -urere. turion. depart. know. f. around f about. -I. adv.. quick. cedd. collis. m... sure. [celer]. -emere.. coerceo. -inis. Carthage. -orum. tenth part of a legion. -ae. cen- commander of a hundred. around. -entis. classis. -urn. shut. vassal. state. abl. certus.. certe. classis. -ustum . go away. cul- Cicero. learn. cams. -ae. clausi. -ari. adj. claudere.. (civis). -onis. side (of). -duxi. -a. -i. collis. till. general. around. citizen.306 captivus. ace.. collect. a city in northern Africa. ace. f. -I. -ussi. carrus. -onis.. [con +hortor]. n. celeriter (celerius. f. cessi.. as prefix. [castrum. N. began. camp. adv. -oris. cedere.

conferre. begin. move deeply. m. many. gain. -cessi. terms. -movere. fill' complures. found. establish. discover. -motum [con+moveo]. accom- muto]. conla- committo. -a.. -atus sum. kill. -icere. conficio. assembly. -scivi. make way]. -missum [con+mitto]. -sciscere. -ari. ascertain. cut]. comrade. loco]. -are. condere. hurl. concedo. firm. conscribd. comparo. swear together]. paro]. send together. comb-. -avi. contuli. join. se reconferre. -atum. co-). -avi. many. -pertum. -are. bring tum solve. comitis. -a. (a speaking toterms of agree- comes. -plevi. cide. council. commemoro. complete. + caedo. -feci. consanguineus. con. -ducere.VOCABULARY [con-furo. -ductum [con + duco]. coniuratio. station. blood]. f. onset?i -scriptum [con+scribo].. intrust. decree. levy. together. cut down. -are. conspire. -cisum [con kinsman. enroll. -avi. get ready. to commode. commit -scribere.^// ttp. disturb. assure. -onis. u. or ion. [con+scisco]. m. make comperio. condo. -urn [sanguis. -duxi. -f ectum [con commuto. -are. place together. commit. conor. mind. -ficere. conf ertus. [coniuro]. comporto. procure. adv. allow. \v. -peri. learn. bring together. bring together. concede. alarm. write together. -perire. conditum [con -f do]. conscisco. -atum [con+ firmo. to- -atum [con+ -atum [con+ iuro. ex- plish. con- compleo. gether. -us. -cessum yield. concursus. sume. conference. build. condidi. con- conditio. -cedere. -avi. -are. collect. n. -are. -avi. -i. companfcon ment. recount. -ieci. related by blood. -are. relate. sui- concilium. f. re- win over. -a (-ia). -plere. -sci- concilio.. -avi. -cidi. -are. change (completely). concido. dep. -avi. -atum [con+ porto]. crowded. -mittere. commoveo. secure. destrengthen].. tum treat. change. confirmo. throw together. -atum [con+ -avi. try. . 307 f. very spiracy. confero.. -atum [con+ +facio]. burn tip. do thoroughly. coniuro. prefix. -cidere. burn]. as noun. strengthen. conicio. [con+cedo. -pletum. -misl. conloco. meeting. call to put together. -iectum [con +iacio]. conveniently. -urn.. running together. grant. -onis.(com-. [con+fero]. attempt. -scripsi. bring together. prepare. conduco. in close order. mention. -atum -fmemord]. mortem. gether). permit. clare. -movi.

Corinth. desirous. -tenturn [con+tendo. appoint. catch sight of. -atum [con+ servo]. -secutus obtain. consido. -spicere. cotidianus. bound. -i. signa convertere. continenter. become accustomed.. dep. settle. continually. -verti. cum. creatum. . consume. conserve.. -avi. longing.. Publius Crassus. Greece. sit down]. crebrum. -are. plenty. keep. -atum voco].. come together. create.. call together. -ventum [con+venio]. op- [con+sequor]. copiosus. summon. and adv. -stitui. -I. contemno. -um [coniunctus]. credidi. cupio. civilization. [con+sido. w. conj. abl. [con+teneo]. all entire. r. Cornelia. -sessum encamp. perceive. -a. stretch strive. a city of Cornelia. conspectus. consequor. -sumpsi. credere. constituo. [con-t- consilium. supply. tomorrow. follow up. [colo]. sulship. protect. pursue. cupiditas. scorn. -veni. contendo. pi. consulis. n. -sump turn [con + sumo]. cotidie. -temnere. w. sight.. prep. -stitum. cupide. f. consul. troops. army). -suetum. -ae. tight]. m. conspicio. -a. n.. cum. -spexi. -us. -tatis. see. -are. -us. convenio. well-supplied. -temptum. cunctus. meet. Considius. turn. -us. consumo. -stiti. wealthy. horn.. -urn. -suescere. -tendl.. adv. destroy.. -sequi. body. fight. suppose. copia. f. creavi. -a. creditum. forces. -ere. thiak.. -tempsi. one of Caesar's lieutenants. frequent. contineo. -sumere. be eager. wheel about. spare..3 o8 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR sum contra. -tinui. station. -versum man soldier. cultus. cornu. -avi. [consul]. with. be wont. put. although. -urn. ber. when. -sidere. -tinere.. contend. since. [con+verto]. ace. perf. look]. hold together. -stituere. adv. prep. plan. consul.. adv. credo. hasten. against. f. m. -us.. creare.. -suevi. -stitu- tum [can+statuo. -ae. make. creo. corpus. consulatus. despise. a Ro- converto. counsel. daily. -venire. eagerly. -atus sum. m. elect. Corinthus. con- Crassus. take a stand. num- consisto.. -sistere. -specturn [con+specio. assemble. wing (of an conspicor. -tentum re- cupidus. m. eager. save. crebra. daily. -itum. {a looking at). -a. be accustomed. corporis. -i. -ari. strain.. believe. considius. -tendere. creber.. numerous. -ivi. -sedl. eras. decide. (taken together). convoco. n. set together]. consuesco. desire. -vertere. hem in. repeated. adv. m. posite.. m. -um. -1. desire.

deditum [de + do]. lay aside. -pulsum [de+pello]. throw down. f. -scriptum. dies. m. mount. deligo. the right hand. distuli.. [dis+fero. -are. -avi. -ire. cursum. m. decido. swallow. -cidi. delevi. defui [de + sum]. (a giving up). differre. -scendere. dedo.. explain. de.. deus. descend. abl. deditio. memoria. -i. deletum. debed. why. care for. -scripsi. speak. -cedere. of. dense. difficulty. -pellere. next. decern. as prefix. cura. prep. condemn. f. defend. f. dicere. declaro. -arum. cado]. adj. decimus. claro]. -are.. -Iectum [de lego]. deicio. right: dextra (manus). devour. currere. down. -puli. difficult. away. chariot. say. . -legi. day. w. gerundive). fail. indecl. tell. dictum.. densus. blot out. time. [dico]. dixi. -atum. [de + desilio. -avi. -avi.. -scribere. point out. be wanting. -ae. move away. pleading. leap down. -atum. -cessi. -onis. -icere. cause. (w. mark of. difficultas. adv. watch. -urn. select. ten. de- be lacking. [de -scensum describo. difficilis. of. currus. -Itum. -avi. -are. divide. make clear.. have {something done). during. not easy. surrender. D damno. attention. -trum. -ere. -silire. -fendi. go away. -fen- sum. -atum [de-f migro]. -ligere. -cidere. -e [dis+facilis]. dilatum spe. denique. -avi. depono. custodio. about. with- descendo. down from. dexter. -atum. defendo. differo. decedo. dedere. died. f. -positum [de+pono]. give up. — curro. -are. -atum. -silui. adv. demigro. depello. concerning. disappoint. wearied. -urn. -cessum [de + cedo]. clare. dislodge. from. deesse. -atum [de+ reveal. ponder. defessus. drive away. -a. ought. or f. -are. (a speaking). -itum. utterly. -sultum dis- [de + salio]. -posui. r. deinde. owe. fall. fall down. hausted. depart. -onis. -fendere. cucurri. draw. -ieci. -scendi.. devoro. difer.. protect. -ponere. deliciae. care. -avi. euro.. desum. exdictio. at length. -are. -a. bear apart]. -a. w. demonstro. tenth. dedidi. -avi. -us. finally. keep of. adv. then. run. 3°9 delfbero. blot out. -urn. m. god.VOCABULARY cur. -ivi. avert. -tatis. luxuries. -tra. choose. -ui. deliberate. + scando. w. -atum [de — monstro]. deleo. surrender. -ei. delere. -are. -iectum [de + iacio]. climb down]..

-mittere. m. emere. -ponere. -a. conj. Diviciacus (divi-shi-a'kus). extuli. take away. -avi. prefix. iacio]. -avi. bring about. -are. ducis. divide. enim. duodecim [duo+decem]. a chief of the Helvetii. -iectum [dis+ apart. fulness. domus.. send forth. as prefix.. markable. Dumnorix. m. -a. tio]. datum. . forth. unlike. [diligens]. duxi. m. -e [dis+similis]. ducenti. place apart]. scatter. -tribu- edo. Haedui. -ieci. adv. -feci.-ae. esum. withdraw. -ui. effero. sign. distribute. edere. -tribui. -are. -igis. -videre. throw aside. buy. f. -i. hurl. tum [dis+tribuo].3io diligens. gift. doubtful. separate. as2. -tribuere. two. ex. for a long time. carefully. out. -icere. dum.. two hundred. mei. send apart]. -avi. emi. gradior.. f. w. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR -entis. arrange. -atum [e+nun-i. dissimilis.. lead. -cessi. distribuo. efiferre. . -atum. out of. uncommon. prep. twelve. station. diligent. egregius. lead out. divide. re- m. -missum not. edi. doctum. teach. dubius. -ducere. for. -visum. -atum. care- duco. m. away. [di+mitto. -are. -missum [e+mitto]. -misi. -positum [dis+pono. fero].. a house). diligentia. ego. march out. -ficere. -ae.. indecl. complish.. egredior. [diligens]. learn. diligenter. /.. -posui. home. doceo. Divico (div'i-ko). doubt. facio]. of. discere.. disicio. a chief the [dis+cedo. dis-. -um. -ae. di-. [domus]. adv. conj. disco. go apart]. as noun. -fectum [ex+ cause. -gredi. eat. from. [duco]. enuntio. -cedere. Diviciacus. draw. tell out. -gressus give. home. i. emitto. divido. duo. leader. educo. neut. -ere. go out. didici. consider. e. -mittere. bear out. duae. bring up. donum. emptum.. depart. domi. diligently. master (of house. diu. -i. Dutnnorix of discedo. -cessum (dum'no-riks). sum [e + do. a chief of the Haedui. dono. while. apart. until. mistress. dominus. -um. educo. -ductum [e+duco]. adj. careful. -onis. prolong. dispono. dimitto. at -us. efficio. dismiss. sent'. pre- emo. dare. elatum [ex+ elate. ductum. abl. [diligo]. dedi. report. f.. give. ac- Divico. domina. educate. break. duo. -duxi. throw dux. -a [duo + centum]. -visi. discharge. ducere. step]. -misi. as long as. diligence. n. guide.

capture. beyond. w. 3 II -a. ferre. fable.. drive out. follow out. experior. -ripere. be made. f. expect. -are. expello.. ferrum. felis. -atum [ex+ boundary. bound. facere. -um. exclamo.. sources. -e. eques. + sequor].. exspecto. experience. expel. (a trained body). -um [finis]. f. outermost. fessus. -i. -are. -ae. m. -us. sult is. happily. m. -ae. -puli. neighboring. exercitus. -periri. retinue. fero. f. easily. p. -a. bear. m. epistle. -a. famis. m.. [en- opporpi. feci.. reputa- and. femina. belonging to a horseman. etsi. pledge. go out. equester. enforce. adv. etiam. is.VOCABULARY i.. protection. [felix]. -avi. conj. carry. ace. Europe. tion. await. fides. f. -i. feliciter. army. pi.. adv. adv. eripio.. finitimi. -ei. eo. exsequor. done.. story. cavalry. finis. -avi. faith. seize]. -acis. cat. epistula. -urn. [eques]. firm. latum. to the eodem. -oris. test. ferax. -are. even. felis. do. m. [ex-i- cessfully.. exeo. and also. ex- ecute. -sequi. extremus. -atum. finio.. estimate. -secutus sum [ex finitimus. adjoining. finis. pi. rescue. filia. take by storm. adv. filius. se eripere... fama. end. -itum [finis]. fieri. equitatus. et. limit. confidence. scout. as noun. familia. son. bring. equl. farextreme. ii (ivi).. re- -reptum rapid. conj. -ripui. letter. 2. -ivi. exercise].... equitis. territory. conj.. [f ero]. exclaim. fabula. -urn. -ire. explorator. dep. -ae. snatch away. -avi. existimo. -atum. even f.. fames. f. the re- firmus. -ae. -are. . means. extra. Europa. horse. -tre [eques]. f.. eo. and adv. neighbors. -pertus sum. also. -ire. facio. if.. see e. cavalry. -us. thither. daughter.. -tris. fertile. [exerceo. go. same place. hunger. -a. -ii (-ivi). sucf. expugno. report. woman. fame. cry out. f. try.. adv. household. equus. almost. and prep. itum.. favorably. -atum clamo]. facile. -tatis.. adv. weary. cavalry. factus sum. tuli. [facio]. horseman. it happens. -pellere. make. thest. facilis. tunity (of doing). -ae. n. facultas. -ae. impers.. spy. easy. -avi. factum. limit. be upon. -ae. to that place. to escape. outside of. m. fio. -pulsum [ex +pello]. eo]. iron. ire. although. ex. think. tired. look out for.. -itum [ex+ fere. strong. f. bordering pugno].

genus. frango. flecto. -l. favor. Greek... ~F. -I. pi. f. Germanus. name. fregi. haesum.. -i. -ui.. by chance. be severely. fruitful. -inis. m.form. m. [fuga]. Haedui fuga. Geneva. frigidus. fumus. graviter. -ae. river. -ari. -ae. per- Garumna. Helvetia (hel- now Switzerland. Helvetia. -um. m. beauty. (hed'u-I). -inis. fratris. -ae. a personal name. -avi. 3 chance. -a. f. -ae. -ae. adv.. F. heavily. gero. Galba.. -i. fortitudo. espeForum.. race. -itum. f.. flos. -oris. agreeable.. flight. m. Graecus. coldness. frigus. a Gaul. adv. Gaio. abounding in grain. -ae. bravery. flectere. in n. Gal. sword. fortiter. cially the market place. be frumentarius. -drum. fugitivus. fugio. -i. Grecian. [fortis]. -a. m.. break. -ae. -I. class. fugere. annoyed. glory. renown. n. m. fugi. -atum. res frumentaria. generis. Gaul. the open space the Capitoline hills. n. Haedui. do. -ae. . fortis.. -e. pi.. Rome between -ae. -ari. f. flexi. -um. m. -um. sum. [fodio. live. f rater. Genava. -atus sum. fortuna. fugitum Haeduus. the inhabit. dwell. Germania. Gaius. habito.. adv. luck. Germany. m. -i. fame. Gallia. good-will. frumentum. gerere. gravis. frangere. r. a Gallic tribe. ditch. dig].. have. a family bend. f. forma. -urn.. haerere. haesi. ve'shia). Gallicus.. trench. -ae. fugitive. -um. hold- gather grain. stick. flower. [fluo].. -a.. grain. Germanus. -ae. heavy. m. Helvetians. fluo. carry on. or f. -are. congratulate. frumentor. bravely. f. crops.312 LATIN FOR THE 1TRST YEAR flexum. dep.. shape. [fors].. Graecia. Greece. German. haps. n.. the Garonne (ga-ron'). Gallic. gloria. flow.. turn. cold. frustra. Hard mi u. gladius. tribe. brother. Helvetii. deserter. m. flee. vexed. -atus gratia. -a. the Gaius. a German. -e. gratulor. brave. fluere. n. tum]. dep... fortune.. f. -um [friimen- graviter ferre. H habeo. floris. gessi.. property. Galba. Helvetii (ga'yus). a river of Gaul. f. forte. -ae. etc. smoke. strong. flumen.. fractum. in vain.. live in. f. gratus. fluxum.. supplies. -um. cold.. m.. adv. pleasing. wage. -a. -orum. m. -a. -ere. haereo. and Palatine fossa. (hel-ve'shi-i). -a. gestum. of the Haedui. fluxi.. -ae. forum. Gallus..

m.. -ui. enemy. -entis. into. m. against. honor.. on. pi. iacere. of ille. -oris. m. accordingly. [mu- iaculum. n. today. or f.. -. m. iaceo. id 2m. iacio. hour. over. dwell in. -ivi. Idus. -i... -atum. adv. -colui. -i. ilia. urge. command. impedimentum. m. lead on. imperium. misfortune. w. -duxi. H or at his shi-us). therefore. coid]. w. tum. -ae... Hispania. hiemo. these. among. -are. iam. -orum. throw.. they. encourage. the enemy (of the state). -a. hodie. adv. -atum.. a human being. ignis. Horatius. -cendi. believe]. f. in that place. javelin. winter quarters. -i. n. to. obtain (by request).. hiemis. (supply castra). -um. general.VOCABULARY Helve tius (Helveticus).. -ducere. conj. -atus sum. incredible. inhabitant. pi.. pron. -ae. -avi. perides (hes-per'i-dez). hora. sum. impedio. honor. entangle. -are. -itum [pes]. f. set fire to. favor. -ari. pron. -1. -orum. command. that Helvetian. iactum. he. -colere. heri. toward. into. by this time. ibi. -avi. incito. humanitas. exhibit. commander in chief. (yonder). -1. n.. dep. (ho-ra/in. hortus.. impetus. in. -e [in + credo. n. abl. m. -i. negative hostis. adv. import. -atum. Hispani. authority. f. hortor.. indulged. hindrance. lie. -ductum idoneus. prep. yesterday. winter. Spain. she.. inhabit. or f. -dulsi. adv.. -avi. -are.. m. this. m. -are. -ae. . as on. fire.. prefix. pass the hiems. lie down. imperator. ieci. civilization. fit. baggage. incite. man. the Spaniards. f. ace. -ere. hiberna. the Helvetii. indicium. it.. demand. -oris. n. indued. -um. -I. -cenrefinement. bring to pass. incredibilis. hoc. dem. now.. -cendere. burn. [in+duco]. -us. al- incommodum. the same. prefix.. -ire. dem. there. (of rest). incolo. -avi. idem. -atum [in+ im- porto]. upon. haec. urge on. -dul- ignis. this day. impetro. shameless. -tatis. levy. -a.. incola. -are. -avi. n. m. supreme power. suitable. garden. not.. hinder. (of motion). incendo. Horace. pron. pi. f. impudens. importo. eadem. the Hes- impediment. hie. -urn.. impero. information. attack. gage-train. lead into. f. dem. winter. -is. igitur. ready. homo.. induce.. the Ides. -inis.... m. 3*3 illud.. respect. -uum. pudent.. -atum. in.. bag- Hesperides. bring in. -dulgere.

low.. -a. f. Institutum. she. enemy. and so. (of time) pass.. journey. lower.. judgment. way. -I. -struxi. it.. -legere. iudico. this. interficio. Italy. cide. initium. -esse. stop. + sequor].. -fluxum. noun. prep. -um [in+aequus]. . -mis- ingens. -avi. dem. -cessi. gather]. iniquus. among.. intro. adv. intellego. -fectum [inter + facio]. iussum. instituo. it even. kill. -ius [inferus]. infero.. up. sometimes.. adv.-!. overflow. -entis. [eo]. he. stratagem. istud. n. pi.. flow. -is. [inter+dum]. hostile. custom. trial. as interdum. -atum. -avi. iter. itineris. vene. -stituere. intervene. sum [in invitus. route. -are. -a. -ae. build. order. n. draw up. -ae. inimicus. inquam. injury. -ficere. -cessum [inter + cedo]. f. pursue. unfair. pres. -oris. f. -atum. enormous. rupt. insigne.. inlatum. -are. that. unwilling.. ability. -struere. (of time) elapse. likewise. learn. inferre. n. beginning. f. (of yours). island. below. -fluxi. intervene. train. Instruo. between. inventor. -cedere. insignis. [inter + lego. unarmed. pron. as noun. impers. go between. thus. adv. conj.. the lower interea. -um. -e [in+arma]. -i. ista. -stitui. mean- Influo. -fluere. therefore. march.. n. interim. Insula. -a. follow insidiae. inundate. n. buscade. -atum. in like manner. concerns. accordingly. that tum [in+statuo]. bring into. intuli. up. deiudicium.. f. adv. iussi. -stitu- iste. itaque. inhabitants of world. Inferus. ita. -struc- Italia. -avi. -um. m. meanwhile. herself. [inter -fea]. -ae. enter. tum [in-f-struo]. unfavorable. -lexi. right]. -mittere. establish. inter. himself. -ae.3 T4 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR intercede. inundo. vast. intensive pron. -lectum know. amis. iubere. -ae. while. w. inquit. flow into. he says. understand. -secutus inventor. injustice. -arum. scarcity. inter- inermis. def. wrath. marshal. pron. iubeo. as prefix. treachery. Ira.. lack. -um sum [inter + mi tto]. -misl.. ipsum. -a. ipsa. inopia. [ius. -are. intermitto. wrong. / say. id. etrate. n. itself. let inter- unfriendly. set begin. institution. the dead.. [invenio]. [in + amicus]. bringupon. tense. f. -sequi. -i. -e. anger. inferior. so. decoration. pen- iniuria. (a going). it interests. remarkable. judge. author. ingenium. un- be between. between. verb.. ipse. ea. Insequor. intersum. dem. -feci. huge. wage upon.. adv. ace. -ful [inter + sum]. sign. marked. item.

-onis. oath.. adv. free -orum. adv. latus. harass.. free. iungere. justice. -i.. -1. legi. m. N. iumentum. m. broad. iunxi. loco. comp. -avi. law. queen of the gods and wife of Jupiter. the Calends.. laudo. boat. f.. m. labyrinthus. -tatis. -um. Iura. littera. lapis. Lavinium. lintris.. licet. m. beast of burden. labyrinth. gen. -arum. ridge (of a Latinus. f... -i. preme god. -atum. f. lapidis. -avi. help. -onis. m.. the first day of a month. smoothness.. m. -ae. mountain). libero. Lake iuro. -itum. swear. laudis. Iuppiter. -are. as noun.. -1. -oris.. f. width. official at- Jacesso. Latinus. impers. libere. libri. liberality. lacus.. f. -atum. [iustus]. gladly.. law. -ae. it is per- labor. lacus. lake. . Jura. lieutenant. f. liber. f. wide. iunctum. -ere.. yoke-animal. m.. the Lingones (ling'go-nez). latitude. lingua. praise. legion. -atum.. w.. the su- legio. Jupiter. linter. youth. late... iutum. Geneva. join. -i.. -1. m. n.. right. flank. iuvenis. m. -avi. a letter (epistle). the Latini. lego. Iuno. lictor. place.. -eris. -a. pi... embassy. legendary king of Latium.. mission. Latini. assault. Latin. iuris. legatio. licere. iuvenis. -era. -drum. young. widely.. Iulia. -are. liberi. Kalendae (Calendae). 315 n. aid. ambassa- iunior. Latinus (la-ti'nus). L Labienus. as noun. iuvare. f. libertas. f. m. praise. -tatis. stone. f. choose.. -1. Lemannus. Lingones. latus. provoke. -um. freely. freedom-. lenitas. lacrima. language. m.. [liber]. lectum. labor. iuvo. Lavinium. tleness. f.. -i. lictor. side. liberty. iurisiurandl. toil. Caesar's chief lieutenant. yoke. tear. a Gallic tribe. Iovis. broadly. -are. f. Iulius. mitted. adv. a mountain from the Rhine range running to the Rhone. justice. -I. -are. -ae. gather. f. m. pi. Juno. set free. legatus. -ae. f. n. liber. f. -um. m. -ae. m. laus. legere. -oris. iuvi. libenter... members of a household . dor. Titus Labienus. -inis. iustitia. tendant of a Roman magistrate. lex. -tatis.. [liber]. w. free. -us. -onis. iusiurandum.. book. [latus]. -ae. of iuvenis. -erum.. Julius.. iungo. licuit.. read. willingly. legis. Julia. -a. children.VOCABULARY iugum. liberalitas. letter of the alphalocate. f. -ivi. gen- ius. tongue. n. -avi. iuvenum. -atum. adj. bet.

. espe- greatness. metior. -is. m. maxime). majesty. adv. -um.. f. great. f. greatly. month. -us. size. maledico.. mensa. militis. table. -um. -are. luna. mercator.. -e [miles]. loqui. ory.. [maior]. m. -ae. ness. meridies. especially. -ae. cially. -um. marriage...316 locus. mater. by far. Matrona. -um. maleficus. maris. -i. magnificent. m. mereor. m. w. -ae.. membrum. f. adj. measure. middle. loca. -atum. sup. male. f. mare. magistracy. adv. pi. militaris. -ae.. n. -ae. moon. Marius (ma/ri-us). matron. -um. mother. -eri. -atum. splendid.. long. -orum.-6ris. -a. hasten.. mischief. magister. recollection. Messala (me-ei. -i. n. maiores. matris. (sup. maiestas.. dignity. she-wolf.. military. maneo. milia miles... -ae. longe. -a. m. adv. magistri.. harm. as noun. Marseilles. very greatly. -i. Marcus. m. mensus sum. hand.. far. -are. to -i. the m. adv. mensis. f. -a. -um. a Roman longus. Lucius. -us. milia. -a. f. n. large. armed force.. -um (comp. noon. f. lupa. length. speak ill of. more. n.. bad. -um... lucis. mansum. -inis. -tatis. most. magistrate.. dep. locutus sum.. miles.. memoria. teacher.. longitudo. ancestors. loquor. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR M. the middle magnificus. mille. comp. passuum. -dicere.. f. -avi. maior. merchant. adv. magnopere. -inis.. -I. -a. -I. malus. Marcus. maleficium. dep. mansi. name. badly. -dictum.. f. evil-doer. soldier. Marne M magis. sa 'la). limb. maximus. Marius. n. soldier. Massilia. -i. metiri. remain. deserve. now Roman name. my. a family name. midday. magnus. rather.. place. a famous Roman general. master. magistrates. medius. speak.. matrimonium. . intrust. mem- magnitudo. abuse. [maior]. merit. m. dep. Messala. see magnus. sup. maturo.. m. of. maximus). meus. sea. -i. maxime. maturus. a Massilia. trader. ripe.. (marn). f. -itus sum. manus. [magnus]. -i. -ae. [longus]. [magnus]. u.. m. take to flight. lux. -dixi. Lucius (lu'shius). m. great- Mercurius. band. n. order. m. manere.' light. f. Mercury. a thousand . pertaining a mando. m. -ium. early... -avi. -a. se fugae.

nolle. sailor. presently. nauta. -a. -um. nigrum. tion. — neque. f. monstrum. -onis. nex. -a. mirus. -avi. by name.. mulier. very little. f. f. nothing. nobilitas.. -onis. multus. mors. nondum. nee. (not none). -ae. particle. -ere. ing. moris. -trum. ace. -erum. non. tribe. wonderful. mouse. mittere. die. pi.. -avi. nolo. navigo. m. necesse. minor.. indirect questions. character. -avi.. great number..-e. molo. pi. change. nominatim. mos. name.. -itum. -are. indecl. dep. movi. delay. multitudo. monster. fortify. navis. -a. m. tarry. nobilis. surprising.. lest.. -ui. neither. nominis.. send. be unwill- nomen. minus (comp. m. (nee). montis. moneo. adj. munio. -um... warn. . indecl. only. -ivi.. fort ifica- munitio. narro. unless. not. conj. nation.. m. nonne. f.. -ari. see neque. -era. move. mitto. death.. [minor]. adv. woman. -i. neuter. tell. -ire. lated. conj. no one. implying an affirmative answer. smaller. if not. much. particle. mortis. mons. high-born.VOCABULARY minime. -ere. some.. [nomen].. strange. nolui. f. not yet.. -atus sum. rate. missum. muto. adj. -itum. -are. famous. delay. not to be transw. means. nihil. neminem. x. w. wall. nobility. nature. moror. least. -are. M. of parvus). natio. advise. moveo. nemo. dat. manner. natura. navis. minus. harm.. modo. ninety. -ae. not. adv. -ae. mulieris. nar- least. pi. grind.. minimus. muris. -ne. murus. direct questions. 3*7 by no N nam.. -urn. some. nisi. mus. miser. . niger.. n. less. not wish. f. conj. nigra. -atum. insoon. nobody. custom. -atum. less.. mori. interrog. death. noun. as noun.. adv. whether. [multus]. -ui. sail. customs. enclitic interrog. necis. -urn (sup. mortuus sum. noceo. -ui. n. -wretched. neither — conj. -itum.. noble. mountain. -tra. not. -a. black. m. neque f. nemini. -ere. jure. motum. morior. adv. mora. of parvus). dep. poor.. nonnullus. adv. movere. and neque nor.. f. misi. nonaginta.. ne. -itum. -tatis. mox. -I. f. [morior]. for. nobles. that — ship. many. adv. -atum. indecl. adv. multitude. necessary.. character. [nobilis].. [munio]. -inis. f.

noster. upon a time. -I. adj. work. weight. plead. recently. any. octo. hostage. omnino. -I. nympha. naked. exposed. night. occupy. orbis. adj. -tinere. -are. novem. we.. or f. report. eight. occido. -cidere. every. obaeratus. novus. message. possess. -um. declare. -currere. obses. sometimes. -ae. number.. notum. show. ace. speaker . -onis. poini ovum. -icere. nuper. oblltus sum. forget. -I. indecl. f. once nullus. f. onus. orbis. m. altogether. -tinui. new see state of affairs. take possession of. never..3i8 nonnumquam. oneris. nos. ours. -avi. pi... m. gain. (not never). adv. m. hatred. money] y orator. messenger. in num. nuntius. -tentum 6s. adv. in front. obsidis. entreat. on account of. of ego. debtor. n.. nymph. expose. indecl. -cursum [ob+curro. interrog. obicio. . -atum.. eighty. n. -a. circle.. once. -e. oblivisci. [orol. op- Orgetorix. inhabitant -i. [aes... oris. -I. occurro. towns- m. agmen. -avi. man. Orgetorix (orjet'o-riks). it numquam. indecl. octoginta. -arum [ob-f pugno]. Oceanus. meet.. nosco. negative answer. [ob+teneo]. noscere. noctis. oro. novi. a announce. [omnis]. m. operis. all. verb. [oppidum].. -ieel. know. nuntio. obliviscor. nunc. n. m.. f. speak.. -1. impers. n. eye. towards. -tendere. adv. is necessary. nine.. m. oculus. O ob. against. -cisum [ob-fcaedo. ring. adj. all. hold. formerly. argument.. seize. adv. oppidanus. nudus. run]. oportet. pose. -curri. our. stretch]. un-um. burden . -oris. oppugno. attack. egg. olim. -iectum [ob+ set throw in front. -are. oppidum. oratio.. of town. prep. m. -tentum mouth. a chief of the Helvetii. -a. -um. -atum... [oro].. out. revolution. w. -uit. orator. not protected. ostendo. -tra. obtineo. slay. -1. -a. occupo.. n. ocean. new: novae res. iacio]. n. address. -atum. face.. -igis. kill.. numerus. nox. particle implying a omnis. meet. no. m. [ob+tendo. news. speech. up. fight against. now. as prefix. -are. -I. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR adv.. m. none. -tendi. load. -avi. -trum [nos]. town. run to. odium. -avi. -cldl. dep. -ere. -are. -I. cut]. adv. opus.

per- pastor. pendere.. -avi. perfero. native land. -ducere. -i'. f. peragro.-um. few. patris. -ui.-a. par. herds- mit.-ere. -are. pecunia. perfacilis. -tuli. passus sum. -um (comp. pabulum. m. [paene+insula]. complete. wall (of a -fectum [per accom- house). permoveo. break].. adj. prep. -fringere. perterreo. food. f. f. [per+ . country.. prepared. paco. pendeo. (supply terra). . lead through. partly. persuaded. -atum [per-fager]. pertineo.. -i. rout. adv. money. . follow pursue. experienced. m. -ae. peninsula. minor. little. partim. shelter. -ae. paro. -ae. allow. -ere. do thoroughly. paratus. patior. patria. . plish. n. -ere. dep. through. peditis.. m. terrify.. [pes]. -us. pace (five Roman feet) mille passus. pax. grant. -urn [pard]. allow. pepuli. -suadere. foot soldier. -motum [per+moveo]. -sua- sum. skilled. danger.. shepherd. paries. wander.pulsum. move thoroughly. canton. beat. very easy. -ui. -a.. thoroughly. provide pars. parietis. lie open. adv. very few. direction. p. break through. -mittere. stand open. district. prepare. paeninsula. f. 3X9 feather. per. pependi. fatherland.. [pars]. -ruptum [per+rumpo. perfacile. . -ficere. -suasi. pellere. bring about. be suspended. submit to. -e. through. -feci. let go through]. partis. perduco. milia passuum. by. peritus. -a. sup. pedes. perpauci. pati. perrumpo.. -avi. perficio. -misi.. influence.. [per+mitto. -duxi. rouse. almost. -ere. -a. pello. obey. part.VOCABULARY penna. n. n. persuade. m.. pacify. -fractum [per+frango. fodder. w. very. bear through. -itum. break through. m. perfringo. -are. -ferre. -latum [per-ffero]. extend. pauci. man . -i. -are. perfugium. during. refuge. equal. parvus. -a. father. minimus). paene. dep. pater. skillful. -movere. [pecus]. -ae. -avi. pads. peace. -atum [pax]. frighten thoroughly.. extend. -missum pi. -I. permit. very easily. subdue. permitto. -rumpere. adv. m. side. f. risk. pagus. -atum. -oris. mile.. -ae.. -secutus sum after. [per+sequor]. -itum [per+ terreo]. -movi. ace. break]. paris. small. passus. periculum. drive. 4-facio]. -ui. peril. pateo. -fregi. suf- fer. persequor. -rupi. ready. as prefix.. -ductum [per + duco]. step. hang. by means of. -ui. suffer. -ae. pareo. wander through. -sequi. endure.

de- mand. -itus sum. power. populus. get control of. -feci.. praemium. in front of. postridie. very. -misi. -ventum [per+venio]. -tuli. potitus sum. -urn. before. javelin. pitch (a praericio. prae. adj. obtain possession of. n. -i. pes. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR reach through. abl. a Ro- f. postea. potentia. -ae.. postquam. m. praeda. choose rather. put. -drum. plunder. prefer. after. -are. poscere. as prefix. have possession of. -sidere. 3 praeopto. -missum [prae fmitto]. power. Piso (pi 'so). ask. before. -onis. -are. ability. poposci. secure. seek. -fectum pons. n. praecipio. w.. de- phalanx. carry. Pompey. poena. plebeians. m. -atum [per+ turbo]. family name.. mand. send in advance. possession. -ceptum [prae+capio]. please. pedis. bring. put over. plus. -cessum [prae+cedo]. send before. -i. order. choose]. -ui. -cepi. f. -ficere. posterus. f. foot. [potis. behind. bear before. porto. promise. -mittere. possum. possessio. prep. ace. command. peto. pertain. prefer. postulo. confuse. adv. dep. conj. f. -ere.. alty. excel. -ivi (-ii). at. -itum. [prae+facio].. place. Pompeius. aim pilum. -are. poeta. poet. potui sum]. -venire. precede. bridge. come through.... -atum [prae + opto. prep.. surpass. -veni. -ferre.. ask. reward. -a. -eri. dep. put before. disturb. -ae... phalanx. pen- Poeni. -cedere. -atum. -tatis. impers. place in m. booty. positum. . Piso. perturbo. praesens. phalangis. port. -ae. m. m. on the day after. full. ponere. plebis. pono. plurimus. potior. punishment. plebs. in comparison with. -ere. -itum.. of multus. camp). possideo. posui. attack. -entis. portus. sup. . -urn. common people. -i.320 teneo]. polliceor. of multus.. be able. powerful. -avi. arrive. gate. m.. -ae. harbor. adv. potens. -i. it potestas. after. extend. -us. pontis. -latum [prae +fero]. -sedi. plenus.. (take in advance). -a. over. m. can. -cipere. -urn. praecedo. posco. -ae. f.. porta. -cessi.. -avi. choose. [post+ea]. m. -atum. afterwards.. praemitto. f. reach. man placeo. -avi. go before. praefero. people. comp.. pluris. able-h pervenio.. property.. -entis [praesum]. w. -onis. following. f. post. direct. the Carthaginians. nation. posse. adj.. f. potiri. present. pleases. -are. -a. -sessum.. -avi.

on account [princeps]. -a. -posui. former. prove. -um. prep. as propose. kinsman. child. state. garrison. f. -are. propterea [propter+ea]. praeter. provide for. f. f. adv. keep from. hand down. punio.. ace.. before. -ae. -specturn.. proficiscor. dep. preproicio. -a. out. prendl. chief. parture. -ivi. principatus. as prefix. hurl. by.. rout. -icere. propter. -stare. praetereo. -stiti. stand]. prospicio. -i. next. -a. (IvI).VOCABULARY praesidium. prohibit. -ire. -chrum. -1. test. -ere. approve. personal. chief. battle.. publicus. fleeing. cast by. excel. w. throw forth. -atum. propono. prohibeo. propello. abl. stand before. -chra. -um. -um. girl.. leadership. m. go by. next. chief position. -ui. of. priusquam. -itum prope. -dere... adv. probo. 321 guard. pugna. leader. be over. past. beautiful. grasp.. set forth. profectio. [prope]. before. -um. command. look out for. . est. -ditum [pro+ do]. transmit. except. -spexi. pristinus. near. look forward. noun. primum. -um. -stitum [prae [pro+gradior]. adv. privatus. forth. de- puer. province. pugno. in the first primus.. adv... habed]. [pro-f- praesum. pren- sum. near. -i. -spicere. princeps. -a. considering. -positum [pro+pono]. depart. old. profugus. -itum vent. f. -pulsum [pro+pello]. -ae. first. -didi.. -avi. at first. -ire. -ae. principis. prep. proximus. fugitive. before. last.. comp. -a. conj. and prep. in proportion to. declare. for the reason that. entreaty. -itum. n. n. last. -iectum [pro +iacio]. prep. drive before. ace.. -fui [prae + sum]. on the day noun. public. private.. of. advance. [praeter +eo]. f.. relative. before. +sto. near- proxime. w. for. w. besides. -gressus sum praesto. fight. nearest. w. propterea quod. boy. first. republic. beyond. progredior. fight. place. adv. -ii down. for this reason. prendo. punish. -us. adv. be before. -ieci. proficisci. pro. -a. hinder. profectus sum. -ponere. neighboring. provincia. ace. -a. past. -um. pulcher. -gredi. puella. publica. -avi. dep. prendere. -pellere. -are. propinquus. -esse. m. -atum. primo. adv. go forward. -onis. set out. setting out. common- proelium.. wealth. as prefix. before. prius. -um as [prope].. -puli. lay hold prex. in behalf of. pridie. precis. adj. protection. prayer. res prodo. battle. sooner than.

-e.. -avi. adv. so (as) great — re. -ae. report. -i.. sovereignty. quod with montes. . revive. royal. -a. -atum. -a. fourteen. +capio]. how great.. fifth. iacio]. new. indef. quidquam [quicquam].. pron. -a. -iectum [re + quisquam. back. — quantus. adj. go a going -que. prefix. indecl. recent. anything. re- each one. quoque. because.. formerly. -ducere. quoddam. regere. and than. -ieci. who. indecl. -duxi. pron. indecl. -urn. return. tantus as. left. -lictum [re+linquo]. adj. once also. remain.. quldam. fifteen. receive. four. the rest of... four hundred. of what sort? what? rapid. regina. pass. -a. rexi. quot. -are. quantus.(red-). reicio. def. leave behind. which? what? indef.. kingly. quinque. bring back. again. and. back. seize. that. fresh. quattuordecim. -I. f. n.. upon Q qua. regius. if- but Pyrenaeus. raptum. quej. quaesivi. -ii.. how. f. adv. quis. withdraw. -um. quinquaginta. si. quingenti. in order that. -a. rea- quam. quaedam. suppose. five. recreo. five hundred. reckoning. -atum. fourth. quaesi- R ramus. tum.. maining. a certain. a. in- reditio. seek. quondam. adj. quidque [quodpron.. refero. quae. Quintus. puto. -avi. -cipere. the Pyrenees. -a. plan. m. adj. -ae. qualis.. branch. back. Quintus. -a. reckon. every one. conj. conj. -ire. where.. f. reign.. -ceptum [re quartus. drive back. return. each. quod. be reliquus. think. qui. [redeo]. aban- don. throw back. fifty. forty. quadraginta. pron. as with sup. quisque. -ductum [re + duco]. quid. adj. (=ut eo). take back. -latum [re-f fero]. indef. f. restore. indecl. -icere. -itum [red+eo]. lead back. adj. a personal regnum.. recens. who? rego. quaerere. -cepi". pron. -ferre. by which way. account.. ratis. as. relinquo.. any one. queen. enclitic conj. quadringentl.. certain. reded.. rel. how many? quaero. any. ratis. -onis... ask. -onis. -um. indecl. quattuor. quindecim. indecl. anything.. -um. quintus.. conj. quaeque. -are.. -liqui..322 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR quo. royal name. -um. quod. adv. -are. -i. conj. regno. which. -avi. pron. -atum [re+creo]. rule. -entis. rapere. make anew. indecl. -um. possible. -ae. rapui. -tuli. m. any one. ratio. raft. -linquere. power. reduco. recipio. -a. as son. rectum. a time.

-arum. -ae. ask. -petere. m. baggage (carried -tinere. -avi.. 22 -i. n. Roman. reply. rerevertor. scribd. enough. ship). responded. -dnis. know. -are. repetd. (of a river). f. detain. ruris. ripa. -ae. [re + statud]. tum [re+parid. reply. f. -motum [re+moved]. Rome. wise man. -ae. blood. -feci. -i. adj. f. renovd. as noun. do enough. affair. scivi. [satis +f acid]. -sponsum. reperire. renew... Romans. -are. scripsi. -atum [re + nuntid]. -spondere. -a. -drum. ruin. usually dep.. noun... restitud. -facere. m. withstand. move back. reper- ruina. again.. m... stand]. -are. write. f. f. 323 -i. rursus. drive back. -stitul. -entis.. renuntid. often. the Rhone. of the coun- see S saepe. reversum adv. rima. beak (of bird or repentlnus. satisfy. n. -stituere. -spondi. -scidi.. set up again. -petivi. Rdmanus. rural. discover. adv. rei. -mdvi. m. scire. f. crack. a Gallic tribe. in turn. res. age. repelld. bring back word. scitum. scelus. sanguinis. -tinui. adj. Romulus. -atum [re + vocd]. seek again. -ae. -a. -um. fierce. sapiens. sisto. restore. regis. -a. f. -scindere. try. king. -um. repellere. reverti. indecl. -factum [re+vertd]. scriptum. scribere. -mansum. remove. m. m.. -are. cruel. downfall.. respdnsum. repulse. Rdmani. adv. arrow. + salus. sanguis. -manere. -atum [re+ Roma. report. sudden.VOCABULARY remaned. -i.. n. call back.. revocd. m. Rhodanus.. remain. satisfacid. safety. crime. resist. n. rusticus. pi. turn back. hold back. sufficiently. reperio. the Rhine.. procure].. answer. revert!... sceleris. -tentum packs. -movere. -um. repulsum [re+pello]. f. rostrum. by noun and soldiers). Romulus. recall. destroy. return. satis. wise. soldiers'' tum retined. -stitu- Santones. bank rogd. find out. ruins.. fact. -utis. [re+tened]. reppuli. -petitum. the Santones (san'to-nez). -mansi. the country (opposed to city). -sistere. -i. -stiti. rex. -avi. saevus. scid. make amends. sav- sagitta.. ... sarcinae. -atum. break down. m. Scipid. -a. repperi. Scipio (sip'i-d). [re resistd. in pres. -um [rus]. thing. -um. Rhenus. as the novo]. rescindd. return to. -avi. publica. opening. -ae. rus... tain. removed. -avi. system. -scissum [re+scindd].

. servo. sequor. f. man. -tra. statum. old solum. -ae. spei. . -cedere. subeo. up to. soror. always. standard bearer. -ae. -ae. -feri. itself. desire. -e. f. six hundred. steti.. -are. senatus. sixth... under. -um. forest. reinforce- signifer. lic tribe. on the spot. adv. f. subduco. hope. six. -I. es-a. advance. Segusiavi. -i. without. servus. like. Sulla. -I. -um. go near. prep. but. shield. -ae.. but if. -ductum [sub + duco].. indecl. esse. subsidium. sex. planting. f. similar.. the Segusiavi (se-gu-shi-a/vi). adv. thus. signum. adj. adj. eagerness. solum. -uere. -I. Sequanus. -a. be. go under. -tatis. only. -I.. -atum. sedecim [sex]. m. same time. -ii. sixty. set up. Sequani. once. preserve.. adv. societas. adv. one by one. follow. -ae. ace. sexaginta. themselves. w. . -itum [sub+eo]. slave.. [socius]. -a. adj. [sto]. -a. period. -trum. favorable. s num. -ui. sub. Septimus. aid. alone. if.. sic. -avi. go under. the Seine. simul. -ae. be eager for. studeo. -cessi. (opposed sed.. sto. following. -avi. -orum. single. as noun. determine.. alliance. sequi. sepultura. adv.. n. -tutis.. solis. -ire. -us.. seventh. a Gallic tribe. herself. si.. -are.. Roman dic- sine. -orum. -duxi.. -oris. subito.. abl. approach. n. f. at the sin.3 24 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR singuli. at Sequana. only. or abl. sol. Sequani (sek'wa-ni). conj. slavery. secutus sum. suddenly. spatium. -atum [spes]. sec- scutum. statim. -are. himself. servitus. -a. -is. sementis.. f. conj. m. ment.. old. one at a time.. sui. burial. -a. m. stand.. signified. guard. senate. left ond. f. -I. withdraw. beneath. the sun. -avi. -ere. n... Sequanians. n. [servus]. n. silva. ground. -I. to dexter). f. signal. senex. hope. indicate. dep. expect.. adv. partnership. m.. soil. sum. separatim. spero. sexcenti. -I. socius. -ui. distrib. desire. so. -um.. Sequanian.. space. similis. indecl. a Gal- statuo. as prefix.. sibi. studium. succeed. sowing. solus. prep. -um. m. adj. ally. decide. -utum. n. tablish. -cessum [sub + cedo]. sinister. sextus. stare.. -um. semper. adv. under. -ducere. look for. sister. the spes. m... adj. m .. a tator. draw up.. separately. w. sixteen. se [sese]. indecl. save. fui. conj. undergo. go near. standard. secundus -a.. senis. Sulla. -atum [signum succedo. m. + facio].

-didi. punishment. teneo. -atum. tentum. tandem. at- tempto. supporto. Helvetii. -a. expense. trecenti. sustain. -ducere. -ditum [trans-f do]. m. its. sup. high- tempestas. -are. upper. -um. -a. trans. across. spear. bull. m. dat.). above. -i). so great. superior. temporis. m. superus. n. transfero. -tentum [sub+teneo]. templum. tertius. tactum. -um. prep. refrain.. javelin. -ferre. the Tigurini. -i. trado. yet. weapon. summus. suus. -avi. -atum. totus. fear. tarn. terra. -ae.. [trans +fero]. -i. at length. adv. Titus (ti'- suscipio. -avi. timeo. timidus. -ae.. season. -6ms. -um (comp. such. hold up. adv. terreo. -are. sustuli. sublatum. timor. n. -um (gen. tolero. super. sumo. w. (abbr. tablet. record. f. penalty. greatest. tamen. withstand. -tuli. -ae... storm. nevertheless. take. support. cross. -dere. claim. -oris. -tinui. -cepi. remain. touch.. supply. -um. [super + sum]. sumptus.. tempero. suspicio. f. across. and abl. tangere. frighten. the top of. -orum.. T. -a. tacitus. -avi. -a. over. try. bring up. -are. Tigurinus. much. as prefix. hold. m. tollere. time. land. tetigi. -ii (ivi) transeo. the Tiber. -atum [sub-f porto]. through. their. undertake. -ius. -fui -um. -um [timed]. 325 control. -i . sumere.. surpass. -ui.. -avi. so. Tigurini.-itum [trans + tantus. -ductum [trans +duco]. carry over. three hundred..VOCABULARY summa. -are.. earth. so many. weather. traduco. board. entire. survive. tempt. -a. conquer. -are. -ae. country. tabula.. convey. total. . ace.. -ere. tempus. -a. her. w. of the Tigurini (tig-u-ri'ni). canton of the supplicium. go across. -us. -esse.. sustineo. sumptum.. -ere.. undergo. the whole of.. lead across. supremus. tango. -atum. -a. hold out. Titus. temple. eo]. tenui. ace. silent. indecl. adj. -urn [superus]. sumpsi.. give over. est. tot. f. -atum. -avi. M. third. a personal name. n. adv. over. summus). supero. -ceptum [sub-f capio]. so . -e. tenere. -a. higher.. -itum. -tatis. tollo. a -1. sustain. supersum. suspicion. f. timid. all. -ire. as prefix. n. prep. -a. -duxi. -tinere. -is. endure. -latum telum. -ui. taurus. surrender. -cipere. f. hand down. his. be over. {highest point). Tiberis. m. overcome. tus). talis. finally. -I. -a. -um. transfer. take away. sum. fear. lift up.

N. ace. ut [uti]. f. -i. shoulder. and conj. veteranus. f. any. ventus. -um [vetus]. w. Tulingi. ind. w. umbra. city. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR uter.. venio. yours. dat. lay waste. -us. -urn (gen. dat. evening. [ultra]. -a. f. -itus sum. and prep. thirty. -ius. una. -tra. B. conj. fear.. m. verus. from which vester. road. brate a triumph. city. valeo. vereor. . at that time. adv. pers. -um. thy. ventum. urbis. f. victory. victor. umerus. dep. n. f. -e [utor].. u. turn.. you. f. n. veteran soldier. cele- triumpho. -ius. advantage. -avi. -um.. -a. -ui. -ids. -ae. Trojan. turns. -oris. tribe.. (tu-lin'ji). veho. tuus. m. dread. rampart. German tower. threefold. ultra. -ae. vehere.. be unoccupied. use. wind. -urn (gen. former.. -ere. your. or. adv. victoria. ullus. -um. adj.. -oris.. venire. as. m. -itum. trumpet.. together. shoal. vastus. unde.. word. ravage. veteris. -avi. turris. -ae. -i. devastate. m.. vallum. belonging f. adj. from all parts. -eri. whence. old. -are. on all sides.. velox.326 tres. which utilis. farther. triple. usus sum.. neighbor- in ing. vel — vel. adj. a Tulingi be well. vadum. -a. when. Vergilius. -i). -atum. -ius. -ae. -i). f. via. Troy. U ubi. wife. near. strong. true. be vacant. swift. -tram (gen. barricade. indecl. -i. ulterior. either — or. comp. old. adv. subj. tria. dat. veteran.. the -oram.. -atum. veteran. -avi. -eri. vel. when.C. adv. use. m. -are. triginta. vexi. triplex.. -a. Vergil (ver'jil). n. vast. one. -um [vicus]. three. verbum. -a. vicinus.. w.. vicus. your. vaco. -a. uxor. -arum. shade.). dep. veni.. -i. order that. adv. (of two). victor. useful. [vinco]. con- urbanus. urbs. -a. be- -i.. yond. thou. tu. Troianus. with.. -tra. -ae.. Troia. uti. -i. utor. -urn. validus. come. triduum. -I). -a.. -are. m. adj. m. that. vetus. unus. a great Latin poet (70-19 in company place.. -a. vasto. -um. usus. -ius... as noun. three days. tuba. -urn.. -a. -I. be strong. to a of a city. way. -i. -ocis... where. vesper. vectum. adv. pron. undique [unde]. queror. then. -tram. village. carry.

twenty. vigilia. valor... f. -atum. victum. volo. f. [vir]. -avi. n. f. wish. be vinculum. wound. -atum [vulnus]..VOCABULARY video. pi. f. pass.. -are. -ae. violence. vocis. -ae. volui. vos. -tutis. adj. be seen. vincere. vinco. vulnero. vix.. seem. sum- mon. of tu.. bond. wine. hardly. voco. -tatis. vici. n.. n. viginti. voluntas. f. -eris. fly. strength. live. vis. force. call. -atum. vidi. watch of the night. f.. vinum. volo.. -are. vita.. -i. i. scarcely. vivere. m. vixi. virtue. vivo. 327 videre. velle. victum. willingness. watch. f. see. . word.. man. 2. voice. consent. adv. -are. wish. -ae. -avi. vulnus. conquer. violentia. vires. violence. good-will.. virtus. visum. woutid. -avi. pi. willing. vox.. . indecl. -i. life. {manliness). vir. vis. -i.

badge. a totus. -I. posse. ace. -us. (prep. acies. ace. -venire. w. w. iuvi. iutum. absum. -i. -itum. r. -avi. -avi. w. quam w. -ui. abesse. ace. -veni. possum. agmen. w. -e. absum. 328 . lative. f. -us. act. -are.. quisquam. proelium. circum. anna.ENGLISH-LATIN VOCABULARY arrive. -inis. among. beautiful. trans. m.. after. malus. account: on account ad. all. authority. adgredior. quod. animal. -gredi.) ante. n. fere. w.. M. nuntio. sagitta. army. -ventum. and. et. -are. w. -venire. pulcher. moneo. (ab). Aprilis. ob. about. arms. beast of burden.. -l. (noun) auxilium. N. alius. battle.) -atum. propter. paene. (verb) oppugno. (noun) impetus. abl. f.) post. auctoritas. atque. -are. latum. w. ace. fui. -veni. -um. abl. -atus sum. -ventum. (verb) iuvo. insigne. -atum. pati. abesse. tali. n. arrow. iumentum. bear. ace. n. ace. w. de (conw. -que. be sum. iuvare. -ari. -ae. -ae. be absent.. impedimenta. ace. -orum. inter. n. ask. animal. arrival. away from. subsidium. bank (of a river). -alis. able: be able. pro. -um. -avi. -chra. -avi. -atum. be. legatus. another. fero. absum. band. of. ripa. attempt. -gressus sum. part. -ere. quis. -us. -a. -ei. across. (conj. convenio. accuse. adventus. pervenio. advise. abesse. -tatis. announce. ace. m.) priusquam. assemble. rogo. -us. -orum. ferre. any one. because. away: be away. numerals. baggage. m. exercitus. -atum. see be. passus sum. before. always. are. April. B bad. absent: afui. -a. almost. as as possible.. apud. -are. about to. m. n. ascensus. afui. -ud. accuso. afui. n. propter. omnis. potui. -e allow. attack. expressed by fut. at. -is. esse. patior. manus. postquam. n. away. (conj. (prep. p. semper. ambassador. -chrum. w. super- — cerning). f. ascent. ac. -us. -a. w. ad. -i. aid. conor. because of. .

ace. aedificium. w. behind. captive. w. importo. -duxi. cura. cohort. -are. (summon). castra. capio. -isse. breadth. (adj. capere. Brutus. latus. be in -are. pueri. conduco. -atunx capture (a ex- care. emere. Celts. gerere. book. urbs. bravely. cendi. . brother. bring together. buy up. bum. in behalf behalf: abl. venio. believe. n. capitis. -orum. sed. puer. x. equita- bravery. credidi. m. civis. veni. camp. -inis. boldly. pro. capture. broad. sign of abl. m. deligo. imperator. frater. Belgians. incendo. Celtae. impero. potui. boldness. -i. appello. -i. -ligere. come. 329 of. infero. ascensum. -censum. Caesar. -cipis. -i. -atum. tum. -atum. virtus. pontis. carrus. -avi. ascendere. -dticere. town). brave. -are. -feci. &bl command. children. gessi. Brutus. n. equites tUS. m. confero. pons. -US. -cendere. m. -a. (adv. -legi. -ae. fortiter. f. m. m. praeficio. -arum. -avi.) quidam. tuli. -orum. -atum. revoco. m. or f. call back. M. as- building. centurion.VOCABULARY began. ventum. coepi. -avi. cogere. porto.. cavalry. capital. certain. f. m. m.) -urn. post. gestum. Belgae. -are. fortis. choose. f. praesum» put in -esse.. audacter.. -ae. -are. gero. city. -fectum. convenio. bridge. can. f. possum. but. urbis. -e. between. -fui. w. m. M. (jugno. both — and. m. tall compel. -arum. -urn. liber. princeps. . -avi. latitudo. emo. centurio. caput. -ae. coemo. booty. f. by. commander. — et carry. climb. a (ab) w. -lec- tum. call together. come together. m. cepi. emptum. creditum. -ductum. f. -atum. cart. carry on (war). command. melior. et. cogo. chief. porto. latum. -urn. ferre. -atum.) melius. credere. credo. -eendi. m. -avi. m. convoco. libri. f. venire. liberi. cohortis. -ficere. better. inter. -onis. (pron. coegi. buy. m. coac- (by name). Caesaris. fortitudo. -is.. -inis. -a. certus. boy. citizen. f. -oris. cohors. ascendo. -orum. praeda. Caesar. pueri. -1. -avi. emi. audacia. co-mmand. captivus. -are. autem. cap- turn. ace. bring in. fero. posse. bring. -tutis. fratris. m. voco. bring upon.

council. -avi. n. -tentum. Divico. vasto. -fendi. enemy. -i. m. satis. -ari. -a. -atum. defeat. abesse. iter. eager. f. -um. patria. coniuratio. constituo. hostis. -tatis. -tatis. desire. m. -i. f. repperi. ruris. aut — aut. facilis. -atus cohortor. -fectum. -ae. daring. n. constituo. consul. periculum. mereor. -ae. pars. legatid. creare. octavus. -ere. enough. eight. feci. perficio. w. supero. f. f. facere. easy. statuo.. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR -ficere. -ire. mors. depart. could. studeo. vincere. m. divido. audax. creatum. easily. daughter. quisque. cupivi. be eager -acis. afui. facile. -e. -fendere. rus. dies. D danger. -atum. -inis. densus. filia. quidque. agere. -ae. Cornelia. -ei. -eri. mos. difficult.33° complete. see can. -I. difficilis. consul. de. delay. -ae. distant: be distant. creo. -tendere. w. supero. -e. f. altus. mortis. m. each. moris. f. -ae. terra. studium. de. f. statutum. deep. f. -tendi. fines. -fensum. altitudo. -avi. district. cither t. country. -stitutum. creavi. conquer. divide. diligence. cross. concilium. embassy. sum. -is.. absum. -onis. (verb) cupere. repertum. -ium. determine. -um. cupidus. f. statuere. hortor. down from. do. death. for. mora. -are. -um. -avi. feci. -cessi. -ae. -onis. -atum. f. day. . octo. contendo. itineris. -itum. discover. octoginta. cupidus. -vi- f. country (as distinguished sum. -visi. contend. n. defend. devastate. Cornelius. transed. — or. m. -a. -I. discedo. actum. dense. encourage. n. reperio. reperire. . Cornelia. f. Divico. egi. -a. -ii (ivi). defendo. factum. -feci. vic- cupitum. -itus sum. facio. decide. tum. n. -1. abl. -are. -ui. cupio. m. quaeque. -stituere. Cornelius. Corinth. m. -um. m. from city). custom. deserve. abl. (noun) cupiditas. -stitui. facio. statui. ago. vinco. vici. desirous. partis. -videre.. Corinthus. eighty. -i. construct. factum. diligentia. conspiracy. vel — vel. cupiditas. facere. course. -a. direction. -cessum. native country. -cedere. depth. hostis.. f. f. -onis. -are. eighth. eagerness. concerning. pagus.

-acis. f. every. -um.) longe. castellum. the Gauls. Gallia.. (adj. munitio. famous. abl. expect. -avi. acriter. friendship. -um. case. mus. pauci. -are. -oris. -itum. de. res. -tendi. m. ace. w. few. forces. -itus fertile. -gnovi. -atus force. -dulgere. sum. vereor. ab. -a.) ulterior. flee. -are. -cessi. -are. supero. fourth. father. -cedere. general. -ten- -atum. field. paris. -ui. -a. ignis. -ui. -ae. fight. -a. -gnoscere. F.. m. M. four. extremus. -avi. (verb) libero. w. -atum. -scriptum. m. -ere. -a. abl. at the foot of. -tendere. sign of abl. farmer. classis. f. rei. -erum. pater. fortification. -are. agri. friendly. Gaul. classis. -avi. forum. Galba. -ivi. flight. faithfully. -um. pugno. quinque. fugere. forum. m. -atum. -ae. -a. -atum. -ces- flow. m. -are. idoneus. clarus. porta. ulti- -um. fiercely. -itum. amicus. foot. par. vis. favor.) liber. Geneva. vesperi. fluxum. envoy. pes. explain. fire. quisque. food. -ae. frighten. -ae. -l. w. demonstro. -ere. fugio. amicitia. fit. munio. indulged. fluo. -a. fugitum. -a. five. copiae. Galba.VOCABULARY enroll. ignis. omnis. -onis. -dulsi. turn. frumentor. -avi. evening. f. legatus. free. exspecto. sign of dat. n. -ae. primus. quartus. first. (adv. contendo. friend. -ari. -avi. -arum. n. excel. n. -i. -i. . diligenter. -ire. -ae. equal. -ius.. m. -i. conscribo. cibus. find cognosco. f. f. per- ferax. f. fort. P. -um. Gallicus. pertineo. (adj. -are. for. farthest. confirmo. thing. far. terreo. Gallic. -drum. extend. f. -era. from. (verb) timed. -ae. establish. -atum. -oris. fugi. Genava. -um. fluere. -e. ex. pro. very few. fortify. m. f. pedis. except. -i. -eri. sub. m. -ere. m.. -a. if. pateo. sum. every- fleet. -atum. -ae. ford. 33 1 out. -ui. vadum. -dultum. -um. fear. imperator. vesper. -gnitum. forage. F fact. -avi. omnia. fluxi. agricola. -i. vis. -scripsi. fuga. gate. quattuor. m. (noun) timor. -ui. -ere. M. -a. farther. Galli. -scribere. abl. -um. sum. praeter. praecedo. patris. amicus. w. pauci. ager.

suus. intend. -are. eius. -ere. horse. -I. -um. being. transeo. (verb) go out. -um. -a. -ae. contendo. potior. tentum. guide. bonus. m. -ui. f. f. -um. manus. (verb) adduco. do. m. tantus. -ui. himself. praesidium. -us. Helvetia. eius. guard. ending of verb. home. god. -ae. ending of verb. -a. human or f. m. -are. -a. ii (Ivi). the Germans. the inhabitant. -um. inhabit. equl. in. m. the hurl. hear. datum. -are. exeo. go across. -orum. induce. obses. -tendi. -I. into. Helvetii. high. hill. -avi. -avi. Italy. Helvetian. dedi. f. -orum. ipse. Germania. n. m. doml. home. formed. -ductum. accidit. Haedui. frumentum. -ae. accidit. certior flo. -us. induco. f. -um. girl. gravis. altus. ipsa. -ae. herself. -e. at f. m. -duxl. Italia. it. audio. in w. cornu. -mis. hominis. itum. ieel. get possession of. m.33 2 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR higher. -itum. -Itum. -us. sui.. iacere. see be. itself. -avi. domus. -ire. -a. fieri. obsidis. factum if. homo. Germany. sul. eo. influence. -colui. her own. (noun) tis. -a. maturo. spei. magnus. -us. -a. /. iactum. Helvetii. good. ducis. puella. n. incolo. her. Ire. auctoritas. have. -I. id.. sum. hasten. f. incola. height. happen: est. f. Germanus. import. deus. be in- heavy. hora. m. iacio. -atum. harbor. is. house. horseman. spero. his own. -tendere. m. -a. -um. si. sign of abl. m. dux. -ae. sui. ending of verb. Haeduus. -us. -ta- -ductum. turn. -ere. Haedui. give. -In. -atum. . suus. hostage. n. -um. -Ivi. hour. -duxl. H Haeduan. go. inform. centum. hold. equus. hand. hoc. -orum. happens. abl.. dare. so great. grain. equitis. he. teneo. horn. great. or ipsum. his. -a. is. m. dere. or pron. -um. -tenhabeo. m. -a. importo. f. in animo habeo. f. in w. portus. altitudo. hope. accifit. f. eques. -atum. ego. or F. domus. it hundred. -ae. or pron. (noun) spes. Helvetius. German. or f. certidrem facio. -colere. -Itus (upper) superior. altior. f.. collis. collis. ace. -ducere. -um. German!. Helvetia. -ducere.

-um.) multum. legatus. -ferre. king. message. -atum. M. animus. lead across. multi. master. -feci. (noun) iter. language. -I. -a. -a. m. Labienus. -us. -a. -inis. -ae. -ae. m. M magistrate. most. mensis. -ere. be made. make. cog- plurimus. letter. m. -are. -ae. know. -a. magnus. memory. march. scio. keep away. N. money. movi. make upon. motum. Lucius. -i. f. f large. facere. infero. many. scire. disco. ducere. similis. N. -cisum. f. -ae. luna. f. -are. m. f. nosce. libertas. nuntius. factum. f. traduco. mille passus. N.. -ae. live. ending. f. Iulia. -i. mind. -arum. -ui. -oris. -cidere. -inis. . (adv. scitum. lack. Marcus. leader. Julia. longitude. m. -a. lieutenant. -us. f. x. -avi. -ae. -inis. magis. (adv. memoria. inopia. m. mons. facio. by much. little. f. -a. -tuli. -e. -a. parvus.. occido. dominus. -ae. vir. kill. (verb) iter facio. longus. incolo. 333 javelin. itineris. -um. m. -i. -um. angustus. legio. -avi. -i. prohibed. legion. movere. moon. -ere. -gnovi. m. lead. like. meus. much. f. amo. N name. (noun) (verb) nomen. educo. lex. less. -cidi. comp. -um. fio. nuntius. narrow. -ae. itineris. messenger. fieri. -a. dux. m. month. interficio. multus. -ficere. -fectum. keep -ul. f. long.) -atum. ducis. -um.VOCABULARY love. diu. feci. -i. -ae. Marcus. more. lacus. viri. m. Labienus. duxi. maxime. -atum. journey. m. length. m.. -avi. homo. -ae. pecunia. lake. man. law. montis. -urn. appello. it. -are. epistula. my. patria. -um. pflum. minus. m. -itum. -gnoscere. magistratus. rex. -latum. legis. terra. -gni- tum. duco. f. learn. moveo. scivi. liberty. a long time. land. ending. -tatis. -i. f. -i. -onis. lingua. narrowness: narrow pass. f. move. discere. Lucius. mile. merchant. mercator. native land. factus sum. m. didici. plus. -i. mensis. mountain. multo. habito. iter. lead out. regis. ojf. angustiae. ductum. m.. sup.

nox. nunc. adesse. ex (e). partis. -a. -orum. iumentum. abl. peril. order not. no. or. (nee). order. pars. novus. m. -tra. pi. f. poena. adfui. -atum. -suasi. sua. ne. pono.334 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR populus. neque. consilium. near. -um. praise. present: be present. w. comparo. -oris. people. n. neighbors. -um. pitch (a sui. -erum. other (of two). -i. N. m. w. protect. M.. -a. possible. iussum. -us. ace. -a. noon. -ae.) (conj. populus. a superlative. -trum. prepare. m. causa. purpose: for the purpose. -itum. in. neither. on the next day. possession: get tior. -fendi. defendo. M. nearest. provincia. one. -are. f. pace. praeda. f. nature. neighboring. property: your property. -ud. -um. flnitimi. proximus. the alius. -ere. -eri. next. -um. -ere. pareo. -avi. -I. -um. polliceor. quam w. proximus. potens. nor. -ui. persuade. -avi. iussi. -itum. saepe. adsum. nation. persuadeo.. -fensum. quo. f. -um. passus. nullus. po-I. paro. -ae. postero die. new. now. N. w. f. ponere. -a. ace. noctis. peace. powerful. part. F. pax. . -are. pack animal. propter. ace. potentis. -ae.. -tatis. w. -avi. ad. our. none. not. debeo. alter. other (of more than two). nemini. dat. plunder. -suasum. n. m. f. numerus. overcome. m. nothing. -ei.. x. pleasing. locus. -1. on.) neuter. facultas. number. abl. -i. pacis. abl. n. aut. promise. gratus. -itus sum. neque non. over. -a. on account of. f. -a. possible: as — as sum. positum. meridies. -orum. periculum. nemo. of. I their property. debeo. place. -suadere. iubere. trans. -orum. out of. -itus possession po- sign of gen. -a. unus. supero. nihil. loca. natio. laudd. opportunity. -atum. ought. -iri. w. ' orator. province. punishment. finitimus. -i. plan. on all sides. m. -fendere. often. O obey. (adv. owe. in order: in order that. case. ut. ob. w. de. -onis. -ere. vestra. camp). (pron. -era. -tra.. -ui. night. noster. -trum. natura. -orum..) prope. -ui. -atum. -are. no one. -um. undique. -ae. -a. orator. iubeo. -i. of. ex.

-e. tum. -i.) cum.) -atum. -tra. video. ilia. petivi (petii). maneo. -ui. praemitto. the signal. memoria teneo. sister. -oris. fiumen. n. send. -visum. partis. regere. N. size. S f. divido. sum. recently. mansi. . scout. slavery. see. second. -urn. Seine. R f. N. -atum. -a. river. seek. mare. dicere. nuper. tentum. -i. -are. legi. brevis. f. f. -us. Romanus. recentis. ace. receive. -i. n. sake: for the sake. -ae. proficiscor. -cepi. -a. -orum. Rhodanus. report. servitus. citra. reversum. rexi. visum. inopia. quickly. rego. servant. Rhone. f. -us. senate. idem. -inis. -ae. -legi. n. -utis. m. remember. libero. small. ea. -cipere. -i. Rhenus. -ceptum. Quintus. royal power. since. -urn. -avi. nuntio. f. -videre. -ae. explorator. m. dixi. itineris.VOCABULARY sailor. -sistere. -veni. reward. -atum. return. idem. mJ. -trum. servus. rectum. -i. u. Sequana. w. read. this side of. -stiti. sail. -lecdeligo. -ae. on f. -ere. -urn. -fectus rest: the rest of. say. vidi. petere. undique. show. -inis. (noun) ius. lego. m. salus. side. dico. mittere. -ventum. peto. servus. se recipio. skillful. regina. right. w. -are. pars. -ae. videre. slave. f. regnum. recens. -ligere. sui. -a. -are. Romans. ratis. secundus. sides: sight. f. set out. navis. m. -ficisci. short. reliquus. -i. remain. causa. -avi. -avi. resist. m. she. graviter. raft. set free. via. ratis. praemium. legere. maris. scarcity. peritus. m. parvus. -a. -i. from all sides. road. -I. queen. recipio. dictum. -urn. scutum. signum. Rhine. -ae. senatus. reach (arrive at) pervenio. -cep- tum. lectum. soror. f. ship. -oris. eadem. (adj. recent. Romani. (conj. Quintus. m. -urn. petitum. -tutis. select. 335 nauta. celeriter. revertor.. . magnitudo. same. -atum. N. m. send ahead. -avi. conspectus. -i. -a. shield. iter. navigo. f. -visi. reverti. -venire. -are. retreat. -cipere. mansum. ad. separate. missum. ready. Rome. rule. . misi. Roma. paratus. dexter. severely. resisto. demonstro. safety. sea. navis. iuris. manere. Roman. reverti. N. n. mitto.. -urn. -cepi. -a.

thousand. tenth. express by ending -i. illi. f. turris. filius. -um. -oris. -tatis. tribe.. solis. alii — — that. they. suitable. f.) ut. m. strong. f. signum. tower. -um. their. -cessi. -quid. ace. locutus sum. today. too. f. praecedo. -are. fortis. decern. suus. -tatis. exis- arbitror. see this. -atum. illud. tree. throw. ea. ilia. ita. narro. tradere. teach. copiae. -e. some others. -a. -atum. own. such: in such a manner. id. -ae. m. idoneus. -i. via. -cedere. iacio. or ei. f. time. tres. -oris.). ipsi. -ui. -avi. street. iacere. town. subdue. eas. -are. three. traditum. -itum. militis. -atum. w. -avi. ieci. their alii. m. hoc. -are. soldier. sic.336 so. -atum. sufficiently. pilum. -cessum. celer. tarn. -um. dixi. -are. . magister. -feri. -avi. m. tradidi. -i. -urn. them. N. -ari.) is. tive) not expressed. loquor. -avi. trumpet. satis. through. think. -ere. eorum. ace. ea. dico. id. sui. celeris. -qua. -a. quam. surrender. m. -i. eae. if. (pron. -a. troops. expugno. tempus. (exple- these. -a. ad. iactum. earum. rei. -ui. gentis. summer. see that. trado. (conj. this. transporto. some. -a. civitas. themselves. decimus. -ere. -atus sum. paco. ut. territory. -ae. fines. dictum. f. swift. -ium. -um. f. lapidis. cepi. take. sun. ille. supero. -are. copia. terrify. f. eos. -i. celere. tertius. captum. gens. haec. those. res. civitas. sol. lapis. aestas. miles. capio. surpass. hodie. -arum. w. transport. f. m. (in standard bearer. sword. together. ut. stone. m.(prefix). signifer. is. aliquis. -atum. f. so that. case. tuba. there. una (adv.. that place). turris. hie. -are. m. -atum. third. -ae. sign of inf. teacher. gladius. -oris. spear. oppidum. -avi. tomorrow. -atum. puto. per. -tri. timo. capere. ea. (a town). ea. tantus. -a. dicere. n. mille. -ae. speak. sic. doceo. ten. of comp. doctum. -are. w. thing. than. tell. trader. -tatis. f. ibi. n. mercator. subj. -avi. sign of dat. con. terreo. to. loqui. arbor. eras. son. temporis. state. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR so great. standard. -ae. -avi. N. supply. tria. ending of verb. velox. -a.

quod. verbum. -a.. murus. -um. -a. -a.VOCABULARY try. quae. whose. valor. watch. abl. -i. whole. (interrog. -tutis. vulneris. unwide. warn. f. very few. vester. ipse. quis (qui).. n. exspecto. (verb) vulnero. water. (time). -i. -trum. U under. wait. r. village. which. late. -ere. see be. two hundred. hiemis. woman. yoke. -orum. quae. -i. until. dum. qui. were. wish. winter. wound. or tu. operis. -lectum. intellego. you.. -um. we. duo. -ui. -um. (of understand. twenty. -legere. -era. hortor. sign of abl. nolo. carrus. n. -ae. f. utrum. winter. m. ace. -ae. see we. cur. willing: be willing. be why. nolle. widely. aqua.) quis (qui). unlike. with. abl. -mis. volo. ending of verb. tamen. iter. or nos. uti. n. -eris.) quis. -atum. -are. latus. vicus. 337 conor. -ae. -i. wall. utor. n. victory. -atum. . -i. iugum. duae. m. vigilia. -a. whether. perpauci. -are. utra. volui. latitude. virtus. (intensive) very. Y year. -erum. -ari. dissimilis. victoria. sine. n. w. (of rest). -avi. viginti. via. -tra. -atum. sign of abl. where. -ae. hiberna. unfortunate. what. endmg of verb.. f. tuus. w. n. -um. w. moneo. use. -itum. f. volui. quid (quod). totus. -atus sum. -i.. -are. within. -a. two. -ne. -ae. sub. invitus. wagon. unwilling. -a. width. gestum. W wage. usus sum. -avi. -i. m. ipse. -um. was. dum. unfriendly. yourself. ending of sup. x. velle. without. -a. m. mulier. cum. qui. cum. while. inimicus. willing. (interrog. -ari. annus. yet. itineris. urge. quae. nolui. when. sum. cuius. work. f. (noun) vulnus. pass the hiemo. -avi. winter quarters. hiems. opus. -atus us. -lexi. way. gero. quid (quod). duo. ubi. word. (of motion) abl. -ae. gerere. velle. -e. bellum. who. quae. your. . gessi. f. war. w. -um. two) uter. see be. tu. ubi. ducentl. -um. -a. volo. miser. -a. f.

(cedo. include 500 words. induce. defendo. alphabetic order. procedo. apply. collect. order. defend.) discedo. pel. FIRST HALF YEAR VERBS ago. each half of the which are to be memorized. exspecto. advance. In each division the words are in first year. confirmo. audeo (-ere. amo. loco. adduco. commit. ausus). yield. intercept. go out. redigo (-ere. reduco. wait. cogo. accept. dare. encourage. lead away. go away. begin. put. 128 w. depart. excedo. reduce. hold. go forward. com- do. call. perduco. have. committo. redactum). mitto. drive. strengthen. intercipio. educo. consult. abduco. name. habeo. (-ere. intrust. debeo. . employ. drive together. ture. begin. lead forward. lose. say. The principal parts. prohibeo. await. existimo. incipio. prohibit. do. ought. consulo affirm. owe. -avi. appello. set. consider. lead out.VOCABULARY FOR THE FIRST YEAR As specified by the New York State Syllabus Adopted 191 7 The 250 for following lists. love. laboro (-are. except that compounds of verbs are grouped together. proelium. send away. indued. accipio. suffer. set free. dico. ven- capio. undertake. redegi. adhibeo. cut of. suscipio. send. think. expect. consul- libero. prevent. lead back. receive. ascertain. drive back. carry. and the gender are indicated for a few words that are not found in the general vocabulary of this book. take. turn). extend. lead through. cognosco. go. lead in. consului. lead. lead to. place. -atum) labor. learn. duco. produco. influence. iubeo. accomplish. render. give. the genitive case. gero. undertake. amittd.

horse. be possum. save fully. iniuria. dignitas. act. grain. iudicium. fight. dux. celeritas. wealth. friendship. horseman. advice. pugnd. reach. intermitto. 339 send away. animus. send back. frater. send ahead. NOUNS aestas. foresee. move. commoved. confine. timeo. influence. oppugnd. hurry. swiftness. provide. arma. farmer. language. capture by assault. be able. see. portd. precedent. pacd. navigd. summer. permit. summon. soul. fuga. discontinue. arms. nuntid. declare. eques. move back. brother. absum. grant. flight. tongue. excite. field. plan. tened. obtain. contined. fflius. position. hold together. mater. arouse. man. alarm. pertineo. hold back. amicitia. son. freedom. consilium. compard. flumen. god. provided. state. evoco. servo. permoved. cdnservd. example. enroll. be away. retineo. reputation. putd. winter. adsum. disturb. seek. trial. care. hindrance. aid. petd. judge. agricola. interrupt. contain. removed. lux. advise. leave behind. place. law. juror. iudex (iudicis. annus. voco. sustain. responded. . liber. dfligentia. hold. equus. deed. painstaking. -atum). help. auctoritas.VOCABULARY FOR THE FIRST YEAR dimitt''. baggage. spirit. carry. take. get ready. get together. occupy. prepare for. -avi. island. life. libertas. 23 lingua. remove. be. report. get. remitto. head. year. speed. scribd. consul. fama.). castra. homo. ager. cdnscribd. hold up. war. save. worth. extend. factum. frumentum. call out. camp. sustineo. sail. caput. memory. insula. pertain. book. oportet. bellum. filia. expugnd. M. moneo. judgment. citizenship. wrong. answer. consul. occupd. abandon. pacify. retain. attack. think. hiems. relinqud. sum. permitto. pi. mother. call. deus. be near. river. auxilium. seize. write. fortuna. call together. pard. impedimentum. thing done. fortune. convoco. preserve. intrust. moved. properd (-are. remind. fear. warn. leader. daughter. locus. exemplum. present. civitas. admoneo. it is necessary. keep. memoria. light. obtined. announce. lex. protect. video. praemitto.

highway. nomen. just. tempus. . name. Villa (-ae. by. into (w. periculum. porta. -que. supplicium. neighboring. level. road. unjust. PRONOUNS. ubi. kingdom. town. earth. PREPOSITIONS a (ab). bonus. princeps. longe. battle. safety. poena.340 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR regnum. finitimus. penalty. frequent. tryseat. . idem. aut aut. . farmhouse. barbarous. people. distinguished. father. socius. voice. and also. danger. garrison. afterwards.). courage. . on (w. numerus. creber. far. pecunia. .). ille. salus. queen. or. speech. e (ex). friend. unfriendly. postea. de. across. cur. rex. ad. certainly. with. slavery. even. business. punishment. victoria.) . inimicus. iam. soror. already. hie. peace. man. when. than. land. girl. manliness. cum. populus. good. pax. fair. puer. and. either . virtus. oppidum. duty. chief man. here. away from. concermng. egregius.). ADJECTIVES aequus. pro. sister. enemy. sign. before (prep. after. standard. barbarus. terra. the same. sed. conn- proelium. number. this. fixed 'certain. in behalf of. F. victory. courtesy. . non. praesidium. iniquus. king. -ne (sign of a question). as noun. down from. large. vita. in. hero. gate. boy. . abl. officium. vir. uneven. / and. aft certus. noun. etiam. but. nor. remark. he. high. friendly amplus. nunc. comrade. signal. trial. regina. unusual. ally. slave. natura. . altus. out from. life. (neque). in. hostile. that. silva. praemium. . through. before (adv. ac (atque). soldier. leader. servus. neither . . negotium. et. thick. per. trans. service. slgnum. nature. pater. turn. puella. forest. certe. post. even. behind. in front of. now. servitus. deep. unfavorable. vox. to. amicus. not. by this time. hie. ADVERBS CONJUNCTIONS. nee (neque) nee . then. miles. trouble. eminent. reward. where. time. quam. foreign. money. why. he. . ace). antea. ante. guard. via.

-ivi. throw against. shut off. who? reliquus. burn. publicus. stop. put in charge of. this. your. do. hurl. across. fail. se. throw across. add. hand over. throw to. recipio. the very. satisfacio. licet. small. public. timidus. reicio. medius. -atum). oppose. -dedi. . traicio. our. -atum). show. hesitate. (died.VOCABULARY FOR THE FIRST YEAR integer (-gra. . teach. cut off. instruct. large. order. confine. conicio. go before. .) traduco. the rest. begin. late. arouse. quis. with- draw. is. -crum). longus. notus. lego. put away. self. conficio. antecedo. interficio. make. yield. remaining. -grum). mine. // is lawful. throw out. draw near to. mainder of. claudo. novus. confido (-ere. . accept. my. w. hurl. pauci.) excipio. audio. facio. rebel. pick. shut out. come up. long. lead. read. hear. hide. deligo. trust. ipse. that. 341 . -avi. tuus. . praecipio. -atum). iacio. concito (-are. sleep.) obicio. known. SECOND HALF YEAR VERBS appropinquo. . middle meus. vester. first belonging to tenth. eripio. . slow. cupio. repair. . order. ignoro (-are. deicio. coepi. command. permitted. whole. free. snatch away. (capio. hinder. -avi. (do. point out. add. dubito (-are. eicio. fearful. revolt. succedo. be abdo. proach. precede. accomplish. ad do. throw. the liber. state. doubt. praedico. of. few. circumdo (-dare. -datum). doceo. primus . ignorant of. throw down. adicio. vise. finish. ten. unus decern. ap- dormio (-ire. exchido. take. one verus. succeed. demonstro. incendo. surround. put around. sacred. unimpaired. reficio. throw forward. official. . trado. satisfy. excite. middle. ad- (ducd. pierce. decimus. choose. . -avi. say. pulcher. cedo. he. your. praeficio. noster. exhaust. true. give. go. proicio.) foretell. close. take. impedio. select. sacer (-era. -itum). throw back. re- magnus. desire. perficio. beautiful. parvus. reddo. imperd. gather. intercludo. new. kill. deficio. . tardus. confisus). give back. take back . lead.

be lacking. excite. sedi. outcome. line of battle. genus. traho. day. remain. grt. oppress. sit.) contendo. surround. wound. ascend. spero. come around. depono. praesum. age. condition. wing (of army). iter. remain. pressum). hostis. imperator. difficulty. of. corpus. M. a coming aetas. assume. inquire. ostendo. overcome. house. sedeo (-ere. vulnero. journey. envy. difficultas. to the assistance. stretch. press!. beneficium. depth. sensi. excel. citizen. scio. maneo.342 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR servio (-ire. hate. come together. obsedi. desisto. climb. (scando. circumvenio. justice. pono. horn. copia.) persuaded. cavalry. praise. venio. size. arrive. domus. explain. arrange. seek.) exstruo. fides. stay be/r'rd. convenio. obsideo (-ere. desire. descend. put aside. impello. commander general. pi. tractum. put down. repulse. expello.) desum. remain. oppono. arrange. right. NOUNS acies.) invideo. forces. take one's place. be in command sumo. show. exercitus. (sum. hasten. (terreo. (struo. instruo. put before. sentio (-ire. look on. realize.) -itum). come upon. send yield to. ius.) perterreo. serve* (sisto. dolor (-oris. cohort. see. importance- . resisto.). injure. munio. power. risi. dies. hold out. noceo. laugh. altitudo. (mitto. magnitudo. permaned. good faith. despero. remaned. tempto. civis. stand. boundaries. adventus. stand. fortify. finis. press..zd. race.) consisto. come. frighten. besiege. body. cohors. expono. premo (-ere. alarm. (tendo. army. departure. conquer. place. put. test. surpass. lack. gruf. arrival. erect. rideo (-ere. hope. try. take.). put against. need. cease. traxi. laus. climb. a going forth. drive out.. condicid. resist. be. pello. inopia. territory* enemy (of the state). attempt. lose hope. cupiditas. despair. send. descendo. come through. habit. kind. sessum). rlsum). ascendo. persuade. end. feel. oppose. -ivi. odi (ddisse). cornu. (to). pile up. consuetudo. pile up. terms. propose. custom. drive on. protection. defeat. pervenio. invenio. quaero. (video. find. supply . submitto. command. vinco. repello. exitus (-us. equitatus. prdpono. struggle. drive. supero. set forth. kindness. imperium. pi. . -ere. sensum). desist from. home. M. know. obsessum). drive back. drag. height.

inter. plenus. authority. much. govem- navigium. force. PREPOSITIONS acriter. death. one thousand. nam. manner. fear. every. res publica. serious. between. art of war. propter. celer. mare. skilled^ experienced.). for. M. pertaining gravis. multum. with care. PRONOUNS. sea. all. multitudo. in truth. quod. account. pons. part. mate. mors.. (-tris. thing. military affairs. passus. common. strength. unharmed. right (hand). equal. military. diligenter. not even. at least. ADVERBS. many.). quickly. rank. time. res. force. fortiter. brave. res militaris. ship. nox. urgent. but. necessarius. easy. F. difiicilis. night. equester. mind. sine. senatus. of the household. cavalry (adj. group. violence.).. omnis. -tre). light (in weight). incolumis. easily. if. at the house of. certainly. of. vulnus. step. well. immortalis. boat. mille. urbs. necessary. famous. moreover. idoneus. vero. pedester (adj. among. serisi.. fortis. [ment. celeriter. without mortal. desirous. enim (postpositive). spes. swift. militaris. multus. dexter. two hundred. autem bene. power. ously. safe.). hundred. potestas. keenly. spatium. meanwhile. across. infantry trumentarius. 343 manner. among. difficult. commonwealth. keen. ample.). to grain. nobilis (knowable). par. ADJECTIVES acer. /. facile. chance. senate. quite. trans. theory. ducenti. enough. on account satis. . ratio. pi. inti- pi. mons. hand. wound. navis. supplies. city. indeed '. pars. bravely. ob. quidem. sharply. speech. res frumentaria. timor. ne . magnopere. familiaris. ©ratio. CONJUNCTIONS. heavily. pace. vis. interim. full. /or. (postpositive). im~ centum. . space. fit. modus (-1. class. turris ordo tower. because. sharp. quidem (postpositive). weightily. (-dinis. facilis. heavy. swiftly. on account of. levis. fully. mens (mentis. pi. distance. cupidus. multitude. ego. speaking. suitable. noble. much. eager.VOCABULARY FOR THE FIRST YEAR manus. apud. death. hope. M. without. bridge. peritus. greatly. . graviter. mountain. communis.

(own). selves. singularis. viginti. like. their talis. such. her. tu. who. . left (hand). alive. six hundred. vivus. you. single. trecentl. his. undecim . similis.344 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR sui (of) himself. sescenti. sinister. three hundred. praesens. . . quadringenti. fresh. propinquus. them- suus. itself. its. a relative. . eleven . qui. new. twenty. recens. present. unusual. recent. herself. near. four hundred. .

conjugation of. 222. 49. of condition. of measure of difference. Attributive adjective. b. Causal clauses. of duration of time. etc. 67. of purpose. 517. of description. with facio. 58. 403. finitive. 107. 528. 448. of first and second declensions. fid. classified. 16-18. Ablative. of place from which. possessive. 120. of separation. Cause. Abbreviations. ablative of. ablative of. of cause. . 243. 136. 118. 621. of relative pronoun. Cases. 448. a. 522. 292. 315-318. Characteristic vowel. 319. 127. with certain prepositions. 149. comparison 466-481. of adjective. of time. 98. 564. of manner. 259. Apposition. 612. 65. of specification. nominal. reviewed. 198. 512. review of. Clauses. 291. 573- Agreement. 26. 361. view of. predicate. 214. numeral. 245. 315-317. 137. of result. page 288. 120. 446- declension of. ordinal. 639. Accusative. with certain deponents. of direct object. 612. B Base. 190. Answers. declension of comparative. 361. agreement of. 469. 66. 353. of. used as nouns. used as nouns. of. U5 . of place to which. 605. 472. subject of in- capio. of extent of space. 76. denned. 47. 438. 377. of verbs. of appositive. Abstract nouns. of participle. 628. 643. formation and comparison of. 49. of cause. pro115. of means. 99. 331. 282. dative of. 342. defined. 42. Agent. of predicate noun. of agent. 473 of place in which. 531. table of. 39. Case endings. 126. attributive. gender Accent. absolute. predicate. 136. 487-489. alter. 420. genitive with. Adjectives. 329. 97. 598.INDEX The numbers refer to sections. Accompaniment. 541.. of accompaniment. of time. dative with. 242. re- alius. 134. of third declension. 149. ablative of. of comparison. with prepositions. Adverbs. 541. 518. 156. 118. 411. defined. certior. Cardinal numerals. 120. unless otherwise indicated. 221.

Conjugations. 289. 23. first. 95. 136. 229. Conditional sentences. Complementary infinitive. with ablative of ac- -que. how to say. first. 146. 597. 57i. 348- Comparative adjective. fid. of comparatives. classified. 374. 214. 598. Comparison. 48. 60. 171-173. of adverbs. with . of the whole. of subjunctive. with certain. third. 49. Gender. 572 . of par556. defined. with verbs of special meaning. Genitive. 147. defined. LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR Demonstrative pronouns. 379. E eius and suus. dative Duration of time. distinguished. 573. 373. 156. special meanings of. 529. 105. 236. declen35o. review of. ticiples. 50. (prep. 179. distinguished. 186. general rule. 638.). verbs. 291: Compounds sum. 73. with certior. Future perfect indicative. 458. 32. 104. with compound verbs. cum cum (conj. fero. second. of possession. 612. 107. 3°7- Declension. page 128. 512. ablative 481. 251. fourth. 59. third. 306. genitive and ablative of. fourth. case. et. of adjectives. of possessor. participle. 178. in third declension. 74. Deponent verbs. 466-481. infinitive. 56. 454. 226-228. 611. distinguished. causal. 162-165. 634. personal. a. 469. 137. note 2. 8789.346 coepi. 58. 285-288. 632. of indicative. 403. 456. distinguished. poral. 39o. 456. Complex sentences. fifth. a. 531. 234-236. 352. 53 1Direct object. 155. 42. 469. 375. of manner. atque. 308. a. 488. 509. Enclitic. 245. 400. 196. Conjunctions. 43. 330. 155. 18. 105. tem- eo. 235. of 277. 31-33. 208-210. a. 234-236. of indirect object. Endings.). 86. Compound with. denned. Dative. companiment. 326-228. enclitic. 556. 472. 125. ablative of. do. Future. 214. of agent. dum. a. of adjectives. 634. third conjugation in -io. 365. passive of facio. from. of description. 604. of infinitive. 368. indicative. review of. Declensions. 620. 227. Description. objective. 436. 270-273. 104. no. 489. 46. second. 605. b. 219. sion of. conjugation of. a. use of. 376. conjugation of. with adjectives.

104. 33. endings. 109. 431. 359. 196. 407. declension of. is and sui. Manner. Object. 579. 227.INDEX adjectives. 448. 251-253. future perfect. 633. > '> . Idioms. 306'. a. Noun 438. 55°Imperfect tense. 520. Infinitive. 436. N 196. Imperative mood. Impersonal verbs. 502. 348. Order of words. 358. 185188. 519.. 259. uses of. present. ille. imperfect. Ordinal adjectives. defined. 279. indicative. Measure of difference. of result. 419. 375. 60. 147. subjunctive. with advise. with potior. 473. ablative of. declension of. is. Gerund. 391. 338. 342. 7. future. of. no. 73. 191 predicate. as subject. etc. 386. . mule. Indicative. Indefinite pronouns. 208. Indirect object. ablative of. 618. 580. Numerals. of syllables. 236. 403. 619. 374. 308. 390. ^view Indirect question. 60. subject of. Genitive singular nouns in -ium. Interrogative adjective. verbs persuade. 558. 155. Participles. 599. 392. H M hie. 42. 365. Genitive plural in -ium. 96. perfect. complementary. 261. 528. 376. ne. 627. 436. present. Historical present. 501. 538. nolo. 456. 235. clauses. direct. 185-188. 68 and page 286. 297-299. of. Length Length of vowels. 26. 327. 549. 308. of Irregular verbs. a. 13-15- Locative case. Moods. 424- 427. Nominative. distinguished. 539. S*9- 517. pluperfect. ipse and sui. 456. indirect. 106 perfect. 146. idem. future active. 307. declension of. 66. 137Means. endings. 326. 347 353. Gerundive. distinguished. 47. Interrogative pronoun. 349. 339-341Intensive pronoun. 581. -ius. in the a review 99. future. in clauses of purpose.

stem. 145. Personal endings. 329. to which. 458. 559. 186. 410. Result. 408. 367. Pronouns. 261. perfect. 365. 146. subjunctive. reflexive. 329. 82. indicative active. ablative of. indicative active. with perfect tive. 106. 250. participle. 556.348 LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR 390. ad- Review jective. intensive. Present. 393. 73. ablative of. Periphrastic 572. 97. lessons. present. perfect. 418. 146. Passive voice. subjunctive. Relative pronoun. Pluperfect. Stems. 463. 155. 260. 50. subjunctive. tive. 32. from which. with 197. in indirect . in comparisons. 141. present. 556-5 59. 538. general uses of. phrases. 358. classified. interrogaa. a. 250. 384. Personal pronouns. quo. 258. Specification. Questions. indefinite. 326. how expressed. 588. 397. 348-350. postquam. 556. 328. 132-135. 249. with subjunctive. 20. indicative passive. 251. quam. 538. 204. 67. 338. 638. 621. indefinite. 443. 280. 429. 325. 446-448. infinitive. Prepositional 219. 511. 310. 506-508. 190. 251253. 429. 377. Sequence of tenses. infinitive. Purpose. 502. b. 367. 327. supine. 134. 572. 571. 546. 57i. conjugations. 222. 385. 277. Prefixes. 472. 643. Secondary tenses. Primary tenses. 411. Perfect. 497-499. 424-427 in causal clauses. 328. 297-299. 420. 556-559Parts of speech. 282. system. endings of. Subjunctive. 501. demonstrative. imperfect. 373. interrogative. 3-6. clauses of. possum. in conditions. 589. in which. 33. 391. 492. indicative passive. 559. Prepositions. 417. accusative. extent of. 315-318. Space. 104. indicative. Place. 556. 632. Possessive adjectives. 33. 33. Principal parts. . Possession. system. active. 325. 146. 522. Pronunciation. 419. 383. 541. 325. 385. 430. 359. 267^ 322. 221. superlative. 384. indirect. page 122. 120. indica- Reflexive pronoun. footnote 1. by genitive. relative. 589. 556. Separation. expressed by dative. 612. nominative. 444. participle. stem. Pronominal adjectives. $&3. 326. passive. 127. personal. Predicate. 147. 539. 281. 260. qui. 540. 328. future passive. 509. quis. 593.

page 122. Tense signs. in temporal clauses. how to say. summary of. 449. reviewed. system. 586. 310. 605. 384. 186. volo. 426. forms and uses. 24. 429. Superlative with quam. 135. 589. 448. sequence of. 420. priusquam. with dum. 492. Synonyms. 628. 418.INDEX 501. duration of. 438. 294. W Temporal clauses. 605. ablative of. 595. with postquam. 589. present. review of forms. three stem. jugation of. pluperfect. Systems. 510. Suffixes. perfect indicative. Syllables. 446. 156. of to. clauses of. 618. ut clauses. in purpose clauses. Synopsis of verbs. 509. questions. named. a. a. 26. 506-508. perfect. 309. 133. 291. how to say. of adjectives. 47. 1. Vocative case. 551. 454. 512. 24 . Subordinate clauses. 180. a. nouns. Third conjugation in -io. Tenses. con- U ubi. 497-499.. sui. in 349 noun ubi. 417. 548. 408-410. 309. 184. 292. in result clauses. compounds of. 605. primary and secondary. footnote 587. with. 510. 512. sum. Time. stem. Verbs. clauses. 174. with cum. with 310. Supine. 418. agreement of. 251. 43o. 9-15.

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