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LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


BT

WALTER

B.

GUNNISON,
AND

Ph.D.
NEW YORK

LATE PRINCIPAL OF ERASMUS HALL HIGH SCHOOL, BROOKLYN,

WALTER

S.

HARLEY, A.M.

TEACHER OF LATIN, ERASMUS HALL HIGH SCHOOL

SILVER,

BURDETT AND COMPANY BOSTON NEW YORK CHICAGO

Copyright, 1915, 1917, by

SILVER,

BURDETT AND COMPANY

PREFACE
"

Latin for the First Year


direct

"

is

intended to prepare, in a simple

and

To

manner, for the reading of Latin authors. achieve the utmost simplicity of treatment consistent with

thoroughness and to make the study of Latin interesting were the chief aims of the authors.
Inflections.

To

pupils speaking English only, a highly inflected


difficulties.

language naturally presents special

The variety

of

case endings, tense endings, and tense signs, grammatical gender, the agreement of adjectives, and the order of words, are all pracRealizing that for tically new to the minds of beginners in Latin.

the pupil the most important

work

of the first year is to learn the

have endeavored to present At the beginning only one case is these clearly and logically. declension is learned. In the third in until the first a given lesson, declension the difficulties have been reduced to a minimum. Only one tense is given at a time in the development of the verb. Experience seems to show that it is best to contrast the forms of one tense in the different conjugations and later to contrast the tenses of each conjugation as a whole by synopses. Declensions and conjugations
inflections of the language, the authors

are given in alternate lessons, so far as possible. Syntax. In the matter of syntax the authors have endeavored
to avoid the error of attempting to teach all in one year. Only the The independent uses of the subessentials, therefore, are given.

junctive are omitted entirely.

The subordinate

clauses are those

of purpose, result, indirect question, and the more common clauses of time, cause, and condition. Much use is made of the infinitive

with subject accusative. Prepositional phrases are carefully distinguished, and the important ablative absolute is fully explained.

Rules and principles are derived inductively. Comparison is constantly made with English usage, though a thorough knowledge of
the technicalities of English

grammar

is

not assumed.

Vocabulary. The vocabulary of the eighty-two lessons includes about seven hundred words, which with few exceptions are used by

60553 9

VI

PREFACE

Caesar. Words related in meaning are associated, and simple The derivation words are given before their compound forms. of English words is emphasized. Exercises. In the Latin exercises the purpose has been to make short sentences that are intelligible in themselves, and not dependent upon the context of an author. Many sentences have been adapted, however, from the reading matter for the second year. For variety many interrogative sentences are used in the exercises; to these, so far as possible, answers should be given in Latin, as an excellent drill in forms. The constant aim has been to fix firmly
repetition in the exercises the important principles of syntax explained in the lessons.

by frequent
Reviews.

Much

emphasis has been

laid

in the twelve special review lessons, but also in the

upon reviews, not only summaries of


In the

forms and constructions, whenever a

series is terminated.

Appendix the inflections and rules of syntax are brought together. Connected Reading. Short paragraphs for reading begin in Lesson X.
fied

In Lessons
of

XLII-LXXXII
first

portions

Caesar's

Bellum Helveticum.

these paragraphs are simpliFollowing the


is

lessons this story of Caesar's

campaign

repeated, but with

fewer changes from the exact words of Caesar. A section of fables and short stories in Latin has been added for general interest. Quotations. The many standard quotations from Latin writers

be appreciated by pupils as part of their permanent possession, and in a measure will form a connecting link between the study of Latin and its practical use in our present-day activities.
will

The authors wish to acknowledge their indebtedness to Mr. E. W. Harter, Head of the Classical Department, Erasmus Hall High School, and to Mr. Walter E. Johnson, Head of the Latin Department, Lane Technical High School, Chicago, 111., who have given
suggestions during the preparation of the manuscript and the reading of the proof; and to J. B. Lippincott Company for the privilege of reproducing illustration of a Roman warship from " Ships and Ways of Other Days," by E. K. Chatterton.

many valuable

Brooklyn, N. Y., August

i,

1915.

CONTENTS
Page

Introduction:
Lesson
I.

The Latin Language


Pronunciation

The Alphabet.
Syllables.

3
5
7

II.

Accent

III.

The Nominative Case. The Verb sum IV. The First Conjugation: Present Tense, Active
Voice

9
11

... The Accusative Case. The Direct Object The Genitive VI. The First Declension: Singular.
V.

Case

12
.

The First Declension: Plural. The Dative Case VIII. The Ablative Case. Order of Words IX. The Second Conjugation: Present Tense. The
VII.

15

18

Accusative with Prepositions

20
23

X. Review

XL

Gender.

The Second Declension:

Masculine
24

Nouns
XII. The Second Declension: Neuter Nouns.
Apposi-

and Predicate Nouns XIII. The Third and Fourth Conjugations:


tive

28

Present
31
of Adjec-

Indicative.

The Present

Infinitive

XIV. Adjectives
tives

in -us, -a, -urn.


in

Agreement
-er.

33 Adjectives
Possessive

XV. Nouns and

Pro-

nominal Adjectives

36

XVI. Prepositional Phrases XVII. Review XVIII. The Passive Voice:

39
41

XIX.

The Present Indicative. Ablative of the Agent The Passive Voice: Present Indicative (Completed).

42
46

Third Conjugation in

-io

Vlll

CONTENTS
Lesson

Page

Nouns XXI. The Third Declension: Nouns


Declension:
perfect Indicative of

XX. The Third

in

-1,

-6, -r

49
51

in -s, -x.

The Im-

sum

XXII. The Third Declension: Neuter Nouns in -men, -us. The Future Indicative of sum XXIII. The Imperfect Tense, Indicative Active. The
Predicate Accusative

54
56

XXIV. The

Imperfect Tense, Indicative Passive.

Ques59 62
.

tions

and Answers

XXV. Review
XXVI. The Third Declension: Genitive Plural in -ium XXVII. The Third Declension: Gender; Special Nouns XXVIII. The Ablative Case: Separation; Place from Which XXIX. The Future Tense, Indicative (Conjugations I and
.

63

65
67

II)

69
72

XXX. The
XXXI.

Future Tense, Indicative (Conjugations III and IV) Adjectives of the Third Declension. The Dative with Adjectives
Perfect Tense, Indicative Active Perfect Tense, Indicative Passive

74
77

XXXII. The XXXIII. The

81

XXXIV. Review

84
87
Case.

XXXV. The
XXXVI.

Fourth Declension

Prefixes.

The Locative

Expressions of
89
of

Place Reviewed

XXXVII. The Fifth Declension. Expressions XXXVIII. The Pluperfect Indicative

Time

92

94
of the In-

XXXIX. The

Future Perfect Indicative. dicative. Synopses XL. Pronominal Adjectives

Review

97
102

XLI. Review XLII. The Relative Pronoun qui. The Interrogative Pronoun quis. Complex Sentences. Clauses
.

104
106
109
113 116

XLIII. The Present

Infinitive. The Uses of the Infinitive XLIV. The Demonstrative Pronouns hie, ille, iste. The

Objective Genitive

XLV. The

Perfect Infinitive.

The Ablative
is

of

Cause

XL VI.

The Demonstrative Pronoun

118

CONTENTS
Lesson

iX
Page
of the Infinitive.

XL VII. XL VIII.
L. LI. LII. LIII.

The Future Infinitive. Review The Ablative of Specification

122

Personal and Reflexive Pronouns

126 129
131

XLIX. The Demonstrative Pronoun idem. The Intensive


Pronoun ipse Review

Deponent Verbs. Deponents


pose

The Ablative with Certain


133
Active.
Passive.

The Present Subjunctive The Present Subjunctive


pose

Clauses of Pur136

Negative Pur139
142 147

LIV. The Imperfect Subjunctive. Primary and Secondary Tenses LV. The Dative with Special Verbs. Noun Clauses with ut, or ne LVI. The Verb possum. Clauses of Result LVII. Compounds of sum. The Dative with Compound Verbs. The Dative of the Possessor .... LVIII. Review

150
153 155

LIX. Comparison
parison

of Adjectives.

The Ablative

of

Com157 161
163 166

LX. Irregular Comparison of Adjectives LXI. Adverbs: Their Formation and Comparison LXII. The Perfect Subjunctive. Indirect Questions LXIII. The Pluperfect Subjunctive. Review of the Sub. .

junctive.

Temporal Clauses with cum


Adjectives.

168
173

LXIV. Cardinal Numeral


Extent

The Accusative

of

LXV.
LXVI.

Ordinal Adjectives. The Genitive of the Whole. The Genitive and Ablative of Description
.

176

Indefinite Pronouns. Review of Pronouns. view of Prepositions

Re178
181

LXVII. Review. Certain Noun Suffixes LXVIII. The Imperative Mood. The Vocative Case LXIX. Participles: The Present and the Perfect ... LXX. The Ablative Absolute LXXL The Future Participles. The Dative <>f the Agent LXXII. The Gerundive. The Gerund
.
.

183

185

iSS
191

193

X
Lesson

CONTENTS
Page
of Purpose.

LXXIII. The Supine. Review of Expressions The Three Stem Systems

196
199 200

LXXIV.

Review.

Adjective Suffixes
flo.

LXXV. The

Irregular Verb

Idioms

LXXVI. The verb eo. Temporal Clauses LXXVII. The Verb fero. Causal Clauses
LXXVIII. The Verbs
void and nolo.

204
207

Conditional Sentences
of

209
212 215 217 218
221

LXXIX.

Impersonal
Clauses

Verbs.

Review

Subordinate

LXXX. Review of Conjunctions. Review of the Nominative and Genitive LXXXI. Review of the Dative and the Accusative ... LXXXII. Review of the Ablative The War with the Helveth, Caesar, Book I, Chapters 1-29, Adapted Supplementary Reading New York State Additional Supplementary Reading
.

234
253
267

Syllabus

Appendix Table of Abbreviations Latin-English Vocabulary English-Latin Vocabulary Vocabulary for the First Year
labus

302 303

New

328

York State

Syl-

338
345

Index

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
PAGE

The Roman Forum. A restoration Frontispiece A Roman Emperor on his Way to the Baths. AlmaTadema
xiv
8

A Roman Trumpet A Street in Pompeii


Writing Materials used by Romans ...... Roman Girl Coin of Julius Caesar The Ancient Porta Ostiensis. Now known as the
Porta San Paolo

14
15 17 18

22 25

The Appian Way An Ancient Roman Sword


Signum
(Aquila)

29

30
36 38
41 43
of

Roman Youth
Standard Bearers Books of Ancient Rome

The Roman Forum


Porta Asinaria.

as it looks today
the wall about

Showing part

Rome Roman Horsemen The Roman Army Marching

48
53

out.

bas-relief

on Trajan's Column The Rhone and the Alps, St. Maurice, Switzer-

55

land Roman Foot Soldier

58 61
65

Roman War Ship Roman Bridge, Narni, Italy The Alps, Pontresina, Switzerland

69
72

Xii

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

PAGE

A Standard Bearer A Roman Emperor in


Scutum
L.

76

Military Attire

79
83

Cornelius Sulla House oe the Vetii, Pompeii, Italy Statue of a Roman Matron Attack on a German Fortress. As depicted on the column of Marcus Aurelius Captives Pleading for Mercy from a Roman

85 86
91

97
101

Conqueror

A Roman

Festival.

Alma-Tadema
. .

103 105 112


115

Julius Caesar A Street Scene in Ancient Rome. E. Forte ... Statue of a Roman dressed in the Toga Lake Geneva. The ancient Lacus Lemannus ... A Scene along the Rhine Temple in the Forum Boarium Ruins of Palace of the Caesars, Palatine
Hill, Rome Romans passing
vetians.

124
13.2

138

140

under the Yoke of the Hel146

Charles Gleyre

View of the Rhine River Ruins of a Roman Aqueduct

159
172

The Meta Sudans.


E. Levy

fountain near the Colosseum.


184

Panels from the Painting "The Triumph of


Caesar." Andrea Mantegna 202, View of Rome as it looks today A Roman Woman and her Maids. /. Coomans. Double page map (colored) showing places mentioned in this book Following
.

.......

203 210

219

220
233
252

Roman Eagle and Oak Wreath


Looking toward the Palatine Hill from the

Forum

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


INTRODUCTION
THE LATIN LANGUAGE
Latin, the language of the ancient Romans, derived
its

name from
Italy,

the Latini

(la-tl'nl),

who spoke

it

first.

The

Latini inhabited

Latium (la/shi-um), a district of central and became the founders of Rome, their capital city.

Beginning in 753 B.C. (the traditional date), Rome extended her dominion over all Italy, and finally over all the territory surrounding the Mediterranean, which comprised the civilized world of that time.

Latin was the chief language of this vast empire. During the twelve centuries of Roman history (753 B.c-476 a.d.)

The languages do. ''golden age" (80 B.c-17 a.d.) was the period of the best writers, including Caesar, Cicero, the poets Vergil and
the language changed greatly, as
all

Horace, and others.


that

It is

mainly the Latin

of this period

we study to-day. The Latin language, however,


In
its

did not end with the


it

Roman

empire.

literary

form

continued to be used by

statesmen, lawyers, clergymen, physicians, and scholars in The Magna Charta general, until the time of Shakespeare. charter of the famous English liberties, was (121 5 a.d.),
written in Latin.

Such men as Erasmus (1466-1536), leader of the literary world of his age, and Sir Isaac Newton (16421727), discoverer of the law of gravitation, wrote their works in the language of Caesar and Cicero.
1

The English pronunciation


on page
288.

of proper

names

is in

accordance with the

table of sounds

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

As a spoken language Latin never ceased to be used in Italy, France, Spain, and Portugal, but grew into different forms or dialects, which we now call Italian, French, SpanThese national tongues are together ish, and Portuguese. called Romance languages, that is, modern forms of the language of the Romans.
It
is

of greater

importance to us that our English


this historic

is

also

very closely related to

language.

Our words

have come from many different sources, but chiefly from Anglo-Saxon and Latin. It has been said that English gets most of its strength from Anglo-Saxon and most of its refinement from Latin. The majority of the words in our Some of these have not dictionaries are of Latin origin. changed in form or meaning for two thousand years, as
actor,

animal, census,

superior, victor.
dirigible,

color, error, honor, labor, minus, plus, Others have been coined in recent years, as This coining of new words incubator, locomotive.
still

from Latin elements

goes on from year to year.

THE STUDY OF LATIN


Among
i.

the reasons for the study of Latin are the following:

one a clearer knowledge of the meaning of English words, two-thirds of which are of Latin origin. 2. It provides a better understanding of English syntax. 3. It is the foundation of other modern languages and is
It gives

a good basis for the study of language in general. 4. It makes clear the terms of law, medicine, and other
sciences.
5.

It trains

6. It affords
7.

It

one in the power of expression. an excellent training of the mind. helps one to appreciate more fully the
civilization of the

literature,

thought, and

Romans, upon which our

own

are so largely based.

THE ALPHABET

LESSON
The Latin alphabet
it

THE ALPHABET
1. is

the

same

as the English, except

that
2.

has no

and no w.
are a, e,
i,

The vowels
a.

o, u,

and

y.

The other

letters

are consonants.
i is used for either a vowel or a consonant generally a consonant between vowels: ma'ior, major, greater; and at the beginning of a word when followed by a vowel: Iulius, Julius.

The

letter
is

sound.

It

PRONUNCIATION
according to the Roman method, as nearly as can be determined. A vowel is either long or short. Long vowels 4. Vowels.
3.

Latin

is

now pronounced

are

marked

thus: a, e,
are:

I,

6,

u; vowels not marked are short.


Short

The sounds

Long

a as in father e as in they
l

a as in along, Cuba e as in net


i

as in machine

as in

it

6 as in ode

o as in obey

as in rude
in

as in pull 2

y (found only

words of Greek

man
5.

origin) is like

French u or Ger-

il.

Diphthongs.

The common diphthongs (double sounds)


and
oe,

are ae, pronounced as ai in aisle; au, as ou in our; as oi in oil.


a.

In a few words the following occur:

ei,

pronounced as

in eight;
1

eu, like eh'ee; almost like we.

and

ui, like oo'ee

rapidly uttered,

A long vowel requires twice the time of a short vowel in pronunciation. 2 u has the sound of w in -ngu- preceding a vowel, in qu-, and in the words suavis, suaded, suesco.
2

4
6.

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

Consonants. The consonants are pronounced as in English, with the following exceptions:

b has the sound


C
is

of

p before

s or

t.

always hard, as in can.


like k.
get.

ch

is

g
i

is

always hard, as in

(consonant) is like y in yet. s is like s in son or this, not as in


/

his.

t is like

in native, in wet.

not as in nation.

is like

x, a

double consonant

= cs

or gs),
11,

is

like

x in

extra.

Doubled consonants such nounced separately, with a

as cc,

mm,

ss, tt are to

be pro-

distinct

sound

for each: mit'to.

LENGTH OP VOWELS
long or short chiefly by observation, but the following rules are to be noted:
7.
is

We

learn whether a vowel

a.

vowel vowel vowel

is

generally short before another vowel or h:


short before

di'es,
b.

day;

ni'hil, nothing.
is

A
A A

nd

or nt

and before

final

m or

t:

por'tant, they carry; por'tat, he carries.


c.

is

long before nf, ns, nx, or net: In'fans, infant:


is

iunc'tus, joined.

vowel resulting from contraction co-a'go, / bring together.


d.

long: co'go, from

EXERCISE IN PRONUNCIATION
8.
1.

pax, ab, ad.


5.
tii,

2.

me,

rex, et.

3.

hi,

id, is.
7.

4.

sol,

quod.
8.

tu'us.

6.

prae,

aut,

poe'na.

cui,

huic.

seu, dein'de. 9. cen'tum.


13.

10. pul'cher.

11. gens.

12.

iam,

hii'ius.

pes, vir.

14. urbs, dux.

SYLLABLES

LESSON

II

SYLLABLES
with or syllable consists of a vowel or a diphthong, without one or more consonants. Hence a word has as many
9.

syllables as

it

has vowels and diphthongs: aes'tas, summer;

mag-ni-tu'do, greatness.

u is not a vowel in qu and sometimes gu and Exception, 1 su these combinations are treated as single consonants:
;

a'qua, water.

In dividing words into syllables, a single consonant between two vowels goes with the second: pa'ter, father.
10.

Exception.
their

Prepositional

compounds
is

are

divided

into

component

parts: ab'est, he

away.

11.

If

two or more consonants occur between vowels, the


is

before the last consonant: ma-gis'ter, vinc'tus, bound.


division
Exception.
r: cas'tra,

master;

mute 2 followed by
pu'bli-cus, public.

or r goes with the

or

camp;

The last syllable of a word is called the ultima; the to the last, the penult; the one before the penult, the next
12.

antepenult.

LENGTH OF SYLLABLES
Syllables are long or short. contains a short vowel not followed
13.

syllable by two or

is

short

if it

more conso-

nants: vi'a, way; vi'det, he


14.

sees.

long by nature if it contains a long vowel or a diphthong: ma'ter, mother; nau'tae, sailors.
syllable
is
1

See page 3, footnote Of the consonants, p,

2.

b,

t,

d, c,

g are called mutes;

1, r,

liquids.

6
15.

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

syllable is long by position if it contains a short in the same word by x or z, or by any two followed vowel consonants except a mute 1 with 1 or r u'xor, wife; an-gus'tus,
:

narrow.

ACCENT
16.

A A

word word

of

two

syllables

is

accented on the
is

first:

pu'er,

boy.
17.

of three or

more

syllables

accented on the
if

penult if that is long: a-ml'cus, friend; on the antepenult the penult is short: bre'vi-tas, brevity.
18.

-que {and) and a few other words are called

enclitics,

being joined to a preceding Enclitics require an accent

word and pronounced with it. upon the syllable preceding

them, regardless of

its

length: ar-ma'que, and arms.

EXERCISE IN ACCENT
19.
fllii.

i.

silva,

causa, tabula.

2.

miles, milites.

3.
6.

fllius,

4.

digitus,

Germanus.
7.

5.

nati5, nationes.
8.

merca*

tor, mercatores.

iiinior,

oppidum.
obtinet,

terraque, homines11.

que.

9.

exemplum.
12.

10.

obtinetur.

saepe,

proelium.

annus, puella, sagitta.

Memorize :
Integer vltae scelerisque piirus

Non

eget Mauris iaculis nee arcu,


sagittis,
2

Nee venenatls gravida


Fusee, pharetra.
Translation
:

"The pure

in

life

and free from crime need no


Fuscus, a quiver laden with

Moorish darts nor bow, nor,


poisoned arrows."
1

my

See page

5,

footnote

2.

The

first

stanza of a famous ode by the

Roman

poet Horace.

NOMINATIVE CASE.

VERB SUM
III

LESSON
THE NOMINATIVE
20.

CASE.

THE VERB SUM

Parts of Speech.

In Latin, as in English, there are nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs,

eight parts of speech:

adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections. is no article in Latin.


21.

There

Latin nouns and adjectives and nominative case are have a singular or plural in number. In some nouns and adjectives the nominative singular ends
in -a, the plural in -ae:

The Nominative Case.

via longa, long way, a long way, the long way. viae longae, long ways, the long ways.
22.

Word

Order.
it

noun, unless long way.


23.

is

A descriptive adjective, as a rule, follows the emphatic: via longa, long way; but longa via,

Latin verbs are conjugated to show voice, mood, tense, number, and person. These terms have,
Conjugation.
in general, the

same meaning

as in English.

24.

INDICATIVE PRESENT TENSE OF SUM


Singular

Plural

First Person

sum, / am

Second Person es, {thou art), you are Third Person est, (he, she, it) is

sumus, we are estis, you are


sunt, (they) are

a. He, she, it, and they are not to be used when the subjects of est and sunt are expressed by separate words: via est, the road is; viae sunt, the roads are.

25.
i.

MODEL SENTENCES
Via est longa, the way is long. Viae sunt longae, the ways are long.

2.

8
Notice that

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


if

the

noun

is

plural, the verb

and adjective

with
26.

it

are plural.

Rule.

Case

of the Subject.

The

subject of a verb is

in the nominative case.

Rule.
27.

Verb Agreement.

verb has the

same number and

person as the subject.

VOCABULARY
Nouns
filia,

Adjectives

daughter

silva, forest

bona, good lata, broad


longa, long

terra, land, country

tuba, trumpet
via,

magna,
street

great, large

way, road,

parva,

little,

small

Interrogative Adverb

Conjunction
et,

ubi? where?

and

EXERCISES
(Pronounce, with careful attention to the length of vowels and to accent.
Translate.)

28.
latae.

1.

Filia bona.

2.

Flliae bonae. 3. Silva lata. 4. Silvae


6.

5.

Terra magna.

Terrae magnae.
8.

7.

Tuba

parva.
9.

Tubae parvae.
10.
2.

Via

lata.

29.

1.

Filia est bona.


3.

Viae latae. Flliae sunt

bonae.
4.

Ubi
5.

sunt
Estis

flliae
flliae.

bonae?
6.

Sumus

flliae.

Es

filia

Terra est longa et lata. 7. parva. 8. Silvae sunt magnae. 9. Terra et silva tuba parva? 10. Ubi est sunt magnae.
11.

A Roman Trumpet

Ubi

est

1 parva tuba?

12.

Via lata

est

longa.
(Give the Latin for the following, marking long vowels in written work.)
30.
1.

The road

is

broad.
4.

2.

Where

is

countries are small.

The

forest is large.
1

the broad road? 3. The the large 5. Where are

See 22.

first conjugation: present tense, active voice


forests?
6.

9
ars

small.

8.

The good trumpet is small. 7. The good trumpets The forests are long and broad.

LESSON IV
THE FIRST CONJUGATION: PRESENT TENSE, ACTIVE
VOICE

31.

MODEL VERB
Singular

Endings

First Person

a'mo, /

love,

am

loving,

do

love

-6
-s
-t

Second Person a'mas, you love, are loving, do love Third Person a'mat, {he, she, it) loves, is loving,
does love

Plural
First Person

ama'mus, we

love, are loving,

do love

-mus
-tis

Second Person ama'tis, you Third Person a'mant, they

love, are loving, do love love, are loving, do love

-nt

a. Latin has no special words for the progressive and emphatic forms, as, am loving, do love.

32. Personal Endings. The letters -6, -s, -t, -mus, -tis, -nt are called personal endings. When a separate subject
lacking, they indicate the subject, I you (or thou), he {she or it), we, you, they: amant, they love; but
of the
is
,

verb

amant, the daughters love. Stem. The present tense is 33. The Present Tense. formed by adding the personal endings to a fixed part called the stem: ama-. Verbs having a stem ending in -a compose the first conjugation and are conjugated like amo.
filiae
a. Final a of the stem becomes short in the third person and disappears before -o in the first person.

IO

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

34-

VOCABULARY
Nouns

ACCUSATIVE CASE.

DIRECT OBJECT

II

LESSON V
THE ACCUSATIVE
CASE.

THE DIRECT OBJECT

39. The case of the direct object in Latin is called the In the singular of most words and in the plural accusative. of many, it differs from the nominative in form.

Nouns and adjectives ending singular in -am and the accusative


40.

in -a

have the accusative

plural in -as:

Singular

Plural
flliae
fflias

Nom.
Ace.
41.
i.

fflia

ffliam

MODEL SENTENCES
Nauta
Fflias

ffliam

bonam

vocat, the sailor calls (his) good


the sailor calls

daughter.
2.

bonas nauta vocat, DAUGHTERS.

(his)

good

The object, as a rule, stands between the a. Word Order. subject and the verb, but when emphatic it stands out of this position, as in sentence 2. b. The words for my, your, his, her, and the like are sometimes omitted in Latin, when the meaning is clear without
them.
42.

Rule.

Direct Object.

The

direct object of

a verb

is

in the accusative case.


43.

VOCABULARY
Nouns
Verbs
Stent

aqua, water
victoria, victory

do, I give

danuntia-

nuntio, I report, an-

Galba, Galba, a man's


a.

name

nounce

The
a
in

dant.

is

present tense of do is: do, das, dat, damus, datis, short, by exception to the rule, in the stem da^
datis.

and

damus,

12

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

EXERCISES
Nautas vocamus. 3. Regina fllias vocat. 4. Reginam filiae vocant. 5. Galba terrain magnam laudat. 6. Nautae reginas bonas laudant. 7. Quis tubam dat? 8. Qui tubas dant? 9. Agricola silvam latam
44.
i.
2.

Nautam laudamus.

amat.
nimtiat?

10.

Agricolae

aquam

portant.

11.

Quis victoriam
13.
15.

12.

Galba

magnam

victoriam nimtiat.
amatis.

longas portamus.
victorias
45.
1.

14.

Reginam bonam
report.
3.

Tubas Nautae

magnas

niintiant.
2.

We

give.

You

6. 5. Who is reporting? reporting. 8. They 7. I love the broad forests.

4. They are the Where good water? are calling the farmers and
is

He

giving.
is

the sailors.

9.

Who

carries the water?

LESSON VI
THE FIRST DECLENSION: SINGULAR
THE GENITIVE CASE
46.

Declension.

We
is

of a Latin

noun

differs

have seen that the objective form from the nominative. So we shall see
different, just as in English

that the possessive


boy's, in distinction

we say

from

boy.

We
of,

shall find also that there


to,

are special endings to indicate the English uses prepositions.


relation to other

from, by, etc., where noun, therefore, shows its

words by its form or case. When words are changed to show different cases and numbers, they are
said to be inflected or declined.
47.
1.

Cases.

Latin nouns have five cases:

2.

The The

nominative, the case of the subject. genitive, denoting possession, or the object with of;
dative, the case of the indirect object; the to or for

the of case.
3.

The

case.

first declension: singular,


4.
5.

genitive case

13

The The

accusative, the case of the direct object.


ablative,

the case used adverbially; the from, by,

with, or in case.
called the vocative case, a few have a locative case, the denoting person addressed; the where. denoting place
a.

Some nouns have another form

48.

MODEL NOUN

Endings -a

Norn, tu'ba, a (the) trumpet Gen. tu'bae, a (the) trumpet's, of a (the) trumpet Dat. tu'bae, to ox for a (the) trumpet
Ace.

-ae -ae

tu'bam, a

(the)

trumpet

-am
-a

AM.

tu'ba, by or with a (the) trumpet

49. Case Endings. Base, -a, -ae, -ae, -am, -a are called case endings of the singular number. The part of a declined word to which the endings are added is called the base:
tub-.
first

Words

declined like tuba are said to belong to the

declension.

50.

THE GENITIVE OP POSSESSION


the

Regina filiam nautae amat,

queen loves the sailors


.

daughter (or the daughter of the sailor)

In this sentence the ending -ae of nautae has the same meaning as -'s in sailor's, answering the question Whose? A
genitive so used is called a genitive of possession and is equivalent to the English possessive, or the objective with of.
a.

The

genitive, as a rule, follows the

noun that
the

it

limits.

51.

Rule.

Possession.

word denoting

owner or

the

possessor is in the genitive case.

14
52.

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

VOCABULARY
Nouns
Verbs

Stem

copia, plenty, supply; pi.


supplies, forces, troops

accuso, / accuse paco, / subdue, pacify


Adverb

accusapaca-

Cornelia, Cornelia
epistula, letter, epistle
Iulia,

semper, always
52,

Julia
a.

Decline like tuba the nouns of


43.

and

also those of 27,

34,

and

EXERCISES
53.
4.
7.
1.

Fllia agricolae.
5.

2.

Terra reginae.
6.

3.

Tuba

nautae.
terrae.

Epistula Iuliae. Victoria Galbae.

Copia aquae.

Regina

8.

Aqua

silvae.

A
54.
i.

Street in Pompeii
est

Regina terrae

bona.

2.

Terra
4.
6.

reginae

est

magna. 3. Viae terrae sunt longae. laudamus. 5. Filiam Galbae vocamus.

Fllias

agricolae

Victoriam nau-

first declension: plural,


tae nuntiat.
agricolas
10.
7.

dative case
8.

15

Agricola copiam aquae portat.


9.

Quis

acciisat?

Galba

agricolas
11.

reginae

acciisat.

Epistula Galbae non


12.

Iuliae?

Ubi sunt epistulae Nautae epistulas Corneliae portant. 13. Copiae


est longa.

terram pacant.
55. 1. Who is Cornelia? 2. Cornelia is the farmer's daughter. 4. You are the queen's sailors. 3. Cornelia's letters are always long. not the of the great land ? 6. I accuse does Who queen praise 5.

the troops of Galba. 7. Galba always praises troops do not always fight.

(his) troops.

8.

The

Writing Materials used by Romans


Showing ancient inkstands, wax
tablet,

and stylus

LESSON

VII

THE FIRST DECLENSION: PLURAL


THE DATIVE CASE
56.

MODEL NOUN
Endings
tu'bae, (the) trumpets

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.

-ae
trumpets

tuba'rum,

(the) trumpets', of (the)

-arum
-is

tu'bis, to or for (the) trumpets

Ace.
Abl.

tu'bas, (the) trumpets tu'bis, by or with (the) trumpets

-as
-Is

16

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


57.

Case Endings,

-ae, -arum, -Is, -as, -is are the plural

Notice that -ae is case endings of the first declension. the ending of three different cases: the genitive singular, the dative singular, and the nominative plural; the rest of
the sentence will determine which case
a.
filiis,

is

meant.
is

The dative and


to distinguish
it

ablative plural of fHia from fHius (100).

filiabus,

not

Declension of Adjectives. Adjectives are declined When used together, they have the same case like nouns. and number.
58.

Singular

Plural

Notn. tuba longa tubae longae Gen.


Dat.

tubae longae tubarum longarum


tubis longis

tubae longae

Ace.

tubam longam
tuba longa

tubas longas
tubis longis

AM.
59.

THE DATIVE OF THE INDIBECT OBJECT


like give,
tell,

require an indirect object to complete their meaning, that is, an object to or for which something is given, said, or done.

Verbs

report

may

Galba

filiae

epistulam dat, Galba gives his daughter a


letter to his

letter (or

daughter).

Daughter and filiae in this illustration are indirect objects, answering the question To whom?
" dative comes from do, I give, and means the case of the object to which something is given. primarily The indirect object, as a rule, stands b. Word Order. before the direct.
a.

The word

"

60.
case.

Rule.

The

indirect

object

of a verb is in the dative

first declension: plural,


61.

dative case
Nouns

17

vocabulary
Nouns
puella, girl
sagitta,

incola, inhabitant

insula, island patria, native land

arrow
Adjective

pecunia, money

clara, {clear),
Conjunction

famous, renowned

sed, but
a.

Decline the nouns above and those of former lessons in

both numbers.

Roman Girl

i8

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

EXERCISES
62.
i.

Puellae
4.

bonae.
Reginls

2.

Puellls

bonis.

3.

Puellarum

bonarum.
6.

5. parvarum. latarum. Silvarum 8. 7. Sagittae longae. 10. Peciinia nautarum. Sagittae agricolarum. 9. 2. Viae terrarum 63. 1. Sagittae nautarum sunt longae. Filiae sunt bonae. sunt latae. 4. Galbae 3. reginarum tubam do. 5. Puellls parvis tubas do. 6. Quis victoriam

bonis.

Filiarum

Flliabus parvis.

agricolarum nuntiat?
8.

7.

Quis agricolis victoriam nuntiat?

parvae pecuniam dat. 9. Iuliae epistulam damus. 10. Galba agricolae sagittas dat. 11. Agrilongam colae nautis copiam sagittarum dant. 12. Incolae patriam amant. 13. Incolae msularum sunt nautae. 14. Insula est parva, sed reglna incolarum est clara.
64.
1.

Iulia puellae

The
3.

girl

is

Galba's daughter.
sailors'

2.

You
4.

always praise

good

girls.

Where

are the sailor's arrows?

Where

are the

Coin or Julius Caesar

arrows? giv5. Who is ing water to the queen's daughter? 6. Cornelia and Julia are reporting the victories to the girls. 7. They do not give the farmer a supply of money. 8. The troops of the great countries are fighting.

LESSON
THE ABLATIVE
65.

VIII

CASE.

ORDER OF WORDS

English uses from, by, with, or in and the objective case, Latin uses the ablative, sometimes with a separate preposition, sometimes without. This case, in words of the first declension, has the endings
Ablative Case.
-a (singular) and -is (plural), as given in sections 48 and 56. Thus, the troops fight with arrows in the forest is oopiae sagittis in silva pugnant. Sagittis shows by, or with, what means

The

When

ABLATIVE CASE.
they
fight,

ORDER OF WORDS

19

and

is

called an ablative of means.

Silva, with

the preposition in, tells the place where they fight. 66. Rule. Ablative of Means. The means or instrument
of
action is expressed by the ablative without a preposition. The place where is 67. Rule. Ablative of Place with In.

an

regularly expressed by the ablative with the preposition in. 68. Order of Words. The normal order of words in a

the subject; (2) the modifiers of the This subject; (3) the modifiers of the verb; (4) the verb. normal order, however, is often changed, because the relation
is:

Latin sentence

(1)

of Latin

words

is

shown by

their endings,
if

position as in English.

Thus,

and not by their we transpose Galba copias

laudat to copias Galba laudat, we emphasize the object. If we say laudat copias Galba, we emphasize the act of praising. Any word becomes emphatic by standing out of its normal
position.
a. The position of adjectives and of the genitive, dative, and accusative cases has already been mentioned. b. A word in the ablative normally precedes the object and other modifiers of the verb Iulia in via reginae epistu:

lam
c.

non
d.

dat, Jidia gives a letter to the queen in the road. Most adverbs precede the word they modify: Copiae semper pugnant, the troops do not always fight. Forms of sum stand practically as in English: Viae

sunt longae.

69.

VOCABULARY

20

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

EXERCISES
70.
4.
7.
i.

In

silvls latis.

2.

In

vils novls.

3.

In terra magna.

In aqua

alta.

5.

In

fossls altls.
8.

In provinciis parvis.
12.

Iuvant.
iuvat.

9.

6. In provincia parva. Vulnerant. 10. Iuvas.

11. Vulneratis.

Non

71.

1.

nautas
iuvant.

Parva puella aqua, copias iuvat. vulnerant. 3. Filiae reglnarum


4. 6.

2.

Copiae
5.

sagittls

pecunia,

Galbam
Fossae

Galba sagitta agricolam non vulnerat.


In provincia sunt fossae altae. 7. 8. In Italia non sunt magnae silvae.
are the
1

sunt altae.
est in fossls.

Aqua non

new trumpets? 2. Galba is giving the daughters. 3. The farmers in the provinces 1 carry good arrows. 4. (There) is a good queen in Italy. 5. We 6. There are great supare not aiding the queen with supplies. The land of the in the good queen. 7. money is in the deep plies water. 8. He gives the signal 2 with a trumpet.
72. 1. Where new trumpets to
(his)

LESSON IX
THE SECOND CONJUGATION: PRESENT TENSE
THE ACCUSATIVE WITH PREPOSITIONS
73.

MODEL VERB. STEM: MONESlNGULAR

mo'neo, / warn, am warning, do warn mo'nes, you warn, are warning, do warn
mo'net,
{he, she, it)

'

warns,

is

warning, does warn

Plural

mone'mus, we warn,

are warning, do warn mone'tis, you warn, are warning, do warn mo'nent, {they) warn, are warning, do warn
1

Omit words

in parentheses.

SIgnum.

THE SECOND CONJUGATION: PRESENT TENSE


74.

21

Verbs with stems ending in -e compose the second In the model conjugation and are inflected like moneo.
verb notice that the personal endings are the same as those
of the first conjugation (32).

75.

The Accusative with

Prepositions.

In the last lesson

we saw

that a Latin preposition may be used with the ablative case (65). Prepositions may also be used with the ac-

cusative: trans viam, across the road; per viam, through the road; inter vias, between the roads.
a.

The accusative and

the ablative are the only cases used

with Latin prepositions.


76.
osition

Rule.

A noun

connected with another word by a prep-

may

be in the accusative case.

77.

VOCABULARY
Nouns

Prepositions Governing the Accusative

inter, between,

among

porta, gate

per, through trans, across, beyond

praeda, booty, plunder

pugna,
or

fight, battle

ante,

before

(in

space

Verbs

Stem

time)
post, after, behind (in space

habeo, / have

habe-

or time )

/ warn, I advise moneI timetimeo, fear videvideo, / see

m0 ne6,

a.

Inflect the

nouns and verbs.

EXERCISES
78.
4.
8.
i.

Ante pugnam.
5.

2.

Post pugnas.
6.

3.

Post portam.
7.

Inter portas.

Per silvam.
10.

Trans

fossas.
11.

Vides.

Habes.

9.

Videtis.

Habetis.

Videmus.

12.

Habemus.
1.

79.

He
5.

sees.

2.

He

fears.
6.

3.

You

are fearing.
forest.
7.

4.

not

fear.

They do not have.

Behind the

We do Between

22

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


9.

8. Across the country. the countries. 10. Before the victory.

Through the water.

Memorize :
Via
trlta,

via tuta. 1
is the safe path.

The beaten path

The Ancient Porta


Now known
as the Porta

Ostiensis
San Paolo

i. Vias novas video. 2. Puellae non timent. 3. Retimemus. monent? est Ubi glnam 4. Qui reglnam 5. praeda nautarum? 6. Agricolls praedam non dant. 7. Galba in

80.

Italia

copias
1

habet.

8.
is

Sagittas

copiarum

non

times.

The verb

often omitted in proverbs.

REVIEW
9.

23

Quis trans vias epistulam et pecuniam portat? 1 1 Copiae sunt ante portam. 12. Post pugnam victoriam nuntiamus. 13. Puellae longam
trans provinciam portant.
.

Praedam

10.

epistulam

habent.

14.

Copiam

aquae

bonae

semper

habemus.
81.
3.
1.

The 4. Galba and Julia warn the good queen. 5. Who sees the farmer's little daughter? 6. Who fears the deep water? 7. (There) is a large forest between the countries. 8. The victory is not before the battle.

2. gates are large. sailors' plunder is in the forest.

The new

You do

not see the gate.

LESSON X
REVIEW
82.

The

following

list

includes the Latin words of les-

sons III-IX, except proper nouns.


agricola

24

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

REVIEW QUESTIONS
84.
2.
i.

3.
5.

What What

are the case endings of the first declension? the are personal endings of the present tense? is meant by base? 4. What is the stem of a verb?
.

What

Conjugate the present tense of sum; of voco; of video. 7. What is an indirect object? 8. How is the genitive case used? The dative? 9. Name two uses
Decline via lata.
6.

of the accusative;

two

of the ablative.
differ

10.

How

does the

order of words in Latin

from that in English?

ITALIA
85.
Italia est

magna

terra Europae. 1

Terra non insula,

sed paenlnsula longa est. Incolae sunt agricolae et nautae. Patriam et linguam patriae amant. Bonam reginam habent.

Reglna incolas iuvat, et vita est beata. 2 longae, quae sunt antlquae et clarae.

In Italia sunt viae

LESSON XI
GENDER.
86.

THE SECOND DECLENSION: MASCULINE NOUNS

Gender. Latin, like English, has the masculine, femiEnglish words are masculine or nine, and neuter genders. feminine according as they signify male or female beings. So in Latin nauta is masculine and filia feminine. This is called natural gender. But in Latin many words are mascufeminine which are neuter in English. Thus, for example, aqua, via, and tuba are feminine. The gender of such words is said to be grammatical and is determined by
line or

the form or ending of the noun, without regard to its meaning. This idea is not so strange as it may seem, if we recall that
1

For new words see the general vocabulary at the end of the book. Which, nom. pi.

$
<
1-4

<

Oh

w w

25

26

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


speak of our

we say

She is a staunch vessel," and of a ship, country and her glory, the sun and his rays.

a. All nouns of the first declension are feminine, except a few which denote males.

87.

The Second Declension.

declension end in -us or -um.

Most nouns of the second Nouns in -us are masculine,

those in

-um

are neuter.

88.

MODEL NOUN
Singular

Endings

Norn, car'rus, a (the) cart Gen. car'ri, a (the) cart's, of a (the) cart Dat. car'ro, to or for a (the) cart
Ace.
Abl.

-US
-1

-o

car'rum, a

(the) cart

-um
-5

car'ro, by or with

(the) cart

Plural

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.

car'ri, (the) carts

-I
1 ,

carro'rum,
car'iis, to

(the) carts

of the carts

-orum
-is

or for (the) carts

Ace.
Abl.
a.

car'ros, (the) carts


car'rls,

-6s
-is

by or with (the) carts


the base (49) of carrus?
lost the
is:

What

is

89.
lar.

Vir,

man, has
declension

ending of the nominative singu-

The

Singular

GENDER.
90.

THE SECOND DECLENSION: MASCULINE NOUNS

27

VOCABULARY
1

amicus,
carrus,

-I,
-I,

M., friend M., cart

Marcus,

-I,

M., Marcus, a man's


M.,
slave, servant

name
servus,
vicus,
-I,
-I,

equus, equi, M., horse


legatus,

M., lieutenant, ambassador


-1,
a. The base of equus regularly to this.

M.,

village

vir, viri,
is

M.,

man
are

equ-.

The endings

added

Memorize :
Vita sine
litterls

mors

est.
is death.

Life without literature

Lux

et Veritas.

Light and truth.

(The motto of Yale University)

EXERCISES
91.
3.
i.

Reglna servum laudat.

2.

Galba amicos amat.


5.

Legatum timent. 4. Amid servos vocant. equum vulnerat. 6. Qui legatum monent?

Sagitta

2. see the men. 92. 1. The farmers have carts. 3. You are helping Marcus. 4. Who sees the horses? 5. The slaves do not fight. 6. Who is calling the man?

We

93.

1.

Marcus equos
iuvat.

et carros habet.

2.

Marcus

agri-

4. 3. Quis inter silvas vicos videt? cus Iuliae trans vlcum epistulam portat. 5. Viri

colas

cams

Ami-

legati epistulas dant.


7.

Legatum

et copias

Amicos non accusamus.


6.

in vlcls Italiae
8.

amlc5 habemus.

Non

estis servl

reglnae. 9. Vir et servus sunt inter vias vicl. 10. Pecuniam servls non dat. n. Legati amicls Galbae et Marci victoriam

magnam nuntiant.

12.

Sumus amlci legatorum

et

nautarum.

94. 1. The horses and carts are in the village. 2. I do not fear the friend of Marcus. 3. The girls give good water to the man's
1

The gender

In the vocabularies the genitive ending is indicated after the noun. of nouns is indicated by M., F., or N.

28
horses.

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

4. Where are the lieutenant and the sailor? 5. Galba's servants are warning the men. 6. The lieutenant praises (his) new troops. 7. (There) are villages and long roads in the province.

LESSON XII
THE SECOND DECLENSION: NEUTER NOUNS
APPOSITIVE AND PREDICATE NOUNS
95.
1

MODEL NOUN
Singular

Endings

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.

pl'lum, a {the) javelin pl'li, a {the) javelin's, of a {the) javelin pl'lo, to or for a {the) javelin
{the) javelin or with a {the) javelin pi'16, by

-um
-1

-6

Ace.

pl'lum, a

-um
-6

AM.
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.

Plural
pi'la, {the) javelins

-a

plWrum,
pi'lis, to

{the) javelins', of the javelins

-orum
-is

or for {the) javelins

Ace.
Abl.
a.

pi'la, {the) javelins


pi'lis, by or with {the) javelins

-a
-is

What

is

the base of pflum?

96.
-1

Nouns
-il)
:

in -ius

and -ium have the genitive singular


cases retain the

in

(not

filius, son, fill, of

of the battle.
filio,

The other

a son; proeiium, battle, proell, -i of the base: dat.

proelio, etc.
a.

The

accented on the penult even


genitive of imperium,

genitive singular of words in -ius and -ium is when this is short: impe'ri,

command.

97.
i.

APPOSITIVE AND PREDICATE NOUNS


Galba,
filius legati, est

nauta, Galba, the lieutenant's

son, is a sailor.

THE SECOND DECLENSION: NEUTER NOUNS


2.

29

Galbam, fllium
ant's son.
a.

legati, video,

/ see Galba, the lieuten-

A noun used
noun

to explain or define another

noun, or a
fflius
b.

in the predicate used with an intransitive or a It passive verb, to define the subject, is a predicate noun. 1 agrees with the subject, as nauta above.

and noun

in apposition. fllium in the models.

is an appositive Such nouns agree in case, as

98.

Rule.
Rule.

Agreement
noun

of
or

an Appositive.

A noun
it

in ap-

position with another

99.

Agreement

pronoun agrees with of a Predicate Noun.

in case.
predicate

noun

agrees with the subject in case.

An Ancient Roman Sword


100.
filius, fill,

VOCABULARY
M., son
pflum,
a
-1,

N., javelin, spear


re-

gladius, gladi, M., sword

Lucius, Luci,

M., Lucius,

praemium, praemi, N., ward

man's name
nuntius, nunti, M., messenger;

sroelium, proeli, N.. battle oppidum, -1, N., town

message

signum, -i, N.,


-i,

(sign) signal;
,

frumentum,
crops

N., grain;

pi.

standard (military)
cur, adv.,

why?

Memorize :
Fortes fortuna iuvat.

Fortune favors the brave.


Forti et fideli nil
difficile.

To

the brave

and

faithful, nothing is difficult.

1 A predicate noun is usually a predicate nominative, but predicate accusative, as will be seen later (190).

may be

30

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

EXERCISES
2. Puellae Regina praemia dat. pila timent. 4. Filil nautam laudant. 5. Fllios 3. Proelium nuntiant. laudat. 6. habent. nauta Virl gladios 7. Frumentum 8. Nuntius pilum portat. damus. videt. 9. Signum

i oi.

i.

10.

Qui oppida vident?


1.

102.
2.

Filil

et flliae

Galbae, legatl, sunt


3.

in

oppido.

Cur nuntius regmam monet?


4. Ntintil
flliis

Legatus signum proell


epistulas dant. 6. Virl non sunt

dat.
5.

et flliabus

nautarum

Inter oppida et vicos est silva magna. servi; sunt nautae. 7. Gladios, pila, et sagittas

non habe-

mus. 8. Gladil, pila, et sagittae ante portam oppidi sunt. et flliam Marcl vocat. 10. Filil Galbae et 9. Fllium 11. Cur signa non videtis? Luci frumento viros iuvant.
12. Lucius, servus agricolae, magnam copiam f rumen tl non habet. 13. Agricola equis frumentum non dat.
2. The are fighting with swords and javelins. towns and villages are in the province. 3. The messenger reports the battle. 4. The farmers carry the grain through the towns of 6. The friend Italy. 5. The troops do not fight before the signal.

103.

1.

They

of the lieutenant gives a reward to the slaves. 7. swords and javelins? 8. Who are the friends of the

Who
men?

fears the
9.

The

men

are aiding the sailor's sons.

Signum (Aquila)

THE THIRD AND FOURTH CONJUGATIONS

31

LESSON XIII
THE THIRD AND FOURTH CONJUGATIONS: PRESENT INDICATIVE. THE PRESENT INFINITIVE
io4.

model verbs
Fourth Conjugation
Stem: audl-

Third Conjugation
Stem: rege-

Singular
re'go, / rule
re'gis,
1 1 au'dio, / hear

you rule

au'dis,

you hear
it)

re'git, {he, she, it) rules

au'dit, (he, she,

hears

Plural
re'gimus, we rule re'gitis, you rule
re'gunt, (they) rule

audi'mus, we hear
audi'tis,

you hear

au'diunt, (they) hear

in -e (not e) compose the third and are conjugated like rego verbs with stems conjugation in -1 compose the fourth conjugation and are conjugated like

105.

Verbs with stems

audio.
a. Notice in rego that -e of the stem does not appear before -6, that it becomes -u- before -nt, and -i- before the other endings. In audio notice that -u- stands between the does the length of -i- differ in the two stem and -nt.

How

conjugations?
106.

forms.

The Present Infinitive. Latin verbs have infinitive The present infinitive active is the stem plus the endto

ing -re: amare, to love; monere,

warn; regere,

to

rule;

audire,

to hear.
a.

What

are the infinitives of laudo, porto, pugnd, voco;

habed, timed, video?

The four conjugations, the pres107. Four Conjugations. ent indicative forms of which have now been given, include
1

The

progressive and emphatic meanings

may

also be given.

Indicative

AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES
113.
i.

33
2.

Copiae

terrain
venit.

defendere

debent.

Amicus

3. Legatus oppida munire debet. 4. Nuntium trans provinciam mittunt. 5. Servi venire pa6. Reglna ante portam nuntium audit. rant. 7. Reginam bonam timere non debes. 8. Servus copiam frumenti parat. 10. Cur epistulas 9. Fllios et filias amicorum defenditis. non mittis? 11. Tubam audlmus et signum videmus.

Marci per vlcum

114. to fight.
is

1.

The
3.

girl is

sending
5.

letters.

2.

You ought

to see the forest.


I
7.

The troops are preparing 4. The son of the lieuten-

ant defends

(his) friends.

coming through the gate?

ought to praise the man. 6. Who Why do they not fortify the towns?

LESSON XIV
ADJECTIVES IN
115.

-US, -A, -UM.

AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES

Latin adjectives have different endings, denoting gender, number, and case; not because they have these properties themselves, but because they are used with nouns having them. We have learned
that adjectives ending in -a are declined like tuba (58). These are feminine. The same adjectives have masculine

Declension of Adjectives.

forms in -us, declined


declined like pilum.

like carrus,

and neuter forms


-um.

in -urn,
first

They

are called adjectives of the


in -us, -a,
1

and second declensions, ending


Il6.

MODEL ADJECTIVE

34

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES
120.

35

Attributive

and Predicate Adjectives.


1

When an

ad-

jective stands with a noun, as in


called

an

attributive adjective.

He has a large sword, it is When it stands in the predia predicate adjective.


:

cate, as in

The sword
is

is large, it is

The
;

same

distinction

made

in Latin

Gladium magnum habet

Gladius est

magnus.

EXERCISES
Amlcis bonis. 3. Vici parvl. 6. In oppidls 4. 5. In oppido longo. 8. Inter multos agricolas. 7. Inter servos bonos. longis. vlcum latum. 11. Multum in 10. Trans 9. In silva densa.
121.
i. 2.

Amico bono. Vlcorum parvorum.

parvo.
122.
ers.
4.
2. The long battles. 1. The high walls. 3. The new farmWith a large horse. 5. To the bad slave. 6. To the bad

slaves.
forests.

7.

Of the

little son.

8.

Of the

little

sons.

9.

In the dense

123.

1.

virorum.

Per silvam densam venit. 2. Estis fllii bonorum 4. Marcus, 3. Muri oppidorum sunt alti, non lati.

5. Oppida nova et agricola bonus, multos amicos habet. vicos parvos nunc defendunt. 6. Incolae Galliae sunt Galli. 7.

In Gallia sunt multl

viri.

8.

Galli sunt bonl

nautae

et

9. Marcus non est Gallus, agricolae. Aedificia Gallica non sunt nova. 10.

sed Gallos laudat.


11.

Legatus multa

praemia nautis Gallicls dat. oppidum muniunt.


124.
1.

12.

Muro

longo et fossa alta

2. The friends send are reporting great battles. the to aid Lucius, good farmer. 4. 3. ought many sees the long walls? Who are not friends of the bad sailors. 5. 6. The messengers are now calling the men with new trumpets.

They

letters.

We

We

The Gauls do not have broad roads in the forests. farmer's horses are small. 9. The forests of the Gauls 10. You owe much grain to the Gallic sailor. large.
7.
1

8.

The

are not

Or adherent

adjective.

36

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

LESSON XV
NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES IN -ER. POSSESSIVE PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES
Nouns in -er. Some masculine
125.

nouns
the

of

the second

declension have lost

termination -us

and
base
field,

end
puergen.

in

-er:

puer, boy, gen. pueri,


;

ager,

agri,

base
that

agr-.

Notice

ager drops -e- in the base. The base of

any declined word

is

the genitive singular

without the case end-

Learn the declension of puer and ager on page 267.


ing.

126.
-er.

Adjectives in In the same

way, some adjectives have lost the termination -us: liber, libera, liberum, free, base liber-; pulcher,

Learn pulchra, pulchrum, beautiful, base pulchr-. declension of these adjectives on pages 270 and 271.
127.

the

Possessive Pronominal Adjectives.

The

following
(thy),

pronominal adjectives are possessive:


your; suus, his, her,
a.

meus, my; tuus,

its, their; noster, our; vester, your.


is

dressed,

Your is expressed by tuus when one possessor by vester when two or more are addressed.

ad-

NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES IN -ER


b.

37
to which

The meaning
Iulia

of

suus

is

shown by the subject

it refers:
i.

Galba amlcum suum

videt, Galba sees his friend.

2.

3.
c.

amlcum suum videt, Julia sees her friend. Galba et Iulia amlcum suum vident, Galba and
when
the meaning
is

Julia

see their friend. As was stated in 41 b, possessives

a Latin sentence

may be omitted in clear without them.

128.
ager, agri, M., field 1 liber, libri, M., book

VOCABULARY
tuus, -a, -um, (thy), your

suus, -a, -um,


pi.,

his,

her, its,

puer, pueri, M., boy; or children


signifer, signi'feri,

boys

their

noster, nostra, nostrum, our


vester, vestra, vestrum, your

M., stand-

ard-bearer
liber, libera,

pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum,

liberum, free

beautiful

miser,

misera,

miserum,

magister, magistri, M., waster,

wretched, unfortunate

teacher

meus,

-a,

-um,

my

Memorize :
Alter ipse amicus. A friend is a second

self.

Amid

probantur rebus adversis. Friends are proved by adversity.

EXERCISES
EquI trans agrum veniunt. Ubi sunt multas sagittas dant. 3.
129.
i.

Nautae pueris 1 libri flliae meae?


2.
5.

4.

Signifer

magnum slgnum
6.

portat.
8.

slgna nova dat.


berl virl; servl

Mel amid sunt


Hberl.

non sunt
9.

Legatus slgniferls amid. 7. Sumus llVirl pueros et puellas non


tul
vlcl.

semper laudant.
1

In Italia sunt multl et 2 pulchrl


2

Distinguish liber from liber.

English omits the conjunction.

3
10.

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

Cur puerum miserum accusatis?


nautae mittit.
12.

n. Cornelia

fllias

suas

et fllium

Flliae vestrae sunt pulchrae. 13. Gallia est terra

libera.

14. Galll terram suam amant.


15.

Ubi

est

liber

tuus?
equos

16.

Quis

agricolae in videt? agro 17. Flliam tuam et fllios

meos laudo.

18.

Co-

piae reginam terrae

suae
19.

defendunt.

Magister noster Marcum et Cor-

neliam laudat.
20.

Marcus

et

Cor-

nelia
21.

magistrum
puero-

suum laudant.
Magistri

rum sunt
Standard Bearers

amlclvestrl.

3.

Marcus
5.

is

books.

We

a good friend of the boys. are the Gallic standard-bearers.

130. 1. The boy has a new book. 2. The farmer has broad fields. 4. Cornelia praises your
6.

We We

ought
8.

to protect our friends. 7. Our country is not a province. daughters of Marcus aid the unfortunate slaves. 9.

The

see the

beautiful streets of the town. n. Where 10. Where are my slaves? are your arrows? 12. Who does not love our free country? 13.

The
ter.

lieutenant calls his son.


15.

The daughters

lieutenant calls his daughcall their servant.


14.

The

Note. As far as possible pupils should answer in Latin the interrogative sentences of the exercises. Thus we may answer sentence 3 of 129 bv Cornelia libros flliae tuae habet.

PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES

39

LESSON XVI
PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES
131.

VOCABULARY
Romanus,
-a,

audacia, -#e, F., boldness


cura, -ae, F., care

-um, Roman

studium, studi, N.,


ness

zeal, eager-

1 ad, prep., w. ace, to cum, prep., w. abl., with

in,

prep., w.

ace, into; w.

Roma, -ae, F., Rome Romanus, -I, M., a Roman


132.
tive

abl., in

duco, ducere, lead

How

may

to say into. We have learned that the accusabe used with ante, inter, per, post, trans (77), and

the ablative with in (meaning in, 67).


also

The accusative

is

used with
1.

in,

meaning

into:

2.

In oppido est, he is in the town (place where). In oppidum venit, he comes into the town (place into
which)
.

say to. After verbs meaning give, report, and the like, the dative ending, as we know, expresses to; but after verbs meaning go, come, send (verbs of motion), the
133.

How to

accusative with ad must be used:


1.

Fflio

librum dat, he

gives a book to his son (indirect

object).
2.

Ad oppidum venit, he
Rule.
is

comes

to the

town (place to which).


in.

134.

Accusative with ad and


the

The place to
with

which

regularly expressed by into which by the accusative with in. place In section 65 to say with. 135.

accusative

ad

the

How

it

was shown that


expressed by the

with, denoting the means of an action,


1

is

w., the abbreviation for with.

40

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

ablative without a preposition: Gladiis pugnant, they fight with swords.


venit, the boy is

denote accompaniment: Puer cum amico coming with a friend. This regularly requires cum and answers the question With whom? b. With may also denote manner:
a.

With

may

1.

Cum
care.

cura oppidum muniunt, they fortify

tlie

town with

2.

Magna (cum^cura oppidum muniunt,


town with great
care.

they fortify the

ner?

These phrases answer the questions How? In what manCum may be omitted if an adjective modifies the
Ablative of Accompaniment.

ablative.

136.

Rule.

Accompani-

ment

is

expressed by the ablative, regularly with the preposition

cum.
137.

Rule.

Ablative of Manner.

The manner of an

ac-

tion is expressed

omitted if

by the ablative with cum, but an adjective modifies the noun.

cum may

be

138.
Preposition

SUMMAEY
Denoting
Expressed by

To
To, into

indirect object place to which

dative
ad, in, -f accusative in -f ablative

In

place where

[means (by means


With

of)

ablative

< accompaniment (together with) cum + ablative [manner (in what manner) (cum 4-) ablative

EXERCISES
Nuntium ad reglnam mittunt. 2. Servl in vicum frumentum portant. 3. Copiae magna cum audacia pugnant. 4. Galbam cum filiis mels video. 5. Galll magno in cum studio oppida defendunt. 6. Virl agrum pulchrum
139.
1.
1 A preposition of one syllable, like cum, often stands between an adjective and its noun: magna cum cura, with great care.

REVIEW OF LESSONS XI-XVI


Amici nostri 7. equos ducunt. 8. Quis in provinciam copias ducit?
Gallia.
10.

41
veniunt.

ad
9.

portam

Multl puerl sunt in


,

Cur

ad
~'^</c..x^-i,^lllr^<'" ^l1^:l:^JlJIM/1lrt^' ,,,
'I

amicos vestros epistulas 11. Lenon mittitis? gatus Marco amlco suo

''lOifw.iraviw"'-"'
.IWLNI

pecuniam
12.

non

debet.

Agricola flliabus suls

libros
13.

pulchros
14.

dat.

Legatus cum

Gallls

pugnat.

Incolae
15

Books of Ancient Rome


Galli signa

Romae
140.

sunt Roman!.
1.

Romana non
2.

portant.
girls

The

girls are
3.

with friends in Italy.

The

send

letters to Julia.

slave (to the slave) a supply of 4. The farmer is leading the horse to the water. grain. 5. Galba 6. They carry the new books carefully is coming into the street.

We

owe the

(with care).

7.

The
8.

free

men ought

to fight very eagerly (with

great eagerness). the battle.

The messenger boldly

(with boldness) reports

LESSON XVII
REVIEW OF LESSONS XI-XVI
141.

42
142.

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

Give English derivatives. For example, library comes from liber, book; liberal from liber, free; audience from audio.

REVIEW QUESTIONS
does the gender of Latin words differ from the gender of English words? 2. What are the case endings Of neuter of masculine nouns of the second declension? nouns? 3. How does a predicate noun differ from an ap143.
1.

How

How are the positive? 4. Decline equus, filius, signum. 5. is a comple6. What four conjugations distinguished?
mentary
venio.
infinitive?
7.

Conjugate defendo.
10.

8.

Conjugate

Decline agricola magnus. 9. 12. How do at11. How do adjectives agree with nouns? tributive and predicate adjectives differ? 13. Decline sigDecline altus.
14.

nifer.

Decline noster.
to in

15.

Distinguish

the

ways

of

expressing

Latin.

16.

Distinguish the, ways of express-

ing with.

ROMA
144.

In Italia sunt multa et 1 pulchra oppida.

Roma
2

est

in Italia.

Magna

est

fama Romae, dominae

orbis

terrarum.

Altos muros et multas portas habet. Pulchra sunt aedificia Rulnas Fori RomanI nunc videmus. et templa et hortl.

LESSON XVIII
THE PASSIVE VOICE: PRESENT INDICATIVE
THE ABLATIVE OF THE AGENT
145.

The Passive

Voice.

The verbs

in the preceding les-

sons have been in the active voice, the form required

when

1 Omit et in translation. Latin regularly requires a conjunction to connect two adjectives belonging to the same noun. " " 2 of lands). circle Orbis terrarum, of the world (the

43

44

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

the subject is represented as acting or being. Latin verbs have also a passive voice, when the subject is acted upon.
Active
Passive
(is

The boy praises puer laudat. The boy sees (is


videt.

praising),

The

boy is laudatur.

praised,

puer

seeing),

puer

The boy

is seen,

puer videtur.

146.

Passive Endings.

The present

indicative passive

is

formed by adding to the stem the following personal endings:


Singular
First Person
-r,

Plural

/
1

-mur, we
-mini, you
-ntur, (they)

Second Person -ris (-re), thou, you Third Person -tur, (he, she, it)
147.

model verbs
Second Conjugation
Singular

First Conjugation

a'mor 2 /
,

am

loved

mo'neor,
mone'tur,
Plural

7"

am warned 3
warned

ama'ris, you are loved

mone'ris, you are warned


(he, she, it) is

ama'tur,

(he, she, it) is loved

ama'mur, we are loved ama'mini, you are loved


aman'tur, (they) are loved

mone'mur, we

are

warned

mone'mini, you are warned monen'tur, (they) are warned

a. In dare, the infinitive of do, give, the -a- is short, conThe passive present indicative is dor, trary to rule (43 a). daris, datur, damur, darnini, dantur. b. Conjugate the present passive of laudo, nuntio, vulnero ; timeo, video. less common ending -re is omitted in this book. added to the corresponding active form, not to the stem. 3 The progressive meanings / am being loved, I am being warned are sometimes used.
1

The

r is

THE PASSIVE VOICE: PRESENT INDICATIVE


148.

45

VOCABULARY
supero,

Celtae, -arum, M. pi., the Celts, a people of Gaul

superare,

overcome,

Garumna,

defeat -ae, M., the Garonne, vasto, vastare, devastate a river of Gaul
the Seine, a

lay

waste,

Sequana, -ae, F., river of Gaul

doceo, docere, teach a or ab, prep., w. abl., by

numerus,

-1,

M., number

a. a is used before consonants except or consonants.

ab before vowels

149.
i.

THE ABLATIVE OP THE AGENT


Nautae puerum laudant, the sailors praise the boy. Puer a. nautis laudator, the boy is praised by
sailors.

2.

the

is

Notice that nautae, the subject of the active verb laudant, put in the ablative with the passive verb laudatur. The

ablative here denotes the doer or agent of the action answers the question By whom?
a.

and

something

ablative of the agent denotes a person by whom is done, with a (ab) meaning by. The ablative of means (66) denotes a thing by or with which something is done, without a Latin preposition.

The

150.
is

Rule.

With a passive

verb the person by

whom an

act

done

is expressed

by the ablative with a or ab.

Memorize :

Tempora mutantur,

et nos

mutamur

in

illis.

The times change, and we change with them.

EXERCISES
Laudor, videor. 2. Accusamur, docemur. 3. Porvulneraminl. doceris. taris, 4. Vocamini, 5. Datur, timetur. 6. Iuvantur, timentur.
151.
1.

46
152.
feared.
i.

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

You

are
is

4.
7.
1.

They

2. taught. are defeated.

We
5.

are

wounded.
are seen.

3. 6.

We

are

They

It is re-

ported.

He

aided.

8.

You

(sing.) see, are seeing, are seen.

153.

Puer servum vocat; servus a puero vocatur.


superant. 3. vocor.
Galli
5.

man!
4.

Gallos

Ab amico meo

RoRdmanis superantur. copiis Romanls iuvaris.


2.

6. Regina a. magno numero puellarum amatur. 7. Cornelia, 8. Cur nauta Romanus accufilia mea, a Galba docetur.

10. In agros copiarum vulneramur. 12. Multa praemia 11. Slgnum tuba datur. vocamini. Romanorum ab incolls non 13. Copiae pueris dantur. timentur. 14. Multi equ! et cam in viis Romae videntur. 16. Ro15. Victoria Romanorum a signifero nuntiatur. man! agros Celtarum inter Sequanam et Garumnam vastant. 17. Agri Celtarum a copiis Romanls vastantur.

satur?

9.

Sagittis

154.
4.

number

We

Galba teaches a great are 3. Many boys taught by Galba. girls. are called into the town. 5. You (sing.) are warned by the
1.

The

grain

is

carried

by

slaves.

2.

of

boys and

7. You messenger. 6. I am praised by the Roman lieutenant. 8. Why is the good queen (pi.) are not seen by your friends. feared? 9. Who is defeating the Roman farmers?

LESSON XIX
THE PASSIVE VOICE: PRESENT INDICATIVE (COMPLETED)
THIRD CONJUGATION IN -IO
155.

model verbs
Fourth Conjugation
Singular
au'dior, /
audi'ris,

Third Conjugation
re'gor, I
re'geris,

am

ruled

am

heard heard

you are ruled


it) is

you are heard


it) is

re'gitur, (he, she,

ruled

audi'tur, (he, she,

THE PASSIVE VOICE: PRESENT INDICATIVE


Plural
re'gimur, we are ruled regi'minl, you are ruled
regun'tur, (they) are ruled

47

audi'mur, we are heard audi'mini, you are heard


audiun'tur, (they) are heard

156.

end

in

Verbs in -zo. Some verbs of the third conjugation -io and are distinguished from those of the fourth

conjugation by the infinitive ending -ere: capio, capere, take. They are inflected like audio, but the -i- is short throughout

and becomes -e-

in the second singular of the passive.

48
160.
i.

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

Roma

munltur.
3.

2.

Roman!
longam

copias

Gallorum
debes.

vincere

parant.

Epistulam

scrlbere

4. Copiae pila iacere docentur. 5. Nauta praedam capere parat. 6. Vlcus magno cum studio defenditur. 7. Epistulae

Porta Asinaria
Showing part
of the wall about

Rome

magna cum
mittitur.
9.

cura. scrlbuntur.

8.

Puer

in

oppidum cum amlcls

EquI agricolae

oppida

a.

Gallis
12.

defendor.

regimur. Celtae cum oppidanis bellum gerere cupiunt. 15. oppidanos vincere cupiunt.

non

viam ducuntur. 10. Magna muniuntur. 11. A magno numero amlcorum A copiis Romanls vincimini. 13. A reglna, 14. Signa trans agrum non audiuntur.
in
16.

Celtae

THE THIRD DECLENSION


l6l.
i.

49
do the

The

javelins are being hurled.

2.

Why

Roman

troops hurl javelins? 3. Who is captured by the Gauls? 4. We are not conquered; we are free. 5. You are sent (as) a messenger (99) to (133) the queen. 6. You (pi.) are heard by your daughters. 8. The 7. The town is being fortified by Marcus, the lieutenant.

province

is

ruled

by the queen's

friend.

9.

We are protected by the

high walls of the town.

LESSON XX
THE THIRD DECLENSION: NOUNS IN
162.
-I, -6,

-R

Genitive Singular. The third declension is composed nouns whose genitive singular ends in -is. There is no common ending for the nominative singular. The base and declension are to be learned, therefore, from the genitive, which is given after the nominative in the vocabularies. 163. Gender. Nouns of the third declension are mascuMasculine and feminine nouns line, feminine, or neuter. have the same case endings. Nouns in -tor are masculine: victor, victor; most nouns in -io are feminine: natio, nation.
of

164.

MODEL NOUNS
consul, consul

M.

victor,
victor

M.

pater,

M.

natio, F.

father
patr-

nation nationEndings
na/tio

Base

consul-

victor-

SlNGUXAR

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Ace.

con'sul
con'sulis
c5n'suli

vic'tor
victo'ris
victo'ii

pa'ter
pa'tris
pa'tii

natio'nis
natio'nl

-is
-1

con'sulem
con'sule

victo'rem pa'trem
victo're

natio'nem
natio'ne

-em
-e

AM.

pa'tre

50

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


Plural
Endings

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Ace.
Abl.
165.

con'sules

victo'res

pa'tres

natio'nes

-es

con'sulum

victo'rum

pa'trum

natio'num

-um
-ibus
-es
-ibus

consu'libus victo'ribus pa'tribus natio'nibus victo'res natio'nes con'sules pa'tres


consu'libus victo'ribus pa'tribus natio'nibus
in the genitive, as

Some nouns in -6 have -inis hominis, M., man; base, homin-.


Singular

homo,

Plural

Nom. ho'mo
Gen.
Dat.

ho'mines

ho'minis

ho'minum
homi'nibus

ho'mini

Ace.
Abl.
166.

ho'minem
ho'mine

ho'mines homi'nibus

VOCABULARY
1

consul, consulis, M., consul


sol, solis,

pater, patris, M., father

M., sun
M.,
victor

mater, matris,
frater, fratris,

F.,

mother
2

soror, sororis, F., sister


victor, victoris,

M., brother

legio, legionis, F., legion

imperator, imperatoris, M.,

natio, nationis, F., race, nation

commander, general
mercator,
trader
a.

mercatoris,

M.,

homo, hominis, M., human


being,

man 3

Decline frater meus, legio nova, imperator noster.

EXERCISES
167.
i.

Consules Roman!.
4.

2.

A consule Romano.
4

sulibus Romanis.
1

Cum

sorore mea.

5.

ConSororis meae.
3.

republic there were two presidents, called consuls. division of the Roman army was the legion, corresponding to our regiment. It numbered 6000 foot soldiers when fully recruited. 3 Homo means man as opposed to lower animals or to the gods; vir means man as opposed to woman. 4 A possessive adjective, unless emphatic, follows its noun.

In the

Roman

The main

THE THIRD DECLENSION


6.

51

Sororum mearum.
9.

7.

Mercatori magno.
10.

toribus magnis.
168.
1.

Pater noster.

8. A mercaMatres nostrae.

the legions. 4. your brothers.

mander.
169.

9.
1.

2. Of the small nations. 3. Between With the legions. 5. Of your brother. 6. To 8. Of the Gallic com7. The good commanders. To the free man. 10. Many human beings.

small nation.

Solem non semper videnius. 2. Galll in proelio non sunt victores. 3. Magna praemia victoribus dantur. 4. Marcus est imperator legionum Romanarum. 5. Agricolae a mercatoribus monentur.

vocant.

7.

ad
10.

matrem

Puerl servos patris sui Iulia epistulam matri dat. 8. Cornelia epistulas fratres consulis iuvant. scrlbit. 9. Nautae
6.

11. Fratres mercatoris a Regina sororem Marc! laudat. 12. Multae nationes a legionibus supecopils capiuntur.

rantur.
venit.

13.

Magnus hominum numerus

trans

provinciarn

14.
1.

Quis hominibus miseris proelium nuntiat?

The sun is large. 2. The boy is taught by his father. warn the farmers. 4. We are good friends of the 3. The traders. 6. Galba is the 5. legions are led by the consul. little son of the commander. The is 7. girl coming with her sisters. 8. The Gauls are a great nation. The commander is sending 9.
170.

The

traders

men

to the town.

LESSON XXI
THE THIRD DECLENSION: NOUNS IN
-S

AND -X

THE IMPERFECT INDICATIVE OF SUM


Nominative Singular. Some nouns of the third declension have the ending -s in the nominative singular:
171.

hiems, winter ; princeps, chief. Bases in -d- or -t- drop these letters in the nominative: pes, foot, for peds, from base ped-; virtus, manliness, for virtuts, from base virtut-.
Bases in -c- or -g- have -x in the nominative, standing or -gs (6): dux, leader, for dues, from base due-; rex, king, for regs, from base reg-.
a.

for -cs

52
172.

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


Gender.

Nouns

in -tas or -tus are feminine: civitas,

state; servitus, slavery.

Nouns

in -x are masculine or femi-

nine: rex, king, M.; lex, law, F.


173.

MODEL NOUNS
rex,

M.

dux,

M.

pes,

M.

miles,

M.

llbertas, F.

THE THIRD DECLENSION


Memorize :

53

Palma non
The palm
without

sine pulvere. not gained without dust; success is not

is

won

effort.

EXEBCISES
176. I. Caesar Milites magna erat

consul

Romanus;
3.

non

erat

rex.

2.

cum
4.

virtute pugnant.

Llbertas servls
vulnerantur.

a
5.

victore

datur.

Duces
6.

Gallorum

pills

Puer erat

filius equitis.
7.

Principes clvitatum ad regem


8.

mittuntur.

Multa

plla

a militibus iaciuntur.
iuvatis?
9.

Cur

ducem

clvitatis vestrae

non

Miles regi gladium

novum
11.

Erat magnus equitum numerus in Italia. Equites Romanos videre debemus. 12. Civitatem pardat.
10.

vam
14.

iuvare paramus.

13.

Consul in provincia
mllitis boni.

Dux militibus gladios et cum multis militibus erat.

plla dat.
15.

Era-

mus amid

Roman Horsemen

54
177*
!

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


Caesar was the commander of the
soldiers.
2.

The king

praises the valor of his troops. 3. Men ought to love liberty. 4. The victory is reported to the leaders. 5. The queen's horsemen
6. A messenger is sent by the chief. 7. The 8. The king's son and conquering many states. daughter were in the forest.

have good horses.


soldiers

are

LESSON XXII
THE THIRD DECLENSION: NEUTER NOUNS
IN -MEN, -US

THE FUTURE INDICATIVE OF SUM


Special Endings. In the singular of neuter nouns, the nominative and accusative forms are alike and have no
178.

case endings. are also alike

In the plural the nominative and accusative

and end

in -a.

Nouns

in

-men

(gen. -minis)

and -us
179.

(gen. -eris, -oris) are neuter.

MODEL NOUNS
flumen, N. opus, N. work river

tempus, N.
time

caput, N.

head
capit-

Base

flumin-

oper-

temporSingular

Endings

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.

flu'men
flu'minis
flu'mini

o'pus
o'peris
o'peri

tem'pus
tem'poris

ca'put
ca'pitis
ca'piti

-e -a
-i

-is

tem'pori

Ace.
Abl.

flu'men
flu'mine

o'pus
o'pere

tem'pus
tem'pore Plural

ca'put
ca'pite

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.

flu'mina

o'pera

tem'pora

ca'pita

flu'minum

o'perum

tem'porum

ca'pitum

-um
-ibus
-a

Ace.
Abl.

flumi'nibus ope'ribus tempo'ribus capi'tibus flu'mina tem'pora ca'pita o'pera flumi'nibus ope'ribus tempo'ribus capi'tibus

-ibus

THE THIRD DECLENSION: NEUTER NOUNS


l8o.

55

THE FUTURE TENSE, INDICATIVE OF SUM


Singular

Plural
e'rimus, we shall be

e'ro, / shall be
e'ris, (ihou wilt be),
e'rit, (he, she, it)

you

will be

e'ritis,

you

will be

will be

e'runt, (they) will be

181.

VOCABULARY
-I,

annus,

M., year agmen, agminis, N., army flumen, fluminis, N., river

opus, operis, N., work

tempus, temporis, N., time


divido, dividere, divide
separate,

nomen, nominis, N.,


caput,
capitis,

name
head;

N.,

propter,

prep.,

w.

ace,

on

capital
a.

account of
Decline

agmen bonum, opus magnum.

EXERCISES
182.
est

Lata provincia est inter fltimina. 2. Nomen pueri Marcus. 3. Magnum agmen non habemus. 4. Capita
i.

equorum
dant.
catores
9.
6.

agricolae video.

5.

Opus bonum puellarum

lau-

Propter tempus annl mllites non pugnant. 7. Mer8. Erimus cum mercatoribus. in vico erunt.

Propter

numerum ducum bonorum

clvitas

erit

libera.

The Roman Army marching out A bas relief on Trajan's Column

56
10.

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

Terrae fluminibus dividuntur. n. Agmini magno copiam frumenti dant. 12. Terra vestra agmine magno defenditur. 14. Agmen trans provin13. Praeda inter nautas dividitur.

ciam venit
183.
1.

et in terra regis erit.


rivers are

15.

Ubi erunt amlci

tui?

The

were
is

Roman
6.

names.

the capital of Italy.


7.

broad and deep. 2. Julia and Marcus The 3. kings have large armies. 4. Rome The town is fortified by the work of the 5.
to praise the

soldiers.

You ought

good work.

Who

will

boys on-account-of (their) be the leaders of the armies?

LESSON XXIII
THE IMPERFECT TENSE, INDICATIVE ACTIVE
THE PREDICATE ACCUSATIVE
184.

Tenses.

There are

six tenses in Latin: present,

im-

perfect, future, perfect, pluperfect,

and future

perfect.

185.

THE FIRST CONJUGATION: IMPERFECT INDICATIVE ACTIVE


Singular

Tense Endings

ama/bam, I was

loving,

I loved
loved

-bam
-bas
she, it)

ama'bas, you were loving, you loved ama'bat, (he, she, it) was loving, (he,
Plural

-bat

amaba'mus, we were

loving,

we

loved loved

-bamus
-batis

amaba'tis, you were loving, you ama'bant, (they) were loving, (they) loved
186.

-bant

tense sign is an element in a verb to indicate time, corresponding to the English auxiliary words was, shall, will, etc. The imperfect tense is formed by add-

Tense Sign.

ing to the stem the tense sign -ba- and the personal endings -m, -s, -t, -mus, -tis, -nt. -ba- is shortened to -ba- before

-m,
1

-t,

-nt (7

b).
is

The

position of the tense sign

immediately before the personal

ending.

THE IMPERFECT TENSE, INDICATIVE ACTIVE


187.

57

In the other conjugations the models are mone-bam, / was warning, I warned; rege-bam, / was ruling, I ruled; capie-bam, / was taking, I took; audie-bam, / was hearing, I
heard.

Notice that in the third conjugation


is

final -e- of

the

stem (rege-)
a.
b.

tional -i- in -id

lengthened (rege-), and that there is an addiverbs of the third and fourth conjugations.

Learn the conjugation of these models given on page 281. Conjugate also the imperfect active of paro, habed,

scribo, iacio, venio.

Tense. The imperfect indicaan act or state as continuing in past time, like the English past progressive: Caesar copias laudabat, Caesar was praising the troops.
188.

Time

of the Imperfect

tive represents

189.

VOCABULARY
F.,

Germania, -ae,

Germany

ripa, -ae, F.,

bank
call

Germanus,

-1,

M., a Ger-

appello,

appellare,
1

(by

man
Germanus, -a, -urn, German Rhenus, -1, M., the Rhine Rhodanus, -1, M., the Rhone
190.
i.

name), name
navigo, navigare,
sail,

navigate

incolo, incolere, dwell; w. ace, inhabit

THE PREDICATE ACCUSATIVE


Terram Galliam
Terra Gallia appellator,
first

2.

appellant, they call the land Gaul. the land is called Gaul.
is

In the

sentence terram

predicate accusative.
191.
like take

In the second sentence Gallia


b).

the direct object, Galliam a is a

predicate nominative (97

Rule.

The

verbs

name,

call,

two accusatives: one the direct

choose, make, and the object, the other a predi-

cate accusative.
1

To

be distinguished from voco, which means

call in

the sense of

summon.

58

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


a. In the passive voice these verbs take two nominatives: the subject and a predicate nominative (99).

Memorize

Dum

vlvimus, vlvamus. While we live, let us live.

Gaudeamus iuvenes dum sumus.


Let us rejoice while we are young.

EXERCISES
192.
1.

Laudabam,

videbam.
iaciebam.

2.

Mittebam,
4.

muniehabe-

bam.
bat.
7.

3.
5.

Dabam

(43 a),

Portabat,

Defendebat, muniebat.
8.

6.

Vocabatis, docebatis.
9.

Scribebatis, veniebatis. jnus. 10. Incolebant.

Nuntiabamus.

Vinceba-

193.
4.

1. You were. You were fearing.

dividing.
writing.

7.

10.

3. You were leading. sailing. were 6. They were 5. They accusing. were 8. I was They coming. carrying. 9. He was We were taking.
2.

You were

The Rhone and the

Alps, St. Maurice, Switzerland

THE IMPERFECT TENSE, INDICATIVE PASSIVE

59

194. i. Pater pueros docebat. 2. Agricola equis f rumenturn dabat. 3. Viri pila iaciebant. 4. Munire parabamus.
5.

Miles

magna cum

virtiite
7.

pugnabat.

6.

Multas epistulas

Caesar, imperator Romanus, magno agmine regem superabat. 8. Quis trans flumen niintios mitmultos carros habebant. tebat? 9. Mercatores in vlco
10.

ami cis

tuis scrlbebas.

civitatis

Pueri equites Gallicos in via videbant. 11. Prlnceps 12. Magna cum ciira homines miseros iuvabat.

epistulam scrlbebam. 13. Cur fratrem ducis capiebant? 14. Incolae Germaniae GermanI appellantur. 15. GermanI trans Rhenum incolunt. 16. Fllil mercatoris ad ripam fluminis navigabant.
195.
soldiers
1.

17.

Roman!
was

Celtas Gallos appellant.


2.

The

lieutenant

calling his son.

The German

were defending the towns. 3. We were coming across the street. 4. I was coming with my friends. 5. The consul was leadThe sailors were into Gaul. 6. a dividing the booty. ing large army a sword and a The slave was javelin. 8. The Rhone is 7. carrying a long river of Gaul. 9. The name of the boy's brother was Lucius.

LESSON XXIV
THE IMPERFECT TENSE, INDICATIVE PASSIVE
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
196.

THE FIRST CONJUGATION: IMPERFECT INDICATIVE PASSIVE


Singular

Tense Endings
-bar
-baris

ama'bar, / was {being) loved


amaba/ris, you were {being) loved

amaba'tur,

{he, she, it)

was

{being) loved

-batur

Plural

amaba'mur, we were

{being) loved

-bamur
-bamini -bantur

amaba'minl, you were {being) loved amaban'tur, {they) were {being) loved

6o

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


a. Notice that -ba- is the sign of the imperfect tense in the passive also, and that the personal endings are those already learned for the present passive (146). b. Learn from page 284 the conjugation of monebar, / was (being) warned; regebar, / was (being) ruled; capiebar, I was (being) taken; audiebar, / was (being) heard.

Questions. Quis, qui, ubi, and cur have been used to introduce Latin questions. When there is no special ina terrogative word, question may be indicated by the en197.
clitic

-ne
1.

(18), joined to the first (the

emphatic) word.

Puerne tubam audit?

2.

Tubamne puer

does the boy hear the trumpet? audit? does the boy hear the trumpet?
the boy

3.

Auditne puer tubam? does

hear

the

trumpet?

a. -ne has no meaning by itself; it is merely the sign of a question. b. If the answer yes is implied, the question begins with nonne: Nonne puer audit? does not the boy hear? If the answer no is implied, the question begins with num: Num puer audit? the boy does not hear, does he?

Answers. The answer yes is usually expressed by repeating the verb of the question; the answer no, by repeating the verb with a negative. Thus audit or non audit an198.

swers the questions in 197.

199.

vocabulary
-ae,

amicitia,

F.

(amicus),
the Belgae

confirmo, confirmare, (make


firm),
establish,

friendship

strengthen
(liber),
set

Belgae, -arum, M.,


(bel'je), the

libero,

Hberare,

Belgians

free, liberate

captivus,
tive,

-1,

M.

(capio), cap-

nonne,

interrog.

adv.,

not?

prisoner

pax, pacis, F., peace

(implying yes) -ne (enclitic, 197 a)

pedes, peditis,

M.

(pes), /0c/

num,. interrog. particle (implying no)

soldier; pi., infantry

THE IMPERFECT TENSE, INDICATIVE PASSIVE

61

EXERCISES
Laudatne? 2. Laudabatne? 3. Nonne laudabat? 6. Mittebatur, 5. Laudabatur, videbatur. 4. Laudaturne? 8. Defendemuniebatur. Portabamur, timebamur. 7. bamur, capiebamur. 9. Vocabantur, docebantur. 10. Duce200.
i.

bantur, iaciebantur.
201.
1.

11.

Videturne?

2. You were being warned. 3. He You aided. were was being heard. 4. were, you were 5. being were 6. being conquered. 7. Do They sending, you were sent. you give? 8. Did you give? 9. Was he seen? 10. Was he not

was being accused.

We

seen?

202.
2.

Estne Marcus in via? Eratne Caesar rex Romanorum?


1.

Non erat cum amicis


3.

rex.

4.

Puellaene erunt
5.

tuis?

Tela a militi-

bus iaciebantur.

6.

NSnne slgnum
7.

imperatoris audiebatur?

Galll a

Caesare superabantur. bus bonis docebamur.


captlvl
10.

8.

patri-

9.

Multi

in

Italiam

ducebantur.
captlvos

Princeps
11.
12,

civitatis

liberabat.

consule

Romano

llberaminl.

Pedites erant amici

dux 13. Eratne oppidanorum. 14. Cum peditum cum consule? civitatibus pacem et amlcitiam confirmare cupiebat.
15.

Belgae inter
incolunt.
fortified

Roman Foot Soldier

Sequanam
203.
1.

et

Rhenum

by many men. 2. Marcus was sent (as) a messenger. 3. I was advised by my brother. friend. 5. The captive's 4. You were being praised by the consul's 6. The victory was being sister was before the gate of the chief.

The towns were being

announced to the men of the written to the king and queen?

village.

7.

Was

the letter being

62

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

LESSON XXV
REVIEW OF LESSONS XVHI-XXIV
204.

VOCABULARY

agmen

THE THIRD DECLENSION! GENITIVE PLURAL IN -IUM

63

TERRAE EUROPAE
Britannia, Gallia, Germania, Hispania, sunt terrae Britannia, magna Insula, contra Galliam est. Europae.
206.

Incolae Britanniae BritannI appellantur.


in

Galll et

Roman!

Britanniam navigant.
Gallia
inter

flumen et Oce'anum posita 1 est. Fliimina Galliae sunt Rhodanus, Sequana, Matrona, Garumna, Axona, Arar. Genava et Massilia sunt oppida Gallica.

Rhenum

Belgae et Celtae et AquitanI Galliam incolunt. In Germania sunt Trans Rhenum incolunt German!.

silvae latae et
rlpls

multa

fliimina.

Pulchr! vie!

Germanorum

in

RhenI sunt.

Hispania, terra clara Hispanorum, erat provincia sed Germania non erat provincia.

Romana,

LESSON XXVI
THE THIRD DECLENSION: GENITIVE PLURAL
207.

IN -IUM

nubes, cloud; hostis, enemy; mons, mountain; nox, night; animal, animal; insigne, decoration,

Learn the declension

of

page 269.

208.

The Genitive

Plural.

The

genitive plural ends in

-ium

in the following classes of nouns:


a. Nouns in -es or -is having the same number of syllables in the genitive as in the nominative: nubes, hostis. b. Nouns in -s or -x having a base ending in two conso-

nants: mons, nox.


c.

Neuter

nouns

in

-e,

-al,

or -ar:

Insigne,

animal

calcar (spur).
1

Situated.

64
209.

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

The Accusative The

in -is or -es.

210.

The accusative plural ends In this book only -es is used. Ablative Singular. The ablative singular ends
Plural.

in -1 or -e in

some words:

as avis (bird), civis (citizen), classis

collis (hill), finis (end), ignis (fleet), (fire),

navis (ship), pup-

pis (stern), sementis (sowing), turris (tower).


a.

-ia in the

Neuters in -e, -al, or -ar have -1 in the ablative singular, nominative and accusative plural.

211.

VOCABULARY
navis, navis, F., ship

animal, animalis, N., animal


cohors, cohortis, F., cohort (a

nox, noctis, F., night


pars, partis, F., part

tenth of a legion)
hostis, hostis, M.,

enemy;

pi.,

urbs, urbis, F., city

enemy
tion,

decern, adj., (indeclinable),


ten

insigne, insignis, N., decora-

badge

teneo, tenere, hold

mons, montis, M., mountain

EXERCISES
212.
1.

RomanI multas naves non habebant.

2.

Dux

hostium erat miles bonus. 3. Agricola animalibus partem frumenti dabat. 4. Erant decern cohortes in legione Romana. 5. Quis erat dux cohortium? 6. Videsne pulchrum montem? 7. Nonne urbs muris latis munitur? 8. Nomen
urbis
10.

est

FiliT et

Roma. 9. Equites ab filiae nautarum sunt in


oppidum tenebant.
13. 12.

hostibus
navT.

capiebantur.
Galll

n.

magna

cum
1

virtute

plla iacere parant.

Parva pars montis a


state;

Milites gladios tenent; copils tenebatur.

Hostis means enemy of the Pronounced urps ; see 6.

inimicus, personal enemy.

THE THIRD DECLENSION: GENDER; SPECIAL NOUNS


213.
I.

65

nights will not be long. 2. Rome is a large city of 4. The 3. Many animals were seen on (in) the mountain. Italy. are new. boy has the soldier's badge. 5. The soldiers' badges 6 The general was conquering the enemy with ten cohorts. 7. The

The

sailors

ought to have a large number of

ships.

^
a
' :
<,-'

',

Roman War

Ship

LESSON XXVII
THE THIRD DECLENSION: GENDER; SPECIAL NOUNS
As we have seen, the gender of nouns of 214. Gender. the third declension cannot be determined by the nominative
singular, as in the first

and second declensions.


Abstract nouns
in

It

must be

learned with the word.


-tus, are feminine:

-do, -io, -tas,

altitudo, natio, libertas, virtus.


(gen.
-eris, -oris) are

Nouns

in -al, -e,

-men, -us

neuter: animal,

inslgne, flumen, opus, tempus.

66
215.

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

VOCABULARY
N.
pi.,

castra, castrorum,

multitudo, multitudinis, F.,


(multus), multitude, {great)

camp
iter,

itineris,

N.,

journey,

number
pons, pontis, M., bridge
vis, vis, F., force; pi., strength

march, route, way

mare, maris, N., sea


altitude), altitudinis, F., (al-

facio, facere,

make, do; iter

tus), height, depth


a.

facere,
of iter

march
page
269.

Learn the declension

and

vis,

EXERCISES
216.
et fossa
i.

Milites

Roman!

castra

defendebant.
3

2.

Muro

semper muniebant. 3. Ad portam castrorum pugnabant. 4. Signiferi slgna in castra portant. non 6. Erant multa itinera ad urbem. Iter erit longum. 5. 8. Copiae longo 7. Agmen per provinciam iter faciebat.
castra

itinere

ducuntur.
10.

9.

Mons

multittidine

hominum

tene-

Multitudo Gallorum per terram ducebatur. multitudinem equitum habebant. 12. Estne mare altum? 13. Multae naves sunt in 4 marl. 14. Vim facere 5 16. Pontem latum 15. Consul vl viam facit. parabant. 6 in numine faciebamus. 17. Caesar ponte trans flumen agmen dticit. 18. Cur magnas naves non faciunt? 19. Altitudo montis non est magna.
batur.
11.

Galli

217.
seas?
5.

1.

Do you
3.

of the river.
4.

Did you not


have
cities,

fear the deep sea? 2. He fears the great force see the mountains, the rivers, and the

We

towns, and villages in our country.

The king was


1

giving liberty to a great

number

of

men.

6.

Ten

The
At.

plural

form castra has a singular meaning.


of facio
is

The

singular form

tastrum,
2
3 *

fort, is rarely used.

The passive
On.

irregular (597).
6 8

To

use.

English says over.

THE ABLATIVE CASE! SEPARATION; PLACE FROM WHICH 67


cohorts were marching into the camp. 7. They were coming to the bridge by many routes. 8. In the camp (there) were captives of the Romans.

LESSON XXVIII
THE ABLATIVE CASE: SEPARATION; PLACE FROM WHICH
218.
a, ab, prep.,

VOCABULARY
w.
abl.,

away

absum

from, from; by de, prep., w. abl., down from,

be away, be absent, be distant

(ab

+ sum),

from
e, ex, prep.,

exspecto, exspectare, expect, wait for


pertineo,

w.

abl., out of,

pertinere

(per

from
periculum, -I, N.
a.
b.
,

teneo), extend, reach, belong


peril,

danger

longe, adv., far

from; de, down from; ex, out from. consonants except h; ex, like E, ab, before vowels or consonants (148 a).
like a, stands before

Ab means away

219.

How

to say from.

We

have seen that the ablative

expresses: a. by a person or thing (the agent or the means). b. with a person or thing (denoting accompaniment, means, or manner).

in a place (the place where). The ablative is also used to express from a person or thing:
c.

1. 2.

Cura regem

liberat, he frees the king

from

care.

Flumen Rhenus Gallos a Germanis


river separates the

dividit, the

Rhine

Gauls from the Germans.

An

From what

ablative answering the question From what person? 1 thing? is called an ablative of separation.
"

1 The ablative case is named from this use, for the case of " taking away."

ablative

"

means

68

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

220. The ablative expressing separation is used with such verbs as separate, divide, differ, defend, deprive, refrain, move,
set free, lack, be absent.

221.

Rule.

Ablative of Separation.

ration require an ablative to out ab, de", or ex.


a.

Verbs denoting sepacomplete their meaning, with or withused when the ablative denotes a

A
A

preposition

is

person.
literal,

preposition is regularly used when the separation is as in 219, 2. c. preposition is regularly omitted when the separation is figurative, as in 219, 1.
b.

222.

Place from which.

ablative answers the question


1.

In the following sentences the Whence? From what place?

Ab urbe

venit, he comes

2.

Roma
Rule.

venit,

from the city. he comes from Rome.


is regularly

expressed by the ablative with ab, de, or ex; but the preposition is omitted with

223.

Place from which

names

of towns.

Memorize :

Factum fieri mfectum non What has been done cannot Facta non verba.
Deeds not words.

potest.
be undone.

EXERCISES
224.
aftsunt.
1.

Agricolae ex agris veniunt.


3.

2.

Fratres mel a vico

Epistulam ab amico exspecto. 4. Plla de muro alto iaciebantur. 5. Oppidum Gallicum a provincia Romana a, montibus ad mare pertinet. 6. Terra longe aberat. in oppidum iter faciebant. novae e castrls 7. Legiones 8. Prlnceps bonus ab hostibus clvitatem defendit. 9. Legatus mllites ab opere vocabat. 10. Vicus a ponte longe abest.
11.

Nonne perlculum puerorum

vides?

12.

Cur fratrem

THE FUTURE TENSE, INDICATIVE

69
fru-

tuum et Marcum exspectabas? mentum capiunt.

13.

Nautae ex navibus

225. 1. The slaves were being sent out of the villages. 2. We ought to free our city from danger. 3. The animals were not far away from the forest. 4. He was expecting a messenger from 1 the consul. 5. Who was defending the bridge from the army of the enemy? 6. The camp extended from the river to the mountain. a javelin (down) from the bridge into the water. 7. The boy throws

Roman

Bridge, Narni, Italy

LESSON XXIX
THE FUTURE TENSE, INDICATIVE (CONJUGATIONS
226.
I

AND

II)

Tense Sign. The future tense of the first and second conjugations is formed by adding to the present stem the tense sign -bi- and the personal endings. In the first person
singular -i- of the tense sign disappears before the ending
1

Defendo always takes ab.

70
-6
;

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


in the third person plural it
it

ond person singular passive


227.

becomes -u- and becomes -e-.


;

in the sec-

the future indicative


Active Voice
Tense Endings

ama/bo, /

shall love

mone'bo, /

ama/bis, you will love


ama/bit, (he)
3

will love
shall cove

ama/bimus, we

ama/bitis, you will love a ma/bunt, (they) will love

warn 2 -bo -bis mone'bis, you will warn 3 -bit mone'bit, (he) will warn we shall warn -bimus mone'bimus, -bitis mone'bitis, you will warn mone'bunt, (they) will warn -bunt
shall

228.

Passive Voice
mone'bor, / shall be warned -bor
mone'beris, you will be
-beris
will

ama/bor, / shall be loved


ama/beris,
loved

you
3

be

warned
will be

ama/bitur, (he)
loved

mone'bitur, (he)

will be

-bitur

warned
shall be

ama/bimur, we
loved

mone'bimur, we warned

shall be

-bimur
-bimini

amabi'mini, you will be


loved

monebi'minl, you will be

warned
(they)

amabun'tur,
be loved

will

monebun'tur, warned

(they) will be

-buntur

229.

vocabulary
pi.,

arma, -orum, N. weapons

arms,

paratus,

-a,

-urn,

(paro),

explorator, exploratoris, M., scout


oratio, orationis, F., speech, oration

ready primus, -a, -um,

first

decimus,
tenth

-a,

-um, (decern),

-que, enclitic conj., and


2

atque or ac, conj., and,


1

and
3

also

Or /

shall be loving.

Or I

shall be warning.

Or

she, or

it.

THE FUTURE TENSE, INDICATIVE

71

a. Et, the common conjunction, simply connects; -que combines more closely and is attached to the second of the connected words: terra mareque, the land and the sea. Atque (ac) throws emphasis upon the second connected word or phrase: terra atque mare, the land and also the sea. Atque may stand before a vowel or a consonant, ac only before

consonants.

EXERCISES
230.
cabit,

Laudabo, videbo. docebit. 4. Dabimus,


i.

2.

Portabis, timebis.
5.

3.

Vo-

habebimus.
7.

Nuntiabitis,

tenebitis.
8.

Parabunt, pertinebunt. Laudabimur, videbimur.


1.

6.

Vocabor, docebor.

231.
4.

We
You

shall expect.
5.

2.

We
12.

shall see.
6.

You

will teach.
8.

They

will fight.
9.

3. You will set They will fear.

free.
7.

shall

overcome.
11.

I shall have.

He

will aid. will

10.

He

will

be

held.

will

be called.

They

be seen.

2. Marcus, ami232. 1. Puella a patre sud laudabitur. cus noster, pueros docebit. 3. Multos amlcos in urbe ha-

bebimus.
iuvabimur.
7.

4.
6.

Cura

llberaberis.

5.

A
8.

nationibus

Gallicis

Multi milites ante victoriam vulnerabuntur.


Quis ducem mone10. Amid copiae nostrae tenebunt?

Hostes civitatis vestrae superabitis.


9.

bit?

Montemne
12.

regis appellabimini.

pilumque.
13.

Romani erant gladius hostium videbunt. castra Exploratores prim!


11.

Arma

mllitis

Prmcipes civitatis orationemconsulis laudabant. 14. Decima legio iter facere erit parata. 15. Nationes pacem atque amicitiam confirmant.
233.
1.

The boys

will

be taught by Galba.

2.

The

trader will

praise his daughter. 3. The messenger will give a letter to the king. 4. You will see the high mountains. 5. The slaves will be freed from peril. 6. I shall call the men out of the field. 7. Who
will report

the

first

victory of our forces?

72

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

The

Alps, Pontresina, Switzerland

LESSON

XXX

THE FUTURE TENSE, INDICATIVE (CONJUGATIONS III AND IV)


234. In the future of the third the tense sign is not -bi-, as in the
tions (226),
first

and fourth conjugations and second conjuga-

but -a-

for the first person singular, -e- or-e- for the

other persons.
235.

the future indicative


Active Voice
/ shall take

/ shall rule

I shall hear

re'gam
re'ges
re'get

ca'piam
ca'pies
ca'piet

au'diam
au'dies
au'diet

rege'mus
rege'tis

capie'mus
capie'tis

audie'mus
audie'tis

re'gent

ca'pient

au'dient

the future tense, indicative


236.

73

Passive Voice
I shall be taken
ca'piar
capie'ris

/ shall be ruled
re'gar
rege'ris

I shall be heard
au'diar
audie'ris

rege'tur

capie'tur

audie'tur

rege'mur
rege'mini
regen'tur
a.

capie'mur
capie'mini
capien'tur

audie'mur
audie'mini
audien'tur

Conjugate the future of mitto and munio.

237.

VOCABULAEY
-1,

consilium,
finis,

N., plan

obses, obsidis, M., hostage


pi.,

finis,

M.,

end;

socius,

soci

(96),

M.,
ace,

ally,

boundaries, territory
finitimus,
bor
liberi,
-1,

confederate

M.

(finis),

neigh-

apud, prep., w.

with,

among, in the presence of

-orum, M.

pi.,

children

EXERCISES
238. 1. Mittam, muniam. 2. Defendis, defendes. 3. Du5. Vincimini, vin4. Scribimus, scrlbemus. citur, ducetur. dlvident. cemini. 6. Dlvidunt, 7. Capient, capientur.
239.
1.

They

are throwing, they will throw.

2.

We

are making,
5.

we

shall

make.

3.

You

will

be defended.

4.

He

will

come.

You
be

8. I shall will be conquered. 6. will fortify. 7. I shall be. shall lead, we shall be led. away. 9. I shall be sent. 10.

He

We

ad sordrem suam librum pulchrum mittet. 2. Legatus in Galliam cum copils mittetur. 3. Urbem magna a Flliae cum audacia defendemus. 4. regis perlculo defen240.
1.

lulia

dentur.
sulis
1

Legiones ex castris ducentur. 6. Nonne films conagmen diicet? 7. Multis proeliis vincetis. 8. Multae
5.

hostage was a person given by one nation to another, to be held

as a pledge of good faith in keeping treaties.

74

LATIN FOK THE FIRST YEAR


9.

civitates Galliae vincentur.

Navesne a ponte longe abe11.

runt?

10.

Per terram

novam

iter facie tis.

Mllites ante

signum

plla

non

iacient.

12.

Galli portas

urbium suarum

Consilia sociorum ab exploratoribus nuntia2 buntur. 14. Liberl mittentur obsides. 15. Apud llberos 16. Obsides erunt apud regem. erit fllius ducis. 17. Fhlmen

munient.

13.

Rhodanus
will

est in flnibus

Gallorum.

241. 1. Marcus will write a letter to his father. 2. The letters be written by the slaves. 3. I shall come with your brother. You will not be far away from the town. 4. 5. The boys will make new arrows. 6. We shall make a way into the forest. 7. The 8. The tribe will javelins will be thrown (down) from the wall. make peace with the neighbors.

LESSON XXXI
ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION

THE DATIVE WITH ADJECTIVES


Adjectives of the third de242. Nominative Singular. clension are classified according to the number of endings in
the nominative singular: 1. Adjectives of one ending, for
N., powerful; base, potent-.
2.

all

genders: potens, M., F.,

Adjectives of two endings one for the masculine and feminine, the other for the neuter: fortis, M. and F., forte,
N.; base, fort-.

Adjectives of three endings, differing for each gender: acer, M., acris, F., acre, N., sharp; base, acr-. Most adjectives of the third declension, 243. Endings.
3.

except comparatives, have -i in the ablative singular, -ium in the genitive plural, -is or -es in the accusative plural,
1

This expresses time.

As

hostages (99).

ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION

75

masculine and feminine, and -ia in the nominative and accusative plural neuter.

Learn the declension of the models potens, acer, as given on page 272.
a.

fortis,

and

244.
locus,
-I,

VOCABULARY
M.
-a,
(pl.,loca,

-orum,

fortis, forte, brave, strong

N.), place
gratus,

omnis, omne,

every, all

-um,

pleasing,
1

similis, simile, like, similar

agreeable

audax
nearest,

(gen., audacis), bold,

proximus, -a, -um,


next; last

daring

par (gen., paris), equal

acer, acris, acre, sharp, keen, eager

potens (gen., potentis), powerful

idoneus, -a, -um, suitable,


a.

fit

Decline puer acer, omnis puella, natio potens.

245.
i
.

THE DATIVE WITH ADJECTIVES


Civitas proxima Gallis est, the tribe is next to the Gauls. Fllius patri similis est, the son is like his father.

2.

3.

Locus

castris idoneus erat, the place

was

suitable for a

camp.
Notice that after proxima, similis, and idoneus the noun to which the quality is directed is in the dative. This construction 246.
called the dative with adjectives. The dative is used with adjectives meaning Rule.
is

near, like,
opposites.
1

equal, friendly,

pleasing,

suitable,

and

their

Proximus and adjectives

of quantity, like

multus and omnis, nor-

mally precede their nouns.

70

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


Memorize:
Vultus est index animi. The countenance is the index of
Fideli certa merces.

the

mind*

The reward

of the faithful is certain.

EXERCISES
247.
1.

Vir erit idoneus operl.


sunt.
3.

2.

Epistulae tuae flliabus

meis

gratae

Imperator
videt.
5.

castris

idoneum locum
grati

4.

Sumusne

reginae?

Galll

multitudine 1
pares.

hominum
6.

Romanis non erant


tios
7.

Niin-

ad proxima oppida mittemus.


Milites

sunt

audaces;
8.

magna
Potens

cum
tur.

audacia.

pugnant.

clvitas

Galliae a Caesare superabiomnibus 9. Similia praemia

puerls
11.

dabimus.
ex
et fortes
12.

10.

Cur

omne

frumentum
Multos debemus.

navibus

portant?

homines habere

Erat proelium acre cum copiis hostium. 13. Copiae acres slgnum exspectabant. 14. In Italia sunt multa et pulchra loca.
15.

Labor omnia 2
1.

vincit.

The letter is pleasing to the The beautiful books will be 3. The small pleasing to your brother. field was not fit for a camp. 4. Our village is next to the river. 6. The 5. The cohort will be captured by the daring horsemen. The will for all the soldiers. be 7. army is not danger equal 8. The captives are like the far away from powerful tribes. slaves. 9. Marcus and the leader's sons are brave men.
248.

Standard -Bearer

trader.

2.

In number.

All {things), everything.

THE PERFECT TENSE, INDICATIVE ACTIVE

77

LESSON XXXII
THE PERFECT TENSE, INDICATIVE ACTIVE
249. Principal Parts. Verbs have four principal parts, so called because all forms of the verb may be derived from

them.
itive,

They

are the present indicative, the present infin-

the perfect indicative, and the supine (a verbal


Indicative

noun

form).
s.

78

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

252.

THE PERFECT INDICATIVE OF REGULAR VERBS


I have warned I warned
2

/ have loved I loved


l

I have ruled

ama/vi
amavis'ti

ama'vit

ama/vimus
amavis'tis

amave'runt
a.

took,

With the same endings conjugate and audivi, / have heard, I heard.

cepi,

/ have taken, I

THE PERFECT TENSE, INDICATIVE ACTIVE

79

A Roman Emperor

in Military Attire

EXERCISES
254.
I.

mus. 5. 9. Misimus.

Veni, vldi, vlci. 2. Afuisti. 3 Duxit. Habuistis. 6. Fecerunt. 7. Laudavisti.


.

4.
8.

Dedi-

Docuit.
Vocavit-

10.

Muniverunt.

11.

Vidimus.

12.

8o
255.
4.
1.

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

He

has taken.
5.

2.

He

has heard.
6.

3.

They have
feared.

taken.
7.

They have heard.


8.

have praised.
10.

You

We

wrote.

You

sent.

9.

I defended.

We

fought.

Servus bonus multas epistulas scrlpsit. 2. Ad miserunt. Multa et Caesarem, imperatorem, legatos 3. idonea loca vldit. 4. Opusne fecisti? 5. Ubi fuerunt nautae? 6. Nonne consilium audivistl? 7. Pater cum flliis at256.
1.

Via ab fmmine ad montem pertinebat. 10. Tuba slgnum dedit. n. Dux 9. 12. Servos incolarum propter virtutem copias laudavit.

que

filiabus venit.

8.

Dux

signa dabat.

llberavimus.
14.

13.

Celtae in fines Belgarum iter fecerunt.

Incolae
1.

cum
The

finitimis

bellum gesserunt.
2.

257.

We
3.

have been
girls.

friends.

in the city.

horses have
5.

come

to the bridge.

There were brave horsemen 4. I have given

conquered the Gauls? 6. Did you see the beautiful buildings of the city? 7. Why have they devastated the fields of the neighbors?

many

rewards to the

Who

258.

principal parts of verbs thus far given


First Conjugation
-

laudo
iuvo
a.

laudare
iuvare

laudavi
iuvi

laudatum iutum

With

the regular endings -6, -are, -avi, -atum, form the

parts of accuso, appello, conflrmo, exspecto, libero, navigo,

nuntio, paco, vulnero.

paro,

porto,

pugno, supero, vasto, voco,

Second Conjugation
debeo doceo habeo
pertineo teneo

debere

timeo
vide5

THE PERFECT PARTICIPLE


Third Conjugation
defendo
divido

8l

defendere

duco
gero
incolo

mitto
scrlbo

vinco
cupio
facio
iacio

&2

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


260. Perfect Participle.

sive participle, which supine (249) to -s:

is

Latin verbs have a perfect pasmade by changing final -m of the

ama/tus, -a, -um, loved, having been loved


mo'nitus, -a, -um, warned, having been warned rec'tus, -a, -um, ruled, having been ruled

-um, taken, having been taken audTtus, -a, -um, heard, having been heard
cap'tus, -a,
a.

This participle

is

declined like the adjective bonus, -a,

-um.
261. Perfect Indicative Passive.

The

perfect indicative

passive

is

compound

tense, consisting of the perfect par-

ticiple and sum: amatus (-a) sum, / have been loved, I was loved amatus (-a) es, you have been loved, you were loved amatus (-a, -um) est, {he, she, it) has been loved, was loved

amati (-ae) sumus, we have been loved, we were loved amati (-ae) estis, you have been loved, you were loved amati (-ae, -a) sunt, {they) have been loved, were loved
a.

The ending

and number amata est.


b.

of the participle depends upon the gender of the subject: thus pater amatus est, but filia

In the same way conjugate monitus sum, / have been warned, rectus sum, / have been ruled, captus sum, / have been taken, auditus sum, / have been heard.

262.

VOCABULARY
M.,
citizen

centurio, centurionis, M., centurion


civis, civis,

scutum, centum,
adj.),

-1,

N., shield
(indeclinable

populus,

-1,
-1,

Quintus,
Sextus,

M., people, nation M., Quintus

hundred

gravis, grave, heavy

-1,

M., Sextus

THE PERFECT PARTICIPLE

83

EXERCISES
263.
4.
i.

Vocatus

est.

2.

Visi
6.

sunt.

3.

Missi

sumus.
7.

Audltus es. 5. Capti estis. tus sum. 8. Miinltum est.


9.

Laudatae sunt.

Doc-

Iacta sunt.

10.

Non

victi

sumus.
1.

264.
called
2.

They have been


were
called).

(or,

has been seen (or, was seen). 3. I have been led

He

been heard.

4. We have She has been expected. 6. You have been defended. 7. It has been. 8. It has been reported.

(or,

was

led).

5.

tum men
4.

265. 1. Centurio cenmllites duxit. 2. No-

Scutum

centurionis
3.

erat
et

Sextus.

Quintus
a
Sexto,

Sextus

erant

elves
est.

Romanl.
5.

Quintus

centurione,

laudatus

Scu-

tum

Quint! non grave erat. 6. Scuta nova mllitibus data 8. Populus Romanus sunt. 7. Scuta nova mllitum vidl.

cum
10.

civitatibus Galliae

pacem

faciet.

9.

Ab

Castra a centurionibus

munita sunt.

urbe afuimus. 11. Hostes a

populo

Romano

defensi sumus.

12. Magno cum perlculo superatl sunt. 14. A 13. Ad elves niintius missus sum.
es.

matre bona doctus

266. 1. Many tribes in Gaul have been subdued. 2. The boy has been warned. 3. The animals have been seen in the forest. 4. A beautiful shield was carried into the camp. 5. Who has seen the brave centurion? 6. We have come to the gate of the city with many citizens. 7. The war has been carried on with great bravery. 8. Who made the Roman shields? 9. Where were the citizens? 10. Were they away from the town?
7

84

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

LESSON XXXIV
267.

REVIEW OF LESSONS XXVI-XXXHI

VOCABULARY
altitudo

REVIEW OF LESSONS XXVI-XXXIII


veni and veniebam differ in meaning?
perfect indicative passive formed? the third declension of
classified?
14.
13. 12.

85

How

is

the

How

are adjectives

Decline

acer.
16.

15.

Decline omnis.
is

How

expressed?

separation Place from

which?
adjectives

17.
is

With
the

what
dative

used?

POPULUS ROM ANUS


269.

Multae f abulae de *

septem regibus Romanis narrantur. Romulus, pri-

mus

rex,

urbem

Romam

Propter mulappellavit. iniurias tas Tarquinius


Superbus, rex septimus, ex urbe expulsus est. Post reges consules creati sunt.

Roman! fuerunt populus


Multls cum napotens. tionibus bellum gesserunt et Italiam, Graeciam, Galliam,

L.

Cornelius Sulla

Hispaniam vicerunt.
Sclpio,

Magni imperatores erant Apud Romanos fuerunt


bus Ciceronis non audlvit?

Marius, Sulla, Caesar. oratores clarl. Quis de orationi-

Vergilius et Horatius, poetae sunt.

Roman!, ab omnibus laudati

About.

o
Oh

>
3

o w w o

86

THE FOURTH DECLENSION

87

LESSON XXXV
THE FOURTH DECLENSION
270.

The fourth

declension includes

all

nouns whose genin -us or -u.

itive singular

ends in -us.

The nominative ends

Most nouns of the fourth declension are 271. Gender. masculine. Domus, house, manus, hand, and a few others
are feminine.

Those

in -u are neuter.

272.

MODEL NOUNS

88
274.

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

VOCABULARY
cornus,
(of

cornu,

N.,

horn;

lacus, lacus, M., lake

wing

an army)
F.,

portus,
house,
port

portus,

M., harbor,

domus, domus, home


exercitus,

senatus, senatus, M., senate


dexter, -tra, -trum, right
sinister, -tra, -trum, left

army manus, manus,


band, force
a.

exercitus, M., (a trained body)


F.,

hand;

saepe, adv., often

Decline together exercitus f ortis ; cornu dextrum.

EXERCISES
275. senatus.
1.

In
2.

civitatibus

Galliae

fuerunt

principes

et

Consules

duces

exercituum

saepe

erant.

4. Animalia in silva cor3. nua longa habent. 5. Decern cohortes militum erant in dextro cornu. 6. Dextrum cornu Romanorum hostes vlcit; sinistrum cornu hostium superatum est. 7. Lacus et flumen provinciam Romanam a Gallia diviserunt. 8. Domusne agri-

Noster exercitus non vincetur.

colae longe a lacu abest?

9.

domos pulchras
vulnerata
amicls
13.
14.
est.

in
11.

urbe habebunt.

Sextus et Marcus, amid mei, 10. Manus dextra legati

nostris.

In manibus servorum erant epistulae ab 12. Iulia manu sua epistulam scripsit.

Frtimentum
1

in

portum

multis

navibus
15.

portabitur.

In portu naves longas saepe vidimus.

Senatus popu-

lusque Romanus.

276. 1. Caesar sent a message to the Roman senate. 2. The victory has been reported to the senate. 3. The consul was praising the brave army. 4. The leader of the army will be seen with his lieutenants. 6. The little 5. Have you seen the beautiful lakes? is next to the lake (246). 7. The brave chief led a large band village
of Gauls.
1

The

title of

the

Roman government,

abbreviated

S.

P. Q. R.

PREFIXES.

THE LOCATIVE CASE

89

LESSON XXXVI
PREFIXES.

THE LOCATIVE CASE

EXPRESSIONS OF PLACE REVIEWED


277. Prefixes.

Many compound

verbs are

made by com-

Most of the bining simple verbs with adverbial prefixes. prefixes are also used as prepositions and include the following already learned: a (ab), away; ad, to; ante, before; de, down, away; e (ex), out; in (im-), in, into, against (negative, not); inter, between; per, through; post, after; trans (tra-),
across.

Other

common

prefixes,

not used separately, are conapart; re- (red-), back.

(com-, co-), together; dis278.

(di-),

VOCABULARY
-1,

Corinthus,

F.,

Corinth
Helvetia

importo, (im
in,

+ porto),
+

bring

Genava,

-ae, F., Geneva


F.,

import
teneo),

Helvetia, -ae,
(Switzerland)

contineo, continere, continui,

contentum (con
hold
together,
2

Helvetii, -drum, M.,the Eel1 vetii, the Helvetians

restrain,

bound (geographically)

Helvetius

(Helveticus), -a, Helvetian -um, Oce'anus, -1, M., ocean

+ duco), lead out reduco, (re + duco), lead back traduco, (tra + duco), lead
educo,
(e

rus, ruris, N., country (opposed to the city)

across

convenio,

vinum,
habito,

-1,

N., wine
-avi,

(con + venio), come together, assemble

-are,

atum,
2

pervenio, (per

+ venio), {come

dwell, live

through), arrive, reach.

comporto, (com
together
1

porto),

bring

Pronounced

Hel-vc'shi-i.

The

principal parts are like those of the simple verb.

90

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

279. The Locative Case. Names of towns in the singular of the first and second declensions, and a few other words,
case, the locative (47 a), denoting place where The ending in the first declension is -ae: (locus, place). Romae, at Rome; in the second declension, -1: Corinthi, at

have a special

Corinth.

Domus and

rus have the locative forms doml,

at

Home; run, in the country.


280.

PLACE IN WHICH
Marcus in oppido est, Marcus is in the town. Marcus Romae est, Marcus is in Rome. Marcus doml est, Marcus is at home.

with in

Place in which or at which is regularly expressed by the ablative (67), but the locative case is used for domus, rus, and names of towns in the singular number.

281.

PLACE PROM WHICH


Ab

Roma Domo

oppido venerunt, they came from the town. venerunt, they came from Rome. venerunt, they came from home.
is

Place from which

ab, de, or ex (223), but with preposition is omitted.

expressed by the ablative, regularly with names of towns, domus, and rus the

282.

PLACE TO "WHICH
Ad oppidum

Romam venerunt, they came to Rome. Domum venerunt, they came home.
Place
is

venerunt, they came

to the

town.

to

which

is

or in (134), but with

expressed by the accusative, regularly with ad names of towns, domus, and rus the preposition

omitted.

EXERCISES
283.
i.

Gallia,
2.

magna
erat

terra,

a.

Rhodano ad Oceanum
et

pertinebat. batur. 3.

Helvetia montibus et fluminibus contine-

Genava

magnum oppidum

proximum

PREFIXES.
Helvetils.
4.

THE LOCATIVE CASE

91

Ex

pido

pons

ad

opHelvetios

eo

Genavae. Multae epistulae Genava mittentur. 7. Mar6.

5. pertinebat. erunt catoris

Filii

mer-

cus et Qulntus

Romae

in

Italia
8.

habitaverunt.
in

Iulia

urbe habitat;

Sextus, frater Iuliae, run. 9. Pueri Corinth! cum pa-

tre
10.

suo habitabunt. Flumen Rhenus Gera


Gallia
dividit.

maniam

n. Agricolae ex

agris fru-

mentum
12.

comportabant. Mercatorne in Galliam

vinum importavit?
13.

Decemne

cohortes ex

castris eductae sunt?


Legatus copias in castra reducet. 15. Hostes trans Rhenum in Galliam
14.

tradiicuntur.

16. Viri con-

veniunt et ad lacum pul-

chrum pervenient.
284.
live
2

Does your brother at home? 2. The soldier


1.

Statue of a Roman Matron


4. There were ships at Corinth. Caesar led his army to Geneva.
7.

has carried
grain.
3.

home a supply of The traders saw many


5.

many
6.

soldiers in the ships.

The Roman

lieutenant

is

away from home.

The Roman

8. The Bellegions conquered the Germans and the Helvetians. with homes their defended and the Celts great valor. gians
1

That.

Habito.

92

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

LESSON XXXVII
THE FIFTH DECLENSION. EXPRESSIONS OF TIME
285.

The

last

declension,

the

fifth,

includes

whose genitive singular ends


ends in -es.
286.

in -ei or -ei.

nouns The nominative


all

Gender.

Nouns

of the fifth declension are feminine,

except dies, day, which is masculine in the plural, but masculine or feminine in the singular.

287.

MODEL NOUNS

THE FIFTH DECLENSION.

EXPRESSIONS OF TIME

93

290.
i.

EXPRESSIONS OF TIME
Multos annos Romae
years.

habitavit,

he

lived

at

Rome
last

{for)

many

2.

Proximo anno Romae

habitavit, he lived at

Rome

year.
3.

Decern annis multas urbes

vidit,

within ten years he


expresses the time

has seen

many

cities.

The accusative phrase multos annos

during which he lived and answers the question How long? The ablative proximo anno expresses the time when he lived,
while decern annis
tells

the time within which he has seen

the

cities.

291.

Rule.

Duration of Time.

Duration of time

is ex-

pressed by the accusative case.

Time when 292. Rule. Time When or Within Which. or within which anything is or is done is expressed by the ablative without a preposition.

293.

VOCABULARY
brevis, breve, short

acies, aciei, F., line of battle,

army
dies, diei, M.,

pauci, -ae, -a,

pi.,

a few

meridies,

-ei,

day M., midday,

heri, adv., yesterday

hodie,

adv.,

(on this day),

noon
res, rel, F., thing, fact, matter

to-day
eras, adv., to-morrow

aestas, aestatis, F., summer hiems, hiemis, F., winter

maned, manere, mansi, mansum, remain, abide

mensis, mensis, M., month


294. Synonyms. Synonyms are words that have the same or nearly the same meaning: acies, army in battle array; agmen, army on the march; exercitus, army, a trained force; copiae, troops, forces.

94

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


Memorize:

Non

Not many

multa, sed multum. things, but much.


nobis solum.
ourselves.

Non

Not merely for

EXERCISES
domi mansimus. 2. Paucis diebus amicos nostros videbimus. 3. Ab monte aciem hostium
295.
1.

Multos
4.
5.

dies

vidimus.
imperator.

In

acie

erant

milites,

Exercitus

Romanus

centuriones, legatl, cum multis clvitatibus

Non semper vlcit, sed non pugnavit. est. 7. Agmen partem noctis iter fecit.
6.

saepe superatus 8. Aestate dies

sunt longl;

hieme sunt breves.


10.

partem
oppido.
12.

aestatis.
11.

Eramus run magnam Omnium rerum magna copia erat in


9.

Dies est in horas dlvisa; annus in menses.

Marcus

herl erat

Romae,
13.

eras erit in provincia, paucis

mensibus
aberunt.

erit in Gallia.

14.

Nautae multos menses domo Ante meridiem (a. m.); post meridiem (p. m.).

296. 1. The next day Caesar sent his army to Geneva. 2. Before noon they fortified the camp. 3. Have you seen your brother today? 4. We ought to be in the city to-morrow. 5. The king's forces held the mountain many hours. 6. The army will march a
great part of the day. with the traders.
7.

few slaves

will

remain in the village

LESSON XXXVIII
THE PLUPERFECT INDICATIVE
297.

The

pluperfect indicative corresponds in meaning to

the English past perfect: active, / had loved; passive, 7" had been loved. It represents an act or state as completed in past
time.

THE PLUPERFECT INDICATIVE

95

In the 298. The Pluperfect Indicative of Regular Verbs. active voice the pluperfect tense is formed by adding eram The tense sign is -era- (shortened to the perfect stem (250).
to -era- before the endings

-m,

-t, -nt).

Active Voice
I had loved
/ had warned / had ruled

ama'veram
ama/veras ama/verat

monu'eram
monu'eras monu'erat

re'xeram
re'xeras
re'xerat

amavera'mus
amavera'tis

monuera'mus
monuera'tis

rexera'mus
rexera'tis

ama/verant

monu'erant

re'xerant

a. With the same endings conjugate ce'peram, / had taken; audiVeram, / had heard; fu/eram, / had been.

In the passive voice the pluperfect indicative is compound, consisting of the perfect participle (260) and eram.
299.

Passive Voice
Singular

amatus amatus amatus

(-a)

eram, / had been loved


you had been loved -um) erat, {he, she, it) had been loved
Plural

(-a) eras,
(-a,

amati (-ae) eramus, we had been loved amati (-ae) eratis, you had been loved amati (-ae, -a) erant, {they) had been loved
a. In the same way conjugate monitus eram, / had been warned; rectus eram, / had been ruled; captus eram, / had been taken; auditus eram, / had been heard.

96
300.

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

VOCABULARY
quartus, -a, -um, fourth
quattuor, (indeclinable adj.),
-1,

magistrates, -us, M., magistrate

pagus,

M.,

district,

canton
l

four
postea, adv., afterwards quod, conj., because
creo, creare, creavi, creatum,
elect, create

vigilia, -ae, F.,

watch

antiquus, -a, -um, ancient

duodecim, (indeclinable
twelve

adj.),

EXERCISES
301.
veratis.
8.
i.

Laudaveras.
5.

2.

Viderat.
6.

3.

Miseramus.
eras.
7.

Fecerant.
9.

Vocatus
erat.

4. MunlDocta erat.

Victi erant.

Munltum

10.

Afueramus.

302.
4.
7.

We
I

led.

2. You had held. 3. He had written. had divided. 5. You had come. 6. They had been heard. had been elected. 8. He had been seen. 9. They had been 10. It had been hurled. 1.

had waited.

Equos ex agro eduxeramus. 2. Nuntius ad ducem equitum missus erat. 3. Navesne in portum navigaverant? 4. Nonne ad vicum in montibus perveneras? 5. Agmen
303.
1.

quattuor horas

iter fecerat.
7.

pagos
erat.

divlsa.
8.

Pax cum

Helvetia erat in quattuor Quarta pars ab exercitu Caesaris victa Celtis conflrmata erat. 9. Rex German6.

orum a populo Romano amicus appellatus erat. 10. Diem Roman! in duodecim horas divlserunt; noctem in quattuor n. Mllites laudati sunt, quod magna cum virtute vigilias.
pugnaverant. 12. Vlcerunt quod fortes erant. non timebant, quod oppidum muniverant.
13. 14.

OppidanI

temporibus fuerant reges in Gallia;


civitatibus creatl sunt.

AntTquis postea magistrates a


2.

304.
1

1.

had

called the

called friends.

3.

We

boys my friends. had lived 2 ten years

The boys had been

in the district of Hel-

A watch was a fourth part of the night, from sunset to sunrise. Habiro-

THE FUTURE PERFECT INDICATIVE


vetia.
4.

97

supply of grain had been given to the men by the I love tribe's magistrate. 5. I shall remain in the country because the broad fields. 6. We had desired to see the house of the merhe has often dechant. 7. Marcus will be elected consul because

fended the people.

Attack on a German Fortress As depicted on


the column of

Marcus Aurelius

LESSON XXXIX
THE FUTURE PERFECT INDICATIVE
REVIEW OF THE INDICATIVE. SYNOPSES
future perfect tense in Latin corresponds to the English future perfect: active, / shall have loved; passive, I It represents an act or state as comshall have been loved.
305.

The

pleted in future time. 306. The Future Perfect Indicative of Active Verbs. the active voice the future perfect is formed to the perfect stem. The tense sign is -eri-.

In

by

adding -ero

98

latin for the first year


Active Voice
Singular

ama/vero, / shall have loved


ama/veris,
loved

monu'ero, /
monu'eris,

shall have

warned
have

you

will

have

you
(he,

will

warned
it)

ama/verit, (he, she, have loved

will

monu'erit,

she,

it)

will

have warned

Plural

amave'rimus, we
loved

shall have

monue'rimus, we warned
monue'ritis,

shall

have

amave'ritis,
loved

you

will

have

you

will

have

warned
will have

ama/verint, (they)
loved
a.

monu'erint, (they) will have

warned
With the same endings conjugate

rexero, / shall have / have shall ruled, cepero, taken, audivero, / shall have heard, fuero, / shall have been.

In the passive voice the future perfect indicative compound, consisting of the perfect participle and ero.
307.

is

Passive Voice
Singular

amatus amatus amatus

(-a) ero, (-a) eris,

I shall have been loved

you

will have been loved

(-a, -urn) erit, (he, she, it) will

have been loved

Plural

amati (-ae) erimus, we shall have been loved amati (-ae) eritis, you will have been loved amati (-ae, -a) erunt, (they) will have been loved

THE FUTURE PERFECT INDICATIVE


a.

99

In the same way conjugate monitus ero, / shall have been warned; rectus ero, / shall have been ruled; captus ero, / shall have been taken; auditus ero, I shall have been heard.

308.

indicative endings
First Person Singular

IOO
310.

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

VOCABULARY
moveo, movere, movi, moturn,

lux, lucis, F., light f daylight

regnum,

N. (rego), royal power, kingdom


-1,

move
(con

contendo, -tendere, -tendi,

celeriter, adv., (celer, quick),

-tentum,
stretch

tendo,
strive,

quickly
fortiter, (fortis), adv., bravely

thoroughly), contend; hasten


-ficere,
-feci,
2

postquam,
occupo,

conj., after
1

perficio,

-fec-

ubi, adv. or conj., when, where


-are,
-avi,

turn, (per+facio),

(do thorcorn-

-atum,

oughly),
plete
is

accomplish,

seize, take
a.

possession of
perfect indicative ubi.

The

used with the conjunctions

postquam and
Memorize:

Homo

I am a sum; human! nihil a me alienum puto. man and deem nothing that relates to man a matter of
indifference to me.

EXERCISES
311.
veritis.
8.
i.

Vocavero, dedero.
4.
6.

2.

Habueris, vlderis.

3.

Dp*

fenderit, scripserit.

Iecerunt,
erit.
9.

Venerimus, pervenerimus. 5. Cupiiecerant, iecerint. 7. Missus ero.


10.

Munltum
312.

Capti erunt.

Docta

eris.

have made. 2. You will have aided. 3 3. He will have led. 4. We shall have brought-together. 5. They will have been absent. 6. He will be elected. 7. He will have been elected. 8. You will have been sent. 9. You will be sent.

i.I

shall

313.
2.

1.

Frumentum
celeriter

mercatoribus
3.

importatum

erit.

Opus
1

perficietur.
4.

Ante
4

horam decimam

multas res perfecerimus.


Ubi
is
2

Nostrl

fortiter contenderint.

either a conjunction or adverb, according to its use in a sentence. passive of perficio is regular, like that of capio. 3 What are the principal parts of iuvo? 4 Milites is often to be supplied, as here, with the masculine plural of possessive adjectives.

The

THE FUTURE PERFECT INDICATIVE


5.

1QI

Galli ante

lucem castra moverint.

regnum occupabit, quod magnum signum pugnae datum est, milites

Princeps civitatis exercitum habet. 7. Ubi


6.

fortiter

pugnaverunt.

Postquam pontem fecit, traduxit. 9. Postquam milites


8.

derunt.
erant.

suos \ plla iecerunt, gladiis conten10. Ubi civitates victae sunt, pacem facere paratae

Caesar

trans

Rhenum

11.

Hostesne montem heri occupaverunt

12.

Quis

opus hodie perficiet?

Captives Pleading for

Mercy from a Roman Conqueror

314. 1. When I was in the city, I saw the harbor and the ships. After I arrived at (ad) the city, I wrote to my friends. 3. The camp will be moved before the fourth watch. 4. The magistrates will have been elected by the citizens. 5. They were hastening the work. had because completed home, they
2.
1

See Daee 100. footnote

4..

IOT

LATIN.

FOR THE FIRST YEAR

LESSON XL
PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES VOCABULARY
alia,

315.
alius,

aliud,

another,

other
alter,

altera,

alterum,

the

other (of

two)

neuter,

neutra,

neutrum,
(of

-um, none, no ullus, -a, -um, any solus, -a, -um, alone, sole totus, -a, -um, whole, entire unus, -a, -um, one
nullus, -a,
sine, prep., w. abl., without

neither (of two)

uter, utra,

utrum, which?

two)

Nine pronominal adjectives of the first and second declensions, given in the above vocabulary, have the ending -lus in the genitive singular and -1 in the dative singular, for
316.
all

of the singular

genders, instead of the regular endings. In other cases and in the plural they are declined like bonus,

liber, or pulcher.

Note the exceptional form

of alius in the

neuter.
a. Learn the declension of alius, alter, neuter, given on page 271.

unus

as

317.
alii

Alter repeated (alter


.

alter)

means one
.

the
pi.,

other; alius repeated (alius


.

alius), one

another;

alii,

some

others: Alii pila, alii gladios portant,

some carry spears, others swords. 318. The pronominal adjectives of this lesson regularly stand before their nouns.
a.

Decline tota navis, uter puer, neutrum cornu.

Adjectives as Nouns. Adjectives in Latin as in English are often used alone as nouns: altum, the deep (sea);
319.
fortes fortuna iuvat, fortune favors the brave.

masculine

PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES
adjective so used generally implies adjective, thing or things: nostri,

103

man
our

or men, a neuter

{men,

soldiers)

omnes,

all

(men); omnia,

all (things).

EXERCISES
320. i. Belgae unam partem Galliae incolunt; aliam (partem) Celtae. 2. Alterum oppidum erat in Gallia; alterum
in
Italia.
3.

Neuter locus

castrls erat idoneus.

4.

Utrl

puero

epistulam dedistl? 5. Prmcipes Caesarem venerunt. 6. Totam diem erant


7.

totius

Galliae

ad

niillae

naves

in portu.

perfectum est. 8. Legatus cum sola decima legione venit. 9. Multl contenderunt; domum pervenerunt, 10. Ubi victores pauci vlcerunt. omnes laudatl sunt. 11. Mercatores per provinciam venient, quod aliud iter habent nullum. 12. Nostri castra fortiter

Opus

sine ullo perlculo

defenderant.
everything (all things) with great was aided by the other. 3. The a shield. 4. Some Romans were The men of one district are ready 6. The sisters of Marcus will remain in the to come-together. country the whole summer. 7. After our friends arrived at (ad)
321.
1.

care.

The boys were doing Neither of the consuls brave centurion fought without 5. soldiers, others were orators.
2.

Corinth, they sailed to


1

(in) Italy.
8.

See 313, sentences 4 and

A Roman Festival

Alma-Tadema

io4

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

LESSON XLI
REVIEW OF LESSONS XXXV-XL
322.
acies

VOCABULARY

REVIEW OF LESSONS XXXV-XL

I05

Julius Caesar

VICTOR GALLIAE
324.

Gaius Iulius Caesar, vir clarissimus

Romae,

miles,

<5rator, a populo

Romano

consul creatus
2

est.

Post consula-

tum Galliam provinciam


civitatibus Gallicls bellum

Turn octo annos accepit. et eas omnes pacavit. gessit,


qui trans
2

cum
Pon-

tem

in flumine
1

Rheno fecit et Germanos,

Rhenum in-

Most famous.

Received.

io6

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

Postea in Britanniam navigavit, et colebant, superavit. cum Britannis pugnavit.

LESSON XLII
THE RELATIVE PRONOUN QUI. THE INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN QUIS. CLAUSES
325. The relative pronoun qui, who, which, or that, clined as follows:
Singular
is

de-

Plural

M.
Nom.
Gen.
qui

F.

N.

M.
qui

F.

N. quae

quae
l

quod
cuius

quae

who, which, or that


cuius
cuius

quorum
quibus

quarum quorum
quibus quibus

whose, of
Dat.

whom, or

of which

cm
quern

cui
to

cui
or for

whom

or which

Ace.

quam
qua.

quod

quos
that

quas

quae

whom, which, or

AM.

quo

quo
(etc.)

quibus

quibus

quibus

from

whom

or which

326. The interrogative pronoun quis, who? what? is declined in the plural like the relative qui ; in the singular as
follows:

M. and

F.

N.

Nom.
Gen.
Dat. Ace.

quis cuius
cui
2

who? what? quid cuius whose? of whom? of what? cui to or for whom? to or for what ?
quid

quern

AM.
1

quo
Pronounced

quo
coo'yus.

whom? what? from (etc.) whom? from


2

(etc.)
kivee.

what?

Pronounced

THE RELATIVE PRONOUN.

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN

107

327. The interrogative adjective qui, what? which? is declined like the relative pronoun in both numbers: qui vir?

what

man? quae
Use
of

terra? what country?

quod flumen? what

river ?

328.

the Relative Pronoun.

noun noun

is

a connecting

word

relative prothat refers or relates to a preceding

The

or

pronoun

called its antecedent.

1.

Viri, qui

oppidum defenderant, laudati

sunt, the men,

2.

who had defended the town, were praised. Viri, quorum oppidum defensum erat, laudati sunt, the men, whose town had been defended, were praised.

In these sentences qui and quorum have the gender and number of the antecedent viri; but qui is a subject nominative and quorum a possessive genitive without regard to the
case of
viri.

329.

Rule.

Agreement

of Relative

Pronouns.

relative
its

pronoun agrees with its antecedent in gender and number ; case depends on its use in its own clause.
330.

Complex Sentences.

With regard

to form, sentences are

simple, complex, or compound, as in English. The Latin sentences of 328, and in former lessons those containing postquam, ubi {when),
or

quod

(because), are

principal or independent,

complex; for they have two clauses each, a and a subordinate or dependent.

a. The clauses of a complex sentence are connected by a relative pronoun, or a subordinate conjunction. clause beginning with a relative pronoun is called a relative clause.

331.

The Use

of Clauses.

Clauses

may be

used as nouns, ad-

jectives, or adverbs.
a. A noun clause, or substantive clause, is one that is used as the subject or object of a verb, or as an appositive or know that the earth revolves. Latin predicate noun: illustrations are given later. b. An adjective clause is one that modifies a noun or pronoun. Relative clauses are used in this way.

We

108
c.

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

An

adverbial clause

jective, or

is one that modifies a verb, an adClauses introduced by quod another adverb.

{because), ubi, or

postquam are

illustrations.

332.

VOCABULARY
tres, tria,
1

Aquitania, -ae, F., Aquitania

three -avi,

Aqultanus,
cultus,
-us,

-1,

M., an

A qui-

expugno, -are,
(ex

-atum,

tanian; pi., the

Aquitanians
civilization

+ pugno),

capture, take

M.,

by storm

lingua, -ae, F., tongue, language oppugno, -are, -avi, -atum, dissimilis, -e, unlike (ob +\>ugno) y fight against, third attack tertius, -a, -um,

EXERCISES
333.

datum
est

Puer, cuius frater veniet. 2. Miles, cui scutum est. 4. Oppidum, quod 3. Terra, quam incolimus.
1.

proximum. 5. Via, qua venistl. veneram. 7. Montes, qui sunt altl.


lata.
9.
1.

6.
8.

Amicus, quocum Flumina, quae sunt

Incolae, quos vlcimus.

10.

Puellae, quas vocabant.


2.

334.
is

new.

The days, which 3. The merchants,


will see.

are short.
to
5.

The

sailors,

whose ship

camp, which they


6.

he gave the grain. 4. The The leaders, by whom we were sent.


lived.
7.

whom

The

villages, in
8.

which they
to

The

consul,

whom

they

will elect.

The queen,

whom

the letter has been given.

Aquitania est tertia pars Galliae. 2. Qui linguam Aqultanorum audlverunt? 3. Quas linguas audlvistl? 4. Hel335.
1.

Romanae non longe aberant. 5. Quis cultum Romanorum non laudat? 6. Hostes tria oppida expugnaverunt; multa oppugnaverant. 7. Consilia, quae
vetil a cultii provinciae

nuntiant, sunt bona. 9. Sextus amlc5s suos,


vocavit.
10.
11.

8.

Quibus

c5nsilia

nuntiaverunt?

quorum magnum numerum habebat,

cupiebat.
1

Neuter puerorum, quos vidimus, navigare Cuius manu epistula scrlpta est? 12. Mllites

The numeral

Cum may

tres is declined like the plural of fortis, page 272. follow the ablative of the relative pronoun, as an en-

clitic (18).

THE PRESENT INFINITIVE.


omnia
signa,

USES OF THE INFINITIVE


13.

109

quae habent, comportabunt. oppugnant, non expugnabitur.

Urbs,

quam

336. 1. We shall remain at home three days. 2. (There) were ten ships, that carried the sailors. 3. (There) are many animals in the 4. To whom had they written the letter? forest, which you see.
6. Was the 5. With what legions did the general attack the town? town quickly captured? 7. Caesar made peace with the tribe, 8. There are many other cities, whose chief had been wounded.

that I desire to see.

GAUL
337. Gallia est omnis dlvisa in partes tres, quarum tinam incolunt Belgae, aliam Aqultani, tertiam Celtae. Celtae

Linguae civitatum lingua Romanorum Galli appellantur. sunt dissimiles. Gallos ab Aquitanis Garumna flumen (dividit); a Belgis

Matrona

et

Sequana

dlvidit.

LESSON XLIII
THE PRESENT
INFINITIVE.

THE USES OF THE INFINITIVE

The Latin infinitive has 338. The Present Infinitive. three tenses in each voice: present, perfect, and future. The
present passive infinitive is formed by changing final -e of the active to -1, except in the third conjugation, in which
-ere becomes
-I.

Active

Passive

amare, monere,

to love
to

amari,

to be loved to be

warn

moneri,

warned

regere, to rule capere, to take

regi, to be ruled

capi, to be taken

audire,

to

hear

audiri, to be heard

HO
339.
in

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

Uses

of the Infinitive.

The Latin

infinitive is

used

two ways: 1. As a noun


2.

in the

nominative or accusative, without a

subject.

As a verb, with a subject accusative. 340. The Infinitive without a Subject. As stated
the infinitive is

in 109

used as the subject, the object, or the complement of a verb; sometimes as an appositive or predicate nominative: Errare est humanum, to err is human; videre
cupiunt, they desire videre est credere,
to see;

venire debent, they ought


1

to

come;

to see is to believe.

341.
i.

THE INFINITIVE WITH SUBJECT ACCUSATIVE


Mons
est altus, the mountain is high.

2.

3.

Audio montem esse altum, / hear {that) the mountain is high (lit., the mountain to be high). Video montem esse altum, / see {that) the mountain
is high.

4.

Nuntio

montem

esse altum, / report

{that) the

moun-

tain is high.

In the

first

sentence there

is

a direct statement.
is

In the

other sentences

montem

esse altum

an indirect statement,

having the verb in the infinitive with a subject in the accusaThis indirect statement forms a noun clause, used as tive. the object of the main verb. Notice that there is no Latin word for that, to connect the clause. The sub342. Rule. Subject Accusative with Infinitive. is in the accusative case. an ject of infinitive Rule. Uses of Infinitive with Subject Accusa343. The infinitive with a subject accusative is used with verbs tive. 2 meaning say, think, know, perceive; also with some verbs
meaning order, compel, desire, permit.
1

Review 109 and no.

* I. e.

with verbs of

"

mental action."

THE PRESENT INFINITIVE.


344.

USES OF THE INFINITIVE

III

The Meaning

infinitive

of the Present Infinitive. The present denotes the same time as the verb on which it
1

depends

(say, think, etc.)-

It

may,

therefore,

have a present

or past meaning, as in the following sentences:


1.

Audit milites vincere, he hears


quer, or are conquering
.

that the soldiers con-

(lit.,

the soldiers to be con-

2.

quering) Audivit milites vincere, he heard that the soldieis conquered, or were conquering (lit., the soldiers to be

conquering).
3.

Audit milites vinci, he hears


quered.

(that) the soldiers are con-

4.

Audivit milites vinci, he heard


conquered.

(that) the soldiers

were

345.

VOCABULARY
dico, dicere, dixi, dictum, say

puto, -are, -avi, -atum, think

iubeo, iubere, iussi, iussum,


order

disco, discere, didicl,

learn
scio,

credo, credere, credidi, ere-

scire,

scivi,

scitum,

ditum,

believe

know

EXERCISES
'

346.
scrlbere.

1.

Dicit,

puerum epistulam
4.

epistulam scrlbit." scrlbere. 3 3. Dixit puerum


copias
fortiter

Puer

2.

Dicit

Puto

6. copias fortiter pugnare. habere. 7. Scivimus puellas multos amlcOs habere.

epistulam Putavi pugnare. 5. Sclmus puellas multos amicos


8.

Dis-

cimus Galliam esse

magnam

terram.

9.

Credisne natiOnem

1 With verbs like plan, promise, infinitive refers to future time. 2 3

and sometimes hope, the present

The The

direct statement, giving the exact words of the speaker. indirect statement.

112

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

10. Quis credidit nationem pacarl? n. Videtisne pacarl? 12. Frater meus Insulam esse pulchram agros vastari?

scribit.

13.

Rex

servos llberari iubet.

14.

Legatus pila

iaci 15. Nuntiatum est Gallos oppidum munire. 16. Nonne putas nautam slgnum videre? 17. Mercatores frumentum mittl iusserant. 18. Omnes sciunt magnum bellum gerl. 19. Vidi elves quarta hora, convenire. 20. Leiussit.

21. Esne puer quern giones iter facere paratae sunt. vidi? 22. Quae navis est inVquam video?

Romae

1 347. 1. Do you think the place is suitable? 2. Did you think the place was suitable? 3. I hear that my friends are not far away.

order the slaves to carry the grain. 5. The leader says army is marching into Gaul. 6. Marcus said that neither of the men was living at Rome. 7. They often come to Rome. 8. We all know the boys desire victory. 9. We desire to learn many
4.

They

will

that the

(things).

10.

All

men ought
is

to be free.
?

n. Do you know
that is

the

farmer, whose horse


1

in the field
2

that (349).

The conjunction

understood.

Street Scene in Ancient Rome

THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS

"3

LESSON XLIV
THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS
HIC, ILLE, ISTE

THE OBJECTIVE GENITIVE


348.
ille,

There are five demonstrative pronouns in Latin iste, is, idem. Hie, this, is declined as follows:

hie,

114
351.

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

VOCABULARY
-a,

cupidus,
eager

-um,

desirous,

hie, haec, hoc, this; he, she,

it

ille, ilia, illud, that (yonder);

cupiditas, -tatis, F., desire

he, she,
iste,

it

memoria, -ae,
recollection

F.,

memory,

ista,

istud,
1

that

(of

yours)
diu,
adv.,
long,

spes, spei, F., hope

for

a long

induco

(in

+ duco),

lead on,

time

influence
a.

Decline hie nauta, haec legio,

ilia

domus, istud pilum.

352.
i.

THE OBJECTIVE GENITIVE


Victoriam cupiunt, they desire
victory.

the victory.

2.

Cupidi victoriae sunt, they are desirous of {eager for)

3.

Magna

cupiditas victoriae est, there

is great desire

for

(of) victory.

In the illustrations the genitive victoriae

is

related as an

object to the adjective cupidus and the noun cupiditas, just as victoriam is the object of cupiunt. Victoriae is called an
objective genitive.

353.

Rule.

The

genitive

is

used with certain nouns and


action or feeling implied.

adjectives to denote the object of

an

EXERCISES
354. 1. ducibus.

Huic
3.

servo.

2.

Ad hanc

insulam.

3.

Cum

his

Apud

opus.
10.

7.

Ilia

6. Istud hos equites. 5. Haec castra. animalia. 8. Illorum lacuum. 9. Illls nautls.

Ab

illo
1.

principe.

11.

Illlus aciei.
illae

12.

Sine isto gladio.


2.

355.

Hae
1

puellae venerunt;

afuerunt.
far.

111!

opus

Long in

time,

opposed to longe,

THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS


fecerunt,
4. 6.

HIC, ILLE, ISTE

115

non

hi.

3.

Memoria huius
regnl.
5.

victoriae diu manebit.


erit castrls
7.

Hi fuerunt cupidl

Hie locus

idoneus.
IllI

Cum

hac natione Roman! pacem fecerant.

servl

cupiditate libertatis in8. Nuntius duct! sunt.

ab

illls

civitatibus,

quae
1

trans flumen incolebant,


venit.
9.

Unus

ex

his,

qui nunti! venerant, erat

frater
10.

centurionis.
illorum
mlsistl,

Neutrum
quos
11.

librorum,

vlderam.
consilium,

Istud

quod ab exploratore nuntiatum est, 12. Hanc bonum. est


terram,

defendemus.

quam amamus, 13. Hoc


didicimus.
facere

facere
14.
15.

Illud

debeo.

Nautas spe praedae


1.

indue! dlcunt.
356.
2.

Who will do this?

is

This river is deep, that broad. 3. We shall remain in that village all winter.
4.

have not seen


5.

those

cities.

Who

is

not
Statue of a Roman dressed in the Toga

desirous of liberty? 6. The memory of these things will

be pleasant. 2 The en7. are these emy towns; those they have captured. 8. The attacking soldiers of that legion fought bravely. 9. We have often written letters to that man concerning these things.
1

See 529,

b.

Iucunda.

Il6

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

THE BELGAE
x 2 357. Horum omnium fortissiml sunt Belgae, propterea 3 quod a cultti provinciae Romanae longe absunt, et merca-

vlnum non important; proximlque 4 sunt Germanls, qui trans Rhenum incolunt, quibuscum bellum gerunt.
tores

LESSON XLV
THE PERFECT
358.

INFINITIVE.

THE ABLATIVE OF CAUSE


The

perfect infinitive is formed in the active voice by adding -isse to the perfect stem; in the passive by combining the perfect participle and
esse.

The Perfect

Infinitive.

Active

Passive

amavisse,

to
to

monuisse,

amatus esse, to have been loved have warned monitus esse, to have been warned
have loved

rexisse, to have ruled audivisse, to have heard

rectus esse, to have been ruled auditus esse, to have been heard

fuisse, to have been

359.
finitive

Meaning

of the Perfect Infinitive.

The

to be translated
1.

denotes time before that of the main by the perfect or the pluperfect indicative:

perfect inIt is verb.

Dicit mllites vicisse, he says {that) the soldiers conquered, or have conquered.

2.

Dixit mllites vicisse, he said {that) the soldiers conquered, or had conquered.
Dicit milites victos esse, he says {that) the soldiers were conquered, or have been conquered.
1

3.

The

three divisions of the Gauls.


;

2
3

The bravest. Propterea quod See 229 a.

for the reason that.

THE PERFECT INFINITIVE


4. Dixit mllites victos esse,

117

he said {that) the soldiers

were conquered or had been conquered.


a. The participle in the perfect passive agrees with the subject accusative in gender, number, and case.

360.

VOCABULARY
angustus, -a, -um, narrow ob,prep., w. ace, on account of convoco, -are, -avi, -atum
(con
(timeo),

bonitas, bonitatis, F. (bonus),


goodness, excellence

causa, -ae, F., cause, reason


cibus,
-1,

M.,food

+ voco),

call together

inopia, -ae, F., lack, scarcity

fugio, fugere, fugi, fugitum,


flee

timor,

timoris,

M.

fear
361.

THE ABLATIVE OF CAUSE


fortiter

Spe victoriae

pugnaverunt, because of

the

hope of

victory they fought bravely.

The

reason? and
of cause
is

ablative here answers the question Why? is called an ablative of cause or reason.
of,

For what

The
of,

idea

shown in English by because The ablative without a 362. Rule.


cause or reason.
a.

on account
is

preposition

from. used to

express

Cause may also be expressed by de or ex with the ablaand by ob or propter with the accusative: multis de causis, for (from) many reasons; qua ex re, because of (from) this fact; ob has causas, for these reasons; propter tempus
tive

anni, on account of the time of the year.

EXERCISES
363.
fortes
i.

Legatum
3.

fuisse

fortem

scio.

2.

Legatos fuisse
dicit.
4.

sclvi.

Regem

nautas laudavisse
5.

Rex

principes convocaverat. dixit. 6. Quis nuntiabit

Regem principes convocavisse Romanos castra movisse? 7. Hel8.

vetios fines angustos habuisse discimus.

Nostra consilia

n8
nuntiamus.
tasne

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


esse
dicit.
9.

hostibus nuntiata
10.

Oppidum munitum
esse
11.

esse

Epistulas scriptas
esse?

pacem conflrmatam
13.
14.

Puputavit. 12. Incolas monitos esse

audlverunt.
fecit.

Multis de causis pontem in 1 flumine Rheno Incolae inopia cibl erant miserl. 15. Hostes inoin perlculo fuerunt.
16.

pia
ria

navium magno

Puerum arma-

monebo. 17. Agricolae propter bonitatem agrorum in ilia terra manebunt. 18. Ob hanc causam oppidum non expugnatum erat. 19. Timore hostium oppidan! fugerunt.
20.

Explorator mintiat oppidanos fugisse.


1.

364.

He
The

come.

3.

says the boys have come. 2. He said the boys had 4. I heard girls know (that) the letter was written.

(that) the citizens

had been

called together.

5.

The

captives will

6. They said the flee, because there are few soldiers in the camp. 7. The captives were fleeing because-of a desire for (of) liberty. general is said to have been a large man. 8. Between the mountains there is a narrow road. 9. Does the leader fear the lack of food?

10.

Whose work

did you praise?

LESSON XLVI
THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN
365. The demonstrative declined as follows:
is,

IS

this,

that; pi. these, those, is

THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN

IS

119

366. The Use of Is. Like hie and ille (350), is may be used as a demonstrative pronoun or adjective, or as a personal pronoun.
a. As a demonstrative is is less definite than hie or ille and may denote any person or thing mentioned: is liber, this book or that book (of which I am speaking); hie liber,

this book (here); ille liber, that book (there).


b. Is is often used as the antecedent or in agreement with the antecedent. of a relative pronoun: 1. Ei, qui castra defendunt, those who are defending the

camp.
2.

Ea

legio,

quae in castris

est, that legion

which

is

in the

camp.
367.
Is as a

Personal Pronoun.

There

is

no special word
it,

in Latin for the

pronouns Of the four demonstratives, hie, ille, iste, is, which used as personal pronouns, is is the most common.

of the third person, he, she,

they.

may

b?

Singular

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.

is,

he; ea, she; id,

it it

eius, his, her, its; of him, of her, of


ei, to (or

for)

him; him;

to (or for)
it

her; to (or for)

it

Ace.

eum, him;
edyfrom,

earn, her; id,


ea. }

AM.

etc.,

from,

etc., her;

e6 from,
y

etc., it

Plural

Nom.
Gen.
Dat. Ace.
Abl.

ei

(ii),

eae, ea, they


of them

eorum, earum, eorum, their, eis (iis), to (or for) them eos, eas, ea, them eis (iis), from, etc., them

368. Eius and Suus Compared. refer to the subject of the verb, suus

When
is

his, her, its, their

used.

When

a person

120

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


is

or thing other than the subject is meant, his, her, or its pressed by eius their is expressed by eorum or earum.
;

ex-

i.

Consul fllium suum laudavit,


(own) son. Consul filium eius laudavit,
(another man's) son.

the consul praised his

2.

the

consul praised his

3.

Eius

filii

in oppido sunt, his sons are in town.


the boys

4.

Pueri amicos suds vlderunt,


friends.

saw

their

(own)

5.

Amicos eorum vidimus, we saw

their friends.

369.
initium,
is,
-1,

VOCABULARY
N., beginning
it

ea, id, this, that, he, she, verus, -a, -um, true

obtineo, -tinere, -tinui, -tenturn (ob + teneo), hold, oc-

cupy
persuaded, -suadere, -suasi,

memoria teneo,
ory),
a.

{hold in

mem-

remember

-suasum, persuade

In the phrase memoria teneo, the noun remains unchanged; the verb is conjugated regularly. b. Persuaded means "I give a persuasive reason to" and so takes an indirect instead of a direct object, requiring
the dative case instead of the accusative: Viro persuadet, he persuades the man. c. Decline is lacus, ea legio, id flumen.

Memorize : Leve fit quod bene fertur onus. The burden which is well borne becomes Ante victoriam ne" canas triumphum.

light.

Do

not sing your triumph before your victory.

EXERCISES
Eas puellas laudat. pueros vocabit. 4. Eos vocabit.
370.
i. 2.

Eas laudat. 3. Eos 5. Fratrem tuum vldl,

THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN


et el libros
dedi.
8. 6.

IS

121
Fratri suo

Fratrl

eius persuasl.

7.

persuadebit.
est pulchra.

9.

Puellae in ea urbe habitant; domus earum Liberl tui venient; quis cum els veniet?

11. Is fuit 10. Incolae sunt miseri; cibum els dare debemus. prlnceps civitatis. 12. Helvetii ad eum legatos miserunt.

quas legati dlxerunt, memoria tenebat. 15. Ea de causa pacem cum 14. Ob 16. Mult5s eorum, qui vulnerati flnitimis suls facient. erant, vidimus. 17. Pater eius consul creatus esse dlcitur. 18. Scio eos fuisse amlcos mult5s annos. 19. Scio ea esse
13.

Caesar eas

res,

earn rem niintium misi.

vera.

20.

Celtae earn partem Galliae obtinent.

21.

Omnia,

quae discimus, memoria non tenemus.


2. Their country is famous. 1. His daughter was at home. Brave men defend their country. 4. Do you not praise them? 6. Who remembers the man's 5. Did you persuade your neighbor? name? 7. Three cohorts of that legion were in Gaul. 8. Those

371.

3.

boys, whom you see, are the merchant's sons. the forest, others across the river.

9.

Some

fled into

THE BOUNDARIES OF GAUL


x pars Galliae, quam Celtae obtinent, initium capit a, flumine Rhodano; continetur Garumna, flumine, 2 Oceano, finibus Belgarum; attingit flumen Rhenum. 3 Belgae ab finibus Celtarum ad Inferiorem partem flu-

372.

Ea

minis RhenI pertinent.

Aquitania
earn

a#

Garumna

flumine ad Pyrenaeos montes et


est

partem Ocean! quae


:

ad

Hispaniam, pertinet.
2.

Answer in Latin
fortissimi

1.

Qui Galliam incolebant?


3.

Qui erant
4.

Gallorum?

flumina sunt in Gallia?


1

Cur ill! erant fortissimi? 5. Ubi erat Aquitania?

Quae

2
3

Initium capit a (takes a beginning from), begins Borders on. 4 Lower. Near.

at.

122

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

LESSON XLVII
THE FUTURE
INFINITIVE.

REVIEW OF THE INFINITIVE

THE ABLATIVE OF SPECIFICATION


Future Active Participle. The future active partici1 ple is formed by adding -urus to the supine stem and is declined like bonus: amaturus, about to love; moniturus,
373.
about to

warn; recturus, about

to

rule;

auditurus, about

to

hear.

is

374. the future participle with esse; the future infinitive passive is the supine with Iri. 2
Active
Passive

The future participle of sum is futurus, about to be. The Future Infinitive. The future infinitive active

amaturus esse,
love
3

to be

about

to

amatum
loved

iri, to

be about to be

moniturus esse,

to be

about

to

monitum

iri, to

be about to be

warn
recturus esse,
rule
to

be about to

warned rectum iri,


ruled

to

be about to be

auditurus esse,
hear

to be

about

to

auditum
to be

Iri,

to

be

about

to

be heard

futurus esse,
375.
finitive

about

to be

Meaning

of the

Future

Infinitive.

The

future init

denotes time

after the

main verb on which

depends.

It is to
1.

be translated by
'

will or shall,

would or should?

Dicit milites victuros esse, he says (that) the soldiers


will conquer.

The supine stem is found by dropping -um of the supine amat-, monit-, rect-, audit-. 2 Iri is the present passive infinitive of eo, go. " " 3 The to be about to is used only to give the literal meanphrase of See the infinitive form. ing 375.
1
:

THE FUTURE INFINITIVE


2.

23

Dixit mllites victuros esse, he said {that) the soldiers

3.

would conquer. Dicit mllites victum


be conquered.

iri,

he says (that) the soldiers will


he said (that) the soldiers would

4.

Dixit mllites victum


be conquered.
a.

iri,

The

participle in

the future active infinitive agrees

with the subject accusative.

376.

TABLE OF INFINITIVE ENDINGS


Active
Passive
-ri (-1)

Present
Perfect

-re
-isse

-us esse
1

Future
a.

-urus esse

-um

iri

Write the

infinitives of do, voco,

habeo, video, mitto,

capio, scio, venio.

377.
i
.

THE ABLATIVE OF SPECIFICATION (OR RESPECT)


Puer
virtute fratrem superat, the boy excels his brother
et hostes

in courage.
2.

Romani
and

numero pares

erant, the

Romans

the

enemy were equal in number.

In the illustrations the ablatives answer the questions: In what respect does the boy excel? In what respect were
the

Romans

equal?

They
the

378. Rule.

The

ablative without a preposition is

are called ablatives of specification. used to


verb,

show in what respect


applies.
1

meaning of a

noun, or adjective

Esse

is

often omitted in the perfect passive and future active in-

finitives.

tn

a a
a o

w ^ W a < Si

<
-a

124

THE FUTURE INFINITIVE


379.
auctoritas,
-tatis,

25

VOCABULARY
F.,

influ-

reliquus,
ing,

-a,

-um,
of;

remainpi.,

ence, authority

rest

M.

as

potestas, -tatis, F., power


lex, legis, F.,

noun,

the rest

law

spero, -are, -avi, -atum, hope

magnitudo, -tudinis, F. (magnus), greatness, size

incendo, incendere, incendi,

incensum,
, ,

set fire to,

bum,
,

undique, adv., from on all sides


a.

all sides,

coepi,

have

begun, began

defective verb coepi is used only in the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect tenses.

The

EXERCISES
Helvetii oppida incendent. 2. Dicit Helvetios oppida incensuros esse. 3. Explorator dixit Helvetios iter trans provinciam facturos esse. Sorores tuas Ven4.
380.
1.

turas esse spero.

5.

Nautas ad portum perventiiros


copias

esse

speramus.
7.

6.

Reglnam

missiiram
Iri.

esse

nuntiant.

Niintiatur copias a reglna

missum

8.

Pila iacere coe-

10. Via esse 9. Urbs undique defendl dicitur. perunt. longa dicitur. 11. Ubi imperator haec didicit, signum dari iussit. 12. Caesar scribit mercatores ad Belgas non saepe venisse. 13. Galli et German! erant lingua legibusque dissimiles. 14. Hie prlnceps reliquos potestate superavit. eum non superatum esse. Puto auctoritate 15.

381. remain.
4.

1.

He
3.

They

says the boys will come. 2. He said the boys would are hoping that their friends will be at home.
to call the
friendship.

We
is

had begun
to

plan

make

camp? 7. The houses are unlike in size. 9. I know that the law was good. 10. I knew that the bridge had been burned.
name.
8.

see the

together from-all-sides. 5. Our Did you know that your sons would In the village there was a sailor, Cornelius by
6.

men

126

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

THE HELVETII
382. Helvetil sunt clvitas potens Galliae. Reliquos Gallos virtute superant, quod saepe proeliis cum Germanis con* tendunt. Undique Helvetil continentui una ex parte flumine Rheno, qui agrum Helvetium a Germanis dividit;
:

altera ex parte monte Iura, qui est inter Sequanos et Helvetios; tertia (ex parte) lacu. Lemanno et flumine Rhodano,

qui provinciam

Romanam

ab Helvetiis

dividit.

LESSON XLVIII
PERSONAL AND REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS
The personal pronouns are 383. Personal Pronouns. and first tu, thou, you, of the second. person, ego, /, of the For the third person the demonstratives, as already learned,
and the
reflexive sui (384) are used.

First Person
Singular

Plural
nos, we

Norn, ego, / Gen. mei, of


Dat.

me
{for)

nostrum

(nostri)

of us

mini,

to

me

nobis,

to {for)

us

Ace.
Abl.

me, me me, from,

nos, us
etc.,

me

nobis, from, etc., us

Second Person

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.

you tui, of you


tu,
tibi, to {for)

vos, you

vestrum,

(vestri), of

you

you

vobis,

to {for)

you

Ace.

te,
te,

you
from,
etc.,

vos, you

AM.
a.

you

vobis, from, etc., you

for
1

The nominative forms ego, tu, nos, vos are used only emphasis or contrast :Tu es miles, ego sum nauta.
paTte

Una ex

= ex una

parte;

ex here means on

(p. 40, foot note).

personal and reflexive pronouns


384.

1 27

the reflexive pronoun


Third Person
Singular and Plural

Gen. sui, of himself,


Dat.

herself, itself, themselves

sibi, to {for) himself, herself, itself, themselves

Ace. se (sese), himself, herself, itself, themselves Abl. se (sese), from, etc., himself, herself, itself, themselves 385.
it

The personal pronoun

sui

is

called reflexive, because

refers
1.

back to the subject of the main verb for its meaning: Puer se defendit, the boy defends himself.
Puella se defendit, the
girl defends herself. Liberi se defendunt, the children defend themselves.

2.

3.

a. For the first and second persons ego and tu are used in the predicate as reflexives: defendo, / defend myself; te defendis, you defend yourself; nos defendimus, we defend ourselves; vos defenditis, you defend yourselves.

Me

386.

Comparison

of Sui

refers to the subject of

and Is. When he, she, it, or they the main verb, Latin uses a form of

sui;

these pronouns refer to a person or thing other than the subject, a form of is (or of another demonstrative)

when

is

required:
1.

2.

Puer Puer

dicit se audire, the dicit

boy says he (himself) hears.


says
he

eum

audire, the boy

(another

person) hears.
387.

VOCABULARY
nobilitas, -tatis, F. (nobilis), nobility; the nobles (collectively)
nobilis,-e, noble, distinguished
,

coniuratio, -onis, F., conspir-

acy (a swearing together)


fortitudo,
tis)
,

-tudinis,

F.,

(for-

bravery

fuga, -ae, F., (fugio) flight

numquam,

adv., never

128
ego, /
tu,

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


praecedo,
before),

(prae

+ cedo,

go

you

surpass
(re

sui, of himself, herself, itself

recipio, recipere, recepi, re-

cedo, cedere, cessi, cessum,


go; give way, yield

ceptum,

capio), take

discedo,

(dis

cedo),

go

back; se recipere, (betake one's self), retreat, with-

away, depart

draw

EXERCISES
388.
se
i.

Ego
6.

te laudo.
4.

non laudabit.

Quis nos laudavit? 3. Marcus Persuasitne tibi? l 5. Nonne vobls per2.

suaserunt?
7.

Liberi

amicorum meorum vobiscum 2


scripsisti.
8. 9.

venient.
se

Mihi dedit epistulam, quam tu


se recipiunt.
10.

Hostes

recipiunt; fuga

Eo

die fuga se in

proxima
se-

oppida

receperunt.

Helvetil

copiam

fnimentl

cum
earn
filil

portaverant.

12. Fllia legati

n. Dicunt se terram parvam habere. dlcit se Lucium vocaturam esse. 13. Scio
14.

Lucium

vocavisse.

Hi puerl sunt
illos

nobiles;

sunt
fecit.

15. Prmceps prlncipis. 16. Hi milites sunt fortes;

coniurationem nobilitatis
fortitiidine

praecedunt.

18. Caesar Fortiter vos patriam vestram defendistis. vici discedere iussit. ea ab parte 19. Ubi dux legionem

17.

Helvetiorum haec
389.
is
1.

dixit, discessit.
this;

I
3

have done
to

you ought

to

do that.
3.

pleasing

me;

is it

not pleasing to

you?
4.

2. This work These men are

called Gauls

by

us, Celts
5.

by themselves.
(Because

Lucius hopes you


4

will

surpass all the rest. 2 6. peace with you.


7.

of) these things

we

will

make

The

These brave

soldiers

flight of the horsemen has been reported. have never learned to retreat. 8. Our

leader has persuaded us.


1
2

used as an enclitic (18) with the ablative of personal and reflexive pronouns, as well as with that of the relative. 1 Gratus, -a, -um. * See 362.
is

Cum

See 369

b.

THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN IDEM

129

LESSON XLIX
THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN IDEM. PRONOUN IPSE
390.

THE INTENSIVE

Idem.

The demonstrative pronoun


demonstrative
is

idem,

the same, is the

or adjective the suffix dem. Dis-

tinguish the masculine idem from the neucei idem and note is changed the accent of other forms. In the declension

to

n before d: eundem, not eumdem.

130

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

noun, ipse is used in Latin; when these English words are used alone, referring to the subject, sui is required in Latin: He himself defended the bridge, ipse pontem def endit ; but He
defended himself, se defendit. 393. The pronouns thus far learned are of six classes:
1.

Relative, qui
Interrogative, quis

4.
5.
ille,

Personal, ego, tu
Reflexive, sui
Intensive, ipse

2.

3.

Demonstrative, hie,
iste, is,
a.

6.

idem
tu, sui, nos, vos.

Notice the connection of the possessive adjectives

meus, tuus, suus, noster, vester with ego,


394.

VOCABULARY
-us,

ascensus,
climbing
facilis, -e,

M.,

ascent,

prohibeo,
-hibitum,

-hibere,

-hibui,

easy

(pro + habed, hold forward), keep away,

perfacilis, -e, very easy

keep (from)
statuo,

prohibit
statu!,

idem, eadem, idem, the same aut, conj., aut, or; aut
.

statuere,
set

statutum,
resolve

up, station;

either

or
of,

pro, prep., w. abl., in front


before; in proportion to
ipse, ipsa,

constituo,

-stituere,

-stitui,

-stitutum,
,

(con

statuo,

ipsum, himself, etc. demonstro, -are, -avi, -atum,


point out, explain

put together), station; determine, decide

EXERCISES
est.
2.

395.

1.

Consul ipse in eo proelio vulneratus

Eas-

memoria tene5. 3. Domum regis ipslus videbimus. 5. Mercatorl 4. Naves in eundem portum pervenerunt. 6. Non omnes sumus cupidl earundem ipsi persuasimus. 1 esse dicitur. rerum. 7. Haec epistula a regina ipsa scripta 8. Consilia nostra ab elsdem nuntiantur. 9. Nos ipsi haec

dem

res

didicimus.

10.

Iter per

provinciam erat
1

facile.

11.

Ascen-

See 353.

REVIEW OF LESSONS
sus montis est
facilis.

XL.ll-M.lX

131
illud

12.

Perfacile

erit

expugnare

oppidum. 13. Explorator demonstrat perfacile futurum esse expugnare oppidum. 14. Caesar naves exspectare
16. Post pro castrls constituta est. castra erat flumen latum. 17. Helvetil convenlre ad rlpam RhenI constituerunt. 18. Helvetil aut suis flnibus 1 Ger-

statuit.

15.

Una

legio

manos prohibent aut 2 19. Semper Idem.


396.
of the
1.

ipsi in

eorum

flnibus bellum gerunt.

Marcus and Quintus were

nelia herself is

shall yourselves have often con7. The lieutenant explained the same things to me. quered. 8. Some* were fighting on the bank, others* in the river itself.
6.

same come (by) an easy road.

living in the same city. 2. Corto aid her mother. 3. These girls are daughters ready man. 4. Have you seen the sailors themselves? 5.

We

You

LESSON L
REVIEW OF LESSONS XLLT-XLIX
397-

VOCABULARY

ascensus

132

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

REVIEW QUESTIONS
398.
2.

i.

What

are the chief uses of the Latin infinitive?

the difference in meaning of the three tenses of the infinitive, depending on a verb of saying? 3. Give all
is

What

DEPONENT VERBS

133

used as object; of an ablative of cause; of an ablative of


specification.

Memorize :
Tii,

quamcumque Deus Grata sume manu; nee

tibi

fortunaverit h5ram, dulcia differ in annum.

Horace.
Enjoy thankfully any happy hour Heaven may send you, nor think that your delights will keep till another year.

ORGETORIX
Helvetios fuit prmceps, Orgetorlx n5mine, qui et auctoritate superabat. reliquos prlncipes potestate et coniurationem nobilitatis fecit. Dixit Cupidus regnl erat,
399.

Apud

Helvetios virtute omnes praecedere, et totlus Galliae perfacile


l

potituros
esse
6

esse.

Facilius
5

els

persuasit,

quod
et

fines
5

su5s

angustos pro

multitiidine

hominum

gloria belli atque fortitudinis putabant. 7 flnibus suis cum omnibus copiis exire constituerunt.

pro Helvetil de Itaque

LESSON LI
DEPONENT VERBS. THE ABLATIVE WITH CERTAIN DEPONENTS
Some verbs are passive in form, 400. Deponent Verbs. but active in meaning. They are called deponent, because " " (depono, lay aside) their active form. they have laid aside
are conjugated like the passive of other verbs, except that the future infinitive is active in form as The principal parts of the model dewell as in meaning.

Deponent verbs

ponents are:
1

2 3

Adverb, very easily. Would- get-control (of) with gen.

4 5

I.e. (id est),

Helvetiis.

More

easily.
7

Considering. 6 Their renown (for). To go out, emigrate.

134

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


Perf. Ind.

Conjugation Pres. Ind. Pres. Inf.


I

conor

cdnarl

conatus sum,

try,

attempt

II

DEPONENT VERBS
403. Rule.

135

The

ablative is used like a direct object with the

deponent verbs utor, fruor {enjoy), fungor (perform), potior, and vescor (eat).
a.

Potior sometimes takes the genitive.

404.

VOCABULARY
-l,

Sequanus,
nian;
hortor,

M., a Sequa-

polliceor, polliceri, pollicitus

pi., the Sequani, the

sum, promise
proficiscor, proficlsci, profec-

Sequanians
hortari,
urge,

hortatus
exhort,

tus sum,
1

set out, depart,

go

sum,
courage

en-

sequor, sequi, secutus sum,


follow

EXERCISES
405.
1.

Hoc

facere

conabimur.

2.

Imperator

suds

Imperator dlcit se milites hortaturum esse. 4. Nautae altum mare non verentur. 5. Nautae dicunt se altum mare non vereri. 6. Pollicetur se ventiirum 3 8. Aliis consilils esse. 7. PollicitI erant se hoc facturos. usl sumus; nonne hoc consilio titi debemus? 9. Quae legio 10. Caesar decimam legionem imperatorem sequetur?
3.

mllites hortatus est.

secutiiram esse dixit.


iussit.

11.

12.

Illae civitates

Legatum cum una legione sequi erant fortes, quod vlnum ad se

importarl non patiebantur. 13. Sequani erant proximi Hel4 iter per fines suos facere vetiis. Helvetios 14. Sequani e castris 15. Tertia vigilia proriclscentur. passl sunt.
16.

his

Explorator eos profectos esse nuntiat. 17. Amid nostrl 18. Scio amlcos nostros his agris agrls potiti sunt.

potltos esse.
406. 1. Do you fear the dangers of the journey? 2. They have not tried to persuade us. 5 3. We ought to encourage these boys.
1 The present tense mini, sequuntur.

is

sequor, sequeris, sequitur, sequimur, sequi-

2
3

complementary

infinitive
1.

(no).

See page 123, footnote

See 246. What case?

136
4.

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


to defend (that they

The men promised 5. The citizens city.

would defend) 1 the will use many things that the merchants have brought-in. 2 6. The ambassadors are said to have gone (set 4 3 7. These men will follow out) from Rome at the fourth hour. 8. They will allow us to do this. the others into the province. 5 9. The Romans got possession of the bridge which was near Geneva.

LESSON

LII

THE PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE ACTIVE. CLAUSES OF PURPOSE


There are three moods in Latin: the indicative, the In the subjunctive there subjunctive, and the imperative.
407.

are four tenses: the present, the imperfect, the perfect, the pluperfect.

and

408.

THE PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE ACTIVE


may
love
6

THE PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE ACTIVE

137

conjugations final -a- and -e- of the stem (ama-, rege-) are dropped before the tense sign (am-em, reg-am) in the sec;

ond and fourth conjugations final -e- and -1- of the stem are shortened (mone-am, audi-am). Capio forms its present
subjunctive like audio.
410.

Meaning and Use

of the

Subjunctive.

The sub-

junctive in Latin has many uses, some of which are expressed in English by the subjunctive, but most by the indicative
or the potential.

The Latin present subjunctive

is

rendered

not only by may, as in the models (408), but by should,


would, or by the indicative present or future, according to the nature of the clause in which the subjunctive stands.
411.

Clauses Expressing Purpose.

When we

say,."

He

comes to see the


of his coming.

city," the infinitive expresses the purpose In Latin prose the infinitive is not used to

express purpose, but a subjunctive clause with the conjunction ut, that, in order that: Venit ut videat, he comes to see
(or that he
a.

may

see).

The present subjunctive is used when the main verb present, present perfect, future, or future perfect: Venio (veni, veniam, venero) ut videam, / come {have come, shall come, shall have come) to see {that I may see). b. Instead of ut, the relative pronoun qui may be used as the connective, if there is a convenient antecedent: Viros mittit, qui videant, he is sending men to see {who shall see).
is

412.

VOCABULARY
-1,

iumentum,
profectio, ture

N., yoke-ani-

deligo, deligere, delegi, de-

ma/, beast of burden


-onis,
F.,

lectum, choose,
depar-

select

emo, emere, emi, emptum,


buy
de, prep., w. abl., about, concerning, of; see 218
ut, conj., that, in order that

coemo, coemere, coemi, co-

emptum (co + emo), buy up


comparo (com

+ paro,

108),

prepare, get ready

138

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

EXERCISES
413.
lit

i.

Pugnant ut vincant.
3.

copiam habeatis.

Frumentum importabo, Magna cum celeritate navigamus,


2.
:

ut ad portum perveniamus. 4. Imperator pontem facit ut exercitum traducat. 5. Mllites castra muniunt, ut se de1 6. Haec fendant. dlcimus, ut te laudemus. 7. Nuntios

mittemus, qui haec dlcant.

8.

Dux

tres legiones mittit,

quae

oppidum oppugnent.

9. Viri

Romam

venerunt,

ut

novum

Temple

in

the Forum Boarium

templum
civitatem

videant.

10. Prlncipes

mittuntur,
esse.

Caesarl

obsides

daturam

qui dlcant 11. BritannI

12. Cives frumentum ement. magnas naves comparant. 14. Mar13. Mercatores omne frumentum non coemerunt. cus dux deligetur; cur non delectus est Quintus? 15. Ex1

See 319.

Present perfect, see 411 a.

THE PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE PASSIVE


locum castrls idoneum deligunt. profectione Helvetiorum audiemus.
ploratores
1

139

16.

Multa 2 de

414. 1. Galba sends his slave to buy food. 2. The men are assembling to hear the orator. 3. The boy will write a letter to persuade his brother. 3 4. We have sent ambassadors to make peace. 6. He says 5. These are the friends of (de) whom I have spoken. that the farmers have carts and beasts of burden. 7. In what

country did Orgetorix live?


victor.
9.

8.

They

are coming

to praise the
10.

He

will

come

to advise the lieutenant.

He

does

not say

this, in

order that he

may

persuade you.

THE PLAN OF THE HELVETIANS


415.

Helvetil

constituunt,

omnes 4 iument5rum

res
et

ad 5 profectionem comparare
carrorum

magnum numerum

coemere, magnas sementes frumentl facere, ut in itinere copiam habeant, cum proximls civitatibus pacem et amlProfectionem in 6 tertium annum lege citiam conflrmare.

conflrmant et Orgetorigem ducem 7 deligunt.

LESSON

LIII

THE PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE PASSIVE. NEGATIVE PURPOSE


416.

TENSE ENDINGS OF THE PRESENT JUNCTIVE

SUB-

140

THE PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE


417.

PASSIA'E

I4I

THE PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE PASSIVE


/

may

be loved,

etc.

may

be warned,

etc.

amer
ameris

monear
monearis moneatur

ametur

amemur
amemini amentur

moneamur
moneamini moneantur

a. Conjugate also regar, I may be ruled; capiar, I may be taken; audiar, / may be heard; coner, / may try; verear, / may fear; utar, / may use.

418.

PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE OF SUM


sim, /
sis,
sit,

may be you may be (he, etc.) may

simus, we
sitis,

be

sint,

may be you may be (they) may be

Negative Purpose. fortifying the town, that it


419.

In the sentence " They are may not be captured," the de.
.

pendent clause expresses purpose negatively. The connective for negative purpose in Latin is ne, that not, lest: Oppidum muniunt, ne expugnetur. The Subjunctive in Clauses of Purpose. 420. Rule. The subjunctive is used with ut, ne, or a relative^ in clauses expressing the purpose of an action.
.

421.

VOCABULARY
(co

fides, fidel, Y., faith, pledge


nihil,

+ ago,

drive

together),

N.

(indecl.),

nothing

collect,

compel
locutus sum,

ago,

agere,

egi,

actum,

loquor, loqui, speak, talk

(drive), do, act

cogo, cogere, coegi, coactum,


1

This

is

only one of the subjunctive meanings, as explained in 410.

142

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

EXERCISES
Hostes fugiunt, ne capiantur. 2. Mllites fortiter pugnant, ne vincantur. 3. Liberos defendemus, ne in perlculo sint. 4. Hoc facimus, ne ab els videamur. 5. Pater
422.
i.

suas vocat, ut eas hortetur. 6. Consul ipse exercitum diicet, ut urbe potiatur. 7. Prmceps conhlrationem facit,
fllias

ut

sit

rex Helvetiorum.
9.

8.

Coniiirationem

facit,

ut appelle-

tur rex.
10.

Magistrates exercitum cogent, ne hie vir sit rx. In Italiam, ut cum consule loquar, contendam. 1 11. Heri
egl;

hodie hoc ago; eras nihil agam. 12. Dlcit se nihil eras acturum esse. 13. SequanI obsides regl Germanorum dederunt. 14. Rex Sequanos obsides dare coegit. 2
15.

multa

Hi duces Galliae

inter se 3 fidem dant.

423. 1. I shall send a slave to give you the book. 2. The soldiers are using good shields, that they may not be wounded. 3. friend desires to speak 4 with you. 4. I have sent him to speak 5 with you. 5. The slaves are remaining in the forest, that they may

My

not be seen.

6.

Who

will

6 compel them to remain?

Memorize : Qui non proficit, deficit. He who does not advance falls behind.
Nil desperandum. Never despair. Nothing should be despaired
of.

LESSON LIV
THE IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE. PRIMARY AND ONDARY TENSES
424.

SEC-

Formation

of the Imperfect Subjunctive.

The im-

perfect subjunctive may be formed by adding the personal endings to the active infinitive. The tense sign, therefore,
is -re-.

The words of an independent clause pendent clause standing between them.


1

may

Compelled. To one another (between themselves).

be separated, 4 See 6 See 8 See

the de109.

420. 343.

the imperfect subjunctive


425.

143

the imperfect subjunctive


First Conjugation
Active
Passive
etc.
1

I might

love,

ama'rem
ama'res
ama'ret

I might be loved, ama'rer

etc.

amare 'mus amare 'tis


ama'rent

amare 'ris amare 'tur amare 'mur amare 'mini


amaren'tur

Second Conjugation
7"

might warn,

etc.

I might be warned,

etc.

mone'rem
mone'res mone'ret monere 'mus
monere'tis

mone'rer

monere 'ris
monere'tur monere 'mur

monere 'mini
moneren'tur

mone'rent

a. Conjugate regerem, regerer; caperem, caperer; audlrem, audirer, as given on pages 282 and 285.
b.

Form
;

venio

the imperfect subjunctive of do, video, duco, conor, vereor, utor, patior, potior.

426.

imperfect subjunctive of sum


be 1

essem, / might
esses, you

might be

essemus, we might be essetis, you might be


essent, (they) might be

esset, (he, etc.) might be

427.

Meaning

of the Imperfect Subjunctive.

In most

subordinate clauses the imperfect subjunctive is to be translated like the imperfect indicative, as will be explained later.
1

See 427.

144

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAK

In purpose clauses, might or should is used to form the English equivalent, as in the following:
i.

Venerunt, ut viderent, they came or they came to see.


Viros misit, qui viderent, he sent or he sent men to see.
not be seen.

that they might see,

2.

men who

should

see,

3.

Venerunt, ne viderentur, they came that they might

428.

As was shown
will

in 411 a,
will

we

'

say,

come, he

come, he

have come),

venit (venit, veniet, venerit), ut videat. coming (he came, he had come), that he might see," veniebat (venit, venerat), ut videret.

He comes (he has that he may see," So we say, "He was

present subjunctive, then, is used in a purpose clause when it depends on a main verb of present 1 or future action;

an imperfect subjunctive is used when it depends on a main verb of past action. 429. Primary and Secondary Tenses. The tenses of present and future action are called primary tenses. They include the present, present perfect, future, and future perfect indicative, the present and perfect subjunctive.
tenses of past action are called secondary tenses. They include the imperfect, historical perfect, and pluperfect indicative, the imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive.

The

430.

Rule.

The Sequence 2

(or

Harmony)

of Tenses.

In complex sentences primary ing upon primary tenses, secondary upon secondary tenses.
a.

tenses are used in clauses dependtenses in clauses depending

This general rule

will

be more fully illustrated in follow-

ing lessons.

The present indicative is 431. The Historical Present. often used to state or describe a past event more vividly,
1

Including the present perfect.

From

sequor.

THE IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE


and
is

J 45

then called the historical present: Orgetorix dux deli-

gitur, Orgetorix is (was) chosen leader.

432.

VOCABULARY
-1,

iugum,
legatio,

N., yoke
F.,

Haeduus,
mission,
pi.,

-onis,

M., a Haeduan; 1 Ilaeduans, the Haedui.


-1,

embassy
equitatus, -us,
cavalry

Haeduus,

-a,

-um, Haeduan

M.

(eques),

sub, prep., w. ace., under, up to;- w. abl., under, at


the foot of

principatus, -us,
ceps), leadership

M.

(prin-

pono, ponere, posui, positum,


place, put, pitch (a

Diviciacus,

-1,

M., Diviciacus

camp)

(div-i-shi-a/kus)

suscipio, suscipere, suscepl,

Dumnorix, Dumnorigis, M., Dumnorix

susceptum, (sub
undertake

-f-capio),

EXERCISES
433.
venit,
4.
i.

Puerum
audiret.

vocavT,
3.

lit

cum

eo loquerer.

2.

Puer

ut

Cur

Galli

oppidum incenderunt?

incenderunt, ne ab hostibus expugnaretur. 3 Caesar 5. equitatum miserat, qui hostes a castrls prohiberet. 6. Pontem faciebat, ut trans flumen exercitum tradu-

Oppidum

ceret.

7.

Servl

pugnaverunt, ut essent
ut esset rex.
9.

llberi.

8.

Idem 4

coniurationem

Mllites castra ponunt. 10. Idoneum locum deligunt, ut castra ponant. 11. Helvetil 5 exercitum Romanum sub iugum mlserunt. 12. Sub monte
fecit,

erat
1

vlcus

parvus.

13.

Quis

erit

legatus

ad clvitates?

Gallic tribe west of the Helvetii. Sub, like in, takes the accusative to denote motion, the ablative to denote rest. 3 See 221. 4 The same man. 6 The yoke, under which a conquered army was made to pass, was either an ox-yoke, or a spear resting across two other spears fixed upright
2

in the ground.
6

Ambassador.

146

LATIN FOR THE 'FIRST YEAR

Romans passing under Yoke of Helvetians


14.

Charles Gleyrc

Orgetorlx legationem ad clvitates proximas suscipiet. 16. Dlviciacus erat 15. Haedul erant proximi Helvetils.
princeps Haeduorum. 17. PrTncipatum civitatis suae obtinebat. 18. Dumnonx erat frater Diviciaci.
2. He said they 434. 1. He says they are pitching the camp. would pitch the camp. 3. He thinks they have pitched the camp. 4. He knew the camp had been pitched. 5. These legions had been sent to pitch the camp. 6. The sailor was using this trumpet, 1 that he might give the signal. 7. This is the trumpet that he used. 8. We fled that we might not be in danger.
1

See 403.

THE DATIVE WITH SPECIAL VERBS

147

LESSON LV
THE DATIVE WITH SPECIAL VERBS. NOUN CLAUSES WITH UT OR NE
435classis, classis, F., fleet

VOCABULARY
indulged, indulgere, indulsi,
N.,

imperium, impe'ri

(96),

command, control matrimdnium, -1 (96), N.,


marriage
telum,
-1,

indultum, favor, indulge noceo, nocere, nocui, noci-

tum, harm, injure


pared,
parere,
parui,
to
,

N., missile, weapon


-1,

obey, submit

verbum,

N., word

studeo, studere, studui,


be eager for

antea, adv., before, formerly item, adv., likewise

impero,

-are,

-avi,

atum,

permittd, (per+mittd), permit, allow


resisto,
,

command

resistere,
resist

restiti,

Special Verbs. Such verbs as command, persuade, resist require a direct object in English, but an indirect object in Latin: Mflitibus imperavit, he commanded (gave orders to) the soldiers; suis arnlcis persuasit,
436.
he persuaded

The Dative with

(made something agreeable


resist

to)

his friends;

hostibus resistent, they will


437.
verbs

Rule.

(stand against) the enemy. The dative of the indirect object is used with

meaning favor, help, please, trust and their opposites; believe, persuade, command, obey, serve, resist; envy,
a. These verbs include credo, impero, noceo, pared, persuaded, placed {please), resisto, studeo; but iubed and iuvd govern the accusative.

threaten, pardon, spare.

438. Noun Clauses with Ut or Ne. Clauses introduced by ut or ne are often used as nouns, depending on principal
11

148

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

verbs meaning advise, command, persuade, urge, and the like. The mood of the subordinate verb is the subjunctive, and
the tense
1. is

the present or imperfect, as explained in 428:

2.

EI persuasi, ut venlret, / persuaded him to come. Eum monebo, ne hoc faciat, / shall advise him not
do
this.

to

a. Notice in these illustrations that the English subordinate verb is in the infinitive; to come, to do.
b. Such noun clauses are sometimes called volitive clauses, or clauses of volition, denoting something that is wanted.

439.

Rule.

Noun

clauses with ut or

ne

are used as objects

of verbs meaning advise,

command, demand, induce,

permit,

persuade, urge.
a. These verbs include hortor, imperd, moneo, permittd, persuaded, peto (request), postulo (demand); but iubeo and patior take an infinitive with subject accusative (343).

Memorize :
Stultus, ab obliquo qui cum descendere possit, Ovid. Pugnat in adversas ire natator aquas.

He

a foolish swimmer who swims against the stream, when he might take the current sideways.
is

EXERCISES
His puerls persuadere conabor. 2. Sagittae copiarum oppidanis non nocuerunt. 3. Mllites imperatori parere debent. decimae legion! indulsit. 4. Caesar 5. Nonne
440.
i.

credis huic servo, qui


tatis

Roma

venit?
7.

novls rebus

studebant.

Principes eius clviBonus imperator suos 2


6.

semper hortatur, ut fortes sint. 8. Legatus els imperabit, ut castra muniant. 9. Hi virl nobis persuaserunt, ne in vico remaneremus. 10. Monuistlne flnitimos, ut tuo consilio
1

A change of government; See 319.

literally,

new

things.

THE DATIVE WITH SPECIAL VERBS


uterentur?
sunt.
flliam
12.
11.

49

Helvetil imperio 1 totius Galliae potirl conati


iussit.

Caesar classem convenire


in

13.

Orgetorix

suam

matrimonium Dumnorlgl,
14.

principi

Haeduut

orum, dedit.

Dicit se

clvibus esse

persuasurum,

15. legatos mittant. Gallorum vastaret.

Rex

equitatul suo permiserat, ut agros

441.
will

1. You have persuaded me by these command the sailors. 3. These tribes

words.

2.

He

says he

will resist the

Roman

2 obeyed the chief, and sailed out-of the harbor with army. 4. 3 the whole fleet. 5. They will urge these boys to come. 6. They

We

were urging them to come.


to

7.

8. The magistrate will sail. the city to-day. 9. The general used these weapons to conquer 5 10. These men, who love their country, the forces of the enemy. are not eager for a revolution (new things). 11. Did you hear all the words of the consul?

The lieutenant ordered 4 the fleet warn the traders not to set out from

THREE GALLIC CHIEFS


442. Orgetorix legationem ad clvitates suscipit. Persuadet Castico Sequano, 6 cuius pater regnum multos annos 7 obtinuerat et a. senatu popull RomanI amicus appellatus
erat, ut

regnum

in clvitate sua occuparet, 8

quod pater antea

habuerat; itemque Dumnorlgl HaeduS, eo tempore prlncipatum in clvitate obtinebat, ut idem conaretur 8 persuadet, elque flliam suam in matrimonium dat. 9 Itaque hi tres prlncipes inter se fidem dant, et totius Galliae

fratrl DlviciacI, qui

imperio sese
1

10

potlturos esse sperant.

See 403.

2
8

Denoting accompaniment
Accusative. Use iubeo.

(136).

4
6

6
7

Expressing purpose. In apposition with Castico. See 291. The imperfect is used because persuadet here has the force of a

past tense (431). 9 Inter se, to one another.


10

Emphatic form

of se.

15

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

LESSON LVI
THE VERB POSSUM. CLAUSES OF RESULT
443. The verb possum, / am able, I can, the adjective potis, able, and the verb sum.
is

composed
(

of

The

principal

parts are possum, posse


able).

(to

be

able),

potui

I have been

a. Learn the conjugation of possum in the indicative, the subjunctive (present and imperfect), and the infinitive, as The participle potens, powerful, given on pages 290 and 291. is used as an adjective, as already learned (242).

444.

Possum
(no):

is

usually found

with a complementary

infinitive
1.

2.

Hoc facere possumus, we can (are able to) do this. Hoc facere poteramus, we could (were able to) do this.

445.

VOCABULARY
auxi'H,

auxilium,
help

N.,

aid,

terreo,

-ere,

-ui,

-itum,

frighten, terrify

sapiens, sapientis, wise talis, tale, such


tantus, -a, -um,
so great, so

accido, accidere, accidi,

(ad

+ cado, fall

to),

happen

much
tot, indecl. adj., so
ita, adv., so

ascendo, ascendere, ascendi, ascensum, climb, ascend


efficio, efficere, effeci, effec-

many

tum
lego,

(ex

+ facio,

work

out),

sic, adv., so, in such a manner tarn, adv., so, used w. adjec-

bring about,

effect

tives

and adverbs
Result Clauses.
In
the

legere, legi, (gather), read

lectum

446.

sentence

"

The

soldiers

fought bravely, that they might conquer," the subordinate clause, as we know, expresses purpose, the will of the soldiers;

but

if

we

"
say,

They fought

so bravely that they con-

THE VERB POSSUM.

CLAUSES OF RESULT

151

quered," the clause expresses a fact resulting from the main action and is called a clause of result.

The verb

in a result clause is indicative in English,

but

subjunctive in Latin. The connective is ut, as in purpose clauses; but in negative result clauses ut non is used, not
ne.
1.

Ita fortiter pugnaverunt, ut vincerent, they fought so

bravely that they conquered.


2.

3.

oppidum muniebatur, ut non expugnaretur, town was so fortified that it was not captured. Tarn altus est mons, ut non ascendere possimus, mountain is so high that we cannot climb (it).
Sic

the

the

a. The main clause upon which a clause of result depends often contains an adverb meaning so (ita, sic, tarn) or an

adjective meaning such, so great (talis, tantus). The presence of such a word helps to distinguish a clause of result from one of purpose. b. The tense in result clauses follows the rule stated in 430.

447.

Rule.

The subjunctive

is

used with ut or ut

non in

clauses expressing result. 448. Noun Clauses of Result.

The

clauses illustrated in

446 are adverbial. Other clauses of result are used as nouns, being the subject of verbs meaning happen and the subject
or object of verbs
1.

meaning accomplish,

cause, bring about.


it

Accidit ut consul esset in castris, consul was in the camp.

happened

that the

2.

Consul

effecit
it

brought

ut esset copia frumentl, the consul about that there was a supply of grain.

449.
a.
b.
c.

Summary

of Ut Clauses.

We

have seen that ut

may

introduce the following:

Purpose clauses

(420).

Result clauses (447).

The negative is ne. The negative is ut non.

Noun

mand,

clauses depending on verbs meaning advise, compersuade, urge, and the like (439). The negative is ne.

152
d.

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

Noun

clauses

depending on verbs meaning happen,

cause, accomplish (448).

The negative

is

ut non.

EXERCISES
450.
1.

Quis ilium
potlrl
4.

montem

hoc oppido

poterit.

ascendere potest? 2. Legatus 3. Equites hostibus resistere


5.

poterant. se telum iacere


7.

Multa facere non potueram.


posse.
6.
8.

Dlcit

se

audire

Galba dlcit non potuisse.

Potesne slgna videre?


451.
1.

Nonne
could.

els

persuadere potestis?
will

We

can.

2.

You

3.

They

not be able.

6. I shall have 4. They have not been able. 5. He had been able. been able. 7. He says that you can. 8. He said that you could.

2.

3.

452. 1. Ita hostes territl sunt, ut in silvas fugerent. Milites se tarn celeriter receperunt, 1 ut paucl caperentur. Tantum erat perlculum puerorum, ut auxilium mittere4.

mus.
possit.

Haec
5.

semus.
7.

6.

puella tot libros habet, ut omnes legere non Orator tarn longe aberat, ut eum audire non posTalem consulem habetis, ut timere non debeatis.
sit

Accidit ut flumen

altum.

8.

Tanta

est altitudo flumi9.

2 non possit. nis, ut agmen sine navibus transire 3 norlx perfecit ut civitates inter se obsides darent.

DumQuis

10.

est tarn sapiens, ut


est.
12.

omnia

sciat?

n. Verbum

4 sapientl sat

Quos

libros legistl?

2. He was so 453. 1. He is so brave that he fears nothing. brave that he feared nothing. 3. So great is their valor that they always conquer. 4. The Romans fortified the city in-such-a-way that the enemy were not able to take (capture) it. 5. It happened that the journey was not long. 6. Caesar ordered the scouts to climb the mountain. 7. The king will send the cavalry to frighten the enemy's troops. 8. I have read the letter that you wrote at Geneva. 9. Can you throw the javelin across the field?
1

See 387.

8 4

Inter se,

to

each other.

To

cross.

Enough,

sufficient.

COMPOUNDS OF SUM

1 53

LESSON LVII
COMPOUNDS OF SUM. THE DATIVE WITH COMPOUND
VERBS.
454.

THE DATIVE OF THE POSSESSOR


of

sum
sum.

Verbs formed by combining with prepositions are conjugated like the simple verb

Compounds

Sum.

Among
be

these are:

absum, adsum, desum,

away, be absent

praesum,

be at the head of, be

be near, be present
be lacking, fail

in charge {command) of

supersum,
survive

be

over,

remain,

intersum, be between
455.

VOCABULARY
praesto, praestare, praestiti, praestitum, stand before,
excel

iudicium,-!, N., judgment, trial


ius, iuris, N., right

mors, mortis,
fortification

F., death
F.,

munitio, -onis,

(munio),

curro, currere, cucurri, cur-

sum, run
N., bond, fetter

vinculum,
theless

-i,

occurro,

occurrere,

occurri,

tamen, adv., however, nevermorior, mori, mortuus sum,


die
sto, stare, steti,

occur sum, (ob against), meet

+ curro,

run

praeficio, -ficere, -feci, -fec-

statum,5/awJ

turn (prae + facio, put before), put in command

456.
i.

THE DATIVE WITH COMPOUND VERBS


Marcus
legion.

legion! praeest,

Marcus

is-in- command- of the

2.

Imperator legion!

Marcum

praefecit, the general put

Marcus in-command-of
3.

the legion.

Marcus omnibus
in valor.

virtute praestat,

Marcus

excels all

a. The datives in these sentences depend upon verbs compounded with prae and are regarded as indirect objects.

154
457.

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

Rule.

in, inter,

compounded with ad, ante, con, de, ob, post, prae, pro, sub, super take a dative of the

Some

verbs

indirect object.
a.

Among

the verbs so used are adsum, desum,

praesum

occurro, praeficio, praesto. b. The dative of indirect object, as now learned, is used with: 1. Transitive verbs (59). 2. Verbs of special meaning (437). 3. Verbs compounded with certain prepositions (457).

458. The Dative of the Possessor. We may express the " sentence The trader has a horse " in two ways in Latin:

Mercator equum habet, or Equus mercatori est. In the latter sentence, which literally means A horse is (belongs) to the trader, the possessor is expressed by the dative, and that which is owned by the nominative. The dative is used with the verb sum to de459. Rule.
note the possessor.

EXERCISES
460.
tis
1.

Multl hodie adsunt; pauci absunt.

2.

Heri afuit
pars aesta-

Qulntus; eras
superest.
suls

eum adfuturum spero. 4. Quod pars aestatis

3.

Magna

supererat, Caesar
5.

copils

in

Britanniam navigare constituit.


1

cum Ex eo

6. Equites et naves et proelio multl mllites superfuerunt. frumentum Romanls deerant. 7. Nostrl hostibus occurre-

runt, et eos celeriter superaverunt.

8.

ad

Labienum,
misit.

praeerat,

legatum Romanum el munltionl, 9. Caesar

Imperator nuntium qui decimae legion!

quam

fecerat,

10. Orgetorlx dixit Helvetios reliquls praefecit. Gallls praestare. 11. Huic mllitl sunt scutum et quattuor 12. Helvetils erant duodecim oppida et multl vlcl. plla.

Labienum

Postquam explorator has res vldit, ad castra cucurrit et 14. Decima legio in sinistra parte aciei legatos monuit.
13.

proxima nonae

stetit.

15.

Ubi Caesar flumen non longe


See
7 a.

abesse vldit, exercitum tradiixit.


1

REVIEW OF LESSONS
461.
i.

LI-LVII

155

did not have a large fleet. 1 2. Labienus had-been-in-command-of the army. 3. Brutus was-put-in-com-

The Romans
fleet.

mand-of the

4.
fleet.

Many men
5.

2 urged Caesar to put Brutus

in-

command-of the

Can you

see the fortification that our

(men) have constructed (made)? 6. After the death of the chief, the tribe was conquered. 7. Did the conqueror send the army under the yoke? 8. Who is absent today?

THE DEATH OF ORGETOKIX


462.

Ea

coniuratio

principum

est

Helvetils

nuntiata.

Orgetorlgem indicium omnes suds clientes, quorum 5 habebat, conduxit. Per eos se eripuit.
ius

ex 3 vinculis

causam

dlcere 4

Ad magnum numerum
roegerunt.
6

Cum

cl vitas

armls

eius

suum exsequi conaretur, mortem tamen Helvetil

Orgetorix mortuus
id,

est.

Post

quod

constituerant, facere

8 conantur, et e finibus suis exire parant.

LESSON LVIII
REVIEW OF LESSONS
463.

LI-LVII

VOCABULARY

auxilium

156
sto

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES

57

THE HELVETIANS CONTINUE THEIR PREPARATIONS


paratos esse arbitrate sunt, oppida sua omnia, vlcos, reliqua prlvata aedificia incendunt. Frumentum omne, praeter (id) quod secum portaturl 2 erant, 3 combiirunt, ut domum reditionis spem tollerent. Persua465.
se

Ubi

ad earn rem

dent flnitimls, ut eodem consilio utantur et


cantur.

cum

els proficls-

LESSON LIX
COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES.

THE ABLATIVE OF COM-

PARISON
466. Comparison. Adjectives in Latin, as in English, have three degrees: positive, comparative, and superlative. The comparative is formed by adding to the base of the positive -ior for the masculine
alt-ior, alt-ius, higher.

and feminine,

-ius for the neuter:

superlative is formed by adding -issimus (-a, -urn) to the base of the positive: alt-issimus,
-a,

The

-um,

highest.

Positive

Comparative
altior, higher

Superlative

altus, high
fortis, brave

fortior, braver

altissimus, highest fortissimus, bravest

audax, bold
sapiens, wise
a.

audacior, bolder sapientior, wiser


latus,

audacissimus, boldest
sapientissimus, wisest
;

Compare densus,

longus

brevis, gravis, nobilis

potens.

467. Adjectives in -er form the superlative by adding -rimus to the nominative of the positive:
acer, sharp
liber, free
a.
1

acrior, sharper
liberior, freer

acerrimus, sharpest
llberrimus, freest

Compare miser,
i.e.,

pulcher.

Rem, movement,
Portaturi, about

Domum,

the migration. carry (See 373). denoting place to which, modifying reditionis (282).
to

I58
468.

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


following adjectives in -lis form the superlative adding -limus to the base of the positive: facilis, easy;
similis, like;

The

by

difficilis, difficult;

dissimilis, unlike;

humilis,

low:
facilis,

easy
a.

facilior, easier
difficilis, similis.

facillimus, easiest

Compare

Declension of Comparatives. Adjectives of the comparative degree belong to the third declension. Learn the
469.

declension of the model altior, page 272.


a.

dum longius.

Decline facilior and the phrases

manus

longior, oppi-

b. Adjectives of the superlative degree are declined like bonus.

470.
pes, pedis, M.,foot turris, turns, F., tower

VOCABULARY
celer, celeris, celere, swift

ferax, feracis, fertile


utilis, -e, (utor), useful

vadum,
flow
471.

-1,

N.,ford
fluxum,

fluo, fluere, fluxl,

propinquus, -a, -urn, near quam, conj., than

THE ABLATIVE OP COMPARISON. THE MEASURE OP DIFFERENCE


the

i.

2.

Gladius brevior Gladius brevior


Gladius brevior
the

sword was

fuit

quam

pilum,

shorter than the


javelin.

fuit pflo, fuit

quattuor pedibus, sword was four feet shorter (shorter by four feet)

quam pflum

than the javelin.


sentence comparison is expressed with the conjunction quam, than, gladius and pilum being in the same case; in the second sentence without quam, pild being in the ablative case, the ablative of comparison. b. In the third sentence the ablative phrase quattuor pedibus denotes the measure or degree of difference, answering the question By how much?
a.

In the

first

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES
472.

59

Rule.
but

comparative without

quam

is

followed by
the

when quam is used, the words denoting things compared are in the same case. The ablative is used with comparatives to 473. Rule. of difference. measure the press
the ablative;

ex-

View of the Rhine River

EXERCISES
474.
oribus.
6.
i.

Agri latiores.
longioris.

2.

Flumina
5.

latiora.

3.

Miiris alti-

4.

Per silvas densiores.


7.

In oppida pulchriora.
8.

Lacus
9.

Lacuum
10. 12.

longiorum.

Militi forti-

ori.

Militi

fortissimo.

Cum

militibus fortissimis.

11.

Celerrimae naves.
1.

475.
2.

Omnium

Dimcillimum iter. Gallorum fortissimi erant


3.

Belgae.

Apud

Helvetios nobilissimus fuit Orgetorix.

Caesar

l6o

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

esse latissimum atque altissimum putavit. 4. Scimus agros huius clvitatis esse feracissimos. 5. Tres potentisl simae nationes totius Galliae potlrl conatl sunt. 6. Terram

Rhenum

pulchriorem
facilius est

quam nostram non vidimus. quam illud. 8. Iter per Alpes


3

7.

Hoc

iter

erit difficile

multo 2 merca-

toribus, qui Roma veniunt. a nuntio celeriore iussit. 10.


legion!

9. Consul epistulam portarl Centuriones imperatorem alii

Galbam praefectiirum esse putaverunt. 11. Apud Romanos quis fuit clarior quam Caesar? 12. Nonne sapientes
4

putant libros esse utiliores


1.

pills?

476.
2.

Who
much

Was

he

was the most famous orator of the Romans? 5 more famous than his brother Quintus? 3. We

know

that in winter the days are shorter than the nights. 4. You have never seen braver soldiers. 5. They will resist 6 the most powerful enemy. 6. The Gauls were conquered by a more powerful nation. 7. The tower was ten feet higher than the wall. 8. The
7 king will use his swiftest ships, that he may reach the province in a few days. 9. The shortest road is not always the easiest.

Memorize:
Silent leges inter arma. The laws are silent in time of war,

TWO EOADS FROM HELVETIA


477.

Erant itinera duo quibus domo exlre

possent: tinum

per Sequanos, angustum et difficile, inter montem Iuram et flumen Rhodanum (mons tarn propinquus erat, ut facile 9

paucl prohibere
facilius,

10

possent)
fluit

propterea quod

inter fines

alterum per provinciam, multo Helvetiorum et Allobro-

gum
1

n Rhodanus
403
473. 223. 319.
a.

12 isque vado transltur.


7 8 9

2
8

4 6
*

See See See See

Pervenio ad.

Domo
Adv.,

exlre, to emigrate.
easily.

10

By much.
See 437.

To prevent (a passage). u The Allobroges (a-lob'ro-jez).


Is crossed.

IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES

l6l

LESSON LX
IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES
478.

The

following adjectives are compared irregularly:


melior, better peior, worse

bonus, good malus, bad

optimus, best

pessimus, worst

magnus,

great

maior, greater

parvus, small

multus, much,
a.

pi.

many
the

minor, smaller plus, more


comparatives:

maximus, greatest minimus, smallest


plurimus, most
melius;
maior,

Decline

melior,

maius (gen. maioris); peior, peius (gen. peioris); minor, minus (gen. minoris). b. Learn the declension of plus, as given on page 273. In the singular this word is used only as a noun.
479.

The

positive forms of the following are rarely used:


exterior, outer
inferior, lower

exterus, outside
inferus, below

extremus (extimus),
outermost

lnfimus (Imus), lowest

posterus, following posterior, later

postremus
last

(postumus),

superus, above

superior, higher

supremus (summus),
highest

adjectives are compared by using the adverbs and magis, more, maxime, most, with the positive; especially adjectives in -us preceded by e or i: idoneus, dubius:

480.

Some

dubius

magis dubius

maxime dubius

The comparative is sometimes 481. Special Meanings. to be translated by too or rather: longior, too long, or rather long; the superlative by very: longissimus, very long.

1 62

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

482.
collis, collis,

VOCABULARY
M.,
hill

amicus, -a, -um, friendly, devoted

laus, laudis, F., praise servitus, -tutis (servus), F.,

inimicus, -a, -um, unfriendly,


hostile

slavery

nuper, adv., recently


existimo, -are, -avi, -atum,
think, believe

mereor,

mereri,
deserve, merit

meritus

sum,

EXERCISES
483.
1.

Consilium melius.

2.

minor.
cornua.
clvitates.

4.
7.

Domus minima.
Maior
10.

5.

Cives optimi. Maius cornu.

3.
6.
9.

Insula

Maiora
Plures
12.

spes.

8.

Maximus numerus.
11.

Plurimae naves.
13.

Extremi

fines.

In-

ferior

pars.

Postero

die.

14.

15. Summa cum laude. 16. Altissimus mons. 18. E pluribus unum.

Magna cum laude. mons. 17. Summus

Homines nihil peius esse servitute putant. 2. Hie puer maiorem laudem quam ille meretur. 3. Scio te maximam laudem meriturum esse. 4. Existimasne milites minorem laudem quam imperatorem meritos esse? 5. Belgae sunt
484.
1.

proximl Germanis.
pertinent.
8. 9.

6.

7. Haec Naves Gallicae multo humiliores erant quam Romanae.

Inferiorem partem fluminis Rheni clvitas populo Romano inimica erat.

Ad

hostium vlsae erant. 10. Exploratores mittentur, ut locum magis idoneum castris deligant.
In
colle copiae

summo
1.

485.

Peace

is

better than war.


3.

2.

We

think this plan


4.
5.

is

better than that.

Italy

is

much
6.

larger than Helvetia.

heard that the danger would be very great.

The tenth

legion

was very-friendly to Caesar. most suitable for the work.


nation excels in valor.
1

8.

hears that those slaves are 2 It often happens that a smaller 7. This man has many horses and carts. 3
of, the

He

Summus

2
1

here means the highest part See 448. Express in two ways (459).

top

of.

adverbs:

their formation and comparison

163

the

way through the

province

486. Allobroges, clvitas provinciae, a, populo Romano 1 Extrenuper pacati erant et ob earn rem non erant amid.

mum~oppidum Allobrogum proximumque Helvetiorum


bus est Genava.

fini-

eo oppido pons ad Helvetios pertinet. Helvetii se Allobrogibus persuasuros exlstimabant, ut per

Ex

suos fines e5s iter facere paterentur. ad rlpam RhodanI omnes conveniant.

Diem

dlcunt

qua

die

Is dies erat ante

qulntum (i. e., quintus dies ante) Kalendas Aprlles. Lucius Plso et Aulus Gabmius erant consules Romani.

diem Turn

LESSON LXI
ADVERBS: THEIR FORMATION AND COMPARISON
487. Formation of Adverbs.

Adverbs are derived

chiefly

from adjectives.
a. Some adverbs are formed from adjectives of the first and second declension by adding -e to the base: latus, wide,

late, widely.
b.

declension

Some adverbs are formed from by adding -ter (-iter) to

adjectives of the third the base: audax, bold,

audacter, boldly; fortis, brave, fortiter, bravely. c. Some adverbs are case forms of adjectives or nouns, as the neuter accusative: facile, easily, multum, much; the
ablative: primo, at
first,

una,

together.

488.

Comparison

of Adverbs.
is

Adverbs are regularly com-

pared thus:

the neuter singular of the comparative of the adjective; the superlative is the superlative of the adjective with final -us changed to -e.
1

The comparative

Adjective.

They appoint.

repeated antecedent.

12

164
Positive
late, widely

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


Comparative
Superlative

libere, freely
acriter, sharply

latius, more widely liitissime, most widely liberius, more freely llberrime, most freely acrius, more sharply acerrime, most

sharply
sapienter, wisely
sapientius, wisely
facile, easily
facilius,

more

sapientissime,
wisely

most

more

easily

facillime, most easily

a. Form adverbs from the following adjectives and compare them: audax, brevis, celer, clarus, miser.

489.

Irregular Comparison.

The

following adverbs are

irregular in

comparison:
Comparative
Superlative

Positive

bene, well male, badly,

ill

melius, better peius, worse

optime, best pessime, worst

magnopere, greatly multum, much parum, little


diu, long (in time)

magis, more plus, more

maxime, most
plurimum, most minime, least
diutissime, longest proxime, nearest, next

minus,

less

diutius, longer

prope, near

propius, nearer

In the expressions fortiter pugnat, magis idoneus, minus facile, notice that the adverbs modify the verb pugnat, the adjective idoneus, and the adverb facile.
490.
a.

An

adverb normally stands before the word

it

modifies.

491.
verbs.

Rule.

Adverbs modify

verbs, adjectives, or other ad-

492. A superlative adjective or adverb may be used with the adverb quam to denote the highest possible degree: quam maximus, as large as possible, the largest possible; quam
fortissime, as bravely as possible.

adverbs:
493.

their formation and comparison

165

VOCABULABT
maturo,
hasten
-are,
-avi,

nemo, dat. nemini, ace. nemi1 nem, M. and F., no one omnino (omnis), adv., in all,
altogether, only

-atum,

rescindo, rescindere, rescidi, rescissum, break down, destroy

quam, adv.,w.

superlatives, as

as possible (492)

exercises
494. 1. Legiones diu atque acriter pugnaverunt. 2. Cae2 accusavit. sar prlncipes clvitatis graviter 3. Servus tarn celeriter cucurrit, ut non caperetur. 4. Uter niintius celerius

pervenit?

5.

Nemo

sapientius
8.

quam
7.

Sextus

dixit.

6.

Pater

meus puerls

facilius persuadebit.

Domus

amlcl mei ab

urbe longissime abest.


liberrime dlxerunt.
9.

Ubi captlvi legatum vlderunt,

Helvetil

carrorum coemerunt.
restitit.

10.

quam maximum numerum Haec parva natio quam fortissime

12.

Haec
1.

faciemus, illud minime facile. puella omnia maxima cum cura facit.
facillime

n. Hoc

495.

have more

camp many
longer.

This boy reads better than he writes. 2. These farmers fields than their neighbors. 3. We ought to attack the more boldly. 4. The legion fought less fiercely, 3 because had been wounded. 5. The sailors could not remain home
6.

The town was captured very


8.

easily.

7.

The messenger

came

as quickly as possible.

Caesar was most friendly to the

Haedui.

CAESAR GOES TO GENEVA


496. Caesari ubi id nuntiatum est eos per provinciam iter facere conarl, matiirat Roma proficiscl et quam maximls 4 itineribus in Galliam contendit et Genavam pervenit. Pro1

The

genitive and ablative are not used.

2
8 4

Severely.

Acriter.

Presses on.

1 66

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

vinciae toti
erat

quam maximum militum numerum


in

imperat;

omnino

Gallia

legio

una.

Pontem, qui erat ad

Genavam,

iubet rescind!.

LESSON LXII
THE PERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE. INDIRECT QUESTIONS
Formation of the Perfect Subjunctive. The perfect subjunctive is formed in the active voice by adding the tense sign -eri- and the personal endings to the perfect stem;
497.
in the passive

by combining the

perfect participle with sim.

498.

THE PERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE. GATION


ama'verim
ama'veris
ama'verit

FIRST
sim

CONJU-

amatus amatus amatus

(-a)

(-a) sis
(-a, -urn) sit

amaveri'mus
amaveri'tis

ama'verint
a.

amati (-ae) simus amati (-ae) sitis amati (-ae, -a) sint

In the same way conjugate monuerim, monitus sim; rexerim, rectus sim; ceperim, captus sim; audiverim, auditus sim. The perfect subjunctive forms of sum and possum are fuerim and potuerim.
499.

Meaning

of the Perfect Subjunctive.

The

perfect

subjunctive usually has the same meaning as the perfect indicative: amaverim, / have loved, I loved; amatus sim, /
have been loved, I was loved.
Special meanings

and the uses

of the tense are to be explained later.


1

Provinciae imperat, he

levies

upon

the province.

THE PERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE.


500.

INDIRECT QUESTIONS

67

VOCABULARY
M.
(a

adventus, -us,
to), arrival,

coming

cognosco,

cognoscere,

cog-

approach

Idus, -uum, F., the Ides (i.e., the fifteenth day of March,

novi, cognitum, learn, find out

rogo, -are, -avi, -atum, ask


revertor,
revertl,
1

May, July, and October, the


thirteenth of other months)

revert!,

reversum, turn

back, return

animus,

-I,

M., mind,

spirit

501. Indirect Questions. If a question is dependent on a verb such as ask, say, see, tell, wonder, it is an indirect question. The verb of an indirect question in Latin is in the sub-

junctive:
a.

Rogo quid

faciat,

7"

ask what he

is

doing.

by

In former lessons direct questions have been introduced nonne, or num. In indirect questions the same words are used, except nonne, but -ne and num mean whether, without distinction.
quis, uter, cur, ubi, -ne,
b.

The

tense in indirect questions depends on the rule for

sequence (430):
1.

2.

(rogabo, rogavero) quid faciat, / ask (shall ask, shall have asked) what he is doing. Rogo (rogabo, rogavero) quid fecerit, / ask (shall ask,

Rogo

3.

what he has done (what he did). Rogabam (rogavi, rogaveram) quid faceret, / was asking (asked, had asked) what he was doing.
shall have asked)

502.
junctive.

Rule.

The

verb of

an

indirect question is in the sub-

EXERCISES
Quis fuit consul Romanus? 2. Rogat quis fuerit 3. Potesne in portu naves videre? 4. Rogant num naves videre possis. 5. Utra puella laudata est? 6. Sclsne utra puella laudata sit? 7. Ubi mllites castra ponebant?
503* consul.
1.
1 In the present, imperfect and future of revertor, passive forms are used with active meanings. Other tenses are active in form.

1 68

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

ubi castra ponerent. 9. Cur Helvetil omnia 10. Discemus ciir oppida incenoppida sua incenderunt?
8.

Non vidimus

n. Nonne RomanI pulchram urbem habuerunt? 12. Legimus urbem fuisse pulcherrimam. 13. Adventus Caesaris non cognitus erat. 14. Hostes de eius adventu cognoscere non potuerant. 15. Hostes in animo iter per agros
derint.

flnitimorum facere habebant.


504. 1. Which road is the easier? 2. Do you know which road the easier? 3. What does the leader intend (have in mind) to do?

is

asked the leader what he intended to do. 5. Did you learn the letter? 6. The scouts will be sent to find out the of river. 8. The the 7. I think the river is not very deep. depth lake is many feet deeper than the river.
4.

We

who wrote

THE HELVETII SEND AMBASSADORS TO CAESAR


Ubi de adventu Caesaris Helvetii cognoverunt, le1 gatos ad eum mittunt, nobilissimos civitatis, qui dlcerent se in animo habere sine filla iniuria iter per provinciam facere,
505.
2 propterea quod aliud iter haberent nullum; se rogare ut id sibi facere liceret. 3 Caesar, quod memoria tenebat exer-

citum Romanum temporibus antlquls ab Helvetils victum et sub iugum missum, els nihil pollicitus est. Tamen legates ad 4 Idiis Aprlles ad se revertl iussit.

LESSON LXIII
THE PLUPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE. REVIEW OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE. TEMPORAL CLAUSES WITH CUM
506.

Formation

of the Pluperfect Subjunctive.


is

The

plu-

perfect subjunctive
1

formed

in the active voice

by adding

See 420.

2
3

Se rogare depends on dlcerent.


Sibi liceret, they might be permitted
(lit., it

might be permitted to

them).
4

Ad

Idus Apriles, on

the Ides of April.

THE PLUPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE

1 69

the tense sign -isse- and the personal endings to the perfect stem; in the passive by combining the perfect participle

with essem.
507.

THE PLUPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE, FIRST CONJUGATION


Active
Passive

amavis'sem
amavis'ses
amavis'set

amatus amatus amatus

(-a)

essem
esset

(-a) esses
(-a, -urn)

amavisse 'mus
amavisse'tis

amavis'sent

amati (-ae) essemus amati (-ae) essetis amati (-ae, -a) essent

a. In the same way conjugate monuissem, monitus essem ; rexissem, rectus essem; cepissem, captus essem; audivissem, auditus essem. The pluperfect forms of sum and possum are fuissem and potuissem.

508.

Meaning

of the Pluperfect Subjunctive.

perfect subjunctive indicative: amavissem, / had loved;

may have

pluthe meaning of the pluperfect

The

amatus essem, / had

been loved; or it may be translated with should {would) have: I should {you would) have loved, I should {you would) have been loved.

509.

subjunctive endings
First Person Singular
Active
Passive
-er, -ar

Present

-em, -am

Imperfect
Perfect

-rem
-erim

-rer

-us sim -us essem


verb are used with these endings?

Pluperfect -issem
a.

What stems

of the

170
510.

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

SYNOPSIS OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE OF AMO AND SUM

THE PLUPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE


b.

171

not only states the time, but under which a past main action occurred, the subordinate verb is in the imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive, as poneret and venisset in sentence 2.
a clause with
describes the circumstances

When

cum

513.

Rule.

Cum Temporal. Cum


to define the

with the indicative


subjunctive to
occurred.

time of describe the circumstances under which the action

meaning when is used an action; and with the

Memorize:
Vincit qui patitur. He conquers who endures.
Vincit qui se vincit. He conquers who overcomes himself,

EXERCISES
514.
1.

Cum
2.

tium

mlsit.

legatus haec audivisset, ad Caesarem nunCum amici nostri in Italia essent, llberos regis

vlderunt.

3.

Cum

imperator milites cohortatus

esset, slg-

num

4. copiae multas horas fortissime proell dedit. Helvetil pugnavissent, castrls hostium potltl sunt. 5.

Cum

Cum

oppida sua incendissent, ex finibus profecti sunt. 6. Cum Roman! castra munirent, hostes in eos impetum fecerunt. Hie vir dicit se ibi quattuor annos 7. Fuistlne in Britannia?

Legatus dicit se in castellls praesidia dispositurum esse. 9. Explorator collem ascendit, quo 1 facilius munitiones hostium videret. 10. Turn rex partem copiarum,
8.

habitavisse.

elves, qui magno in perlculo sunt, auxilium petent. 12. Sclsne cur auxilium petant? 13. Sclsne cur auxilium petierint?

quae castellum oppugnaret,

mlsit.

11.

Hi

When my friend was living in Italy, he wrote many letters to me. 2. When I had read these letters, I desired to see the 2 in the senate, country. 3. On that day when the consul spoke very many were present. 4. The men who live there are very
515.
1.
1 2

See 511 a. Use the indicative, according to 512

a.

172

CARDINAL NUMERAL ADJECTIVES


friendly to us.
troops, that
5. They say they we may be defended.

73

will
7.

defend us.

6.

They

will

send

Who commanded the garrison?

CAESAR FORTIFIES HIS POSITION


ea legione, quam secum habebat, mllitiex busque, qui provincia convenerant, a lacu Lemanno, qui
516.

Interea

in

ad montem Iuram, qui fines Sequanorum ab Helvetiis dlvidit, murum fossamque perducit. Ibi praesidia disponit et castella munit, quo 2 facilius
flumen
1

Rhodanum

Influit,

itinere

Helvetios prohibere possit.

LESSON LXIV
CARDINAL NUMERAL ADJECTIVES.

THE ACCUSATIVE OF
classes of

EXTENT
517.

Classes of Numerals.

There are three

numeral adjectives: cardinal, denoting how many, as unus, one; ordinal, denoting which one of a series, as primus, first;
distributive,

denoting

how many

at a time, as singuli, one at

a time.
5l8.
1,

CARDINAL NUMERALS
9,

2,

unus, -a, -um duo, duae, duo


quattuor

novem
decern

17,

septendecim
duodeviginti

10, 11,

18,

3, tres, tria
4,
5,

12, 13, 14, 15,


16,

undecim duodecim
tredecim

19, undeviginti

20, viginri

6,
7,

quinque sex

30, triginta

septem
octo
a.

quattuordecim quindecim

100,

centum

8,

sedecim

200, ducenti, -ae, -a 1000, mflle; pi. mllia


275.

Other cardinals are given on page


1

Constructs.

2 3

See 511 a. Ablative of separation.

174
519.

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


Declension.
the

The only

duo, tres,
of mllle.

hundreds
is

cardinals declined are unus, above centum, and the plural


f ortis
;

Tres

declined like the plural of

ducenti,

like the plural of


a.

bonus.

Learn the declension of duo and mllle, page 273.

520. Mllle in the singular is usually an adjective and is not declined: cum mllle viris, with a thousand men. The
plural milia
is

a neuter noun followed

by

a limiting genitive:

cum

quattuor milibus virorum, with four thousand

men

(lit.,

thousands of men).
521.

VOCABULARY
quot, indecl. adj., how circiter, adv., about

longitudo, -tudinis, F. (Iongus), length

many?
how?
,

passus, -us, M., pace (about


five feet)

quam,
pateo,

interrog. adv.,

patere,
lie

patui,

mllle passus, a mile (a thou-

extend,

open

sand paces) milia passuum, miles (thousands of paces)


522.
i.

THE ACCUSATIVE OP EXTENT


Collis

2.

multos pedes altus est, the hill is many feet high. Oppidum Belgarum aberat milia passuum octo, a town of the Belgae was eight miles away.

accusatives pedes and milia, which are used in answering How high is the hill ? How far is the town ? are called accusatives of extent of space. An accusative of extent is similar to

The

an accusative of duration (290). The accusative is used 523. Rule.

to

denote extent

of

space.
1 By passus the Romans meant the distance between two successive positions of the same foot. It is therefore longer than the English pace.

CARDINAL NUMERAL ADJECTIVES

75

EXERCISES
524.
i.

Fuerunt in exercitu Caesaris sex legiones.


2.

Labietria

nus

iini legionl praefuit.

RomanI
3.

mllia

passuum

ab

castrls

hostium castra posuerunt.


4.

Fines Helve tiorum in

longitudinem mllia passuum


patebant.
5.

CCXL

Orgetorlx

mllia

hominum

(ducenta quadraginta) decern coegit.

Circiter mllia
6.

fuerunt.

hominum CXXX (centum trlginta) superHanc puellam rogavimus quot libros legisset.

habeas? 8. Hi puerl multos passus 7. Sclsne quot amlcos current. 9. Scio eos ducentos passus cucurrisse. 10. Marcus

centum passibus longius quam Qulntus currere


525.
1.

potest.

The army marched (for) five days. 1 2. The army marched three miles. 3. The lake extends a mile in (into) breadth and two miles in length. 4. The length of the camp will not be much 2 greater than the breadth. 5. When they had built (made)
as

many

3 ships as possible, they were ready to

sail.

6.

Cornelia

was the mother

of

two famous

sons.

7.

Lucius

will

come home with

8. The brave leader was holding the fort with three other boys. three hundred men. 9. When the trader was in Gaul, he bought four 10. There were twenty-five ships in the and carts. horses eight
fleet.

Answer in Latin the following questions: 1. Quam 2. Quam latum est flumen? 3. Quam longus est murus? hodie adsunt? via? est 4. Quot puerl 5. Quot puerl longa
526.

absunt?

THE HELVETIANS ARE UNABLE TO CROSS THE ROMAN PROVINCE


venit, et legati

quam Caesar cum legatis constituerat, ad eum reverterunt, dlcit se non posse iter Turn Helvetii Rhodanum navibus iilll per provinciam dare. 5 4 et vadls, qua minima altitudo rluminis erat, transire conatl sunt, sed munitione et militum tells repulsi sunt.
527.

Ubi ea

dies,

See 290.
4

See 4736

See 49 2

Where.

To

cross.

176

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

LESSON LXV
ORDINAL ADJECTIVES.
528.
first,

THE GENITIVE OF THE WHOLE. THE GENITIVE AND ABLATIVE OF DESCRIPTION


Ordinal adjectives end in -us
(-a,
-1

-um):

primus,
singuli,

secundus, second; distributives in

(-ae, -a):

one at a time, bini, two at a time. These adjectives are dedined like bonus, the distributives in the plural only.
a. Learn from page 275 the the formation of the others.
first

ten ordinals

and notice

529.
i. 2.

THE GENITIVE OF THE WHOLE


Pars terrae, part of the land. Quis eorum, who of them? Multi puerorum, many of the

3.

boys.

4.
5.

Minus

timoris, less (of) fear.

Fortissimi mllitum, the bravest of the soldiers.

In these expressions the genitive denotes the whole, modifying a word denoting a part. A genitive so used is called a
genitive of the whole.

a part may be a noun, a pronoun or (interrogative indefinite), an adjective, or an adverb (of quantity, degree, or place). b. The ablative with de or ex is sometimes used instead of the genitive, especially after cardinal numbers: unus ex pueris, one of the boys.
a.

The word denoting

Rule. The genitive may denote on a word denoting a part.


530.

the whole,

depending

531.
i.

THE GENITIVE AND ABLATIVE OF DESCRIPTION


Virmagnaevirtutis,
Vir

man

2.

magna

of great courage.
the Belgae were

virtute,

3.

Belgae erant magna virtute,


great courage.

(men) of

4.

Fossa trium pedum, a

ditch of three feet.

ORDINAL ADJECTIVES
Notice in the illustrations that
vir,

77

Belgae, and fossa are described by genitive or ablative phrases and that there is an Genitives and ablatives so used adjective in each phrase.
are called genitives of description (or descriptive genitives)

and

ablatives of description (or descriptive ablatives).

and weight are expressed by the genicharacteristics tive; physical by the ablative. Other descriptive phrases may be in either case.
a.

Measure,

size,

532.

Rule.

The

genitive or the ablative, with

an

adjective

in agreement,

may

be used to describe a noun.

533.

VOCABULARY
-drum, N., winter
the

hiberna,

conscribo,

(con

scribo,

quarters

write together), enroll, enlist

Santones, -um, M.,


tones (san'to-nez)
satis, indecl.

San-

hiemo,
Instru5,

-are,

-avi,

-atum,
Instruxi,

(hiems), pass the winter


instruere,

noun and adv.,

enough, sufficiently circum, prep., w. ace, around

instructum, arrange, marshal

EXERCISES
534. 1. Un5 anno duodecim menses sunt. Secundus menbrevior est quam tertius. 2. Quarta hora classis Romana
3.

sis

ad Britanniam pervenit.
structa
est.
4.

Acies legionum quattuor Inin

conscrlpta erat. 5. Labienus militibus decimae legionis imperavit, ut hiberna munlrent. 6. Mercator dlcit satis frumenti esse in oppido.

Legio

octava

Italia

7.

Nuntiatum

vastavisse.

Romanum.
sperat.
10.

multitudinem Germanorum agros Galliae 1 8. Helveth erant inimico animo in populum animo C5nsul futuros meliore elves esse 9. Meo amlco persuadere conabor ut mecum
est
1

R5mae

hiemet.
Toward.

178
535.
large
1.

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

The

soldiers

are

legions are in winter quarters.

2. Three ready to-pass-the-winter. The new winter 3. quarters are


.

4. They are fortified by a wall of (sufficiently large) The wall is ten feet x high. 6. The commander is a man of great influence. 7. Three of his sons 2 are soldiers. 8. thought the Germans were (men) of greater bravery than the Hel-

enough
5.

ten

feet.

Many

vetians.

536.

Answer in Latin
2.

the following questions:

domi

vldisti?
4.

Quocum

loctitus es?

3.

Quern Cuius virtus lauQuis erat lega-

1.

dabitur?

Cui legion! Caesar indulsit?

5.

tus huius legionis?

CAESAR REINFORCES HIS ARMY


537.

Caesar! nuntiatur Helvetios in animo habere per

agrum Sequanorum et Haeduorum iter in fines Santonum Haec civitas non longe a provincia, abest. Ob earn facere. causam sciebat provinciam magno in perlculo futuram. 3 Itaque el munition!, quam fecerat, Labienum legatum praefecit.

Ipse in Italiam magnls itineribus contendit, duasque


tres,

ibi legiones conscribit;

quae circum Aquileiam


h!s

hiema-

bant, ex h!bern!s educit.

Cum

Alpes in Galliam

!re

contendit, et trans

qumque legionibus per Rhodanum exer-

citum ducit.

LESSON LXVI
INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

REVIEW OF PRONOUNS. REVIEW OF PREPOSITIONS


The
indefinite

538.
to

Indefinite Pronouns.
or

pronouns refer

some person
1

ticular one.

2
3

some thing without indicating the parThey include quis, any, any one, any thing, and What case? (See 523.) What case? (See 529 &.)
the dative used? situated at the head of the Adriatic.

4
6

Why is A town
To
go.

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS
its

179

compounds. The compounds used most frequently are aliquis, some, some one, some thing; quisquam, any at all;
quisque, each, every, each one, each thing; quidam, a certain, a certain one, a certain thing.
Like other pronouns, the indefinites may be used as adquidam miles, a certain soldier. b. Quis is used chiefly after certain conjunctions (si, nisi, ne, num). Quisquam is used chiefly in negative sentences. As an adjective quisquam is not used, ullus taking its place.
a.

jectives:

539.

Declension of Indefinite Pronouns.


is

The nominative

singular

as follows:

Pronouns

Adjectives

M.
quis
aliquis

N.
quid
aliquid

M.
qui
aliqui

F.

N.
aliquod

qua (quae) quod


aliqua

quisquam
quisque

quidquam
(quicquam)

quidque

quisque quaeque

quodque

quidam
a.
b.

quaedam quiddam

quidam quaedam

quoddam

The full declension of these words is given on page 278. Quisquam has no plural. The plural of the other words
is

is

complete and

the same for pronouns and adjectives.

Review of Pronouns. The indefinites form the seventh and last class of pronouns. Review the declension of
540.

the six classes given in section 393.

There are about thirty Latin prepositions used with the accusative and twelve with the ablative. The following have been given in the preced541.
of Prepositions.

Review

ing lessons:
a.

With the accusative:

in, inter, ob, per, post, praeter, propter,


b.

With the

ablative:

ad, ante, apud, circum, contra, sub, trans. a (ab), cum, de, e (ex), in, pro,

sine, sub.
13

l8o
542.

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

VOCABULARY
iam, adv., already, by this time

angustiae, -arum, F. (angustus), pass, defile

paene, adv., almost

conspectus, -us, M., sight

EXERCISES
* Quis erit dux? 2. Puto quendam ex his pueris ducem futurum. 3. Quaedam nationes, quae Alpes incole2 exercitum prohibere conatl sunt. 4. Hoc bant, itinere

543.

1.

consilium cuiquam non nuntiabimus. 5. Dlcit se sine con6. Quisque sensu omnium non facturum esse quicquam.

domum

revert! paratus erat.

7.

Ubi mercatores a Britannia


8.

reverterunt, Caesar quemque rogavit quid vidisset.

In con-

spectu imperatoris quisque miles fortius pugnavit. 9. 10. Hie naves non sunt eaedem quas herl vidisti.

Hae
collis

multo altior est quam ille. 11. Marco ipsl persuadebimus, ut ad urbem veniat. 12. Quot nova verba hodie didicimus?
3 2. I have not $44. 1. Some friends have come to see you. seen any one to-day, but I shall try to see many friends to-morrow. 4. We shall send certain 3. Do you know the name of each girl? men (as) guides. 5. There were two consuls at Rome each year. 6. The king had his son with him. 7. Those ships are almost in 8. There was no one in the field except the slaves. sight of land. 9. On account of the scarcity of water the camp will be moved. 10. There is a beautiful village at the foot of the hill.

A PARLEY
545.

Helvetii

iam per angustias

et fines

Sequanorum suas

copiastraduxerant, et in HaeduOrum fines pervenerant eorum4 que agros vastabant. Haedul cum se ab els defendere non
possent. legatos ad
1 1

Caesarem mittunt, qui auxilium rogarent.


3 4

See 529 b. Ablative of separation (220).

What mood and tense? Since, expressing cause.

REVIEW OF LESSONS LIX-LXVI


Hi dlcunt
se ita
l

181

depopulo Romano meritos esse, utagrl paene

in conspectu exercitus

RomanI

vastarl, puerl in servitutem

abducl, oppida expugnarl non debuerint.

Eodem tempore

socii Haeduorum nuntiant se non facile ab oppidls vim hostium prohibere. Propter has iniurias Caesar cum Helvetils bellum gerere constituit.

LESSON LXVII
REVIEW OF LESSONS
546.

LIX-LXVI.

CERTAIN NOUN SUFFIXES

VOCABULARY

adventus

l82
4.

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


5.

Compare bonus, magnus, multus.


6.

Compare

exterus,

superus.

Decline Kberior.
9.

7.

adverbs formed?

Compare
latus.
10.

Decline plus. 8. How are the adverbs formed from

acer, bonus, facilis,

Decline unus, duo, tres. 12. Decline aliquis as a pro11. Decline ducenti, mflle. noun; as an adjective. 13. How is the perfect subjunctive

The pluperfect? 14. Write a synopsis of duco in the active indicative and subjunctive, third person singular.
formed?
Write a synopsis of hortor in the third person plural. 16. Illustrate by a Latin sentence the ablative of comparison; the measure of difference. 17. Illustrate the accusative of of the whole the ablative of description. the extent; genitive 18. What is an indirect question? 19. When does cum, when,
15.
;

introduce a subjunctive clause?


548. Noun Suffixes. Many nouns, as we have seen, are formed by adding to stems a common suffix, such as -tor, These suffixes have definite meanings, as the -tas, -men. The following are English -er in writer, one who writes. important noun suffixes:
P
a.

-tor,

denoting the agent or doer of an action: impera-

one who commands; explorator, mercator, orator, victor. -io (-sio, -tio), -tus (-sus), -ium, denoting action: leg-io, lit. a collecting; ora-tio, a speaking; adven-tus, a comtor,
b.

imper-ium, a commanding; coniuratio, munitio; auxilium, indicium, praesidium, studium. c. -men, -mentum, denoting action, the means or the result of action: flu-men, a flowing; ag-men, that which is led;
ing
to;

fru-mentum,

that

which

is

enjoyed;

nomen, iumentum.

-tudo, forming abstract nouns deor condition: audac-ia, boldness, amici-tia, noting quality
d. -ia (-tia), -tas, -tus,

friendship;

boni-tas, goodness;
iniuria,

vir-tus,

manliness;

magnicivitas,

tudo, greatness;

memoria,

victoria, vigilia;

cupiditas, libertas;

servitus;

altitudo, fortitudo, longitudo,

multitudo.

THE IMPERATIVE MOOD.

THE VOCATIVE CASE

83

LESSON LXVIII
THE IMPERATIVE MOOD.
549.

THE VOCATIVE CASE

The imperative in Latin, as in English, expresses a command. The present tense has only the second person.
550.

THE PRESENT IMPERATIVE


Active

1 84

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

552.
ratis, ratis, F., raft

VOCABULARY
concido, concidere, concidi,

citra,prep., w. ace, this side of

concisum (con + caedo,


to pieces), kill

cut

nam, conj., for nondum, adv.,

not yet

iungo, iungere, iunxi, iunc-

abdo, abdere, abdidi, abdi-

tum, join

tum

(ab

do, put away),

hide, conceal

EXEECISES
urbem
3.

553.

Fortissime

defendite.

2.

sulem

celeriter mitte

Hortare

elves, ut in

Nuntium ad conForum conve-

The Meta Sudans


A
niant.
Edtic,
fountain near the Colosseum

4.

legate,

omnes copias
6.

tuas.

5.

Legatum

monul, ut omnes copias educeret. cur non venerltis. 1 7. Persuade


1

Dlcite nobis, amid, fratrl tuo, ut noblscum

Why

subjunctive?

participles:

the present and the perfect

185

maneat.
iusserunt.
10.

8. 9.

Principes Helvetiorum multas rates iungl Puerl parvam ratem in 1 flumine habebunt.

Ascendite montem, ut videatis

quam

in

partem

agmen
Come

iter faciat.

554. 1. Boys, be brave. to the harbor, sailor. 4.

2.

Praise the farmer's sons.

3.

Throw

longer arrows, Marcus. 6. quer. 7. Tell me, Cornelia, what books all these words with great care.

the javelins, soldiers. 5. Use 3 so will that conbravely Fight you

you have

read.

8.

Learn

CAESAR DEFEATS PART OF THE HELVETIAN FORCES


555.

Flumen
in

est

Arar,

quod per
Influit.

fines

Haeduorum

et

Sequanorum

Rbodanum

Id Helvetii ratibus, quas

4 Tres partes copiarum iam traduo iunxerant, translbant. tae erant; quarta pars citra flumen reliqua erat. Ea pars

clvitatis

appellabatur Tigurlnus;

nam omnis

cl vitas

Hel-

vetia in quattuor pagos dlvisa est. Caesar de 5 tertia vigilia cum tribus legionibus e castris 6 7 profectus ad earn partem, quae nondum flumen transierat,
pervenit, et

magnum numerum
proximas

concldit.

Reliqui fugerunt

atque

se in

silvas abdiderunt.

LESSON LXIX
PARTICIPLES:
556.

THE PRESENT AND THE PERFECT


of Participles.

Tense Endings

Participles, as defined

in section 259, are verbal adjectives.


1.

There are four:

2.
1 3

The present active in -ns. The perfect passive in -us


On.
2

(260).
5
6

Direction.

What
Were

tense in a result clause?


crossing.

(See 43-)

In the course of. Having set out.

Had

crossed.

i86
3.

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

4.

The future The future

active in -urus (373).

passive in -ndus.

a. The endings of the present active and of the future passive are added to the present stem: ama-ns, ama-ndus.

557.

participles:
a.

the present and the perfect


is

187

present or perfect participle

often best translated

by a relative clause, or by an adverbial clause with when,


after, since, although, if:
1.

2.

vldi, / saw the bridge {that Romans. was) Exercitus victus sub iugum mittetur, (if) the army (is)
built

Pontem a Romanis factum


by the

defeated,
3.

(it)

will be sent

under

Miles vulneratus

fortiter pugnavit,

the yoke. the soldier fought

bravely (though he was) wounded.

560.

VOCABULARY
repentinus, -a, -um, sudden

calamitas, -tatis, F., disaster Divico, -onis, M., Divico

commoveo

vesper, vesperi, M., evening


si, conj., if

(con + moveo, move thoroughly) alarm (con + sequor), consequor


,

sin, conj., but if

follow up, overtake

EXERCISES
561.
2.
1.

Nonne

audlvistl

consulem

mllites

laudantem?

Marcus multos libros a Romanis scrlptos legit. 3. Servus territus ex urbe fugit. 4. Mercatores domo prima hora 2 x Genavam sub vesperum pervenerunt. 5. Celtae profectl 6. Imperator suos hostes oppidum munientes terruerunt.
cohortatus^Ignumproelldedit. 7. OrgetorIx,regnI cupiditate Flnitiml HelvetiOrum, 8. inductus, coniurationem fecit. sua eodem usl consilio, oppida vlcosque incenderunt. 9. Castra in loco natura

munlto ponunt.

vulneratorum in castrls erat. malium currentium trans agros videre poteris. 12. prlncipis, ab hostibus capta, ad reglnam ducebatur.
562. 1. the sailors.

Magnus numerus n. Magnum numerum ani10.

Fllia

The boys (having been) sent by their father were aiding 2. Did you see the boys aiding the sailors? 3. (While I was) living in Italy, I learned many things about 3 the Romans. 4. The lieutenant has a beautiful sword, given by his friends. 5. Divico was a man of great authority among the Helvetians. 6. He had been a leader of the army for many years.
1

See 557

a.

Towards.

De.

1 88

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

THE HELVETIANS SEND DIVICO AS ENVOY TO CAESAR


563. Post hoc proelium Caesar, ut reliquas copias Helvetiorum consequl posset, pontem in Ararl facit atque ita exercitum tradiicit. Helvetii repentlno eius adventu commotl, legatos ad eum mittunt, quorum Divico prlnceps fuit.

Dlvico, qui bello superiore dux fuerat, dixit:

"

Si

populus

manebimus ubi nos manere iubes; sin noblscum bellum gerere vis, 2 memoria tene Helvetios a patribus suls fortitudinem didicisse, et omnes
faciet, ibi
1

Romanus noblscum pacem

inimlcos superare posse. Si in proelio contendes, locus ex calamitate popull RomanI nomen capiet."

LESSON LXX
THE ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE
564.
1.

Observe the following sentences:

Galba imperante, legio vicit, with Galba commanding (or, Galba commanding; when Galba commanded; since Galba commanded; if Galba commanded), the
legion conquered. Civitate victa, legio in Alpibus hiemavit, the tribe having been conquered (or, after the tribe had been con-

2.

quered;

since the tribe had been conquered; having


tribe), the legion

3.

wintered in the Alps. Galba duce, legio proficiscetur, with Galba as leader

conquered the

(or,

Galba being leader; under

the

leadership

of

Galba), the legion will set out.

The ablative phrases


ablative absolute;

in

these

sentences

illustrate

the

that is, an ablative loosely connected with the rest of the sentence, like the English nominative abso1

In

that place.

You

wish.

THE ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE


lute.

89

be defined as a phrase consisting of a noun or pronoun in the ablative, and a noun, an


ablative absolute

The

may

adjective, or a participle in agreement.


a.

The absolute phrase may be rendered

best

by a clause

expressing time {when, while, after), cause {since, because), concession {though, although), condition {if), as shown in the model sentences. The ablative absolute, in other words, is often a substitute for a subordinate clause.

Rule. A noun or pronoun in the ablative, with a noun, an adjective, or a participle in agreement, may be used
565.
to

express time, cause, condition, or other relation. 566. Observe also the following:
1.

Having said these things, the chief went away, his rebus dictis, princeps discessit.
Having spoken
thus, the chief

2.

went away,

ita locutus,

princeps discessit.
a. The tense of the participle in an ablative absolute is either present or perfect. Since the Latin verb lacks the perfect active participle, an active phrase, such as having said these things, must be changed in translation to the passive

form, these things having been said.


perfect participle of deponent verbs, as locutus in 2, being active in meaning, is an exception to this rule, and takes the same construction as the participle in the English sentence.
b.

The

sentence

3.

The town having been

fortified, the troops resisted the

enemy, oppido munito, copiae hostibus restiterunt.


4.

The town having been fortified was easily defended, oppidum munitum facile defensum est.
c.

Compare sentences 3 and 4, and notice that the noun participle (oppidum munitum) are not in the absolute construction in the last sentence, because the noun is also the subject of the main verb (defensum est).
and

190
567.

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

VOCABULARY
responded, respondere, respondl, responsum, reply (de + pono), depono put
-1,

Piso, Pisonis, M., Piso

responsum,
invitus, -a,

N., reply

-um, unwilling

recens, recentis, new, fresh,


recent

down, put away


satisfacio (satis

+ facio) make
,

tempto, -are, -avi, -atum,


try,

amends, satisfy
etiam, adv., even, also

attempt

a. Decline hoc responsum; compare recens; give a synopsis of tempto in the active, third person singular, and of depono in the passive, third plural.

Memorize : Carpe diem. Enjoy the present day. Seize the opportunity. Cave quid dicis, quando, et cui. Be cautious as to what you say, when, and to whom.

EXERCISES
(Translate each ablative absolute literally; then form a better English equivalent phrase or clause.)

568.

1.

Navibus

vlsis,

domum

revertemur.

2.

Vicls in-

censls, Helvetil cum omnibus copils profecti sunt. 3. Helvetil, cum vicos suos incendissent, proficisci erant parati. 4. Urbe capta, elves fiigerunt. 5. Hoc oppidum, paucis

defendentibus, expugnare non potuimus. 6. Potitl oppido, id miinire coepimus. 7. Slgno dato, legio decima impetum
2

fecit.

8.

Pills iactls, milites gladiis Gsi sunt.


10.

9.

His rebus

inductus, rex captlvos liberavit. 3 celerrime cucurrit. sus, quam

11.

Nuntius, a consule misCaesare consule, clvitas

superata est. coniurationem

12.

Orgetorix, Messala, et Pisone consulibus,


Translate with though (564 See 566 b, and 403. See 492.

fecit.
1

a).

2
1

THE FUTURE PARTICIPLES


569.

191

1. (With) Marcus (as) commander, we shall easily conquer. centurions having been called together, the lieutenant advised them. 3. Having written the letter, I called the messenger. 4. The letter having been written was given to the messenger. 5. After reading the letter (i.e., the letter having been read) I persuaded the messenger l to remain. 2 6. I saw the consul's daughter reading a new book.

2.

The

CAESAR'S REPLY TO DIVICO


Huic legato Caesar ita respondit: " Eas res, de quibus locutus es, memoria teneo. Etiam recentium iniuriarum memoriam deponere non possum; me invito, Helvetil
570.
iter

per provinciam temptaverunt, agros sociorum popull Roman! vastaverunt. Sin obsides mihi dabunt, et si Haeduis de iniurils satisfacient, quas els sochsque eorum intu3 lerunt, cum clvitate Helvetia pacem faciam." Dlvico respondit: " Helvetil obsides accipere, non dare solent." 4 Hoc responso dato, discessit.

LESSON LXXI
THE FUTURE PARTICIPLES.
571.

THE DATIVE OF THE AGENT


The

future active participle is used with forms of sum, to express action about to occur, or intended: Laudaturus sum, / am about to praise, I am going
to praise,
a.

Active Periphrastic.

I intend

to praise.

The combination

sum
1 2 3 4 6

(in the indicative, subjunctive, the active periphrastic 5 conjugation.

of the future active participle and and infinitive) is called

What case? What mood

(439)?

Have inflicted upon. Are accustomed.

The compound

" form is a form consisting of more than one word. periphrastic tenses of the passive voice (261) are therefore periphrastic, but the word is limited to the above use.

"

192
572.
is

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

Passive Periphrastic. The future passive participle used with forms of sum to express action as necessary or

proper:

Laudandus

est, he is to be praised, he has to be praised,

he must be praised.
a.

The combination

of

sum

with the future passive par-

ticiple is

called the passive periphrastic conjugation.

573.
i.

THE DATIVE OF THE AGENT


Mihi nauta monendus
est, the sailor is to be

(must be)

2.

3.

warned by me, I must warn the sailor. Mihi nauta monendus erat, the sailor was to be {had to be) warned by me, I had to warn the sailor. Mihi nauta monendus erit, the sailor will have to be warned by me, I shall have to warn the sailor.

a passive periphrastic form the agent or doer of the action is expressed by the dative instead of the ablative.

With

574.

Rule.

The

dative of the agent is used with the passive

periphrastic conjugation.

575.

VOCABULARY
-a,

iniquus,

-um
-a.,

(uneven),

unfavorable
quingenti, -ae, dred
five

insequor (in + sequor), low on), pursue


drive,

(fol-

hun-

pello, pellere,pepuli,pulsum,

put

to flight

cado, cadere, cecidi, casum,


fall

praemitto(prae+mittd),se;zd in advance

EXERCISLS
576.
est.
3.
1.

Slgnum daturl sunt. 2. Slgnum tuba dandum Caesarl omnia tino tempore erant agenda. 4. Nonne
5.

epistulam scrlpturus es?


6.

Epistula

tibi

scrlbenda

erit.

frumentum comportaturl erant. 7. Nationes 8. Nonne putas hiiius terrae pacem conflrmaturae sunt. esse? 9. Legio decima, pacem his nationibus conflrmandam
Agricolae

THE GERUNDIVE.
cui
10.
1

THE GERUND
vigilia

1 93

Labienus praeest, castra de quarta.


sis.

motura
11.

fuit.

Sextus dlcit se oratorem in Foro audlturum esse.


12.

Die
sit.

mihi, Sexte, quid acturus


577.
1.

Die mihi quid agendum


2.

The boys

was about-toadvise the traders. 4. The traders had to be advised by the lieuhimself is going-to-command the legions. 3 tenant. 5. Caesar 6. He said that Caesar himself was going-to-command the legions.

must choose a leader to-day. 2

are going-to-choose a leader. 3. The lieutenant

The boys

A CAVALRY SKIRMISH
578.

Postero die castra ex eo loco movent.

Idem

facit

Caesar, et equitatum omnem ad numerum quattuor milium 4 5 praemittit, qui videant quam in partem hostes iter faciant.
6 agmen InsecutI inlquo loco cum equitatu Qui cupidius Helvetiorum contendunt, et paucl de equitibus Romanls

cadunt.
Helvetii, quod qulngentls equitibus tantam multitudinem pepulerant, audacius resistere coeperunt. Caesar suos a proeli5 continebat. Ita dies qulndecim iter fecerunt, ut hostium agmen a Romano qulnque aut sex mllia passuum abesset.

Hac

victoria sublatl

LESSON LXXII
THE GERUNDIVE.
579.

THE GERUND

The Gerundive. The

future passive participle (557),

when used as an attributive adjective, is called a gerundive. The gerundive is used chiefly in the genitive, accusative, and
ablative cases, singular and plural; rarely in the dative.
1

See 457.

2 3

Change

this sentence to the passive

What

form before translating.


6

case?

4 6

See 420. Direction.

Too

eagerly.

Elated.

194
i
.

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


Cupidi urbis videndae sumus, we are desirous of ing the city (lit., of the city to be seen).
see-

2.

De
a.

urbe videnda locutus est, he spoke about the city (lit., about the city to be seen).

seeing

Purpose is expressed by causa, for the sake, for the purpose, with the genitive of the gerundive, or by ad with the accusative. Causa always follows the genitive phrase.
3.

Urbis videndae causa venimus, we have come for purpose of seeing the city.
ParatI ad

the

4.

urbem videndam sumus, we


(lit.,

are ready to

see the city

for the city to

be seen).

singular of the gerundive is used as a verbal noun, called the gerund. The gerund is active in meaning and is equivalent to the English verbal in
580.
-ing.

The Gerund. The neuter

The nominative

is

supplied

by the present

infinitive.

Noni. (amare, to love) Gen. amandi, of loving


Dat.

amando, for

loving

Ace.
Abl.
a.
b.

amandum,

loving
(etc.) loving

amando, by

Decline monendi, regendi, capiendi, audiendL Deponent verbs have gerunds, as well as gerundives
conandi, of trying; verendi, of fearing; iitendi, of

(557 a): using.

581.

Uses

of the

Gerund.

The

genitive of the gerund

is

used

like other genitives: difficultas audiendi, the difficulty of

Followed by causa the genitive expresses purpose: Audiendi causa venimus, we have come for the purpose of
hearing.
hearing.

The

dative

is rare.

The accusative

is

used with

ad to express purpose: Ad audiendum venimus, we came to The ablative is used like other ablatives: Audiendo hear. discimus, we learn by hearing.

THE GERUNDIVE.
a.

THE GERUND
is

1 95

Remember

that the gerund

a noun, the gerundive a

participle; that the

gerund

is

active, the gerundive passive;

that the gerund is singular and neuter only, the gerundive singular or plural, and of all genders.

582.
statim, adv., at once
conficio, -ficere, -feci,

VOCABULARY
ostendo, ostendere, ostendi,

-fectum

accomplish consido, -sidere, -sedi, -ses-

(con

+ facio),
settle,

ostentum, show, explain renuntio (re -f nuntio), report

sum,

take position

Memorize:

Verbum

sat sapient!.
to the

word

wise

is sufficient.

EXERCISES
583.
i.

Cives audiendl consulis causa convenerunt.

2.

Ad

portum navium videndarum causa venient. 3. Cum nullam spem vincendl haberent, fugerunt. 4. Quis ad has res con5. Hae civitates ad obsides dandos deligetur? paratae sunt. 6. Legatus dlcit legionem esse paratam ad bellum gerendum. 7. Dux putavit hunc locum esse ido-

ficiendas

neum ad aciem Instruendam.


tem de fugiendo
ipse

8.

Nemo
Nonne
x

fortem virum loquenis,

audivit.
10.

9.

qui

alios

docet,

docendo
el

discit?

Hortare

fratrem tuum, Quinte;

persuade

ut hoc faciat.

2 584. 1. We learn to do by doing. 2. They will aid the king by 3 sending grain. 3. The boys are ready to climb the mountain. 4. Is the trader ready to sail? 5. The envoys had been sent to

make
7.
1

5 peace. 6. This place is most suitable for pitching a camp. Having sent ahead the cavalry, Caesar followed with the legions.

2
3

See 550. Agere.

With paratus,
Express See 480.
to

either an infinitive or
in different

gerund (gerundive)

may

be

used.
4
6

make

ways.

14

I96

LATEST

FOR THE FIRST YEAR

CAESAR PREPARES FOR BATTLE


585. Exploratores Caesarl nuntiant hostes sub consedisse mllia passuum ab ipslus castrls octo.
1

monte
Caesar

montis.
vigilia

statim homines mlsit, qui cognoscerent quae esset nattira Renuntiatum est ascensum esse facilem. Tertia

Labienum legatum, cum duabus


qui iter cognoverant,
4

legionibus et els du-

cibus
sibi
3

montem

ascendere iubet; quid

animo ostendit. Ipse quarta, vigilia eodem 5 hostes itinere, quo ierant, ad eos contendit, equitatumque omnem ante se mittit.
sit

in

LESSON LXXIII
THE SUPINE.
REVIEW OF EXPRESSIONS OF PURPOSE

THE THREE STEM SYSTEMS


586.

The Supine.

Three forms

of the

verb are used as

nouns: the infinitive (109), the gerund (580), and the supine. The supine has two case forms, the accusative in -um and
the ablative in -u. the fourth of the principal parts:

The accusative supine has been given as amatum, monitum, rectum,

captum, auditum.
a. Deponent verbs have supines, which may be formed from the perfect participle: conatum, veritum, usum.

587. Uses of the Supine. The supine in -um is used with iri to form the future passive infinitive (374). It is more com-

motion to express purpose: Victoriam nuntiatum venimus, we have come to report the victory.

monly used with verbs

of

a. The supine in -u is used chiefly as an ablative of specification (378), with adjectives meaning easy, good, strange, or the opposite: Difficile factu est, it is hard to do (lit., with re-

spect to the doing).


1

At

the foot of.


4

As

guides.
B

See 458.

See 502.

Had

gone.

THE SUPINE.
588.

THE THREE STEM SYSTEMS

1 97

Expressions of Purpose. We have seen that four different forms of the verb may express purpose:
1.

The subjunctive with


ut (or qui) videamus.

ut, ne, qui, or

quo (420): Mittia):

mur
2.

The gerundive with ad The gerund with ad


The supine
(587):

or

causa (579

Mittimur

urbis videndae causa.


3.

or causa (581): Mittimur videndi

causa.
4.

Mittimur visum.

Three Stem Systems. The various forms of the may be grouped into three systems, according to the stem from which they are derived. Thus for amo we may
589.

verb

arrange:

The Present System


Active

198

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

The Supine System


Ind.
Subj.
Inf.

Part.

Per/.

Plup.
Fut. P.

amatus esse amatus amatus sum amatus sim amatus eram amatus essem amaturus esse amaturus amatus ero

Supine
590.

amatum

amatum

Irl

VOCABULARY
-1,

impedimentum,
dio),

N. (impepi.,

frumentor,
forage

-ari,

-atus sum,

hindrance;

bag-

(frumentum), procure grain,


gratulor, -ari, -atus
gratulate

gage (military)

mulier, muli'eris, F.,

woman

sum, con-Itum,

salus, salutis, F., safety

tempestas, weather
arbitror,

-tatis,

F., storm,

impedio,

-ire,

-Ivi,

(pes), hinder,

incumber

-ari,

-atus

sum,

think, consider

EXERCISES

Quid, Galba, est optimum factii? 2. Vos monitum venimus. 3. Legati pacem petltum missl sunt. 4. Prinl auxilium rogatum fugerat. ceps Haeduorum Romam
591.
i.

5.

Castella fecerunt,
6.

defenderent.
runt.
7.

minore numero militum locum Multl amlci ad consulem gratulatum vene-

quo

Una

legio

frumentatum missa

erat.

8.

Magna pars

equitatus frumentandi causa missa est. 9. Ad haec cognoscenda Marcum esse idoneum arbitramur. 10. Rogasne quis hoc praemium mereatur? 11. Difficile est dictu. 12. His rebus confectis, domum revertar. 13. Hostes non facile impedlmentls potientur. 14. Caesar dlcit sex mllia Helve-

tiorum salutem fuga petlvisse.

15.

Puerl

mulieresque a

Romanls
1

pacem

tempestatem
See 282.

16. Arbitrabamur propter petierunt. difficultatem navigandl futuram esse sum2

See 511

a.

REVIEW OF LESSONS LXVIH-LXXIII

199

mam.
18.

17.

Tempestas

non

est

idonea ad navigandum.

Iter agminis densissimis silvls


1.

impedltum

est.
3.

592.
will

It is easy to see.

2.

I shall send

men

to do this.

He

to the city to see his brother. 4. The soldiers are aboutmust learn these things 2 to-forage in the neighboring fields. 5. before evening. 6. I think you will see these things within a few

come

We

days.

7.

Tell the

women and
of the

children that there

is

safety in the

town.
scouts.

8.

The baggage

whole army could be seen by the

LESSON LXXIV
REVIEW OF LESSONS LXVIH-LXXIII.
593-

ADJECTIVE SUFFIXES

VOCABULARY

calamitas

200
595.

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

Adjective Suffixes. Among the suffixes used to form adjectives are the following:
a.

audax,
b.

-ax, -idus, forming adjectives with daring (audeo, dare); cupidus,


-bilis, -tivus,

an active meaning:
desiring,

desirous

(cupio).
-ilis,

forming adjectives with a passive


be done, easy (facio); credibilis,

meaning:
that

facilis, that

may

captivus, captured (capio). c. -cus, -ius, -nus, -lis, -ris, -timus, -ter, forming adjectives meaning belonging to, pertaining to, derived from: bellicus, pertaining to war (bellum) patrius, pertaining to a father (pater); fraternus, pertaining to a brother (frater); navalis, pertaining to a ship (navis) mllitaris, pertaining to a soldier (miles); maritimus, pertaining to the sea (mare); equester, pertaining to a horseman (eques).
; ;

may

be believed (credo);

596.

Answer

in

Latin

the
2.

following:

1.

Arbitrarisne

Romanos
3.

saepe pulsos esse?

Cur equites praemissl sunt? tatem audlvistl? 5. Quis has res


Memorize :

Ubi hostes se abdiderunt? 4. Nonne recentem calamiconficere temptabit?

Quid magis est durum saxo? Quid mollius unda? Ovid. Dura tamen molli saxa cavantur aqua.

What

is

harder than stone ?

What more

soft

than water ?
hollowed by

Nevertheless, hard though the rock


the wave.

be, it is

LESSON LXXV
THE IRREGULAR VERB
597.

FIO.

IDIOMS

The Passive
is
is

of Facio.

The

passive of facio in the

present system

supine system
tion of fid,

formed from the irregular verb fid. The regular. Learn from page 292 the conjuga-

fieri, f actus

sum,

be

made, be done, happen,


fit

result.

Notice that

-i- is long,

except in

and before

-er-.

THE IRREGULAR VERB

FIO.

IDIOMS

201

a. Prepositional compounds of facio, as conficio, perficio, are usually conjugated regularly in the passive: conficior, confici, confectus sum. b. Write in review a synopsis of the active forms of facio, including the three moods, the infinitives, the participles, and the gerund.

598. Certior, the comparative of certus, certain, sure, is used as a predicate adjective in the phrases certiorem facio, I inform (lit., make more sure), and certior fio, I am in-

formed
1.

(lit.,

am made more
feci,

sure):

Eum

certiorem

I informed him; eos certiores

I informed them. Certior fid (certiores fimus) equites venire, I am informed {we are informed) that the horsemen are coming.
feci,
2. a. Notice that certior agrees with the person informed, and that the information in sentence 2 is expressed by an infinitive with subject accusative, just as after a verb of saying.

Every language has constructions or expressions peculiar to itself, called idioms. Thus in English we say How do you do? in French, Comment vous portez599.

Idioms.

vous?

Latin has

(How do you carry yourself?) many idioms, such as equus

est militi (a horse

has a horse; iter faciunt (they make a march) for they march; Messala consule (Messala consul) for in the consulship of Messala; certior fio (7 am
is to the soldier) for the soldier

informed; in spem venio (I come into hope) for I have hope, I entertain hope.
600.

made more

sure) for I

am

VOCABULARY
-1,

beneficium,
favor

N., kindness,
evil deed,

dUigens,
diligent

dfligentis,

careful,

maleficium,

-1,

N.,

dUigenter,
faithfully

adv.,

diligently,

harm, damage
diligentia, -ae, F., carefulness,

certus, -a, -urn, certain, sure

diligence

contra, prep., w. ace, against

202
accurro,

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


accurrere,
to

accurri,

interficio,
feci,

interficere,

inter-

accursum (ad
to,

+ curro),
-avi,

run

interfectum (inter

hasten

facio), kill

coniuro,

-are,

-atum

sustineo, sustinere, sustinui,

(con

+ iuro,

swear together),

sustentum

(sub

+ teneo)

conspire
flo, fieri, f actus

endure, sustain

sum,

be

made,

be done, happen, become

EXERCISES
fieri

601.
2.

Caesar pontem in flumine Rheno Helvetii de eius adventu certiores factl sunt.
i.

iussit.

3.

Caesar

A
Showing captives and war elephants

ndrca Mantegna

Panel from the Painting "The Triumph of Caesar"

THE IRREGULAR VERB


certior flebat

FIO.

IDIOMS

203

omnes Belgas contra populum Romanum conFactum est multls de causls ut hostes impetum 4. sustinere non possent. 5. Duae legiones reliquum exercitum
iurare.

exspectabant, ut uno tempore in hostes impetus 6. Nauta me certiorem fecit flumen esse altissimum. 7.

fieret.

Sum-

mam

in

spem

victoriae venimus.
9.

reges copias suas iunxerunt.


tertia vigilia

Fide inter se data, His rebus confectls, de


8.

proficlscemur.

10.

Haec

facta sunt

Marco

Messala et Marco Plsone consulibus. n. Niintiatum est multos interfectos esse. 12. Quis legionl decimae praefectus
est?
13.

Helvetil dicunt se sine


14.

iter facturos esse.

Tuum

iillo maleficio per provinciam beneficium semper memoria

Andrea Mantegna

Panel from the Painting

"

The Triumph of Caesar"


spoils of

Showing captives and

war

204
tenebo.
sunt.
15.

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

Omnia magna, cum

dlligentia nobis facienda

2. He said that peace had been leaders returned to their (own) the peace, 3. leader (make the leader more inform the will Who countries. 4. The leader will be informed by narrow. is road 5. certain) that the

602.

1.

Peace has been made.

made.

Having made

the scout.
scout
is

6.

I think the scout will inform the leader.

7.

The

coming to inform the

leader.
9.

8.

No

one

will

do that with

greater diligence than this boy.

The

children

must be protected

most

faithfully.

THE BLUNDER OP CONSIDIUS


603.

Prima

luce,

cum summus 2 mons


ab hostium
castrls

a Labieno tene-

non longius mille et qumgentls passibus abesset, Considius equo admisso 3 ad Caesarem accurrit; dicit montem, quern a Labieno occuretur, et Caesar ipse
Gallicis armls atque Caesar suas insignibus cognovisse. copias in proximum collem subdiicit, aciem Instruit. Labienus, monte occupato, nostros exspectabat proelioque abstinebat. Multo die 5 Caesar certior f actus est montem a suls
a,

4 pari voluerit, ab hostibus teneri; id se

tenerl, et

6 Considium, timore perterritum, quod non vidisset

7 pro vlso nuntiavisse.

LESSON LXXVI
THE VERB
604.
ii

EO.

TEMPORAL CLAUSES

i-

Learn the conjugation of the irregular verb eo, ire, Stems: present, 1-, perfect, (or ivi), itum, go, page 292. Note the contracted forms. (Iv-), supine, it-.
Prima
The
luce, at daybreak.
of.

2
3

wp

4
5

Equo admisso, He wished.

at full

speed

(lit.,

his horse

having been

let go).

6
7

Multo die, late in the day. Timore perterritum, thoroughly Pro vlso, as if seen.

frightened.

THE VERB EO.


a.

TEMPORAL CLAUSES

205

Certain compounds of eo, as ad-eo, go to, visit, trans-eo, go across, cross, may be transitive and therefore may be conjugated in the passive: adeor, adiris, aditur, adlmur, adimini, adeuntur, etc.

Temporal Clauses. Clauses expressing time are introchiefly by the conjunctions cum, when, ubi, when, postquam, after, priusquam, before, dum, as long as, while, Review 513, and 310 a. until.
605.

duced

anima est, as long as, takes the indicative: is there is as there as hope. long life, spes est, b. Dum, while, takes the indicative historical present, instead of a past tense: loquitur, venerunt, while he was
a.

Dum,

Dum

Dum

speaking, they came.

Dum, until, and priusquam, before, take the indicative an actual event, but the subjunctive of an expected event: Mansit domi dum veni, he stayed at home until I came; exspectavit dum venirem, he waited for me to come (until I
c.

of

should come).

606.

VOCABULARY
eo, ire,
adj.,
ii

vox, vocis, F., voice


citerior, citerius,

(ivi),

itum, go
re-

comp.
comp.

nearer, hither
ulterior, ulterius,
adj.,

exeo (ex + eo), go -out redeo (red + eo), go back,


turn

farther

transeo (trans
cross

+ eo)

go across,

dum,

conj., as long as, while,

until

moror,
conj., before

-ari,

-atus sum, delay

antequam,

Memorize:

Nam genus et proavos et quae n5n fecimus ipsi, Vix ea nostra voco. Ovid. Pedigree and ancestry and what we ourselves have not

achieved,

I scarcely recognize as our own.

206

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

EXERCISES
607.
3.
i.

Pueri

domum

Ibant.

2.

Pater nobiscum
4.

ibit.

Pater dicit se nobiscum iturum

esse.

5. Ieramus tecum eant. 8. Ire non possunt. 10. Cur ierunt? 9. Galba iturus est. 12. Puto eum Isse. 11. Non cognovi cur ierint. 13. Eos euntes vldi. 14. Hoc fhlmen vado transltur. 15. Ex opexeunt. 16. Ante redlbo. vesperum pido

et
6.

Genavam

Ibunt.

Persuade

els

ut

venerunt ut hortum videremus. 7. Ite cum els, amid.

Roma

608.
erat.

1. 2.

Provincia

Romana

Alpibus in duas partes divisa

Hae
3.

partes Gallia citerior et Gallia ulterior appel-

latae sunt.

coniurabant.
5.

Cum Caesar esset in Gallia citeriore, Belgae 4. Cum venies, nostra consilia cognosces.
exercitus

Hostes,

ubi impedimenta
6.

viderunt,

celeriter

impetum

fecerunt.

Postquam

id audlvit,

Caesar in proxi-

collem copias suas duxit. 7. Dum paucos dies frumenti causa moratur, de incolis certior factus est. 8. Non

mum

exspectare statuit,
9.

provinciam Helvetil pervenirent. Imperator Genavae manebit, dum milites conveniant.


in

dum

10.

Voce imperatoris audita,


1.

milites fortius pugnant.


;

they have gone. 2. He has gone out he were crossing the bridge; we had crossed. 4. The messenger is now going to the camp. 5. The king said he would go with a larger army. 6. When they had gone three miles, they decided to return. 7. Remain in the village until we come. 8. The traders are about to go into farther Gaul.
609.
shall go;
3.

We

had gone

out.

We

CAESAE GOES TO BIBRACTE


610.
avertit
1

FOE,

SUPPLIES

Postero die Caesar frumenti causa iter ab Helvetils


et Bibracte 2 ire

contendit, quod erat maximum Haeduorum. Ea res per fugitlvos hostibus nunoppidum 1 tiatur. Helvetil, quod Romanos timore perterritos discedere 1 a se existimabant, mutato 1 consilio et itinere converso

nostros sequl coeperunt.


1

See general vocabulary.

Accusative.

THE VERB FERO.

CAUSAL CLAUSES

207

LESSON LXXVII
THE VERB FERO.
611.

CAUSAL CLAUSES
of the irregular

Learn from page 293 the conjugation

verb fero, ferre,

tuli, latum, bear, bring; passive, feror, ferri, latus sum, be borne, be brought. Stems: fer-, tul-, lat-. 612. Causal Clauses. Clauses expressing cause or reason

are introduced chiefly

cum,

since, as.

by the conjunctions quod, because, and Cum, when so used, is called cum-causal, in

distinction

from cum-temporal.

a. Quod takes the indicative to state the reason of the speaker or writer; the subjunctive to state the reason of another: Vicerunt quod fortes erant, they conquered because (as I know) they were brave; Eos accusavit, quod fortes non essent, he accused them because (as he said) they were not brave. b. Cum-causal takes the subjunctive: Facile erat oppidum expugnare, cum non defenderetur, it was easy to capture the

town, since

it

was

not defended.

613.

VOCABULARY
differo, differre, distuli, dfla-1,

onus, oneris, N., load, burden

subsidium,
ance

N., aid, assistmiddle, the

turn (dis+ fero), bear apart,


difer, postpone

medius,

-a,

-um,

effero, efferre, extuli,

elatum
take

middle of veteranus, -a, -um, veteran

(ex

+ fero),

bear

out,

along
infero, inferre, intuli, inlatum
(in

cum,

conj., since, as

fero, ferre, tuli, latum, bear,

+ fero),

bring

upon,

bring

make upon
conferre,
contuli,

confero,

refero, referre, rettuli, relaturn,

conlatum (con
one's self

+ fero), bring se betake conferre, together;

bring

back;

pedem

referre, withdraw

208

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

EXERCISES
614.
i.

Fers; feres; ut feras.


tulerint.
6.

runt;
lisse;

tulerant;
ferri.

Fert; ferunt. ferebatur. 4. Ferebat;


2.

3.

Tule5.

Tu-

relata sunt.

Latus; laturus. 7. Slgnum fertur. 8. Signa 10. Subsidium nobis 9. Ferte signa, mllites.

ferebant.

11.

Qui eorum arma


f

ferre possunt?

Agricolae conferunt. portum


615.
silvas conferrent.

1.

rumentum
3.

conferunt.

2.

Nautae
est,

se in

Prlnceps eos hortatus

ut se in

4.

Omnia impedimenta
7.

in

unum locum
6.

conlatasunt.

5.

GermanI

bellum Gallls intulerunt.


8.

Civi-

tates Galliae lingua inter se distulerunt. quae ferimus, celerius ire non poterimus.

Propter onera,

Dux quemque

frumentum
10.

sibi

Galliae potirl,

domo efferre iussit. 9. Perfacile erat totlus cum Helvetii virtute omnibus praestarent.

Genavam

ibimus, quod sumus cupidl videndae terrae

Helvetiorum.
to have 2. To have borne; 616. 1. Bearing; we are bearing. been borne. 3. You have borne; you were bearing. 4. Bear the standard bravely. 5. The consul will bring aid to you. 6. The inhabitants of that city did not make war on the Romans. 7. When

the farmers had brought together the grain, they sent it to the 8. Since we are not able to go, we will send a message. city. built (made) a bridge, because he had no ships. Caesar 9.

CAESAR PREPARES FOR BATTLE


617.

Postquam Caesar

id vidit, copias suas in

proximum

collem dtixit equitatumque, qui sustineret hostium impetum, x mlsit. Ipse interim in colle medio aciem instruxit legionum quattuor veteranarum; sed in summo iugo duas legiones
novas, quas in

Totum montem conferrl et eum ab


iussit.
1

conscripserat, hominibus complerl et sarcinas in


els,

Gallia

citeriore

conlocavit.

unum locum

qui in superiore acie erant, muniri


half

The middle

of,

way

up.

THE VERBS VOLO AND NOLO

209

LESSON LXXVIII
THE VERBS VOLO AND NOLO.
618.

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

Learn from page 295 the conjugation of the irregular verbs volo, velle, volui, wish, be willing, and nolo, nolle,
nolui, be unwilling.
a.

tive, the present infinitive,

Notice that the irregular forms are the present indicaand the present and imperfect

subjunctive. b. These verbs

an
to

may take a complementary infinitive, or with subject-accusative: Venire voluit, he wished come; eos venire voluit, he wished them to come.
infinitive

619.
are:

The

sum, possum and nolo.


620.

irregular verbs, as given in the preceding lessons, eo, fio, fero, volo, and their compounds including

Conditional Sentences.

conditional sentence

is

of which expresses a condition, he a conclusion: the other tries, he will succeed. // If he tries The Latin is the condition, he will succeed, the conclusion.

complex sentence one clause

conjunctions used in such sentences are


nisi, if not, unless.

si,

if; sin,

but if;

621.
a.

Conditions

may

be of the following kinds:

Present condition:
1.

Stated as a fact; present indicative:


Si vincit,

bene

est, if he is conquering,

it

is well.

2.

Contrary to fact; imperfect subjunctive: Si vinceret, bene esset, if he were conquering, would be well.
Stated as a fact; a past indicative:
Si vicit,
fuit, if he conquered, it was well. to fact; pluperfect subjunctive: Contrary Si vicisset, bene fuisset, if he had conquered,

it

b.

Past condition:
1.

bene

2.

it

would have been welL

>

THE VERBS VOLO AND NOLO


c.

211

Future condition:
i.

More probable
fect:

{shall, will);

future or future per-

Si vincet,
it

bene

erit, if

he conquers (shall conquer),

will be well.

2.

Less probable (should, would); present or perfect


subjunctive:
Si vincat,
well.

bene

sit, if

he should conquer,

it

would be

EXERCISES
622.
te nolle.
1.

Quis hoc facere vult? 4. Putat eos voluisse.


8.

2.

Dlcit se velle.

3.
6.

Dixit

5.

Manere

nolunt.

Ami-

cus

meus domum
1

voluimus.
velit.

redlre volebat. 7. Cum mercatore loqul Pueros esse in perlculo nolebamus. 9. Si


12.

11. Si vellet. 2
1.

Si voluisset. 3
2.

623.

Si eris dux, sequar.


3.

Si

amlcos tuos laudaveris,


erunt fortes.
4.

ab els laudaberis.
patriam
vldit.
6.

Si

sunt

amid

regis,

Si

amatis, este fortes.

5.

Si fuit

Romae, domum

Marcl
7.

Si vis, te certiorem

de itinere

me5

faciam.
8.

Si

translre conabuntur, Caesar eos prohibebit. ab Helvetils dentur, 1 Caesar cum els pacem

Si obsides
9.

faciat.

Si

proelio contendere voluissent, vlcissent. 3 esset, multl elves interfectl essent.

10.

Si urbs

capta

624. 1. We shall be willing to go to-morrow. 2. To-day we are unwilling to go. 3. I wished to see the consul's sons. 4. You are always willing to send aid. 5. If the soldiers are brave, they are praised. 6. If the soldiers are (will be) brave, they will be praised. x be brave, they would be praised. 8. If 7. If the soldiers should the soldiers had been 3 brave, they would have been praised.

THE BATTLE OF BIBRACTE


625.
in

Helvetia

cum omnibus

suls carrls sectitl

impedimenta
4

unum locum
1

contulerunt; ipsl confertissima


3 4

acie, reiecto

See 621, c See 621, a

2.

2.

See 621, b 2. See 626 for new words.

15

212

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

nostro equitatu, sub

Caesar, equis 1 tolleret, cohortatus suos proelium commlsit.


2 Milites, e loco superiore pills missis, facile 3 Ea perturbata, gladils in eos reppulerunt.

prlmam nostram aciem successerunt. omnium ex conspectu remotis, ut spem fugae


hostium aciem

runt.
aberat.

Tandem

vulneribus confectl,

Galll

impetum fecepedem referre et


mille passiis

se recipere coeperunt

ad montem, qui

circiter

Cap to monte
qui in montem renovarunt. 6
626.

et succedentibus nostrls, socii

Helve tiorum

nostros circumvemre conatl sunt.

se receperant, nostrls restiterunt

Id conspicatl Helvetil, 5 et proelium

VOCABULARY
turn (re + iacio), throw back, drive back

vulnus, vulneris, N., wound


confertus, -a, -um, crowded, in close order

renovo, -are, -avi, -atum, re-

tandem, adv.,

at last, finally

new
succedo,succedere, success!,

conspicor, -an, -atus sum,


observe, catch sight of

successum
advance

(sub

+ cedo),
subla-

perturbo, -are, -avi, -atum, throw into confusion


reicio, reicere, reieci, reiec-

tollo, tollere, sustuli,

turn, take

away, remove

LESSON LXXIX
IMPERSONAL VERBS. REVIEW OF SUBORDINATE CLAUSES
impersonal verb is one that has no personal subject, and hence is used in the third person singular only. In English such verbs are often introduced
627. Impersonal Verbs.

An

by the expletive
1

it: it

rains,

it

happens.
4
B

Began (committd).
Hurled.

Exhausted.

From

resisto.

From

repello.

contraction of renovaverunt.

IMPERSONAL VERBS

213

In Latin impersonal verbs include chiefly: 1. Intransitive verbs in the passive voice: pugnatur, there
is fighting (lit., it is
2.

fought).

Verbs taking a phrase or a clause as their subject, as accidit, it happens; dicitur, it is said; fit, it comes to pass;
licet, it is

permitted; oportet, it is necessary: Hoc facere licet, it is permitted to do this. Accidit ut flumen sit altum, it happens that the river is
deep.
a.

Impersonal verbs are found in the indicative, sub-

junctive,

and
of

infinitive.

628.

Review

Subordinate Clauses.

We

have learned

the following kinds of clauses: a. Clauses used as nouns:


1.

2.

3.
b.

With a subject accusative + an infinitive (341). With ut or ne + a subjunctive (438). With an interrogative word + a subjunctive (501).

Clauses used as adverbs, expressing purpose (411), result (446), time (605), cause (612), condition (620).

c.

Clauses used as adjectives, usually beginning with


relative pronoun.

629.

VOCABULARY
-I,
-1,

aurum,
oculus,

N., gold

oportet, oportere, oportuit,


is

it

M., eye

necessary
-are,
-avi,

poena, -ae, F., punishment scelus, sceleris, N., crime


accidit, accidere, accidit,
it

iudico,

-atum,

happens fit, fieri, factum


to

judge, determine trado, tradere, tradidi, traditurn (trans + do), give over.

est,

it

comes

surrender

pass

licet, licere, licuit, it is per-

mitted

214

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

EXERCISE
630.
1.

Acriter eo die
3.

esse potentius auro.

pugnatum est. Oportet poenam

2.

Dictum

est nihil
4.

sequl scelus.

Hel-

ve tils iter per provinciam facere non licuit. 5. Accidit ut imperator de perlculo certior fieret. 6. Dlcitur Caesarem fuisse
(virum)

magna

dlligentia.
fluat.

7.

utram partem Arar


nisi

8. 9.

Oculls itidicarl non potest in Factum est ut Helvetii ad

fines suos reverterentur.

Victores
11.

pacem non
Armls

facient,

arma

tradita erunt.

10.

Cum arma
12.

tradita essent, victraditls, elves

tores

pacem cum

civitate fecerunt.

se defendere

non poterant.
13.

Si hostes fortiores fuissent,


est,

pacem non

petissent. conscrlberet. legionem

Legatus missus

ut

novam

14.

Nautae
15.

in

portum

salutis peten-

dae causa contenderunt.

Putasne poenam

fuisse gra-

\4orem?

DEFEAT OF THE HELVETII


631. Diu atque acriter tinere nostrorum impetus

pugnatum

est.

Diutius
1

cum
ut
2

sus-

non possent,
3

alterl

se,

coeet

perant, in

montem

receperunt, alterl

ad impedimenta

carros suos se contulerunt.

Ad multam noctem 4 ad

im-

pedimenta pugnatum
utebantur et de
els in

est,

propterea quod pro vallo carrls

nostros tela coniciebant. 5

Diu cum

pugnatum
Helvetii

esset, castris nostrl potltl sunt.

omnium rerum

inopia inductl legatos de deditione

ad Caesarem mlserunt.
tios

Obsides et arma poposcit. 6 Helveet socios in fines suos, unde erant profectl, 7 revertl,

et oppida vlcosque, quos incenderant, restituere iussit.


1

8 4 6

One division (the Helvetii). Ut sometimes means as when followed by an


The other division (the Far into the night.
allies of

indicative.

the Helvetii).

6
7

Con + iacio. From posed.

From

proficiscor.

REVIEW OF CONJUNCTIONS

215

LESSON LXXX
REVIEW OF CONJUNCTIONS. REVIEW OF THE NOMINATIVE

AND GENITIVE
632.

Conjunctions Classified.

Conjunctions are either

coordinate, connecting similar constructions, or subordinate, connecting subordinate clauses with principal clauses.
a.

Coordinate conjunctions: 1. et, atque (ac), -que, and; neque (nee), and not. 2. aut or; neque . . . neque, neither aut, either and. nor ; et et, both
. . .
.
. .

b.

autem, but, moreover; sed, but; enim, nam, for; tamen, nevertheless. Subordinate conjunctions:
3.
1.

2.

Temporal, cum, ubi, dum, postquam, priusquam. Causal, quod, cum.


Conditional,
si, sin, nisi.

3.

4.
5.

Final, denoting purpose, ut, ne, quo.

Consecutive, denoting result, ut. 633. Uses of the Nominative Reviewed.


is

The nominative

used chiefly as follows: a. Subject nominative (26).


Predicate nominative (99). 634. Uses of the Genitive Reviewed.
b.

The

genitive

is

used chiefly as follows: a. With nouns. General

Rule

A noun
is

limiting another

noun, not meaning the same person or thing, 1. Genitive of possession (51).
2.

in the genitive.

3.

Genitive of description (532). Genitive of the whole (530).

4.
b.

Objective genitive (353).


(353).

With adjectives

2l6

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

635.

VOCABULARY
iuvenis, iuvenis,

corpus, corporis, N., body

young; as

deus, del, M., god


facultas, facultatis, F., opportunity,

noun, youth senex, senis, old; as noun,


old

means

man
-a,

mos, moris, M., custom, manner

militaris, -e, military

peritus,

-um,

expert-

ingens, ingentis, vast, huge

enced

(in), skillful

EXERCISES
636.
lingl
1.

Genava

erat

oppidum

ulterioris

pro vinciae.
3.

2.

Tuiu-

dlcuntur fuisse

socii

Helve tiorum.

Multitudo
4.
5.

venum convenerunt,
erat peritus rei
l

ut patriam defenderent. haec consilio deorum facta esse crediderunt.


militaris.
7.

RomanI
Legatus

6.

Accidit ut multl elves essent


Galli

cupidl rerum novarum. rant neque audierant. 2

Tanta opera

neque vide-

8.

Helvetil aut suis flnibus

Germa-

nos prohibent aut ipsl in eorum flnibus bellum gerunt. 10. Caesar 9. Facultas regnl obtinendl fllio regis data est. multa de moribus Britannorum cognovit. 11. German! di-

cebantur esse ingentl magnitudine corporum. 12. Senes de multls rebus iuvenes monere 3 possunt. 13. Facultas incendendae urbis hostibus non danda est.
637. 1. The hill was not of great height. 2. Who was the most famous of the Helvetians? 3. The daughter of Orgetorix is said to have been captured. 4. The consul will either go himself or send his son. 5. Neither the boys nor the girls had been informed about the customs of Gauls. 6. Did not the Romans believe there were

many
who

gods?

7.

I hear that this


is

man

is

very

skillful.

8.

Tell

me

of these
1 2

boys

most

skillful.

In science. Heard of.

Peritus governs the genitive (353).


3

Advise.

REVIEW OF THE DATIVE AND THE ACCUSATIVE

21 7

LESSON LXXXI
REVIEW OF THE DATIVE AND THE ACCUSATIVE
638.

Uses

of the Dative Case.

The

following uses have

been
1.

2.

given for the dative: Dative of the indirect object, with transitive verbs (60). Dative of the indirect object, wT ith special verbs (437).

3.

Dative of the indirect object, with compound verbs


(457)-

4.
5.

Dative of the possessor, with sum (459). Dative of the agent, with passive periphrastic forms
(574).

Dative with certain adjectives (245). The following uses 639. Uses of the Accusative Case. have been given for the accusative: 1. Accusative of the direct object (42). 2. Accusative with prepositions (541). which (133). 3. Accusative of place to
6.

4.
5.

Subject of an infinitive (342). Predicate accusative (190).

6.
7.

Accusative of duration of time (291). Accusative of extent of space (523).

64O.
arbor, arboris, F., tree

VOCABULARY
intellego,
lexi,

intellegere,

intel-

dominus,

-1,

donum,
public

-1,

M., master N. (do), gift

intellectum

(inter

lego), understand

publicus, -a, -urn, of the people,

progredior,

progredi,

pro-

gressus
dior,

sum

(pro + gra-

res publica, rei publicae, F.,


state,

step),

go

forward,

republic
give up, surrender

advance

dedo, dedere,dedidi, deditum


(de

+ do)

2l8

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

EXERCISES
641.
i. 2.

Prlnceps

Haeduorum
est.

fuit

amlcissimus populo Ro3.

mano.
castrls

Cui legion! Caesar indulsit?

Tibi, legate, locus

deligendus

amicitiam esse posse. 6. Duas horas navigavimus. fuit.

4. Rex dlcit sibi nullam cum els 5. Dumnorix equitatui Romano prae7.

Duo

mllia

passuum

trans lacum navigavimus. 8. Perlculum esse maximum intellegit. 9. Se suaque omnia imperatorl Romano dediderunt. 10. Milites multas arbores ex silva portabant, quibus

pontem
servos.

facerent.
12.

11.

Dlcitur

dominum

habuisse multos
13.

Pro re piiblica, milites, pugnatis. diemur, legati, ad locum magis idoneum.

Progre-

642. 1. The slaves call these men masters. 2. The farmer has a hundred trees in the field. 3. They will remain in the city a few hours and return home to-morrow. 4. The Belgians were next to the Celts. 5. Caesar understood that this man was wishing to make war on the Romans. 6. Will you surrender yourselves and your property to this nation?

LESSON LXXXII
REVIEW OF THE ABLATIVE
643.

Uses

of the Ablative Case.

The

following uses have

been given for the ablative case:


1.

Ablative with prepositions (541).


Ablative of means (66). Ablative of agent (149).
Ablative of separation (220). Ablative of place from which (222). Ablative of place in which (67).
Ablative of time

2.

3.

4.
5.

6.
7.

when

(292).

8.

9.

Ablative of accompaniment (136). Ablative of manner (137).

REVIEW OF THE ABLATIVE


0.
1. 2.

219

Ablative of cause (362). Ablative of specification (378). Ablative of description (532).

3.

4.
5.

Ablative of comparison (472). Ablative of measure of difference (473). Ablative with certain deponent verbs (403). Ablative absolute (565).

6.

644.

VOCABULARY
-1,

fumus,

M., smoke

carus, -a, -um, dear


egredior,
egredi,

ignis, Ignis, M.,fire

egressus
go out,

latitudo, -tudinis, F. (latus),

sum

(e + gradior),

breadth, width

march out
significo, -are,

luna, -ae, F.,

moon
(dat.

-avi,

-atum,

Crassus,

-1,

M., Crassus

show, indicate

Pompeius, Pompel
peio),

Pom-

vivo, vivere, vixi, victum, live

Pompey

J.

Coomans

A Roman Woman

and her Maids

220

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

EXERCISES
645.
est.
2.

i.

Latitudo castrorum fumo et ignibus slgnificata Ab els, qui iter cognoverant, ductl sumus. 3. Vlcus
abest.
4.

non longius quingentis passibus


castrls de tertia vigilia,

Exercitus

ex

Labieno duce, egressus est. 5. Quis 6. annis erit consul. Labienus? Sex erat 7. Pompeio et Crasso consulibus, GermanI Rhenum transierunt. 8. Pom1 9. Hostes et equitibus et peius erat magna auctoritate. 10. Nihil est hominibus carius llberpeditibus utentur.
tate.
12.

11.

Potes ita

vlvere

ut

omnibus carissimus

sis.

Die mihi quis esset Pompeius. 13. Die mihi ubi Pomarboribus -altissimls 14. Domus parva sub peius vlxerit. stetit. 16. Si ante vesperum ad 15. Tu non capiendus es. illud oppidum perveneris, non capieris.
646.
1.

We know

that the
2

moon

is

with

me

to the

Forum

at the fourth hour.

smaller than the sun. 2. Go 3. You will not be able

the width of the river. 4. Caesar wrote of Gaul. 5. In a few months we shall about the tribes many things read these things. 6. I am going- to-speak with the general in-behalf-of those whom he has conquered. 7. They went to the city forto cross on-account-of
8. The lake is three feet deeper the-purpose of (getting) supplies. than the river. 9. Where was the standard of the tenth legion?
1

Predicate ablative of description (531, Propter.

3).


>

THE WAR WITH THE HELVETII


Gaius Julius Caesar, the Roman statesman, general, and writer, was born about ioo B.C. After an education in Rome and Greece and a short career in the army, he held the important political offices of the Roman republic, the last of which was the consulship for 59 B.C. At the close of this year he became governor of Gaul, a large territory now including France, Belgium, Switzerland, and northern Italy. During the following eight years (58-51) he subdued the tribes of western Gaul, and also invaded Germany and Britain. The history of his conquest was written by Caesar himself " in his Commentaries on the Gallic Wars." The first war was fought with the Heivetii, or ancient Swiss, who in the early part of 58 B.C., with men, women, and children, had left their country to conquer the rest of Gaul. The Latin text following is Caesar's account simplified, and repeats in a
connected way the paragraphs for reading as given in the preceding lessons.

THE NATIONS OF GAUL


I. Gallia est omnis dlvlsa in partes tres, quarum unam incolunt Belgae, aliam Aqultanl, tertiam Celtae, qui lingua nostra Galli appellantur. Hi omnes lingua legibusque inter se differunt. Gallos ab Aqultanls Garumna flumen, a Belgls

Matrona

et

Sequana

dividit.
a.

Horum omnium

fortissiml 5

sunt Belgae, propterea, quod

cultu atque humanitate pro-

vinciae longissime absunt; proximlque sunt Germanls, qui trans Rhenum incolunt, quibuscum continenter bellum gerunt.

Eadem

de

praecedunt, quod tendunt, cum aut suls flnibus eos prohibent aut ipsl in

Heivetii reliquos Gallos virtu te fere cotldianls proelils cum Germanls con- 10

causa

eorum

flnibus bellum gerunt.


1

For

the

same reason.
221

222

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

THE PLAN OF ORGETORIX, THE HELVETIAN


longe nobilissimus fuit Orgetorlx. Regni cupiditate inductus coniurationem nobilitatis fecit, et civitati persuasit, ut de flnibus suls cum omnibus copils exl2.

Apud

Helvetios

rent.
5 virtiite

Dixit perfacile esse totlus Galliae imperio potlri,

cum

omnibus praestarent. Facilius els persuasit, quod undique loci natura Helvetii continentur: una ex 1 parte flumine Rheno latissimo atque altissimo, qui agrum Helvetium a Germanls dlvidit; altera ex parte monte Itira altissimo, qui est inter Sequanos et
provinciam nostram ab Helvetils

2 lacii io Helvetios; tertia

Rhodano, qui Pro 3 multittidine hominum et pro gloria 4 fortitudinis angustos se fines habere 5 arbitrabantur, qui in longitudinem mllia passuum ccxl, in
dlvidit.

Lemanno

et flumine

latitudinem clxxx 6 patebant.


1

Una ex

parte, on one side.

4
5

2
3

Tertia (ex parte). Considering.

Renown (for). Ducenta quadraginta. Centum octoginta.

THE HELVETII PREPARE TO LEAVE THEIR COUNTRY


His rebus adductl et auctoritate Orgetorlgis permotl constituerunt omnes res ad profectionem comparare, atque cum proximls clvitatibus pacem et amlcitiam conflrmare.
3.

Ad
5

ad

Is legationem eas res conficiendas Orgetorlx deligitur. In eo itinere persuadet Castico, duel clvitates suscipit.

Sequanorum, ut regnum in clvitate sua occuparet, quod pater ante habuerat; itemque Dumnorlgl Haeduo ut idem
conaretur persuadet.

probat id esse perfacile factu, quod ipse suae civiHac oratione adductl iotatis imperium obtenturus esset. inter se fidem dant, et regno occupato sese totlus Galliae
Illls

potlri posse sperant.


1

See 587, a.

WAR WITH THE

HELVETII

223

THE TRIAL AND DEATH OF ORGETORIX


4.

Ea

res 1 Helvetiis est enuntiata.


3

Moribus 2

suls

Orge-

4 torigem ex vinculis causam dlcere coegerunt; damnatum poenam sequl oportebat ut igni cremaretur. Die constitute

causae

dictionis 5

Orgetorlx

ad indicium

omnes

clientes

obaeratosque suos, quorum magnum numerum habebat Cum ci vitas armis ius suum condiixit; per eos se eripuit. exsequl conaretur, multitudinemque hominum ex agrls magistratus cogerent,

Orgetorlx mortuus

est.

Helvetil arbi-

trantur ipsum
1

sibi

mortem

consclvisse.
3

The conspiracy
According

of Orgetorix,

Dumnorix, and Casticus.


2

4 5

to their

customs.

To plead his case (stand // condemned. For the pleading.

trial).

THE HELVETII CONTINUE THEIR PREPARATIONS


5.

Post eius mortem tamen Helvetil id quod constituerant

facere conantur, ut e finibus suls exeant. paratos esse arbitrati sunt, oppida sua
ficia
2

Ubi se ad earn rem omnia numero ad 1


aedisibi

duodecim, vlcos ad quadringentos, reliqua prlvata


incendunt.

Trium mensium frumentum


una 3 cum

quem-

que domo
qui trans
1

efferre iubent.

Persuadent finitimis ut oppidis


els proficiscantur;

suls vlclsque incensis

Boiosque,

Rhenum

4 incoluerant, socios recipiunt.


3

Adv., about.

Each man.

As

Together (in company).


allies.

TWO ROUTES FROM HELVETIA


6.

Erant itinera duo quibus domo exire possent: finum


difficile,

per Sequanos, angustum et

inter

montem Iuram

et

flumen Rhodanum; alterum per provinciam nostram, multo facilius, propterea quod inter fines Helvetiorum et Allobrogum, qui nuper pacati erant, Rhodanus fluit, isque nonnullis
Locls

vad5

transltur.

224

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


Helvetio-

Extremum oppidum Allobrogum proximumque rum flnibus est Genava. Ex eo oppido pons ad
pertinet.

Helvetios
1

Allobrogibus se persuasiiros esse exlstimabant, ut

per suos fines eos ire paterentur, quod *in 2 populum Romanum viderentur. 3

nondum bono animo


4

Omnibus rebus ad
qua
die

profectionem comparatls, diem dlcunt RhodanI omnes conveniant. 5


1

ad ripam A p point.
See 420.

Well-disposed (of kindly feeling)

4
.

Toward.

Seemed.

CAESAR GOES TO GENEVA


nuntiatum esset, eos per provinciam nostram iter facere conari, ab urbe 1 proficiscitur et quam 2 maximls itineribus in Galliam ulteriorem contendit et ad 3 Genavam pervenit. In provincia quam 2 maximum militum numerum conscribit (erat omnino in Gallia ulteriore legio una). Pontem qui erat ad Genavam iubet rescind!. Ubi de eius adventu Helvetii certiores factl sunt, legafos ad eum mittunt, n5bilissimos civitatis, qui dicerent se velle
7.

Caesari

cum

id

sine
10

ullo

maleficio

iter

quod

aliud iter haberent nullum.

per provinciam facere, propterea Rogaverunt ut id sibi

Caesar homines inimlco animo, 4 itinere per pr5vinciam dato, temperaturos esse a maleficio non existima5 bat. Tamen, ut spatium intercedere posset dum milites
facere liceret.
15

quos imperaverat convenlrent, legatis respondit diem se ad deliberandum sumpttirum. Diem constituit, qua reverterentur,
1

I.e.,
2

quid vellent. 3 In (to) from Rome.


si
4

the vicinity of.

5
6

Until.

Time.

See 492.

See 532.

Had

levied.

CAESAR CONSTRUCTS FORTIFICATIONS 8. Interea, a lacu Lemanno, qui in flumen Rhodanum Influit, ad montem Iuram, qui fines Sequanorum ab Helvetils dlvidit, murum fossamque perducit. Eo opere perfects prae-

WAR WITH THE HELVE Til

225
si

sidia disponit, castella munit, ut hostes prohibere posset,

translre conarentur.

Ubi ea

dies

quam
vim

constituerat
dicit se

cum

legatls venit, et legatl


iter ulll

per provinciam ostendit. conentur, prohibittirum dare; et, 1 Helvetil, ea spe deiectl, navibus ratibusque atque vadis Rhodanum translre conatl sunt. Munltione et mllitum
si

ad eum reverterunt,

non posse

facere

tells repulsl

hoc conatu. destiterunt.


1

Disappointed in

(lit.,

cast

down from).

THE ROUTE THROUGH THE LAND OF THE SEQUANI


9.

Relinquebatur una per Sequanos


2

via,

qua

Sequanls

non poterant. His cum ipsl propter angustias persuadere non possent, legatos ad Dumnorlgem Haeduum
invltls
Ire

Dumnorlx apud Sequanos plurimum poterat, 3 et Helvetils erat amicus, quod ex ea clvitate Orgetorlgis flliam in matrimonium duxerat; et cupiditate regnl adductus novls
mittunt.

rebus 4 studebat, et
conciliare volebat.

quam

plurimas clvitates suo beneficio Itaque rem suscipit et a Sequanls im4

petrat ut per fines suos Helvetios Ire patiantur.


1 3

By which. Plurimum
(lit.,

See 565.

Novis rebus, for a change of


(lit.,

powerful

poterat, was very was able very much).

government

for

new

things).

CAESAR REINFORCES HIS ARMY


10.

Caesarl

nuntiatur Helvetios habere in


et

agrum Sequanorum

Haeduorum

iter facere in

animo per earn partem


1

Id si fieret, inGalliae, quae non longe a provincia absit. habitellegebat provinciam homines bellicosos flnitimos turam esse. Ob eas causas el munltionl quam fecerat Labienum legatum praeficit. Ipse in Italiam magnls itineribus
contendit duasque
1

ibi legiSnes conscrlbit, et tres,

quae circum

(As) neighbors, in apposition with homines.

226

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


1

Aquileiam hiemabant, ex hlbernls educit, et, qua proximum iter in ulteriorem Galliam per Alpes erat, cum his qulnque In Segusiavos exercitum ducit, legionibus Ire contendit.
qui sunt prlml extra provinciam trans
1

Rhodanum.

Where.

THE HAEDUI AND OTHERS ASK FOR AID


11.

Helvetil

iam per angustias

et fines

Sequanorum suas
pervenerant eose suaque ab els

copias traduxerant, et in rumque agros vastabant.

Haeduorum
Haedul,

fines

cum

defendere non possent, legatos ad Caesarem mittunt rogaDlcunt paene in conspectu exercitiis nostrl turn auxilium.
suos vastarl, llberos expugnarl non debere.

agros

in

servitutem

abducl, oppida

Haeduorum Caesarem certiorem faciunt sese non facile ab oppidls vim hostium prohibere. ioltem Allobroges, qui trans Rhodanum vlcos possessionesque
socil

E5dem tempore

habebant,
sibi

se ad Caesarem recipiunt et demonstrant nihil esse reliqul. His rebus adductus solum praeter agrl Caesar Helvetils bellum Inferre constituit.
fuga,

THE ROMANS DEFEAT PART OF THE HELVETII


Fliimen est Arar, quod per fines Haeduorum et Sequanorum in Rhodanum Influit. Id Helvetil ratibus ac
12.

lintribus iunctls translbant.


certior factus est tres partes
5

Ubi per exploratores Caesar 2 copiarum Helvetios id flumen traduxisse, quartam partem citra fliimen Ararim reliquam
1

esse,

de tertia vigilia

cum legionibus

tribus e castrls profectus,

ad earn partem pervenit quae nondum flumen transierat. Eos impedltos adgressus magnam partem eorum concldit;
reliqul sese fugae
1

mandarunt atque
2

in

proximas

silvas ab-

Primary

obj. of traduxisse.

Secondary obj. depending on tra-.

of traduxisse,

WAR WITH THE HELVETII


diderunt.
clvitas

227

pagus appellabatur Tigurlnus; Helvetia in quattuor pagos divlsa est.


IS

Is

nam omnis

CAESAR HAVING CROSSED THE ARAR THE ENEMY


13.

DEFIED BY

Hoc

proelio facto,

c5nsequl posset, exercitum traducit.


motl,
die

ut reliquas copias Helvetiorum Caesar pontem in Ararl facit atque ita


1

cum

id,

quod

Helvetil repentlno eius adventu com3 ipsl diebus xx confecerant, ilium uno
legatos ad

fecisse

intellegerent,

legationis Dlvico prlnceps fuit, qui Helvetiorum fuerat.

eum mittunt; bello cum Cassio


Si

cuius
4

dux

cum Caesare manus cum Helvetiis


Is ita

locutus est:

"

pacem populus Ro10

faciet, in earn
5

partem Galliae Ibunt

atque

erunt ubi volueris; sin els bellum Inferes, tene memoria vetus incommodum Romanorum et prlstinam virtutem Helvetiorum. Unum pagum adortus es cum el, qui
ibi

flumen transierant, suls auxilium ferre non possent.


earn

Ob

Romanos Helvetiis virtute Nos magis virtute quam Insidils contendimus. 1$ praestare. 7 ex calamitate popull RomanI Is locus ubi constiterimus nomen capiet."
rem
noli
6

exlstimare

Having been fought.


Since. This refers to the crossing of

2 3

the river.
4

defeated by the Helvetians, 107 B.C. 5 See 457. 6 Do not (be unwilling), imperative of nolo.
7

The Roman army under comof

mand

the consul Cassius was

From

consisto,

take a stand

(in battle).

CAESAR'S REPLY
14.

His verbis Caesar

ita respondit:

"

Eas

res
illo

memoria
tempore

teneo,

atque Helvetios sine causa iniuriam

populo Romano intulisse intellego. Recentium iniuriarum memoriam deponere non possum, quod me invito iter per
16

2 28

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

provinciam temptavistis, quod agros sociorum nostrorum


ea ita sint, tamen si obsides a vobls dabuntur, ut ea quae polliceamini vos facturos esse intellegam, voblscum pacem faciam."
vastavistis.
1

Cum

" Helvetil obsides accipere non dare Dlvico respondit: 2 Hoc responso dato discessit. consuerunt."
1

Although.

A contraction of

consueverunt,

from consuesco.

A CAVALRY SKIRMISH
15.

Postero die castra ex eo loc5 movent.

Idem

facit

Caesar, equitatumque omnem, ad numerum quattuor milium, quern ex omni provincia et Haeduis atque eorum sociis
5

coegerat, praemittit, qui videant quas in partes hostes iter 2 J loco cum faciant. Qui cupidius agmen Inseciitl alieno

equitatu Helvetiorum proelium committunt; nostrls cadunt.

et paucl de

Quo

proelio sublatl

Helvetil,

quod qulngentls equitibus

tantam multitudinem equitum propulerant, fortius resistere 10 et nostros adorlrl coeperunt. Caesar suos a proelio contineIta dies circiter qulndecim iter fecerunt, ut hostium bat. agmen a nostro qulnque aut sex mllia passuum abesset.
1

Too

eagerly.

Unfavorable.

Elated (from tollo).

CAESAR'S PREPARATIONS FOR BATTLE


21. !

Tandem ab

exploratoribus certior factus hostes sub

ipslus castrls octo, qualis 2 Renuntiatum esset natura montis qui cognoscerent mlsit. est ascensum esse facilem. Tertia vigilia Labienum legatum

monte consedisse

mllia

passuum ab

cum duabus

legionibus

summum iugum
2

montis ascendere

1 Chapters 16-20, giving an account of the treachery of Dum-

of qui

Supply viros as the antecedent and object of mlsit.

norix, are omitted.

WAR WITH THE HELVE Til


iubet.

229

quo hostes ierant ad eos contendit, equitatumque omnem ante se mittit. Con2 rei militaris habebatur et in sidius, qui perltissimus
Ipse quarta vigilia
itinere
l

eodem

exercitu Sullae et postea in CrassI

f uerat,

cum
3

exploratoribus
5

praemittitur.
1

Experienced in (353).

Was

regarded.

Supply exercitu.

THE ERROR OF CONSIDIUS


Prima luce, cum summus mons a Labieno teneretur, 1 ipse ab hostium castris non longius mllle et quingentls passibus abesset, neque ipslus adventus nee Labieni cognitus 3 esset, Considius equ5 admisso ad eum accurrit; dlcit montem quern a Labieno occuparl voluerit ab hostibus teneri;
22.
2

id se a Gallicls

armls atque Tnsignibus cognovisse. Caesar suas copias in proximum collem ducit, 1 aciem
Labienus, ut
4

In-

struit.

erat

proelium committeret, visae essent, ut undique tino

nisi ipslus

praeceptum copiae prope hostium castra tempore in hostes impetus fieret,

el

a Caesare ne

io

monte occupato nostros exspectabat proelioque abstinebat. Multo denique die per exploratores Caesar cognovit et montem a suls teneri et Helvetios castra movisse et Considium timore perterritum, quod non vldisset, pro viso 6 sibi renunEo die hostes sequitur et mllia passuum tria ab tiasse. 7 eorum castris castra ponit.
1

15

Supply a connective (and).


I. e.,

He had been ordered


is

(lit.,

orders

The
As.

Caesar. three subjunctive verbs

had been given to him). 6 Pro viso, as if seen.

are introduced
4

by cum.

The object cedent of quod.


7

the implied ante-

CAESAR MARCHES TOWARD BIBRACTE FOR SUPPLIES 23. Postero die, quod omnino biduum supererat cum
frumentum metlri oporteret, et quod a Bibracte, oppido Haeduorum longe maximo, non amplius milibus pasexercitu!

23O

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

suum xvm

l exlstiaberat, rei frumentariae prospiciendum 2 iter ab Helvetils avertit ac Bibracte Ire conmavit; itaque tendit. Ea res hostibus nuntiatur. Helvetil, quod timore

perterritos Roman5s discedere a se exlstimabant, commutato consilio atque itinere converso nostros a 3 novissimo

agmine InsequI ac lacessere coeperunt.


1

Supply

sibi esse, he ought to

provide for.

Accusative (282). On.

FURTHER PREPARATIONS FOR BATTTjE


Caesar in proximum collem dtixit equitatumque qui sustineret hostium impetum l mlsit. Ipse interim in colle medio triplicem aciem Instruxit
24.

Postquam

id vldit, copias suas

2 legionum quattuor veteranarum; sed in summo iugo duas legiones, quas in Gallia citeriore nuper conscripserat, et omnia auxilia conlocari, 3 ac totum montem hominibus com4 plerl, et interea sarcinas in iinum locum conferri, et eum ab his, qui in superiore acie erant, mQnirl iussit.

Helvetil
10

cum omnibus

suis

cams

secuti,

impedimenta

in

unum locum

contulerunt;

ipsl

confertissima acie, reiecto

nostro equitatii, phalange facta, sub successerunt.


1

prlmam nostram aciem


four
infinitives

The middle The top of.

of.

Notice that
iussit.

on depend 4

Refers to locum.

THE BATTLE NEAR BIBRACTE,


25.

58 B.C.

ex conspectu remotis, ut spem fugae tolleret, cohortatus suds proelium commlsit. Mllites e loco superiore pills missis facile hostium phalangem

Caesar

prlmum

equls

omnium

perfregerunt.

Ea

disiecta, gladils in eos

impetum

fecerunt.

WAR WITH THE


Confertissima acie scuta Gallls

HELVETII

23 1

magno impediments * erant, quod sinistra impedlta commode pugnare non poterant. Multl etiam praeoptaverunt scutum manu 2 emittere et
nudo
3

Tandem

corpore pugnare. vulneribus defessi ad montem, qui aberat circiter

mille passus, se recipere coeperunt.

Capto monte

et succe-

dentibus nostris, sod Helveti5rum nostros ab latere aperto 4 adgressi circumvenire conatl sunt; et id conspicatl Helvetii,
qui in

montem

se receperant, rtirsus resistere et

proelium
10

renovare coeperunt.
1 Were a hindrance (lit., for a hindrance). 2 Denoting separation. 3 4

Ab

Unprotected. latere aperto, on the ex-

posed flank.

DEFEAT OF THE HELVETII


Diutius cum Ita diu atque acriter pugnatum est. 1 2 sustinere nostrorum impetus non possent, alter! se, ut
26.
3 coeperant, in montem receperunt, alterl ad impedimenta et 4 carros suos se contulerunt. Nam hoc toto proelio, cum ab

ad vesperum pugnatum sit, aversum 6 hostem videre nemo potuit. Ad multam noctem etiam ad impedimenta pugnatum est, propterea quod pro vallo carros
hora septima
5

obiecerant et e loco

superiore tela coniciebant.

Tandem
10

impedlmentls castrlsque nostrl potltl sunt, flliam atque unum e fllils ceperunt.

et ibi Orgetorlgis

Ex

eo proelio circiter
et in fines

hominum
Lingonum

mllia

cxxx superfuerunt.

Hi fugerunt

cum

propter vulnera mllitum et sorum nostrl trlduum moratl eos sequi non potuissent. Caesar trlduo intermisso cum omnibus copils eos sequi coepit.
They fought, or the battle raged (see 627). 2 One division, i.e., the Helvetii.
3
1
*

die quarto pervenerunt, propter sepultiiram occl-

15

Although.
I.e.,

6
7

about one o'clock. Turned in flight.

The

other, i.e.,

the

allies.

Position.

232

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

SURRENDER OF THE HELVETII


27.

Helvetii
2

deditione

omnium rerum inopia adductl legatos de ad eum mlserunt. Qui cum eum in itinere conl

seque ad pedes proiecissent pacemque petlssent, eos suum adventum exspectare iussit. Eo 3 postquam Caesar
venissent
5

pervenit, obsides et

arma

poposcit.

nocte intermissa, circiter hominum territi aut spe salutis induct!, prima

ea conferuntur, 4 mllia vi aut timore per5

Dum

nocte e castris Helve-

tiorum egressl flnesque Germanorum contenderunt. Hos reductos in hostium numero habuit; 6 reliquos

ad

Rhenum

10

obsidibus armlsque traditls in deditionem accepit.


Qui cum= when they.
1

et

cum

ei,

and

first

2 3

Had

met.

Adv., there. See 605 b.

Early in the night (lit., in the part of the night). 6 Held (or treated) as enemies, a mild way of saying that he put

them

to death.

THE CONQUERED PEOPLE RETURN TO THEIR LAND


28.

Helvetios sociosque in fines su5s, unde erant profectl,

revert! iussit; et,

quod domi

nihil erat
els

Allobrogibus imperavit ut

quo famem tolerarent, frument! copiam facerent;

ipsos oppida vlcosque quos incenderant restituere iussit. Id : 5 maxime fecit, quod noluit eum locum unde Helveti! dis-

cesserant vacare, ne propter bonitatem agrorum German! e suls flnibus in Helvetiorum fines translrent et flnitiml provinciae essent.
1

Especially.

THE RECORDS OF THE HELVETII


In castris Helvetiorum tabulae repertae sunt litterls Graecls confectae l et ad Caesarem relatae, quibus in
29.

tabulls
1

nominatim

ratio confecta erat, qui


2

numerus 2 domo

Made

out or written.

Showing what number.

WAR WITH THE


exlsset

HELVETII

,235
item separatim fuerunt ad
censu
est

eorum qui arma


series

ferre possent, et

puerl,

mulieresque.

Summa omnium
qui

milia

ccclxviii.

Eorum

domum

redierunt

habito

ut

Caesar

imperaverat,

repertus

numerus

milium c

et x.

SUPPLEMENTARY READING
Stories and Fables
I.

THE BAD APPLES


bonus erat puer sed 3 Agricola igitur puero calathum
agricolae,
2

Carolus,

fllius

impigri

malos amicos amabat.

4 plenum pomorum dat. Bona poma continebat calathus, 5 Puer donum dlligenter curat, pauca tamen erant putrida. sed mala poma bona maculant, 6 et mox cuncta sunt mala. Carolus maestus 7 adversam fortunam plorat. 8 Turn agricola " fllium ita monet: Mala poma bona maculant, certe mall

amici
1

bonum puerum maculabunt."


5 6

Charles.
Active.

Putridus, rotten.
Spot, spoil.

2
3

Calathus,

-I,

basket.

7 8

Pomum,

-I,

apple.

Sad. Laments.

2.

THE BROKEN DIKE,


habitant,
4
7 2

Cimbri

mlram terram

nam

saepe inundat.

Incolae fossls tumullsque

agros violentiam magnls


claustra
5

oceanus

undarum
6

turbat erat tumulus non validus; iam apparet parva rima; 8 mox via magna patebit et undae terram superabunt. At periculum videt puer parvus; sta-

coercent; aliquando et terram vastat. Forte

tamen aqua

de-

tim dextra
1

rlmam implet

10

coercetque aquam.
6 7

The Cimbri, a people

of Ger-

Tears down.

many. 2 Tumulus, -l, mound. 3 Unda, -ae, wave. 4 Now and then.
6

By

chance.

8
9

Opening.

Supply manu.
Impleo,
fill

10

up.

Claustra, -drum, dike.

234

SUPPLEMENTARY READING
3.

235

THE BROKEN DIKE,


1

II

lam rigebant 2 memDiu puer praesidium servabat. Postridie bra, et parva dextra aquam semper coercebat. 3 agricolae loco appropinquant. Puer frigidus et moribundus dextra tamen aquam coercet. Saxls 4 tumulum celeriter 5 6 conflrmant, et limo rimam implent. Turn umeris puerum sublevant 7 recreantque cibo. Cimbri tantam constantiam 8
9 saepe commemorant, narrantque suls llberis puerl factum.
1

Kept.

5 6

Limus,
Raise.

-I,

mud.
shoulder.
8

2 3 4

Were

stiffening.
7

Umerus,
Factum,

-i,

Dying.

Steadfastness.

Saxum,

-i,

stone.

-1,

deed.

4.
l

THE YOUNG DOCTOR

Medicus quondam, 2 longo labore fessus, breve otium 3 4 apud msticam villam amid petebat. Interea filio curam
clientium committebat.
5 6 Iuvenis, labore superbus, iocoso comiti 7 fortunam ita narrat: "Pater mihi clientes suos " " ubi pater urbem committit." At," respondet amicus, " repetit, ex clientibus quot supererunt?
1

Doctor.

2 3

Once upon a time.


Rest.

6
7

Country house. Proud.

Witty.

Comes, comitis, companion.

5.

THE LION'S SHARE


1

Societatem iungunt

leo,

iuvenca, capra, ovis.

Multam

praedam capiunt, et in unum locum comportant. Turn in " Prima quattuor partes praedam dividunt. Leo, autem, " nam animalium mea leo est. Et rex est; pars," inquit, mea est pars secunda, propter magnos meos labores. Tertiam partem vindico, 2 quoniam
1

maior mihi
2
3

quam

vobis,

Leo

ovis, lion, heifer, goat,

Claim
Since.

(justly).

sheep.

2^6

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


1

animalibus imbecillis
nique, partem
1

et parvls,

si

quis sibi

fames est. Quartam, de2 arrogat, mihi inimlcus erit."


2

Weak.

Claims (unjustly).

6.

THE KID AND THE WOLF


tecto "
2

Haedus
maledixit.

stans in

domus

lupo
"

maledlcit."
reddit. 5
1

Cui lupus, Non tu," inquit, Saepe locus et tempus homines timidos audaces
3

praetereunti sed tectum mihi

Kid.

Tectum,

-l,

roof.

Lupus, -i, wolf. Passing by.

Makes.

7.

THE 'WOMAN AND THE HEN


2

Mulier

quaedam

ovum

pariebat

habebat galllnam, 1 quae el cotldie aureum. Mulier ita exlstimabat: " Mea
galllnam possidebo." Itaque earn occidit.
celat;

massam 3 occldam, omne aurum statim


gallina sine dubio
5

aurl intus

si

Sed nihil in ea repperit nisi quod 6 in aliis galllnis reperitur. Maioribus divitils 7 inhiabat; 8 minores etiam perdidit. 9
1

Hen.
Laid.
Quantity. Inside.

6 6

2 3

7 8

Conceals. Nisi quod, except what. Wealth.

Longed for.

Lost.

8.

THE FARMER AND HIS SONS

1 Agricola senex filios suos convocavit, qui interdum discordabant. 2 Fascem 3 virgularum 4 adferrl iubet. Turn filios

hortatur, ut hunc fascem frangerent.


terant.
5 celeriter

Hoc
5

facere

n5n po"

Denique

distribuit senex singulas


6

virgulas,
'

quas

fregerunt.

Turn exclamavit

flrma res est concordia, 8


1

quam

agricola: imbecillis 9 discordia!


5
6

Quam 7

Sometimes.
Disagreed.

One

2
3

to each. Perf. of frango.


9

Bundle.
Virgula, -ae, small rod.

How. Harmony.

Weak.

SUPPLEMENTARY READING
9.

237

Vulpes
poterat.

THE FOX AND THE GRAPES ad uvam 2 subsiliebat 3 sed earn attingere 4 non
Tandem, defatigata
7

" At nunc etiam

labore, exclamavit: acerbae sunt, et eas edere nolo." Haec

inanl

fabula docet multos ea contemnere, 8 quae assequi


possint.
1

non

Fox.

2
3

Bunch

of grapes.

Leaped up. To reach.

7 8

Exhausted. Vain. Nunc etiam, after


Despise.

all.
9

Obtain.

THE MICE AND THE CAT concilium habebant, nam quandam Mures aliquando
10.
1

felem magnopere timebant. Multa consilia proposita sunt, sed muribus non placebant. Denique una e muribus ita " Tintinnabulum 2 caudae 3 istius felis annectere 4
lociita est:

necesse est,

nam

sonitus

eius n5s admonebit,


6

pinquat, et fugere poterimus. nemo respondit, multi etenim


sed in perTculo ipso timidl.
1

ea appro" Sed Quis hoc facere vult?


in

cum

suadend5
To

audaces sunt,

Once.
Bell.

4 5 6

tie.
7

To

the tail.

Sound. For as you know.

Advice.

II.

THE TRUMPETER

" ab hostibus captus est. Cur me," inquit, " 2 interficitis? nam inermis sum, neque quidquam habeo tubam." At hanc hostes, "Propter hoc ipsum," praeter

Tubicen

pugnandi imperltus, 4 Non solum malefic! sunt alios ad pugnam incitare soles." 5 piiniendl, sed etiam el qui alios ad male faciendum incitant.
inquiunt,
1

"

te interficiemus quod, ipse

Neque =

Trumpeter.
et non.

4 B

You are accustomed. To be punished.

Inexperienced.

238

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


12.

THE FLATTERED CROW


2

Corvus,
volavit.
3

qui caseum
4

rapuerat, in altam arborem sub-

Vulpecula, quae caseum appetebat, corvum ita " Formam tuam magnopere laudo et pennarum adloquitur: tuarum nitorem. 5 Pol! 6 si cantus tuus pulchritudinl 7 tuae

srespondet,

Turn corvus, laudibus vulpeculae Inflatus, cantare conatus est. Sed e rostro aperto de10 est statim devoravit. Verba caseus, quern vulpecula lapsus 12 u adulatorum sunt ut haec fabula docet.
rex
es."
9

avium

pretl

parvl,

2 3

Crow. {Some) cheese. Flew up.


Little fox. Brilliance.

7 8 9 10

Beauty. Is equal

to.

4
6 6

By

Pollux.

n Of flatterers. n Of value.

Puffed up. Slipped out.

13.

THE DOG IN THE MANGER


i

Canis iacebat
arcebat.
4

Non
1

a pabulo 5 Quanta ista invidia est! )> pateris alios edere, et tu ipse edere non potes!

in praesepe, 2 et
dixit:

boves latrando

Cui unus bourn

"

From

iaceo.
3

Was

Manger.

By

barking.

keeping away. That jealousy (you feel).

14.

TOWN VERSUS COUNTRY


Iverat,

Urbanus mus, qui rus ad fratrem

cibum

rusti-

cum
illl,

aegre

tulit

atque edere noluit.

"

Si

vis," inquit,

"domum mecum
5

redlre, sexcentas delicias habebis." Itaque totius diel iter media nocte fecerunt, postquam parietem

splendidl aedificl rlma angusta ineunt.


2

Turn mus urbanus

rusticum in lecto purpureo 3 adfert, magnificas dapes At subito ingens auditur clamor; panduntur 4 porlocat.
et
1

With difficulty. Sumptuous (magnificas) ban-

Purple couch

(lecto).

Are opened,

quet.

SUPPLEMENTARY READING

239

1 tae; irruunt decern servi nigerrimi. Fugit perterritus mus 2 uterque, et vix in perfugium se recipit. Deinde rusticus, " " vltam urbanam carpe; 3 ego certe saluSolus," inquit, tem et glandes 4 meas malo." 5 1

Rush
Each.

in.

Enjoy. Acorns.

Prefer.

15.

CERES AND PROSER'PINA


fllia,

Proserpina, Cereris

aliquando in
1

Sicilia
2

ad urbem

Hennam
bus.

ludebatque cum comiti3 Inferorum Subito Pluto, deus, cuius currum equl atrl
in agris flores carpebat,

4 Deus Proserpinam abduxit, ut vehebant, e terra emersit. uxor sua et Inferorum regina esset; clamorem puellae com5

pressit.

Mater,

cum

ignoraret ubi

fllia esset,

totum orbem

terrarum frustra peragravit. Tandem Ceres a Sole, qui omnia conspicit, audivit quis flliam abduxisset. Itaque statim iter ad Iovem flexit et
precibus animo eius persuasit, ut fllia a Pliitone remitteretur. Proserpinae permissum est, ut per partem annl apud ma10

trem, per partem alteram apud inferos esset.


1

Was Was

plucking. playing.

Black.

Came forth.

Suppressed.

l6.

DAEDALUS AND ICARUS

1 Daedalus, artifex perltissimus, a Graecia. expulsus, ad Cretam fugit. Ibi labyrinthum plenum viarum flectuosa-

rum 2

fecit.

Daedalus ipse
Icard
filio

in

hunc labyrinthum a rege con-

iectus sibi et

alas

Icarus altius volat, mare decidit, quod ex eo Icarium mare est appellatum. Daedalus, autem, in Siciliam pervenit.
1

Dum

cera aptavit, 3 et avolavit. cera solis calore calefacta, 4 in

Artist.

Fastened.

Winding.

Warmed.

240

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


17.

THESEUS
fecit,

In medio labyrintho, quern Daedalus partim taurus, partim homo, habitabat.

monstrum,

Monstrum autem

rex Cretae, saevus homo, captivis saginabat. 1 Inter miseras victimas quondam erat Theseus, regulus 2 Graecus. Ariadna,
5

tamen,
fllum
4

filia

regis,

plena misericordiae
dat.

longum mirumque gladium rinthum, filumque ad portam adligat. Itaque iuvenis, Turn auxilio fill, certam viam in vasto labyrintho servat. facile occidit. Nee monstrum mora est. Thelonga gladio *o seus cum filia regis navl trans latum mare f ugit.
1

amoris, iuvenl Intrat igitur labyet

Fed. Prince.

Pity.
4

Thread.

l8.

TANTALUS

Tantalus, Iovis fllius, tarn carus fuit dels, ut Iuppiter 1 el consilia sua dlceret, eumque ad epulas deorum admitteret. At ille, quae ab love audlverat, cum mortalibus commiini5

aqua conlocatus esse, semperque sitire. Nam, quotiens haustum 5 aquae sumptiirus est, aqua recedit. Turn etiam poma super
cabat.
id

Ob

crimen

dicitur
3

apud

Inferos in

caput eius pendent; sed, quotiens ea decerpere rami vent5 motl recedunt.
1

conatur,

2 3

Banquets. Crime.

A
5

As

often as.

Draught.

To

be thirsty.

To pluck.

19.

HERCULES AND THE GOLDEN APPLES


poma ex nymphae
horto Hespe-

ridum

Herculi imperatum est ut aurea auferret. 1 Hesperides erant

pulcherrimae,

quibus poma ab Itinone commissa erant. Labor dimcillimus erat, nam hortus muro ingentl circumdatus 2 erat,
1

From ab

fero.

Surrounded.

SUPPLEMENTARY READING
atque draco,
custodiebat.
tus esset.
1

24 1
dlligenter

cui

centum erant

capita,

portam

Praeterea Hercules ignorabat quo in loco hormultls mercatoribus quaeslverat ubi Hesperides

habitarent, nihil

tamen certum
orbis

reperlre potuerat.

Tandem
5

ad extremam partem
Oceano, pervenit.

terrarum, quae est proxima Ibi stabat vir, nomine Atlas, ingentl

magnittidine corporis, qui caelum umerls suls sustinebat, ne in terram decideret. Hercules auxilium ab eo petiit. Atlas,

qui erat pater Hesperidum, se ad hortum iturum et flliabus persuasurum dixit, ut poma traderent. At postulavit ut, dum 2 ipse abesset, Hercules caelum umerls sustineret.
Flliae diu patrl parere nolebant.

IC

Atlas tamen

els

persuasit

et

poma ad Hercjilem
1

rettulit.
2

Dragon.

While.

From

re

fero.

20.

THE GODS OP THE GAULS


1

Deorum maxime Mercurium colunt. Huius sunt plu2 rima simulacra; hunc omnium inventorem artium ferunt, 3
hunc viarum atque itinerum ducem, hunc ad quaestiis 4 5 habere vim maximam arbitrantur. pecuniae et mercatiiras Post hunc Apollinem et Martem et Iovem et Minervam. De his eandem fere, quam reliquae gentes, habent oplnionem: 6 Apollinem morbos depellere, Minervam operum initia tradere,

Iovem imperium calestium


b
6 4

tenere,

Martem

bella

regere.
1

2
3

Worship. Images.
Call.

Pursuits of trade.
Diseases.

Gain.

Of

the gods.

21.

THE TOUCH OF GOLD,


1

Midas, rex Phrygiae, quod Baccho placuerat, egregio 2 munere 3 a deo donatus est. " Delige, rex magne," inquit
1

Bacchus.

Extraordinary.

Gift (abl.).

242
"
deus,
vir

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


id

quod maxime

cupis; hoc tibi libenter dabo."

Turn

avarus mirum
2

donum

corpore tangebat, in
laetus
5

aurum mutata
4

impetravit, omnia enim, quae suo sunt. Protinus * rex

regiam

domum
6

omnia tangebat. manebat, gratias


1

percurrebat, Inde ubi nihil ligni

manuque

mensas, aut argent! in aedibus 5


vasa,

7 pro tanto beneficio Baccho persolvit. 4


5 6

Forthwith.
Joyful. Dishes.
7

Wood

(gen.).

2
3

House. Thanks.

Rendered.

22.

THE TOUCH OF GOLD,


cenam
4
1

II
2 5

Tandem
3

labore fessus

Mox ad os dapes splendidas lustrat. admovet, cibus in aurum statim mutatus est; rex igitur, cuius in faucibus 6 rigida haerebat massa, 7 vlnum poscit; idem evenit. 8 Tandem rex esuriens, 9 quod nihil nee edebat, nee bibebat 10 compluribus diebus, maximis precibus n Bacchum
1

avidisque tamen ubi piscem


poscit,

oculls

orat.

Inde

cum

rlsu

12

deus fatale
7

13

donum amovet.

2
3

Dinner. Eager.
Feast.

Lump.
Happens.
Suffering hunger.

8 9

6 6

Surveys. Fish. Throat.

10

u
12

Drank.
Prayers. Laughter.
13

Fated.

23.

SPAKTAN VALOR
"
'

Rex Spartanus
'

dixit:
'

Mel
x

elves

numquam
'

quaeslverunt,
"

Solem Spartano dixit: propter iaculorum multitudinem et sagittarum non vide" " In umbra igitur," inquit, bitis." pugnabimus."
hostis
1

Quot sunt hostes? sed Ante pugnam Perses

Ubi sunt?

"

Persian.

SUPPLEMENTARY READING
24.

243

THE WALLS OF SPARTA


x

Quldam
Sparta?"

Cur muros non habet "Nostra urbs muros optiSpartanus respondit:


ex Spartano
quaesivit:
1

"

mos

habet, incolarum fortium virtutem."

Spartan.

25.

THE ART OF MEMORY

Olim eruditus3 homo 'Haec ad eum venit artemque memoriae eum docere voluit. ars," inquit, "facere potest ut omnia memoria teneas." Themistocles autem, "Magis," inquit, "mihi tu. placebis, si me oblivlsci 4 multa docueris."
1

Themistocles 1 fuit vir magni ingenl. 2

An Athenian
Ability.

statesman.

3 4

Learned.

To forget.

26.

THE FOUNDING OF ROME

Antiquis temporibus Latinus in Italia regnavit. Sub hoc rege Troia in Asia a Graecis expugnata est, et Aeneas cum
multls sociis in Italiam venit.
recepit,

Ibi rex Latinus

eum

benigne

Lavlniam in matrimonium dedit. Aeneas urbem condidit, quam a nomine uxoris Lavmium
atque
el

filiam

Ascanius, filius Aeneae, post appellavit. regnum in alium locum transtulit. Urbs,

mortem

patris

quam

condidit,

Alba Longa appellata

est.

Postea Numitor in Alba regnavit. Rheae SiKdae, flliae Amiilius Numitoris, erant duo Mil, Romulus et Remus.

IO

regnum occupavit

et pueros in

Tiberim abici

iussit.

Sed

Tiberis ultra ripas fluxit et pueros in sicco 2 rellquit. Lupa 3 4 et pueros curavisse dicitur, donee pastor eos sustulit
uxorl dedit.
Sic fratres inter pastores educatl sunt.
5

Forte
interfe- I5
Learned.

compererunt
1

quis ipsorum avus


3 *

esset.
Until.

Amulium
5

Kindly. Dry ground.

Took.

244

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

Turn in monte prope Tiberim condiderunt urbem, quam Romulus a nomine suo Romam vocavit.

cerunt et Numitori avo

regnum

restituerunt. 1

Restored.

27.

THE SEVEN ROMAN KINGS


vicit, et eos
legit,

Romulus, primus rex Romae, Sabmos

ad poeosque

pulum Romanum

adiunxit.

Centum

senatores
els
4

cum ob aetatem 2
l

turn

ob reverentiam

debitam patres

appellavit;
5

populum

in trlginta curias

distribuit.

Annos

trlginta

septem regnavit. Secundus rex erat Numa Pompilius.

Nullum bellum

bonas dedit, et sacra plurima mstituit. Annum in decern menses descrlpsit. Numae successit Tullus Hostilius, qui bellum Albanls Hoc bellum Horatiorum et Curiatiorum certamine iointulit.
gessit;

tamen

clvitatl profuit.

Nam

leges

flnltum

est.

Post hunc Ancus Marcius regnavit, vir

magna

iustitia.

Latinos superavit, urbem ampliavit, 7 et nova moenia 8 fecit. 9 Tarquinius Prlscus ex Etrtiria Romam demigravit, et
15

amlcitiam

And

regis petiit, qui

eum

flliorum

suorum

tuto-

rem

regnum occupavit. Senatoribus, creaverat, centum alios addidit. 11 Cloacas et muros fecit, templum Iovl incohavit. 12 Multa A fllils bella gessit, prlmusque triumphans urbem intravit.
rellquit.

10

Turn per

Insidias

quos Romulus

20

And

interfectus est.

Montes Servius Tullius, fllius captlvae, erat rex sextus. Primus omnium censum ordinavit. 13 tres urbl adiunxit.
1

Not only.
Age.

7
8 9 10

2
3

Enlarged. Walls.

4
5
*

But also. Wards.


Benefited.

Removed. Guardian.

n Sewers.
12

Sacred

riles.

Commenced.

13

Arranged.

SUPPLEMENTARY READING
Sub eo

245

Roma

cum

els

qui in agrls erant.

habuit octoginta, tria mllia civium Romanorum Servius a fllia sua, Tullia, et

Tarquinio Superbo interfectus est. Septimus rex, Tarquinius Superbus, erat fllius TarquinI Priscl. Propter multas iniurias Lucius Brutus et alii elves

populo persuaserunt ut
clauderet.

Rex

fugit

eum ex urbe expelleret cum uxore et llberls suls.


est
*

et portas

Ita

Romae regnatum
tres.
1

per septem reges, annos duhe'd.

centos quadraginta

The throne was

28.

ROMULUS AND REMUS


x 2

muros Romae multa cum dlligentia Remus muros saepe transilit. aedificat, parvos adhuc " " Carissime frater," inquit, quam magnificl sunt murl tul!

Dum

Romulus

inimlcos tuos egregie


Irae,
1

arcent!

"

Remum
yet.

occldit.

Turn

fellciter
3

Romulus, autem, plenus muros conficit.


off.

As

Finely.

Leaps

over.

Keep

THE FAITHLESS TARPE'IA Cum Sabinl Romae appropinquarent, ut urbem caperent, Tarpeiam puellam Romanam rogaverunt, ut viam in
29.

arcem
ceret.

monstraret. 2
Ilia petiit,

El

permlserunt ut miinus

sibi pos-

ut sibi darent, quod in sinistrls manibus

6 5 At hostes, gererent, anulos aureos et armillas slgnificans. in arcem ab ea perductl, sctitls Tarpeiam obruerunt; 7 nam

et

ea in sinistrls manibus gerebant.


Citadel.
5
6
7

Rings.
Bracelets.

2 3
4

Show.
Dative.

Overwhelmed.
Also.

Reward.

246

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


30.

HORATIUS AT THE BRIDGE


expulsus

Tarquinius Superbus a Romanls Porsenae, regis Etruscorum, petivit.

Mox

auxilium Porsena magno

cum exercitu Romam oppugnavit, et elves in periculo erant. RomanI ex agris in urbem demigrant et summo studio earn
5

iter dare poterat, sed virtus unius Hie vir, Horatius noa mllitis periculo llberavit. x mine, positus in statione pontis, hostes unum collem capere Mllites fugiunt, praeter Horaet ad pontem venire videt.

muniunt.

Pons hostibus

urbem

tium et duos socios. EtruscI appropinquant, et nunc in 2 10 ponte sunt. Horatius pontem rescindl a tergo iubet. Parva Solus imparte pontis relicta, soci5s suos discedere iubet.

petum hostium

sustinet.

Denique pons

in

Turn fortis vir armatus in Mmen desilit. multa tela iaciunt, sed incolumis 4 ad suos tranat. 5
Stationed as a guard. A tergo, behind him faces the enemy).
2
1

Tiberim decidit. 3 Hostes in eum

Falls down. Safe.

(as he

Swims

across.

CINCINNATUS Cincinnatus agricola Romanus fuit, qui patriam amavit. Cum Roma in periculo esset, elves ab agro eum voca31.

verunt,
5

ut esset dictator et eos ab hostibus defenderet.


victls,

Hostibus

ab omnibus clvibus laudatus

est,

sed ad

agrum

revertit.

32.

A LESSON IN DIGNITY
iam
1

Qulntus
fuit.
2

Fabius,

senex,

fllio

suo

consull

legatus

Fllius

obviam

patrl progressus est,

duodecim

llctoribus

3 pro more antecedentibus. Senex equo vehebatur, et conIam ex llctoribus unsule appropinquante non descendit.

4 decim, verecundia paternae maiestatis, tacitl praeterierant. 3 1 Was borne. To meet, used w. dative.
2

According

to.

Out of respect

for.

SUPPLEMENTARY READING

247

Consul proximum l llctorem iussit dlcere Fabio patri: " Ex " Non ego, fill," 2 equo descende." Pater turn desiliens,
" tuum imperium contempsl, sed experlri volul, inquit, sclres consulem te esse."
1

num

Last.

Vocative.

Whether.

33.

CORNELIA AND HER JEWELS


fllil

Tiberius Gracchus et Gaius Gracchus erant


Sclpionis tissima et mater optima.

Corneliae,

AfricanI

filiae.

Cornelia

erat

mulier
2

sapien-

Cum Campana

femina orna-

menta
duos
1

sua,

fllios

vocavit.

quae pulcherrima erant, el ostenderet, Cornelia " " Haec," inquit, mea ornamenta sunt."
the con2

Scipio

Africanus,

Campanian.

queror of Hannibal.

34.

REGULUS KEEPS HIS WORD

Primo
Poenis,
elves
1

belld Piinico Regulus, dux Romanus, captus a 1-. de cap tl vis commutandls Romam missus est.
2

cum Carthagine
captlvos non

ablret, iuravit se eo
4

reditiirum nisi sul

condiciones
esse

At ille in senatii Romano commutandos declaravit. Deinde, cum


fecissent.

propinqui et amici
fallere.
1

eum

retinere conarentur, ex urbe decessit;


6

ad supplicium redlre maluit, 5 quam


7
4
5

fidem hostl datam

The Carthaginians.

Terms

(of

agreement).
7

2
3

From
Adv.,

Carthage.
there.

Preferred. Rather than.

To

break.

35.

THE ROMAN ARMY FIGHTS A SERPENT


bello
1

Punico Roman! castra aliquando in Africa apud Bagradam flumen ponunt; multisque proem's copias

Primo

Once upon a time.

248

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


1

hostium egregia mllitum virtiite superant. Sed, paucis post diebus, apparet serpens ingentis magnitudinis; et exercitum fhiminis usu prohibet. Milites prlmo ex vallo sagittls
5

magnam manum Regulus 2 multos multos Serpens ingenti ore corripit; 3 4 caudae voluminibus ad castra elldit; reliqul perterriti
tellsque serpentem petunt; deinde
edticit.

consul

celeriter fugiunt.

Proximo

die totus exercitus in

campum
5

educitur.

Diu
6

et acriter

pugnatur.

Tandem

ballistas

et

admovent; catapultas lapidum vulneribus serpens iointerficitur. Sanguis autem monstrl viclnum flumen imbuit. 7 8 Corium, longum pedes centum et vigintl, Romam mittunt.
crebris

Cives corium in templo ponunt.


1

Extraordinary.
Seizes. Coils.

2 3 4

6
7

Hurling engines. Catapults.


Dyes.

Crushes.

The skin.

36.

HANNIBAL INFORMS THE KING OF HIS OATH


cum
regi
1

Hannibal,
in

Poenorum multa de

fide

sua et odio

Romanos commemoravisset, hoc adiunxit: Pater meus, 2 Hamilcar, puerulo me non amplius novem annos nato, in
Hispaniam imperator
proficiscens Carthagine Iovi hostias
facit,
3

"

immolabat. 4
^Faciam,'
5

Dum
6

hoc

in castra proficiscl.

Id

cum

quaesivit vellemne secum libenter audlvissem, turn ille,

me

inquit, 'si

mihi fidem,

quam

me ad aram addiixit, eamque numquam me in amicitia cum Romanis futurum


Simul
7

postulo, dederis.' tenentem, iurare iussit,


esse.

Id
con-

ioiusiurandum, patrl datum, usque ad hanc diem 8 eadem mente servavi, ut neminl dubium esse debeat, quln sim futurus."
ita
1

Little boy.

2
3

Old

(lit.,

born).

6 7

Sacrifices.
4

Will grant Altar. Oath.


That.

(it).

Was

offering.

SUPPLEMENTARY READING
37.

249

HANNIBAL'S JEST 1 Antiochus, qui bellum cum Romanls gerere parabat, ostendebat Hannibal! in campo 2 copias ingentes, quas comparaverat, convertebatque
et aurels
3

exercitum Inslgnibus argentels


5

micantem;

inducebat etiam currus

cum

falcibus,

elephantos cum turribus, equites cum armls splendidis. Turn " Satisne sunt Romanls rex Hannibalem aspicit 7 et dlcit: " 8 haec omnia? Hannibal, qui ignavos AntiochI mllites de" 9 Satis sine dubio sunt Romanls haec spiciebat, respondet:

omnia, etiam
1

si

avarissiml sunt."
4
5

Anti'ochus, king of Syria.

Glittering.

7
8

Looks

at.

2 3

A plain. And was

Chariots.

Inactive.

maneuvering.

Scythes.

Despised.

38.

"NOT AT HOME"

Olim Nasica ad Nasica et Ennius poeta 1 amid erant. Ennium venit et ad portam de eo quaeslvit; ancilla 2 En" domi non est." Videbat autem Ennium nius," inquit,
Nasica; nihil tamen dixit, sed domum revertit. Paucis post diebus ad Nasicam venit Ennius. Huic ipse Nasica exclamavit,
es

"

Non sum domi."


"

cognosco vocem tuam?


-11 ipsi.
1

impudens; ego ancillae


Ennius was an early

Turn Ennius: " Quid? Nonne " Homo Nasica autem respondit: tuae credidl: tu non mihi credis
2

Roman

poet.

Maid.

39.

TWO OF
2

CICERO'S JOKES
clarissimus,

Cicero,

Romanorum oratorum
staturae
3

Lentulum 1
gladio
inquit,

generum suum, exiguae


accinctum
1

hominem, longo

vidit.

"

Quis generum

meum,"

"ad

gladium adligavit?
3

"

4
2
4

Lentulus was Cicero's son-in-law (gener).


Girded.

Small.
Tied.

250

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

Femina quaedam, iuniorem se esse simulans * quam erat, dictitabat 2 se triginta tantum 3 annos habere; 4 cui Cicero
dixit:

"

Verum
1 3

est,

nam

hoc viginti annos audio."


2
4

Pretending. Only.

Kept saying. Was.

40.

A LETTER OP CICERO
Ante Christum

ClCERONIS EPISTULA AD TERENTIAM UXOREM. 1

XLVI.
Nos neque de
Caesaris

Si vales, 2

bene

est,

ego valeo.

epistulls, quas Philotlmus habere diciSi quid erit certi, faciam tg tur, quidquam certi habemus. 3 statim certiorem. Fac ut valetudinem 4 tuam cures. Vale. 5
1

adventu neque de

His) wife.
are well.

Be

sure.
6

You

Health.

Goodbye.

41.

ON THE

WAY

TO SCHOOL

SlLVIUS.
Si.

IOANNES

Cur adeo

curris,

Ioannes?

lepus," ut aiunt, "pro canibus?" hoc Quid proverbium est? Io. Quia, nisi adfuero in tempore ante recitatum catalogum, actum est de pelle mea.
Io.
Si.

"Cur

Si.

Hac quidem

ex parte nihil est pericull.


Inspice

Modo

prae-

terita est qulnta h5ra.

horologium; manus nondum


dlvidit.

to

tetigit piinctum, quod horam ab hora aequis spatils Io. At ego vix habeo fidem horologiis. Si. At mihi fide, qui campanae vocem audlvi.

Io.
Si.

Horam

Io.

Quid loquebatur? esse quintam. Sed est et aliud, unde magis etiam timeam.

Red-

SUPPLEMENTARY READING
denda
Si.

251

est

memoriter hesterna

lectio,

satis longa.

Vereor
iS

ut possim.

Commune
Et
est.

perlculum narras;

nam

et ipse vix

satis

teneo.
Io.

nostl saevitiam magistri.

Omnis

ill!

culpa capi2

tals

Nee magis
is

parcit nobis

quam

si

corium esset

bubulum.
Si.

Verum
Quern

non

aderit in ludo.

Io.
Si.

igitur in su5 loco constituit?

Cornelium.

Io.
Si.

Vae nostro

corio!

Is Orbilio plagosior est.

Verum

dlcis; et ideo

non raro

illlus

bracchio precatus
alter5
recitante,

25

sum
Si.

perniciem.

Reddamus

inter

nos

lectionem,

altero librum Inspiciente. Io. Pulchre mones.


Si.

Io.

At

in

Fac praesentl sis animo; nam metus nocet memoriae. Facile deponerem pavorem, si non adesset perlculum. tanto discrlmine quis possit esse securus animo?

30

NOTES
One
John and
morning.
LINE
1.

of the Colloquies of Erasmus (A. D. 1466-1536). Silvius, are on the way to school between five

The two
and

six in

boys, the

2.

4.
5. 6.
7.

Adeo, so. John overtakes Silvius, who is walking. Lepus, hare (nora.); supply currit. Recitatum catalogum, the calling of the .Quia, because.

roll.

Actum

mea,

it is

all

up with my

skin.
just.
five

Quidem,
Punctum,

at least.

Parte, score.

Modo,
clock.

Quinta: Erasmus reckons time in the modern way; hence


Inspice, took
point.
bell.

o'clock.
8.

at.

Horologium,

10.
13.

Fide, trust (imper.). Campanae, of the Unde, whence, from which. Reddenda,
Lectio, lesson.

to be

repeated.

14. 15. 16.

Ut possim,

that

I cannot.
(to both).

Commune, common

252
18.

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


Nosti, you know. Saevitiam, cruelty. deadly. Parcit, spares. Corium, skin, hide.

Culpa, fault, sin.

Capi-

talis, capital,

19. 20. 21.

Bubulum, of an ox. Verum, but. Ludo,

school.

Vae, woe. Plagosior, more fond of whipping than Orbilius, the severe schoolmaster of Horace. Bracchio 25. Verum, truth. Ideo, therefore. Raro, seldom. perdiciem, / have prayed for ruin to his arm.
24.
. . .

27.

Reddamus,
. .

let

us repeat.
take care to

30. 31. 32.

Fac animo, Pavdrem, dread.


.

show presence of mind.

Metus, fear.

Discrimine, danger.

Securus, untroubled.

Looking toward the Palatine Hill from the Forum

ADDITIONAL SUPPLEMENTARY READING


Suggested by the

New York

State Syllabus of 19 17

PERSEUS
Acrisius, king of Argos, having been warned by the oracle that he slain by his grandson, placed his daughter Danae and her infant son Perseus in an ark, which the waves of the sea carried to the island Seriphos. Here they were rescued and taken to Polydectes,

would be

king of the island, in w hose court Perseus grew to manhood. The king, who sought in vain to win the love of Danae, shut her up in prison, saying that she should not be released until Perseus brought to him the head of the Gorgon Medusa. This difficult task he accomplished, as the story relates, and on his return home saved the beautiful Andromeda from a sea-monster. When Perseus afterwards reached the city of his grandfather Acrisius, the latter fled in terror, but was unable to avert the fulfillment of fate, for at the games held in Thessaly he was accidentally struck by a discus thrown by Perseus.
7

The Latin

text following: is one of Ritchie's


'.->

"

Fabulae Faciles."

The Ark
Haec narrantur a poetis de Perseo. Perseus filius erat maximl deorum; avus eius Acrisius appellabatur. Iovis, Acrisius volebat Perseum nepotem x suum necare nam propter oraculum puerum timebat. Comprehendit igitur Perseum
1.
;

adhuc Infantem, et cum matre in area lignea inclusit. Turn 5 arcam ipsam in mare coniecit. Danae, Perse! mater, magnopere territa est tempestas enim magna mare turbabat. Perseus
;

autem

in sinu matris dormiebat.


1

For notes and special vocabulary, see

p. 260.

254

latin for the first year


Jupiter Saves His Son

2.

Iuppiter tamen haec omnia vldit, et

Ilium

suum

servare

Toconstituit.

Tranquillum

igitur fecit

mare, et

arcam ad Insulam

Serlphum perduxit. Htiius Insulae Polydectes turn rex erat. Postquam area ad litus adpulsa est, Danae in harena quietem Post breve tempus a piscatore quodam reperta est capiebat. et ad domum regis Polydectis adducta est. Ille matrem et sedem flnibus sins dedit. et els tutam in 15 puerum benigne excepit, Danae hoc donum libenter accepit, et pro tanto beneficio regi
gratias egit.

Perseus
3.

is

Sent on His Travels


ibi

Perseus igitur multos annos

habitabat, et

cum matre

sua vitam beatam agebat. At Polydectes Danaen magnopere 2oamabat, atque earn in matrimonium diicere volebat. Hoc tamen consilium Perseo minime gratum erat. Polydectes

Turn iuvenem ad se vocavit et haec dixit "Turpe est hanc ignavam vitam agere iam diidum tu adulescens es. Quo usque hie manebis? TemHinc abl, et caput 25 pus est arma capere et virtutem praestare. Medusae mihi refer."
igitur
constituit.
:

Perseum dlmittere

Perseus Gets His Outfit


4.

Perseus ubi haec audivit, ex insula discessit,

et,

ad

continentem

venit,

Medusam

quaesivit.

postquam Diu frustra

quaerebat,

nam naturam

loci ignorabat.

30 Minerva viam demonstraverunt.

Tandem Apollo et Primum ad Graeas, sorores

Medusae, pervenit. Ab his talaria et galeam magicam accepit. Apollo autem et Minerva falcem et speculum dederunt. Turn,

postquam
35

aera volabat

Diu per tandem tamen ad eum locum venit ubi Medusa cum ceteris Gorgonibus habitabat. Gorgones autem monstra erant specie horribill; capita enim earum anguibus omnlno
talaria pedibus induit, in aera ascendit.
;

contecta erant.

Manus etiam

ex aere factae erant.

additional supplementary reading

255

The Gorgon's Head


Res dimcillima erat caput Gorgonis abscldere; eius enim Propter hanc conspectii homines in saxum vertebantur. Perseo dederat. Hie causam Minerva speculum igitur tergum^ hoc modo ad locum venit ubi in et vertit, speculum Inspiciebat Medusa dormiebat. Turn fake sua caput eius uno ictu abscldit.
5.
;

Ceterae Gorgones statim e somno excitatae sunt,


viderunt, Ira commotae sunt. Hie autem occidere volebant.
induit
;

et,

Arma

rapuerunt, et
fugit,

rem Perseum
ubi
45

dum

galeam magicam

et,

ubi hoc

fecit,

statim e conspectii earum evasit.

The Sea-Serpent
Cepheus maris Hie deum, quldam tempore regnabat. Nepttinum, olim offenderat; Neptiinus autem monstrum saevissimum Hoc cotldie e marl veniebat et homines devorabat. mlserat. Ob hanc causam pavor animos omnium occupaverat. Cepheus igitur oraculum del Hammonis consuluit, atque a deo iussus est filiam monstro tradere. Eius autem fllia, nomine Andromeda,
illo 6.

Post haec Perseus in fines Aethiopum venit.

Ibi

5c

virgo formosissima erat.

Cepheus ubi haec audlvit, magnum dolorem percepit. Volebat tamen elves suos e tanto perlculo extrahere, atque ob earn causam imperata Hammonis facere
constituit.

55

A Human
7.

Sacrifice

Turn rex diem certam dixit et omnia paravit. Ubi ea dies venit, Andromeda ad litus deducta est, et in conspectii omnium ad rupem adligata est. Omnes fatum eius deplorabant, 60 nee lacrimas tenebant. At subito, dum monstrum exspectant, Perseus accurrit et, ubi lacrimas vidit, causam doloris quaerit. 111! rem totam exponunt et puellam demonstrant. Dum haec
;

geruntur, fremitus terribilis auditur


specie procul conspicitur.

simul monstrum horribill

Eius conspectus timorem

maximum 65

256

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


iniecit.

omnibus
dit,

Monstrum magna

celeritate

ad

litus

conten-

iamque ad locum adpropinquabat ubi puella

stabat.

The Rescue
8.

At

quam

Perseus, ubi haec vidit, gladium suum eduxit, et, postTurn desuper in talaria induit, in aera sublatus est.

70 monstrum impetum subito fecit, et gladio suo collum eius graviMonstrum ubi sensit vulnus, fremitum horriter vulneravit. bilem edidit, et sine mora, totum corpus in aquam mersit.

75

reditum eius exspectabat. Mare autem interea undique sanguine Inncitur. Post breve tempus belua rursus caput sustulit mox tamen a Perseo ictu
Perseus

dum

circum

litus

volat,

graviore vulnerata postea, visa est.

est.

Turn iterum

se in

undas mersit, neque

The Reward of Valor


Perseus postquam ad litus descendit, primum talaria exuit Ea autem turn ad rupem venit ubi Andromeda vincta erat.
9.
;

8oomnem spem

salutis deposuerat, et, ubi Perseus adiit, terrore

paene exanimata erat. Ille vincula statim solvit, et puellam Cepheus ob hanc rem maximo gaudio adfectus patrl reddidit.
est.

Meritam gratiam pr5 tanto

beneficio

Perseo rettulit;

Andromedam ipsam el in matrimonium dedit. Ille Paucos annos 85 libenter hoc donum accepit et puellam duxit. cum uxore sua in ea regione habitabat, et in magno honore erat apud omnes Aethiopes. Magnopere tamen matrem suam rursus videre cupiebat. Tandem igitur cum uxore sua e regno
praeterea

Cephei

discessit.

POLYDECTES
90
10.

IS

TURNED TO STONE
adpulit,
se

Postquam Perseus ad Tnsulam navem

ad

locum contulit ubi mater olim habitaverat, sed domum invenit vacuam et omnlno desertam. Tres dies per totam Insulam

ADDITIONAL SUPPLEMENTARY READING


;

257

matrem quaerebat tandem quarto die ad templum Dianae Hue Danae refiigerat, quod Polydectem timebat. pervenit. Perseus ubi haec cognovit, Ira magna commotus est ad regiam 95 Polydectis sine mora contendit, et, ubi eo venit, statim in atrium
;

inrupit.

Polydectes

magno timore

adfectus

est

et

fugere

volebat.
stravit;

Dum
ille

tamen ille fugit, Perseus caput Medusae monautem simul atque hoc vidit, in saxum versus est.

The Oracle Fulfilled


11.
Ille

Post haec Perseus

cum

uxore sua ad urbem AcrisI


terrore adfectus est

rediit. 100
;

nam magno propter oraculum istud nepotem suum adhuc timebat. In Thessaliam igitur ad urbem Larisam statim refugit, friistra tamen neque enim fa turn suum vitavit. Post paucos annos rex Larisae ludos magnos fecit nuntios in omnes partes dimlautem ubi Perseum
vidit,
;
;

105

serat et

diem

edlxerat.

Multl ex omnibus urbibus Graeciae ad

ludos convenerunt.
iniit.

At, dum discum conicit, avum suum casii occldit


inter spectatores eius certaminis forte stabat.

Ipse Perseus inter alios certamen discorum Acrisius


;

enim

TIBERIUS GRACCHUS

AND GAIUS GRACCHUS

Tiberius Gracchus and his brother Gaius were famous Romans, who In the following account, from Lhomond's "Viri Romae," they are represented as rebels, as the aristocratic party of Rome regarded them. As a fact, however, they resorted to revolutionary means only to improve the condition of the common people and make the government democratic.
lived in the second century B.C.
1.

Tiberius et Gaius Gracchi

nep5tes erant. Horum omnium spe exacta est

Sclpi5nis AfricanI ex fllia adulescentia bonis artibus et magna

accedebat educati5.

ad egregiam enim indolem optima Erant enim dlligentia Corneliae matris a


;

puerls doctl et Graecls litterls erudltl.


1

Maximum
p. 262.

matronlss

For notes and special vocabulary, see

258

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


esse llberos

ornamentum
ilia

sapientissima.
sua,

Cum

bene Institutos merito putabat mater Campana matrona, apud illam hospita,

saeculo pulcherrima, ostentaret el muliebriter, Cornelia traxit earn sermone, quo usque e schola. redirent ioliberl. Quos reversos hospitae ostendens, "Haec," inquit, " his adulescentibus ornamenta sunt." Nihil

ornamenta

illo

mea

quidem
;

neque

natiira

neque a doctrlna def uit

sed

ambo rem publicam, quam


creatus,

tuerl poterant, perturbare maluerunt. 2. Tiberius Gracchus, tribiinus plebis


15 descivit
;

senatu
;

popull favorem

profusis largitionibus sibi conciliavit

agros plebl dividebat, provincias novis colonhs replebat. Cum autem tribuniciam potestatem sibi prorogarl vellet, et palam dictitasset interempto senatu omnia per plebem agl debere,

ad regnum pa rare videbatur. Qua re cum convocati 2opatres dehberarent, quidnam faciendum esset, statim Tiberius Capitolium petit, manum ad caput referens, quo signo salutem suam populo commendabat. Hoc nobilitas ita accepit, quasi

viam

sibi

diadema posceret, et Scipio Naslca, cum esset consobrlnus Tiberl Gracchi, patriam cognation! praeferens sublata dextra prou Qu! rem publicam salvam esse volunt, me sequan*5clamavit: " Dein optimates, senatus atque equestris ordinis pars tur
!

maior, in

Gracchum

inruunt, qui fugiens decurrensque cllvo

Capitollno fragmento subselll ictus vltam,

quam

gloriosissime

degere

potuerat,

immatura

morte

flnlvit.

MortuI

Tiberl

30 corpus in
3.

flumen proiectum

est.

vit.

Gaium Gracchum Idem furor, qui fratrem Tiberium,occupaTribunatum enim adeptus, seu vindicandae fraternae

comparandae regiae potentiae causa, pessima coepit maximas largltiones fecit, aerarium efftidit, inlre consilia; frumento plebl dlvidendo tulit, clvitatcm omnibus 35 legem de
Italicls

necis seu

dabat.

His Gracchi

consilils,

quanta poterant conf

maxime Plso, vir rumen tariam dlxisset, Is cum multa contra legem consularis. lege tamen lata, ad frumentum cum ceteris accipiendum venit.
tentione, obsistebant

omnes

bonl, in quibus

ADDITIONAL SUPPLEMENTARY READING

259

Gracchus ubi animadvertit in contione Pisonem stantem, eurri4o


compellavit audiente populo Romano: "Qui tibi constas, Cui Piso, cum ea lege frumentum petas, quam dissuasistl?'
sic
;

Piso,

"Nolim quidem, Gracche,"

inquit,

"mea bona

tibi virltim

dlvidere liceat; sed si fades, partem petam." da to aperte declaravit vir gravis et sapiens, lege,

Quo responso quam tulerat4$

Gracchus, patrimonium publicum dissiparl. 4. Decretum a senatu est, ut videret consul Oplmius, ne quid detrlmentl res piiblica caperet quod nisi in maximo discrlmine
;

decernl non solebat.

tlnum occupavit.

Gaius Gracchus, armata, familia, AvenConsul, vocato ad arma populo, Gaium 50

aggressus est, qui pulsus profugit et, cum iam comprehenderetur, iugulum servo praebuit, qui dominum et mox se super dominl

corpus interemit.
a,

Ut

Tiberl Gracchi antea

corpus, ita Gal


;

in Tiberim deiectum est caput autem amlco Gracchi, ad Oplmium relatum auro repen- 55 Septimuleio, sum fertur. Sunt qui tradant, Infuso plumbo eum partem

mlra crudelitate victorum

capitis,
5.

quo gravius

efficeretur, explesse.

Occlso Tiberio GracchS,

ut in eos, qui

cum senatus consulibus mandasset, cum Graccho consenserant, animadverteretur,

Blossius quldam, Tiberl amicus, pro se deprecatum venit, hanc, 60 ut sibi ignosceretur, causam adferens, quod tantl Gracchum
fecisset, ut,

quidquid

ille vellet, sibi

consul,

"Quid?'

"
inquit,

si

te

faciendum putaret. Turn Gracchus templo Iovis in

Capitolio faces subdere iussisset, obsecuttirusne illlus voluntati " fuistl propter istam, quam iactas, f amiliaritatem ? "Num-65

quam," inquit
,

"

Blossius,

voluisset id quidem, sed

si

voluisset,

pa^^issem.'
6.

Exstat Gal Gracchi e Sardinia


a
:

Romam

reversl oratio, in

Versatus sum in provincia, quomodo qua haec de se narrat ex usu vestr5 esse exlstimabam, non quomodo ambition! meae

70

conducere arbitrabar."
plus
18

Nemo

in

muneribus
fecisse.

me

potest vere dlcere, assem aut eo accepisse aut mea causa, quemquam

sumptum

Zonas,

quas

Roma

proficlscens

plenas

260

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

?5

Alii amphoras, argent! extuli, eas ex provincia inanes rettull. quas vinl plenas extulerunt, eas argento repletas domum

reportarunt.

NOTES AND VOCABULARY


PERSEUS
The numbers
LINE
3.

refer to the lines of text.

nepos, nepotis, grandson,

need, -are, put

to death.

4.

oraculum,

-I,

oracle,

comprehendo, -hendere, -hendi, -hensum,


infans, -fantis, infant,
area, -ae, ark.

seize.
5.

ligneus, -a,
6.

adhuc, adv., still, -um, wooden.

yet.

includo,-cludere,-clusi,-clusum, inclose.
-e,

Danae,

-es, -ae, -en,

Greek noun,

first

decl.,

F.,

Danae

(dan'a-e).
7.

turbo, -are, disturb.


sinus, -us, bosom, lap. tamen, however.
tranquillus, -a,

8.

dormio,

-ire, sleep.

9.

10.
11. 12.

-um, calm.

Seriphus,

-1,

litus, -oris,

F., Seriphos (se-rl'fos). N., sJwre. adpello (ad


rest.

+ pello),

drive

to.

harena,

-ae, sand, shore,


13.
14.

quies, quietis, F.,

piscator, -oris, fisherman.

domum,
benigne,

house; without ad, home.


-cepi,

kindly, excipio, -cipere, tutus, -a, -um, safe. sedes, sedis, F., abode, 17. gratias ago, thank.
15. 19.
23.
24.

-ceptum,

receive.

agebat,

led,

passed.

Danaen,

ace. case,

Greek

first decl.

turpis, -e, disgraceful,

dudum,

ignavus, -a, -um, inactive, lazy. adv., for a long time, adulescens, -entis, a youth,
hie, adv., here.

quo

usque, how long?


25.

praestare, show,

hinc, adv., hence,

abi,

imperative of ab

eo

(go).

28. 29.

continens, -entis, F., mainland, continent.


ignoro, -are, be ignorant
of.

30.

31.
-a,

Graeae, -arum, F. pi., the Graeae. talaria, -ium, N. pi., winged shoes,

galea, -ae, helmet,

magicus,

-um, magic.

ADDITIONAL SUPPLEMENTARY READING


LINE
32.
33.

26 1

falx, falcis, F., sickle,

speculum,

-1,

mirror.
aer, aeris (ace.

induo, -duere, -dui, -dutum, put on; see 457.


air.

a era), M.,
35.
36.

ceteri, -ae, -a, the other.

Gorgo, Gorgonis,
see

F., Gorgon.

species,
-is,

-el,

appearance;

531.

horribilis,

-e,

terrible,

anquis,
37.

M.

or F., serpent.
adj., covered,

contectus, -a, -urn, pred.

aes, aeris, N\, copper,

bronze.

38.
39.

abscido, -cldere, -cidi, -cisum, cut

off.

saxum,
tergum,

-I, stone,
-i,

verto, -ere, verti,

versum, turn.
into,

40.
41.

back.

Inspicio, -spicere, -spexi,

-spectum, look

modus,

-1,

way,

manner.
42.
ictus, -us, blow, stroke.

43. 46.
47.

somnus,

-1, sleep,

excito, -are, arouse.

evado, -vadere, -vasi, -vasum, escape.


Aethiops, -opis, an Aethiopian.
offendd, -fendere, -fendi, -fensum,

49.
51.
52.
sult.

ofend.

pavor, -oris, M., terror, panic.

Hammon,

-onis, M.,

Hammon.

consulo, -ere, -ui, -turn, con-

53.

autem, now.
virgo, virginis, F., maiden, virgin,

54.
55.

formosus, -a, -urn, beautiful.

dolor, -oris, M., grief,

percipio, -cipere, -cepi, -ceptum, feel.

civis, -is (citizen), subject.

56.

extraho, -trahere, -traxi, -tractum, rescue,


rupes, -is, F., rock,

imperatum,

-i,

com-

mand.
60.
cliff,

fatum,

-i,

fate.

deploro, -are, lament.

63. 64.

expono (ex

pono), explain.

65.
66. 69.
70. 71. 72.

fremitus, -us, roar. procul, adv., at a distance.

-iectum, inspire (in). sublatus, participle of tollo. desuper, adv., from above. neck. collum, -1,
inicio, -icere, -ieci,

sentio, sentire, sensi,

edo, -ere, edidi, editum,

sensum, feel. titter, mergo, -ere, mersi, mersum,


reditus, -us, return.
sustulit, perfect of tollo.

dip, plunge. volat 73.


74.

for tense see 605, b.

inficio, -ficere, -feci,

-fectum, stain.

75.

belua^ -ae. F., beast monster,

262
LINE
76.

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

iterum, adv., again,

78.
79.

exuo, -uere, -ui,


vinctus, -a,
adiit,

unda, -ae, wave. -utum, take of, put off.

80. 81.

-um, bound. from ad + eo, approach.


solvo, -ere,
solvi,

exanimatus, -a, -um, exhausted,


reddo, -ere, reddidi, redditum,
_/*//.

solutum,

loosen.
82.
restore,

gaudium, -I, joy. adficio

(ad -ff acid),


83. 86.

gratiam refero, show gratitude.


regio, -onis, F., country, region.

90.

adpello, -pellere, -pull, -pulsum, bring

to.

se contulit,

made

his

way.
91.
92.

invenio (in

+ venio), find.
desertus, -a, -um, deserted.
to this place,

vacuus, -a, -um, empty,


hue, adv.,
atrium,
regia, -ae, palace.
-I, hall.

94.

refugid (re

fugio), flee.

95. 96.

97.
99.

inrumpo, -rumpere, -rupi, -ruptum, burst (into). monstro, -are, show, simul atque, as soon as.
Acrisi, see p. 28, par. 96. oraculum istud, that oracle I told
vito, -are, escape.

100. 102.

you

of.

104. 105. 106.


107.
108.

ludus, -i, game. edico (e died), proclaim.

discus, quoit. iniit, perfect of in -f eo, enter,


-i,

discus,

casus, -us, chance.

TIBERIUS GRACCHUS
1.

AND GAIUS GRACCHUS


:

Gracchi: nom.pl.

Africanus
fHia
:

surname
;

of P. Cornelius Scipio,

the conqueror of Hannibal.


2.

Cornelia

see line 4.

nepos, -potis, grandson,


exigo,
-igere,
-egi,

adulescentia, -ae, youth.


indoles, -is, F., natural

3.

-actum, spend,
litteris, literature,

quality.
5. 6.
7.

pueris, childhood,

erudio, -ire, instruct.

merito, adv., justly.

Campanus,

-a,

-um, Campanian.

apud,

(//

the,

house

of.

hospita,

-ae,

guest..

illo 8. saeculo, of the lime (saeculum). muliebriter, adv., as women will, like a woman.

ostento,

-are,

show.

ADDITIONAL SUPPLEMENTARY READING


LINE
9.

263

traho, -ere, traxi, tractum, detain,

tion,
11.

quo usque,

sermo, -onis, M., conversaused like dum, 605, c. quidem, adv., indeed, adulescens, -entis, M., a youth.
until;

12.

doctrina, -ae, instruction,


tueor, -eri, tutus, protect,
prefer.

ambo,

-ae, -6, adj., both.

13.

tueri poterant, might have protected.

maid, malle, malui,


14.

" " tribune of the in 133 B.C. The tribunes people were originally appointed to protect the common people, but graduallyacquired other powers.

Tiberius was

15.

descisco, -sciscere, -scivi, -scitum, withdraw,

favor, -oris, M.,

favor,
16.

profusus, -a, -urn, lavish,


colonia, -ae, colony; coloniis
fill

largitio, -onis, F., generosity.


:

abl. of

means,

repleo, -ere, -evi,

-etum,
17.

tip.

The

prorogo, -are, prolong, extend. be held for two successive years, could not lawfully tribuneship
dictito,

tribunicius, -a, -urn, of a tribune,

palam, adv., openly.


18.
kill.

-are,

say often,

interimo, -imere, -emi, -emptum,

19. 20.
21.

qua

re, therefore.
:

patres

i.e.

the senators,
-1,

quidnam, what?
referens, raising.

Capitolium,

the Capitol,

22.

commendo,
if.

-are,

entrust,

nobilitas,

the

aristocrats,

quasi,

conj., as
23.
-1,

diadema,

-atis, N., royal

crown,

cum,

although,

consobrinus,
out.

cousin.
24.
25.

cognatio, -onis, F., relationship,


salvus, -a, -urn, safe,

proclamo, -are, cry sequantur, let them follow.

26.

order;
27.

dein, adv., then, optimas, -atis, M., aristocrat, ordo, -inis, M., equestris ordinis, of the equestrian order, i.e. the knights.
inruo, -mere, -rui,

make an

attack,

clivo

Capitolino,

by the

ascent (clivus) to the Capitol.


28.

subsellium,

-I,

bench, low seat.


sitting,
strike.

on which they had been


ments.
29.

The senators broke up the seats and armed themselves with the fragdegere potuerat, might have spent.

ic6, -ere, ici,

ictum,

dego, -ere, degi, spend; immaturus, -a, -urn, untimely.


31. 32.

furor, -oris, M., madness, frenzy.

tribunatus, -us, M., tribuneship.


-I,

Gaius was tribune


seu, whether
.
. .

in 123 B.C.

adipiscor,

adeptus, obtain,

seu

or.

vindico,

-are, avenge,

fraternus, -a, -urn, of a brother.

264
LINE
34.

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

inire
-I,

(from in
proposed.

eo),

enter upon, undertake,

largitiones,

gifts.

aerarium,
35.
36.

public money,

effundo, -fundere, -fudi, -fusum, waste.


contentio, -onis, F.,

tulit,

Italicus, -i,

an

Italian,
-stiti,

effort.
lit.,

37.

obsisto, -sistere,

-stitum, oppose,

boni, the aristocrats;

the good men.


38.

consularis, -e, of consular rank,

cum, although,
notice,

frumentariam,
contio, -onis,

concerning grain.
40.

animadverto, -vertere, -verti, -versum,


compello, -are, address,

F., mass-meeting, assembly. 41.

qui tibi constas, how are you consistent?

42.
43.

dissuadeo, -suadere, -suasi, -suasum, advise against. nolim quidem tibi liceat, / shouldn't like you to be allowed.
:

Gracche
44.
45.

see 551.

viritim, adv.,
share.

man

by man,

to

each

man

separately.

partem,

my

gravis, of authority.

46.

patrimonium publicum,

the state's inheritance, the

money

in

the

treasury,
47.
48.

dissipo, -are, squander.

decerno, -cernere, -crevi, -cretum, decree. detrimentum, -i, injury, caperet, should suffer, discrimen, -inis, N., crisis, peril. soleo, -ere, solitus, be accustomed. 49. Aventinus, -i, the Aventine,

one

of the hills of

Rome.
comprehenderetur, was on
-ui, -itum, hold forth, expose.

51.

aggredior, -gredi, -gressus, attack,

the point of being taken.


52.

iugulum,

-i,

throat,

praebeo, -ere,

54.
55.

crudelitas, -tatis, F., cruelty.

rependo, -pendere, -pendi, -pensum, pay with the same weight; repensum supply esse. infundo, -fundere, -fudi, -fusiun, pour into. fertur, is reported, 56.
:

plumbum,
57.

-i,

lead,

eum
511,
a.

i.e.

Septimulcius.

-evi,

quo: -etum,

see
fill

efficeretur,

might

be

made,

expleo, -ere,

up ; explesse

explevisse.

consentio, -sentire, -sensi, -sensum, conspire, 59. punishment should be inflicted.


60.
61. 62.
64.

animadverteretur,

deprecatum,

to plead,

supine of deprecor.
given.

ignosceretur,

that

pardon be

quidquid, whatever.
faces subdere,
to set

f re

to.

obsecuturusne

fuisti,

would you have

yielded ?

ADDITIONAL SUPPLEMENTARY READING


LINE
65.

265

iacto, -are, boast of.

68. 69.
70.
71.

ex

-f sto, exist, be.

oratio

Gaius was famous for his oratory.

versor, -arl, -atus, conduct oneself,

quomodo,
as, assis,

adv., as.

ambitio, -onis, F., ambition.

conducere,
cent," as

serve,

be profitable,

M., penny; assem,

" a red
72.

we might

say.

munus,
belt,

-eris, N., service, office.


to

73.

sumptus, -us, M., expense; sumptum fecisse, was put


money-belt.
inanis, -e, empty,

expense.

zona, -ae,
74. 75.

amphora, -ae,
filled.

jar.

repletus, -a,

-um,

APPENDIX
NOUNS
I.

FIRST DECLENSION
tuba, F., trumpet

268

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


Plural

Nom.
Gen. Dat. Ace. Abl.

consules

victores

patres

nationes

homines

consulum
consulibus consules consulibus

victorum
victoribus victores victoribus

patrum
patribus patres patribus

nationum
nationibus nationes nationibus

hominum
hominibus homines hominibus

rex,

M.

dux,

M.

pes,

M.

miles,

M.

llbertas, F.
liberty

king

leader

foot

soldier

Singular

Nom
Gen. Dat. Ace.
Abl.

rex
regis
regi

dux
ducis duci

pes pedis pedi

miles
mllitis
militi

llbertas libertatis llbertati

regem
rege

ducem
duce

pedem
pede
Plural

militem
mllite

libertatem
libertate

Gen. Dat. Ace.

Nom. reges regum


regibus reges regibus

duces

pedes

ducum
ducibus duces ducibus

pedum
pedibus pedes pedibus

A bl.

milites mili turn mllitibus milites mllitibus

libertates

libertatum
llbertatibus libertates llbertatibus

flumen, N.
river

opus, N. work

tempus, N.
time

caput, N. head

Singular

Nom.
Gen. Dat. Ace.
Abl.

flumen
fluminis flumini

opus
operis operi

tempus tempo ris


tempori

caput
capitis capiti

flumen
flumine

opus
opere

tempus tempore

caput
capite

Plural

Nom.
Gen. Dat. Ace.
Abl.

flumina

opera

tempora

capita

fluminum
fluminibus flumina fluminibus

operum
operibus opera operibus

temporum
temporibus tempora temporibus

capitum
capitibus capita capitibus

APPENDIX
6.

269

270

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


Plural

Nom.

APPENDIX
12.

271

272

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

THIRD DECLENSION
14.

acer, sharp

Singular

Plural
N.
acre
acris acri

M.

F.

M.
acres

F.

N.
acria

Nom.
Gen. Dat. Ace.
Abl.

acer
acris acri

acris acris
acri

acres

acnum

acnum

acnum

acrem
acri

acrem
acri

acre
acri

acribus acribus acribus acres (-is) acres (-is) acria acribus acribus acribus

15.

fortis, brave

APPENDIX
18.

273

SPECIAL ADJECTIVES
vetus, old

274
20.

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES


Positive

Comparative
melior, better
peior, worse maior, greater

Superlative

bonus, good malus, bad

optimus, best pessimus, worst

magnus,
parvus, multus,
iuvenis,

great

little

minor,

less

maximus, greatest minimus, least


plurimus, most maximus natu, oldest minimus natu, youngest maxime idoneus

much
young

senex, old

plus, more senior, older


iunior, younger

idoneus, suitable exterus, outward


Inferus, below

magis idoneus
exterior, outer, exterior
Inferior, lower

extremus extimus
Infimus
)

"I

outermost,
last

posterus, following

posterior, later

lmus postremus postumus

lowest
"I

superus, above
[cis, citra,

superior, higher
citerior, hither interior, inner

supremusj summus J

on

this side]

[in,

intra, in, within]

citimus, hithermosf intimus, inmost

[prae, pro, before] [prope, near]


[ultra, beyond]

prior,

former

propior, nearer ulterior, farther

primus, first proximus, next


ultimus, farthest

ADVERBS
21.

REGULAR COMPARISON OF ADVERBS


Positive

Comparative
latius
llberius

Superlative
latissime llberrime

late,

widely

llbere, freely

acriter, sharply
facile, easily

acrius
facilius

acerrime
facillime

sapienter, wisely

sapientius

sapientissime

22.

IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADVERBS


Positive

Comparative
melius, better
peius, worse magis, more

Superlative
optime, best pessime, worst maxime, most plurimum, most

bene, well

male, badly,

ill

magnopere,

greatly

multum, much parum, little


diu, long (in time)

more minus, less


plus,

minime,

least

diutius, longer

prope, near saepe, often

propius, nearer saepius, oftener

diutissime, longest proxime, next

saepissime, oftenest

APPENDIX
23-

275

276

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

278

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

APPENDIX
Imperfect
Imperfect

279

amabam, / was
love love

loving, loved, did


loved, did

amabar, / was

{being) loved

amabas, you were loving,

amabaris, you were {being) loved

amabaXyliewas loving, loved, did love

amabatur, he was {being) loved

amabamus, we were
did love did love

loving, loved,

amabamur, we were

{being) loved {being) loved {being) loved

amabatis, you were loving, loved,

amabamini, you were


amabantur, they were
Future

amabant, they were


did love

loving, loved,

Future

amabo, /

shall love

amabor, I

shall be loved

amabis, you will love amabit, lie will love

amaberis, you will be loved amabitur, he will be lovod

amabimus, we
amabunt, they

shall love
will love

amabimur, we

shall be loved

amabitis, you will love

amabimini, you will be loved amabuntur, they will be loved


Perfect

Perfect

amavi, / have loved, loved, did love


amavisti, you have loved, loved, did
love

amatus sum, / have been was loved amatus es, you have been
were loved

loved,
loved,

amavit, he has loved, loved, did love

amatus
loved

est, he

has been loved, was

amavimus, we have
did love

loved, loved,

amati sumus, we have been


were loved

loved,

amavistis, you have loved, loved, did love amaverunt, they have loved, loved, did love
Pluperfect

amati

estis,

you have been


t/tey

loved,'

were loved

amati sunt,
were loved

have been loved,

Pluperfect

amaveram, / had loved amaveras, you had loved amaverat, he had loved
amaveramus, we had
loved

amatus eram, / had. been loved amatus eras, you had been loved amatus erat, he had been loved
amati eramus, we had been loved amati eratis, you had been loved amati erant, they had been loved

amaveratis, you had loved

amaverant, they had loved

280

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


Future Perfect Future Perfect

amavero, / shall have loved amaveris, you will have loved


amaverit, he will have loved

amatus amatus
loved

ero, / shall have been loved eris, you will have been

amatus erit, he will have been loved


amati erimus, we shall have been
loved

amaverimus, we
amaventis, you

shall have loved

will have loved

amati
loved

eritis,

you

will have been

amaverint, they will have loved


Subjunctive Active

amati erunt, they


loved

will have been

APPENDIX
Participles Active
Pres.

28l
Participles Passive

amans, loving
amaturus, about
to love

Ferf.

amatus, having been


loved

loved,

Fut.

Fut.

amandus,

to be

loved (Ge-

rundive)

Gerund
Gen. Dat. Ace.
Abl.

Supine (Active)

amandi, of loving

amando, for

amandum,
amando,

loving loving by loving

Ace. Abl.

amatum,
amatu,

to love

to love

35.

SECOND, THIKD, AND FOURTH CONJUGATIONS


Active Voice
Principal Parts

moneo, monere, monui, monitum, warn,


rego, regere, rexi, rectum, rule capio, capere, cepi, captum, take audio, audire, audivi, auditum, hear

advise

282

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


Perfect

monui
monuisti

monuit

APPENDIX
Perfect

283

monuenm
monueris monuerit

284
36.

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

SECOND, THIRD, AND FOURTH CONJUGATIONS


Passive Voice
Principal Parts

moneor, moneri, monitus sum, be warned, regor, regi, rectus sum, be ruled capior, capi, captus sum, be taken audior, audiri, auditus sum, be heard

be advised

APPENDIX
Pluperfect

285

monitus eram monitus eras monitus erat

286

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


Pluperfect

monitus essem monitus esses monitus esset


moniti essemus moniti essetis moniti essent

rectus essem rectus esses rectus esset


recti
recti

captus essem captus esses captus esset


capti essemus capti essetis capti essent

audltus essem audltus esses auditus esset


auditi essemus audlti essetis auditi essent

essemus
essent

recti essetis

Imperative Mood, Present Tense


Sing. monere Plur. monemini

regere regimini
Infinitive

capere capimini

audlre audimini

moneri Perf. monitus esse


Pres.

regi

capi

audlri

rectus esse

captus esse

auditus esse

Fut.

monitum

iri

rectum

iri

captum

iri

auditum
audltus

iri

Participles
Perf. monitus

rectus

Fut.

monendus

regendus

captus capiendus

audiendus

DEPONENT VERBS
37.
First Conjugation

Principal Parts
conor, conari, conatus sum, try

Indicative
conor, /
try,

Present

Subjunctive

am

trying, do try

coner
coneris

conaris, you try, are trying, do try conatur, he tries, is trying, does try

conetur

conamur, we try, are trying, do try conamini, you try, are trying, do try
conantur, they
try,

conemur
conemini conentur

are trying, do try

Imperfect did / was try conabar, trying, tried, conabaris, you were trying, tried, did try conabatur, he was trying, tried, did try

c5narer
conareris conaretur

conabamur, we were trying, tried, did try conabamini, you were trying, tried, did try
conabantur, they were trying,
tried,

conaremur
conaremini conarentur

did try

APPENDIX
Future
conabor, I shall try conaberis, you will try
conabitur, he will try

287

conabimur, we shall try conabimini, you will try conabuntur, they will try
Perfect

conatus stun, / have tried, tried, did try conatus es, you have tried, tried, did try conatus est, he has tried, tried, did try
conati sumus, we have tried, tried, did try conati estis, you have tried, tried, did try conati sunt, they have tried, tried, did try
Pluperfect

conatus sun conatus sis conatus sit


conati simus conati sitis conati sint

conatus eram, I had tried conatus eras, you had tried conatus erat, he had tried
conati eramus, we had tried conati eratis, you had tried conati erant, they had tried

conatus essem conatus esses conatus esset


conati essemus conati essetis conati essent

Future Perfect

conatus erd, / shall have tried conatus eris, you will have tried conatus erit, he will have tried
conati erimus, we shall have tried conati eritis, you will have tried conati erunt, they will have tried

Present Imperative
Sing, cdnare, try (thou)
Infinitive
Pres.
Perf.

Plur. conamini, try (ye)

Fut.

conari, to try conatus esse, to have tried conaturus esse, to be about to try

Participles
Pres. conans, trying Fut. Act. conaturus, about
to try

conatus, having tried Perf. Fut. Pass, conandus, to be tried

288

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


Gerund
Gen. Dat. Ace. Abl. conandi, of trying

Supine

conando, for trying

conandum,

trying

conatum,
conatu,

to try

conando, by trying

to try

38.

Second, Third, and Fourth Conjugations


Principal Parts
vereor, vereri, veritus sum, fear utor, uti, usus sum, use patior, pati, passus sum, allow, suffer
potior, potiri, potitus

sum,

get possession of

APPENDIX
Participles
Pres. Fut. Act.
Perf.

289

verens
veriturus veritus

uteris

Fut. Pass, verendus

usurus usus utendus

patiens passurus passus

potiens potlturus potltus

patiendus

potiendus

Gerund
verendl

utendl Supine

patiendi

potiendi

ventum

usum

passum

potltum

IRREGULAR VERBS
39-

sum, am

be
ful,

Principal Parts: sum, esse,

futurus

Indicative

Present

Singular

Plural
sumus, we are estis, you are
sunt, they are

sum, / am es, you are


est, he (she, it) is

Imperfect

eram, / was eras, you were


erat, he

was

eramus, we were eratis, you were erant. they were

Future
ero,
eris, erit,

/ shall be

erimus, we shall be
eritis,

you

will be

you

will be

he will be

erunt,
Perfect

tliey will be

I have been, was fuisti, you have been, were


ful, fuit,

fuistis.

he has been,

was

fuimus. we have been, were you have been, were fuerunt, they have been, were

Pluperfect

fueram, / had been fueras, thou hadst been


fuerat, he had been

fueramus, we had been

you )tad been fuerant, they had been


fueratis,

290

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


Future Perfect

fuero,

shall have been

APPENDIX
Perfect

291

potui,

/ have been

able,

I could

potuimus, we have been


could
potuistis,

able,

we
you

potuisti,

you have been

able,

you

you have been

able,

could
potuit, he has been able, he could

could

potuerunt, they have been


could

able, tliey

Pluperfect

potueram, / had been able potueras, ycu had been able potuerat, he had been able

potueramus, we had been able potueratis, you had been able potuerant, they had been able

Future Perfect
potuero, I shall have been able potueris, you will have been able potuerit, he will have been able

potuerimus, we shall have been able


potueritis,

you will have been able potuerint, they will have been able

Subjunctive
Present

Imperfect

Singular

Plural
possimus
possitis

Singular

Plural

possim
possis possit

possint

2Q2
41,

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


fio, be

made, be done
fio, fieri, factus

Principal Parts:

sum

APPENDIX
Pluperfect

93

ieram

2Q4

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


Future

feram
feres
feret

APPENDIX
Indicative

295

296
46.

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

ACTIVE PERIPHRASTIC CONJUGATION laudaturus sum, / am about to praise

47-

RULES OF SYNTAX
49. Nominative Case.

297

subject of a finite verb is in the nominative case. (26) predicate noun is in the nominative case after the verbs be, become, seem, and the passive verbs be made, be called, be chosen, and the like. (99 and 191, a)
1.

The

2.

50.

Vocative Case.
of the person or thing addressed
is

The name
(5Si)

in the vocative case.

51.
1.

Genitive Case.

A noun limiting the meaning of another noun, and not denotsame person or thing, is in the genitive case. (General rule.) the ing 2. A word denoting the owner or the possessor is in the genitive
case.
3.

(51)

genitive may denote the whole, depending on a word de(530) 4. The genitive of a noun, with an adjective in agreement, may be used to describe another noun. (532) 5. The genitive is used with certain nouns and adjectives to denote the object of an action or feeling implied. (353)

The

noting a part.

a. The nouns and adjectives so used denote memory, fulness, or their opposites.

desire, knowledge,

52.

Dative Case.

1. The dative of the indirect object is used with transitive verbs, in connection with the accusative of the direct object. (60) 2. The dative of the indirect object is used with verbs meaning

favor, help, please, trust, and their opposites; believe, persuade, command, obey, serve, resist; envy, threaten, pardon, spare. These verbs in Latin may be intransitive. (437)
3.

The dative
(457)

of the indirect object

is

used with some verbs comsub,

pounded with ad, ante, con, de,


super.
4.

in, inter, ob, post, prae, pro,

The dative
The dative

is

used with the verb

sum

to denote the possessor.

(459)
5.

is

used with the passive periphrastic conjugation


(574)

to denote the agent.


6.

The dative

is

used with adjectives meaning near,

like, equal,

friendly, pleasing, suitable,

and

their opposites.

(246)

53. Accusative Case.


1.

2.

The direct object of a verb is in the accusative case. (42) The verbs name, call, choose, make, and the like, take two

298

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR

tive.

accusatives, one of the direct object, the other a predicate accusa(191) 3. The accusative is used with certain prepositions, forming prepis

ositional phrases. (541) 4. The place to which

regularly expressed

by the accusative

with ad or in
osition
5.

but with names of towns, domus, and rus, the prep(282)

is

omitted.

6.
7.

The accusative is used to denote duration of time. (291) The accusative is used to denote extent of space. (523) The subject of an infinitive is in the accusative case. (342)

54. Ablative Case.


1
.

The

ablative

is

used with certain prepositions, forming prepo-

sitional phrases.
2.

(541)

The means

or instrument of
(66)

an action

is

expressed by the abla-

tive without a preposition.


3.

Accompaniment is expressed by the ablative with the preposicum. (136) 4. The manner of an action may be expressed by the ablative with cum, but cum may be omitted if an adjective modifies the
tion

noun.
5.

(137)

With a passive verb the person by whom an expressed by the ablative with a or ab. (150)
6.

act

is

performed

is

Verbs denoting separation require an ablative to complete meaning, with or without ab, de, or ex. (221) 7. The place from which is regularly expressed by the ablative with ab, de, or ex; but with names of towns, domus, and rus, the
their
is omitted. (281) place in which is regularly expressed by the ablative with the preposition in; but the locative case is used for domus, rus, and the names of towns in the singular number. (279 and 280) 9. Time when or within which anything is or is done is expressed by the ablative without a preposition. (292) 10. The ablative without a preposition is used to express cause or reason. (362) n. The ablative without a preposition is used to show in what respect the meaning of a verb, noun, or adjective applies. (378) 12. The ablative is used with the deponent verbs utor, fruor, fungor, potior, and vescor. (403)

preposition
8.

The

13. A comparative without quam is followed by the ablative; but when quam is used the words denoting the things compared

are in the
14.

same

case.
is

(472)

The

ablative
(473)

used with comparatives to express the measure

of difference.

RULES OF SYNTAX

299

15. The ablative of a noun, with an adjective in agreement, may be used to describe a noun. (532) 16. A noun or pronoun in the ablative, with a noun, an adjective, or a participle in agreement, may be used to express time, cause,

condition, or other relation.

(565)

55.
1.

Noun

Clauses.
1

noun clauses introduced by ut or ne, and having the verb in the subjunctive, depend on verbs meaning advise, command, demand, induce, permit, persuade, urge. (439) 2. Noun clauses of result introduced by ut or ut non, and having the verb in the subjunctive, depend on verbs meaning happen,
Volitive

accomplish, cause.

(448)

56. Adverbial Clauses.


1. Clauses expressing the purpose of an action take the subjunctive with ut, ne, quo, or a relative. (420) 2. Clauses expressing the result of an action take the subjunctive with ut or ut non. (447) 3. Temporal clauses with postquam or ubi take the perfect indicative. (310, a) 4. Temporal clauses with cum take the subjunctive imperfect or pluperfect to describe the circumstances of an action. (513) 5. Temporal clauses with dum, meaning while or as long as, take the indicative. (605, a, b) 6. Temporal clauses with dum, until, or priusquam, take the indicative of an actual event, but the subjunctive of an expected event.

(605, c)
7. Causal clauses with quod take the indicative to state the reason of the speaker or writer; the subjunctive, to state the reason of another. (612, a) 8. Causal clauses with cum take the subjunctive. (612, b) 9. Conditional sentences take the indicative in both clauses,

when
10.

when
(621)
57.
1.

the condition is stated as a fact. (621) Conditional sentences take the subjunctive in both clauses, the condition is stated as less probable, or contrary to fact.

Infinitive.

An

infinitive

may

be used to complete the meaning of another

verb, as, be able, begin, dare, decide, hasten, hesitate, prepare, ought, (no) seem, wish, 2. An infinitive with subject accusative is used with verbs meaning say, think, know, perceive. (343)
1

Expressing an act wanted.

3
58.

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


Sequence
of Tenses.

In complex sentences primary tenses are used in clauses that depend upon primary tenses, secondary tenses in clauses that depend upon secondary tenses. (430)
59.
1.

Questions and Answers. Questions may be introduced by interrogative pronouns,


or
(197, 198, a)

in-

terrogative adjectives,

interrogative adverbs, especially -ne,

nonne, or num.
2.
if

Questions

negative), or
3.

non, no,

be answered by repeating the verb (with non, by using the adverbs certe, certainly, ita, so, yes, minime, by no means. (198)

may

An

indirect question has its verb in the subjunctive.

(502)

60.

Order

of

Words.

The normal order of words in a Latin sen1. General Rule. tence is (1) the subject, (2) the modifiers of the subject, (3) the modifiers of the verb, (4) the verb. (68) 2. A genitive normally follows the noun that it limits. (50, a) direct stands before the indirect An object. object normally 3.
(59, b)

An ablative normally precedes the object and other modifiers the verb. (68, b) of A vocative normally follows one or more words of the sentence. 5.
4.

(SSi, *)
6.

adjective normally follows its noun. Adjectives of quan(22 and tity and demonstrative adjectives precede their nouns. page 75, footnote) 7. An adverb normally stands just before the word it modifies.
(68, c)
8.

An

Any word becomes


(68)

emphatic by standing out of

its

normal po-

sition.
9.

Special words: Causa follows a genitive; the adjective R6follows its noun; fere usually follows the word it modifies; one or more words of a quotation. follows inquit 10. A preposition of one syllable often stands between its noun and a modifying adjective. (Page 40, footnote) 11. The preposition cum, when used with a personal, reflexive, or relative pronoun, follows the pronoun and is joined to it as an

manus

enclitic.

(18)

VOCABULARIES

ABBREVIATIONS
abl
3,cc

ablative

interrog
lit

interrogative
literally

accusative
adjective

adj

loc

locative
. .
.

adv

adverb

M., masc.
N., neut

masculine
neuter

comp
conj dat

comparative
conjunction dative
defective

nom
obj

nominative
object
participle

def

part

dem
dep

demonstrative

pass
perj
pi.,

passive
perfect

deponent
feminine
future

F.,fem
jut.
jut.

plur

plural

plup
poss

pluperfect
possessive

future perfect
genitive

gen

pred

predicate
preposition

imper

imperative

prep
pres

impers

impersonal
imperfect
indeclinable

present

impf
indecl
indej.

pron
ret

pronoun
relative

.....

indefinite

sing.

......

singular

ind
inj.

indicative
infinitive

subj

subjunctive
superlative

sup

In the English pronunciation of proper names the sounds of the vowels are as follows:
i
.

2.

a as in jat a as in j'ate a as in jar a as in jail

1.

2.

as in pin as in pine

3.

4.
5.

1.

o as in not 6 as in note
as in democrat

a as in idea
e as in met e as in

2.

3.
1.
2.

4.

o as in move

me
1.

3. e as in episcopal 4. e as in her 5. e as in prudent

2.

3.

u u u

as in tub as in mute as in singular

302

LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY
acriter, adv., sharply, fiercely.
a, ab,

prep. w. abl.,
by,

away from,

ad,

prep.

w.

ace,

to,

toward,
to.

on the side of; as adv., from, as a prefix, away. off; abdo, -dere, -didi, -ditum [ab+do],
put away, hide.

till,

against, near; adv. (w. nu-

merals), about; as prefix,

addo,

addidi, + [ad do], give to, add.

addere,

additum

abduco, -ducere, -duxi, -ductum [ab + duco], lead away. abicio, -icere, -ieel, -iectum [ab +
iacio],

addiico, -ducere, -duxi, -ductum [ad + duco], lead to, bring to, influence.

throw away.

adfero, adferre, attuli, adlatum[ad


+fero], bring
to, offer.

abstineo, -tinere, -tinui, -tentum

[ab+teneo], hold from, keep from,


restrain.

adgredior,

-gredi,

-gressus

sum

[ad+gradior,
aful

step, go], dep., go

absum, abesse,
away,

[ab+sum],

be

toward, attack.

be distant.

adiungo, -iungere, -iunxi, -iunc-

ac, and, used only before conso-

tum

[ad-fiungo], join
to, tie to.

to,

add.

nants; see atque.

adligo, -are, -avi,


bind], bind

-atum [ad+ligo,

accedo, -cedere, -cessi, -cessum


[ad + cedo, make way], go
to,

ap-

proach, be added.
accido, -cidere, -cidi,
cado], fall
to,

admitto, -mittere, -misl, -missum [ad+mitto], send to, let in, let go,
allow;
speed.

[ad+
happen;

equo admisso,

at

full

befall,
it

accidit, impers.,

happens.

admoveo, -movere, -movi, -mo-

accipio, -cipere, -cepi, -ceptum [ad +capio], take to, receive, accept;
hear.

tum

[ad + moved],

bring

to,

apply, move up.


adorior, -oriri, -ortus

sum [ad+

accurro, -currere, -curri (-cucurri),

orior, rise], dep., rise against, aU,


tack.

-cursum
hasten
to.

[ad+curro],

run

to,

accuso, -are, -avi, -atum, accuse,


find fault with.
acer, acris, acre, sharp, keen, active. acerbus, -a, -um, bitter, sour.
acies, -el, f., edge, line, battle line,

adpropinquo, see appropinquo. adsum, -esse, -fui [ad + sum], be

at

hand, be near, be present. adventus, -us, m. [venio], a coming


to,

arrival,

approach.

adversus, -a,
33

-um

[adverto], ad-

army.

verse, opposite, unfavorable.

34

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


amoved, -movere, -movi, -mdtum [a+moveo], take away.
amplius (comp. of ample), adv.,
-i,

advertd, -vertere, -verti, -versum [ad+verto, turn], turn to, turn


toward.

aedificium,

n., a building.

farther, longer, more.

aedifico, -are, -avi,

-atum [aedes,

amplus,

-a,

-um,

large,

ample.

house, facio], build.

Aeneas, Aeneae,
aestas, -tatis,
f.,

h., Aene'as.

angustiae, -arum, f. [angustus], narrowness, a narrow pass.

summer.

ager, agri, m., field, territory.

angustus, -a, -um, narrow. animal, animalis, n., animal.

agmen, -inis, N., an army (on the novissimum agmen, march) the rear (of an army). ago, agere, egi, actum, put in mo;

animus,
annus,
ante,

-i,

m., soul,

mind, feeling,

spirit, courage.
-i,

m., a year.

adv.,

or

prep.

w.

ace,

tion, drive, do, discourse.

before.

agricola, -ae, m., farmer.


ala, -ae, f., wing.

antea, adv., before, formerly.

antiquus, -a,

-um

[ante], ancient,

alienus, -a, -urn [alius], another's,


foreign, unfavorable.

former. apertus, -a, -um, open, exposed, unprotected.

aliquando, adv., sometime, once.


aliquis (-qui) , -qua, -quid (-quod) , indef. pron., some, any.
alius,
-a,

appareo, -ere,

-ui,

appear.

-ud, another, other

(of

appello, -are, -avi, -atum, call (byname), address.

more than two). Allobroges, -um, m.,


Alpes, -ium,
alter,
f., the

the Allobroges

appeto, -petere, -petivi, -petitum [ad+peto], seek for, have a desire


for.

(a-lob'ro-jez), a Gallic tribe.

Alps.
the

-era,
;

-erum,

two)
the

alter

other

(of

alter, the one

other;

pi.,

one party

appropinquo, -are, -avi, -atum [ad +propinquo], draw near to, approach.
Aprilis, -e, of April.

the

other.

apud, prep. w. ace, among, near,


-inis,
f.

altitudo,

[altus],

height,

at,

depth.

aqua, -ae,

with, in the presence f., water.

of.

-um, high, deep. amicitia, -ae, f. [amicus], friendaltus, -a,

Aquileia, -ae, f., Aquileia (ak-wile'ya), a town at the head of the


Adriatic.

ship.

amicus,

-a,

-um, friendly ;

as noun,

m., friend.

Aquitani, -drum, m., the Aquitaui (ak-wi-ta'ni), Aquitanians, a

amitto, -mittere, -misi,

-missum
let go, lose.

nation of southern Gaul.


Aquitania, -ae, f., Aquitania. Arar, Araris, m., the Sadne (son), a river of Gaul.

[a+mitto], send away,

amo, -are, -avi, -atum, amor, -oris, m., love.

love.

VOCABULARY
arbitror,

35

-an,

-atus

sum,

dep.,

B
beatus, -a, -um, happy.

think, judge.

arbor, arboris,

f., tree.
,

Belgae,
silver.

arced, -ere, -ui,

keep of.

argenteus, -a, -um, of silver,

argentum, -i, N., silver. drma, -drum, n. arms (equipment) anno, -are, -avi, -atum, arm, equip.
.
,

the Belgae nation of a (bel'je), Belgians, northern Gaul. bellicosus, -a, -um [bellum], war-

-arum,

m.,

like.

ars, artis, f., art.

ascendo, ascendere, ascendi, as-

bellum, -i, n., war. bene, adv. [bonus],


beneficium,
Bibracte,
-i, n.,

well.

well-doing, kind-

censum,
ascent.

climb, ascend.

ness, benefit.
-is,

ascensus, -us, m., a climbing up,


at, conj., but.

n.,

Bibracte

(bi-

atque

(ac), conj.,

and

brak'te), a town of the Haedui. biduum, -i, n. [dies], two days.


also, as.

attingo,

-tingere,

-tigi,

-tactum

bonitas, -tatis,

f.

[bonus], goodness,

excellence; fertility.

[ad+tango, touch], touch upon, border upon, reach.


auctoritas, -tatis,
thority, advice.
f.,

influence, au-

bonus, -a, -um, good. bos, bovis (gen. pi., bourn), m. or


f., ox,

cow;

pi., cattle.

brevis, -e, short.

audacia, -ae,

f.

[audax], boldness.
bold.

audacter, adv., boldly.

Britanni, -orum, m., the Britons. Britannia, -ae, f., Britain.

audax, audacis,
audio, -ire,
-ivi,

Brutus,

-i,

m., Brutus.

-itum, hear.

aureus, -a, -um, of gold, golden.

aurum,

-I, n.,

gold.

aut,conj.,or;aut

aut,

either

or.

cado, cadere, cecidi, casum,

fall.

autem, conj., on

the other hand, but,

caelum,

-i, x.,

sky, heavens.

furthermore, besides. auxilium, -I, n., help, aid;


iliaries.

Caesar, Caesaris, m., Gains Julius


pi.,

aux-

Caesar, a

Roman general, stateswriter;

man and
of

born ioo

B.C.,

avarus, -a, -um, greedy.


averto, -vertere, -verti, -versum [a+verto, turn], turn of, turn

assassinated 44 B.C.;

governor

Gaul 58-49

B.C.

calamitas,

-tatis, f., disaster, defeat.

away,

retreat.

calor, -oris, m., heat,

warmth.

avis, avis, f., bird.

campus,

-i,

m., plain, field.

avolo, -are, -avi,


fly], fly

-atum

[a

+ void,

canis, canis, m., dog.

away.
f., the

canto, -are, -avi, -atum, sing.

avus,

-i,

m., grandfather.

cantus, -us, m., song.


capio, capere, cepi, captum, take,
seize.

Axona, -ae,

Aisne (an), a

river of Gaul.

306
captivus,
-i,

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


m.
[capio],

captive,

circum,

prisoner.

prep. w. ace, around f about; as prefix, around.

caput, capitis, N., head.


carrus,
-I,

m., cart.

Carthago, -inis, f., Carthage, a city in northern Africa.

circumduco, -diicere, -duxi, -ductum [circum +duco], lead around. circumvenid, -venire, -veni, -ventum come [circum +venio],
around, surround.
citerior, -ius,

cams,

-a, -urn, dear.


-I,

Cassius,

m.,

Lucius Cassius, a
redoubt.

comp.

adj.

(citra),

Roman
castellum,

general.
-I, n., fort,

nearer, hither.
citra, adv.,

or prep. w. ace, this

Casticus, -I, m., Casticus, a chief of the Sequani.


castra, -orum,
n. [castrum, fort],

side (of), within.


civis, civis, m., citizen.

civitas, -atis, f. (civis), citizenship,


state, tribe, citizens.

camp. Cauda, -ae,


causa, -ae,

f., tail.
f.,

clamor, -oris, m., shouting, clamor.


clarus, -a, -urn, clear, bright; fa-

cause; abl., causa,

for the sake.

mous.
classis, classis, f., fleet.

cedd, cedere, cessi, cessum, go from, go away, depart.


celer, celeris, celere, quick, rapid.
celeritas, -tatis,
ness, speed.
f.

claudo, claudere, clausi, clausum,


shut, close.

[celer], quick-

cliens, -entis, m. or f., client, vassal; patient.

celeriter

(celerius,

celerrime) ,

adv., quickly. Celtae, -arum, m., the Celts, inhabitants of central Gaul.

coemo, -emere, -emi, -emptum [con+emo], buy up, purchase.


coepi, coepisse, def. verb, began.

coerceo, -ere, -ui, -itum, control,


restrain, check.

census, -us, m., enumeration, census.

cognosco, -gnoscere, -gnovi, -gniindecl. adj., hundred.

centum,
turion,

centurio, -onis, m. [centum], cen-

commander of a hundred.
f.,

cera, -ae,

wax.
f.,

tum, learn, recognize; perf., have learned, hence, know. cogo, cogere, coegi, coactum [con+ ago], drive togetlier, collect, compel.

Ceres, Cereris,

Ceres (se'rez),

goddess of agriculture. certamen, -inis, n., contest.


certe, adv., surely. certus, -a, -urn, sure, certain; cer-

cohors, cohortis, f., cohort, tenth part of a legion.


cohortor, -ari, -atus sum, dep. [con

+hortor], exhort, encourage.


collis, collis, m., hill.

tiorem facere,
cibus,
-I,

to

inform.

m., food.
(sis' e-ro).

colo, colere, colui, cultum,


tivate.

till,

cul-

Cicero, -onis, m., Cicero


circiter, adv., about.

comburo,

-urere,

-ussi,

-ustum

VOCABULARY
[con-furo, burn], burn
tip,

307
f.

con-

conditio, -onis,
gether),

sume.

terms,

(a speaking toterms of agree-

comes, comitis, m. or
ion, comrade.

f.,

companfcon

ment.

condo, condere, condidi, conditum


[con -f do],

commemoro, -are, -avi, -atum


-fmemord],
mention,
call to

put

together,

build,

mind, recount,

found.

relate.

conduco, -ducere, -duxi, -ductum


[con + duco], bring together. confero, conferre, contuli, conla-

committo, -mittere, -misl, -missum [con+mitto], send together,


commit, intrust, permit, join, begin.

tum
treat.

collect;

[con+fero], bring together, se reconferre, to

commode, adv., conveniently. commoveo, -movere, -movi, -motum [con+moveo], move deeply,
disturb, alarm.

conf ertus, -a, -urn, crowded, in close


order.

conficio, -ficere, -feci, -f ectum [con

commuto,
change.

-are, -avi,

-atum [con+

+facio],

do thoroughly,

accom-

muto], change (completely), ex-

plish, complete.

confirmo, -are, -avi, -atum [con+


-avi,

comparo, -are,

-atum [con+

firmo,
clare.

paro], get ready, prepare, procure.

firm, strengthen, establish, assure, destrengthen],

make

comperio, -perire, -peri, -pertum,


learn, discover, ascertain.

conicio, -icere, -ieci, -iectum [con +iacio], throw together, hurl. coniuratio, -onis, f. [coniuro], con-

compleo, -plere, -plevi, -pletum,^//


ttp, fill'

complures, -a

(-ia),

many, very

spiracy.

many.
comporto, -are, -avi, -atum [con+
porto], bring together.

coniuro, -are, -avi, conloco, -are, -avi,


to-

-atum [con+ -atum [con+

iuro, swear together], conspire.

con- (com-, comb-, co-), prefix,


gether.

loco], place together, station.

conor, -ari, -atus sum, dep., try,

concedo, -cedere, -cessi,

-cessum
yield,

attempt.

[con+cedo, make

way],

consanguineus,
m.,

-a, -urn [sanguis,

concede, grant, allow.

blood], related by blood; as

noun,

concido, -cidere, -cidi, -cisum [con

kinsman.
[con+scisco],
\v.

caedo,

cut], cut

down,

kill.

conscisco, -sciscere, -scivi, -sci-

concilio, -are, -avi,


together,

-atum, bring

tum
solve;
cide.

decree,

re-

win

over, secure, gain.

mortem, commit
-scribere,

sui-

concilium,

-i, n.,

meeting, assembly,

council, conference.

conscribd,

-scripsi,

concursus, -us, u., running together,


onset?i

-scriptum

[con+scribo],

write

together, enroll, levy.

3 o8

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


sum
contra, prep. w. ace,
posite, against.

consequor, -sequi, -secutus


obtain.

and

adv., op-

[con+sequor], follow up, pursue,


conserve, -are, -avi, -atum [con+
servo], save, spare, protect, keep.

convenio, -venire, -veni, -ventum [con+venio], come together, meet,


assemble.

considius,

-i,

m., Considius, a

Ro-

converto, -vertere, -verti, -versum

man

soldier.

consido, -sidere, -sedl,

-sessum
encamp,

[con+verto], turn; signa convertere, wheel about.

[con+sido,
settle.

sit

down],

convoco, -are, -avi, -atum


voco], call together,
copia, -ae,
ber; plenty,

[con-t-

consilium,

-1, n.,

counsel, plan.

r.,

summon. supply, num-

consisto, -sistere, -stiti, -stitum,


take a stand.

pi., forces, troops.

copiosus, -a, -urn, well-supplied,


wealthy.

conspectus, -us, m. {a looking at),


sight.

conspicio, -spicere, -spexi, -specturn [con+specio, look], catch


sight of, see.

Corinthus, Greece.

-I, f.,

Corinth, a city of
Cornelia.

Cornelia, -ae,

f.,

cornu, -us,

n., horn,

wing

(of

an

conspicor, -ari, -atus sum, dep.,


perceive.

army).
corpus, corporis, n,, body.
cotidianus, -a, -urn, daily.
cotidie, adv., daily.

constituo, -stituere, -stitui, -stitu-

tum [can+statuo,

set

together],

put, station, decide, appoint.

eras, adv., tomorrow.

consuesco, -suescere, -suevi, -suetum, become accustomed; perf.,


be accustomed, be wont. consul, consulis, m., consul. consulatus, -us, m. [consul], con-

Crassus,
creber,

-i, m., Publius Crassus, one of Caesar's lieutenants.

crebra,

crebrum,

thiak;

frequent, numerous, repeated.

credo, credere, credidi, creditum,


believe,

sulship.

suppose.

consumo,
consume.

-sumere,

-sumpsi,
destroy,

creo, creare, creavi, creatum, create, elect,

-sump turn [con + sumo],

make.

-temnere, -tempsi, contemno, -temptum, despise, scorn.


contendo, -tendere, -tendl, -tenturn [con+tendo, stretch
strive, fight,
tight],

cultus, -us, m. [colo], civilization. cum, prep. w. abl., with.

cum,

conj.,

when, since, although.

cunctus, -a,

-um

[coniunctus], all
entire.

(taken together),
cupiditas, -tatis,

contend, hasten.

cupide, adv., eagerly.


f., desire,

continenter, adv., continually.

longing.

contineo, -tinere, -tinui,

-tentum
re-

cupidus, -a, -um, desirous, eager.


cupio, -ere, -ivi, -itum, desire, be
eager.

[con+teneo], hold together,


strain,

bound, hem

in.

VOCABULARY
cur, adv., why.

39

delfbero, -are, -avi, -atum, deliberate,

cura, -ae,

r., care, attention.

ponder.

euro, -are, -avi, -atum, care for; (w. gerundive), have {something
done), cause.

deliciae,

-arum,

f.,

luxuries.

deligo, -ligere, -legi, -Iectum [de


lego], choose, select.

curro, currere, run.

cucurri,

cursum,

demigro, -are, -avi, -atum [de-f migro], move away.

currus, -us, m., chariot.


custodio, -ire, -ivi, -Itum, watch.

demonstro, -are,
denique, adv.,
depello,

-avi,

-atum

[de

monstro], point out, explain.


at length, finally.

D
damno, -are, -avi, -atum, condemn. de, prep. w. abl., down from, from,
concerning, of, about, during; as prefix, down, utterly; of,

densus, -a, -urn, dense.


-pellere,
-puli,

-pulsum

[de+pello], drive away, avert.

depono, -ponere, -posui, -positum [de+pono], lay aside; w. memoria,


blot out.

away.
debed, -ere, -ui, -itum, owe, ought.
decedo, -cedere, -cessi, -cessum
[de + cedo], go away, depart, with-

descendo,

-scendere,
[de

-scensum
describo,

+ scando,

-scendi, climb

down], descend.
-scribere,
-scripsi,

draw.
decern, indecl. adj., ten.
decido, -cidere, -cidi,
cado], fall down,
fall.

-scriptum, divide, mark of.


[de +
desilio,
-silire,

-silui,

-sultum
dis-

[de + salio],

leap

down,

decimus,
declaro,
claro],
clare.

-a, -urn, tenth.

mount.

-are,

-avi,

-atum [de+
reveal,

desum, deesse, defui

[de + sum],

make

clear,

de-

be lacking, be wanting, fail.

devoro, -are, -avi, -atum, swallow,


devour.

deditio, -onis, f. (a giving up), surrender.

deus,

-i,

m., god.

dedo, dedere, dedidi, deditum [de

+ do],

give up, surrender.

dexter, -tra, -trum, right: dextra (manus), the right hand.


died, dicere, dixi, dictum, say,
tell,

defendo, -fendere, -fendi, -fen-

sum, keep of, defend,


defessus,
hausted.
-a,

protect.

speak.
exdictio, -onis, f. [dico], (a speaking),

-urn,

wearied,

pleading.
dies, -ei, m. or f., day, time.
differo,
differre,
distuli,

deicio, -icere, -ieci, -iectum [de +


iacio],

throw down, dislodge; w.

dilatum

spe, disappoint.

deinde, adv., then, next.


deleo, delere, delevi, deletum, blot
out.

[dis+fero, bear apart], difer. difficilis, -e [dis+facilis], not easy,


difficult.

difficultas, -tatis, f., difficulty.

3io
diligens,
diligent.

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


-entis,
[diligo],

careful,

diligenter, adv. [diligens], carefully,


diligently.

dubius, -a, -um, doubtful; neut., as noun, doubt. ducenti,-ae, -a [duo + centum], two
hundred.

diligentia, -ae,

f.

[diligens], care-

duco, ducere, duxi, ductum, lead, draw, consider, prolong.

fulness, diligence.

dimitto, -mittere, -misi,

-missum
not.

dum,

conj.,

while,

as

long

as,

[di+mitto, send apart], dismiss.


dis-, di-, prefix, apart,

until.

away,

Dumnorix,
Haedui.

-igis,

m.,

Dutnnorix
of

discedo, -cedere, -cessi, -cessum

(dum'no-riks),

chief

the

[dis+cedo, withdraw.

go

apart],

depart,

duo, duae, duo, two.


,

disco, discere, didici,


disicio, -icere, -ieci,
iacio],
scatter.

learn.

duodecim

[duo+decem],

indecl.

-iectum [dis+
apart, break,

adj., twelve.

throw

dux, ducis, m. [duco], leader, guide.

dispono, -ponere, -posui, -positum

[dis+pono, place apart], arrange,


station.

e, ex,

prep. w. abl., out

of,

from, of;

as prefix, out, forth.

dissimilis, -e [dis+similis], unlike. distribuo, -tribuere, -tribui, -tribu-

edo, edere, edi, esum,


i.

eat.

educo, -are, -avi, -atum, bring


up, educate.

tum

[dis+tribuo], distribute, as2.

sign, divide.

educo, -ducere, -duxi, -ductum


[e+duco], lead out.

diu, adv., for a long time. Diviciacus, -i, m., Diviciacus (divi-shi-a'kus), a chief of the Haedui.

effero, efiferre, extuli,

elatum [ex+
elate.

fero], bear out, take away,


efficio, -ficere, -feci,

-fectum [ex+
cause,
ac-

Divico, -onis, m., Divico (div'i-ko), a chief of the Helvetii.


divido, -videre, -visi, -visum, divide, separate.

facio],

bring

about,

complish.
ego, mei, /.

egredior, -gredi, -gressus


give.

sum

[e

do, dare, dedi,

datum,

gradior, step], go out,

march

out.

doceo, -ere, -ui, doctum, teach.

domina, dominus,

-ae, f., mistress.


-i,

egregius, -a, -um, markable.

uncommon,

re-

m. [domus], master (of


house, home; domi,

a house).

domus,
at

-us,

f.,

emitto, -mittere, -misi, -missum [e+mitto], send forth, discharge, hurl, throw aside.

home.
give, pre-

emo, emere, emi, emptum, buy.


enim, conj.,
for.

dono, -are, -avi, -atum,


sent'.

enuntio, -are, -avi, -atum [e+nun-i, n., gift.

donum,

tio], tell out, report.

VOCABULARY
i. 2.

3 II
-a, -urn, outermost, farextreme.

eo, ire,

ii

(ivi),

itum,

go.

extremus,
thest,

eo, adv., to that place, thither.


to the

eodem, adv.,

same

place.

epistula, -ae, f.,

letter, epistle.

eques, equitis, m., horseman;


cavalry.

pi.,

fabula, -ae,

f., story,

fable.

facile, adv., easily.


facilis, -e, easy.

equester, -tris, -tre [eques], belonging to a horseman, cavalry.


equitatus, -us, m. [eques], cavalry.

facio, facere, feci,

factum, make,
[facio],

do.

equus, equl, m., horse.


eripio, -ripere, -ripui,

facultas, -tatis, p.
[en-

opporpi., re-

-reptum

rapid, seize], snatch away, rescue; se eripere, to escape.


et, conj.,

tunity (of doing), means; sources.

fama, -ae,
tion.

f., report,

fame, reputa-

and.

etiam, conj. and adv., and also,


also, even.
etsi, conj.,

fames, famis,
familia, -ae,

f.,

hunger.

even
f.,

if,

although.

household, retinue. feliciter, adv. [felix], happily, sucf.,

Europa, -ae,
ex, see e.

Europe.
[ex-i-

cessfully, favorably.
felis, felis, f., cat.

exclamo, -are, -avi, -atum


clamo], cry out, exclaim.

femina, -ae,
ferax, -acis,

f.,

woman.
fertile.

[f ero],

exeo, -ire,

-ii

(-ivi),

-itum [ex+

fere, adv., almost. fero, ferre, tuli, latum, bear, carry,


bring.

eo], go out.

exercitus, -us, m. [exerceo, exercise], (a trained body), army.

ferrum,

-i, n.,

iron.

existimo, -are, -avi, -atum, think,


estimate.

fessus, -a, -urn, weary, tired.


fides, -ei, f., faith, confidence, protection, pledge.
filia,

expello, -pellere, -puli, -pulsum [ex +pello], drive out, expel.

-ae,

f.,
is..,

daughter.
son.

experior, -periri, -pertus sum, dep.,


try, test, experience.

filius, -i,

finio, -ire, -ivi,

-itum

[finis], limit,

explorator, -oris, m., scout, spy.

bound.
finis, finis, m., end, limit,
pi. territory.

expugno, -are,

-avi,

-atum [ex+

boundary;
bordering

pugno], take by storm, capture. exsequor, -sequi, -secutus sum [ex

finitimus, -a,

-um

[finis],

sequor], follow out, enforce, ex-

ecute.

exspecto, -are, -avi, -atum, look


out for, await, expect. extra, adv. and prep. w. ace, outside of, beyond.

neighboring; adjoining, finitimi, as noun, neighbors. fio, fieri, factus sum, be made, be

upon,

done; impers.,
sult
is.

it

happens, the

re-

firmus, -a, -um, strong, firm.

312

LATIN FOR THE 1TRST YEAR


flexum, turn,

flecto, flectere, flexi,

Galba, -ae,

m.,

Galba,

a family

bend.
flos, floris, m., flower.

name.
Gallia, -ae,
f.,

Gaul.
Gallic.

flumen,

-inis, n. [fluo], river.

Gallicus, -a,

-um,

fluo, fluere, fluxi,

fluxum, flow.

Gallus,

-i,

forma, -ae, ~F.,form, shape, beauty.


forte, adv. [fors], by chance, per-

Garumna,
Genava,

m., a Gaul. -ae, m. or f., the Garonne

(ga-ron'), a river of Gaul.


-ae, f., Geneva.
n., race, tribe, class.

haps.
fortis, -e, strong, brave.

genus, generis,

fortiter, adv., bravely.

fortitudo, -inis, r. [fortis], bravery.

fortuna, -ae,
luck;
pi.,
-i,

F. 3

chance, fortune,

property.

Germania, -ae, f., Germany. Germanus, -a, -um, German. Germanus, -I, m., a German. gero, gerere, gessi, gestum, carry
on, wage, do.

forum,
in

n.,

cially the

market place; espeForum, the open space


the Capitoline
hills.

gladius,

-i,

m., sword.

Rome between
-ae,
f.

gloria, -ae, f., glory,

fame, renown.

and Palatine
fossa,
trench.

Graecia, -ae,
dig],

f.,

Greece.

[fodio,

ditch,

Graecus,
gratulor,

-a,

-um, Greek, Grecian.


-atus

gratia, -ae, f., favor, good-will.

frango,
break.

frangere, fregi, fractum,

-ari,

sum,

dep.,

congratulate.

f rater, fratris, m., brother.

gratus, -a, -um, pleasing, agreeable.


gravis, -e, heavy.
graviter,
vexed.

frigidus, -a, -urn, cold.


frigus, -oris, n., cold, coldness.

adv.,

heavily,
be

severely;
be

frumentarius, -a,

-um

[friimen-

graviter ferre,

annoyed,

tum], abounding in grain, fruitful; res frumentaria, supplies.

frumentor,

-ari,

-atus sum, dep.,

H
habeo, -ere,
-ui, -itum, have, hold-

gather grain.

frumentum,
crops.

-I,

n.,

grain;

pi.,

habito, -are,
live,

-avi,

-atum, dwell,
the

inhabit, live in.


m.,

frustra, adv., in vain.

Haedui, -orum,
[fuga],

Haedui

fuga, -ae,

f., flight.

(hed'u-I), a Gallic tribe.

fugio, fugere, fugi,


flee.

fugitum

Haeduus, -a, -um, Hard mi u.


stick.

of the Haedui.

fugitivus,

-l,

m., deserter, fugitive.

haereo, haerere, haesi, haesum,


Helvetia, -ae,
ve'shia),

fumus,

-i,

m., smoke.

f.,

Helvetia

(hel-

now

Switzerland.
m., the

Gaius, Gal, Gaio,

etc., m.,

Gaius,

Helvetii, -drum,

Helvetii

(ga'yus), a personal name.

(hel-ve'shi-i), Helvetians.

VOCABULARY
Helve tius (Helveticus),
the Helvetii,

3*3
illud,

-a, -urn, of

ille,

ilia,

dem. pron.,
-i,

that

Helvetian.

(yonder).

heri, adv., yesterday.

impedimentum,
f.,

n.,

hindrance,
bag-

Hesperides,

-um,

the

Hes-

impediment;
gage-train.

pi.,

baggage,

perides (hes-per'i-dez).

hiberna, -orum, n. (supply castra), winter quarters.


hie, haec, hoc,
she, it;

impedio,

-ire,

-ivi,

-itum

[pes],

entangle, hinder.

dem. pron.,

this, he,

imperator, -oris, m., commander in


chief, general.

pi., these, they.

hiemo, -are,
winter.

-avi,

-atum, pass the

hiems, hiemis, f., winter. Hispani, -orum, m., the Spaniards. Hispania, -ae, f., Spain.
hodie, adv., this day, today. homo, -inis, m. or f., a human being,

imperium, -i, n., command, supreme power, authority. impero, -are, -avi, -atum, command, demand, levy. impetro, -are, -avi, -atum, obtain (by request), bring to pass.
impetus, -us, m., attack.
importo,
-are,
-avi,

man.
honor, -oris, m., honor, respect.
hora, -ae,
f.,
-1,

-atum [in+
im-

porto], bring in, import.

hour.
m.,

impudens,
(ho-ra/in,

-entis,

shameless,

Horatius,

H or at his

shi-us), Horace.

hortor, -ari, -atus

sum, dep.,

urge,

pudent. prep. w. ace. (of motion), into, to, toward, against, upon; w. abl.
(of rest), in, on,

encourage.

among, over; as
on;

hortus,

-I,

m., garden.

prefix,

in,

into,

negative

hostis, -is, m.,


pi., the

enemy

(of the state);

prefix, not.

enemy.
-tatis,
f.,

incendo, -cendere, -cendi, -cenrefinement,

humanitas,

sum,

set fire to,

burn.

civilization.

incito, -are, -avi,


incite.

-atum, urge on,

iaceo, -ere, -ui,

-,

lie, lie

down.

incola, -ae, m. or f., inhabitant. incolo, -colere, -colui, coid], dwell in, inhabit.

iacio, iacere, ieci, iactum, throw.

[mu-

iaculum,
ready.
ibi,

-i,

n., javelin.

iam, adv., by

this time,

now,

al-

incommodum,
incredible.

-i, n.,

misfortune.

incredibilis, -e [in + credo, believe],

adv., in that place, there.

id 2m,

eadem, idem, dem. pron.,


fit,

indicium,

the same.

-1, n., information. indued, -ducere, -duxi, -ductum

idoneus, -a, -um,


Idus, -uum,

suitable.

[in+duco], lead into, lead on, induce, exhibit.

f., the

Ides.

igitur, conj., accordingly, therefore.

indulged, -dulgere, -dulsi, -dul-

ignis, ignis, m., fire.

tum, favor.

3 T4

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


intercede, -cedere, -cessi, -cessum
[inter + cedo], go between,
inter-

inermis, -e [in+arma], unarmed.


inferior, -ius [inferus], lower.

infero,

inferre,

intuli,

inlatum,

vene; (of time) elapse.

bring into, bringupon, wage upon. Inferus, -a, -um, low, below; pi. as

interdum, adv. [inter+dum], sometimes.

noun, inhabitants of
world, the dead.

the

lower

interea,
while.
interficio,

adv.

[inter -fea],

mean-

Influo, -fluere, -fluxi, -fluxum, flow


into, flow.

-ficere,

-feci,

-fectum

[inter + facio], kill.


n., ability.

ingenium,
inimicus,

-i,

interim, adv., meanwhile.


intermitto, -mittere, -misl, -mis-

ingens, -entis,
-a,

vast,

huge, enormous.
[in + amicus],

-um

sum

[inter + mi tto],

stop,
let

inter-

unfriendly,

hostile;

as

noun,

rupt, intervene; (of time)

pass.

enemy.
iniquus, -a,

intersum, -esse, -ful [inter + sum],

-um

[in+aequus], un-

be between, intervene; impers.,

it

even, unfair, unfavorable.

concerns,

it

interests.

initium,

-i, n.,

beginning.

intro, -are, -avi,


etrate.

-atum,

enter,

pen-

iniuria, -ae, f. [ius, right], wrong,


injustice, injury.

inundo, -are, -avi, -atum, overflow,


inundate.
verb., pres.

inopia, -ae,

f., lack, scarcity.

inquam,

inquit,

def.

inventor,

-oris,

m.

[invenio],

tense, / say, he says. Insequor, -sequi, -secutus

inventor, author.

sum

[in

invitus, -a,
ipse, ipsa,

-um, unwilling.
ipsum, intensive pron.,
itself.

+ sequor], follow
insidiae, -arum,
f.,

up, pursue.
treachery,

amis,

himself, herself,

buscade, stratagem.

Ira, -ae, f., anger, wrath.

insigne,

-is, n., sign,

decoration.

ea, id,
she,
it.

dem. pron.,

this, that;

he,

insignis, -e, marked, remarkable.


instituo, -stituere, -stitui, -stitu-

iste, ista, istud,

dem. pron.,

that

tum [in+statuo], set


begin, train.

up, establish,

(of yours).
ita,

adv., so, thus.

Institutum,-!, n., custom, institution. Instruo, -struere, -struxi, -struc-

Italia, -ae, f., Italy.

itaque, conj.,
therefore.

and

so,

accordingly,

tum

[in-f-struo], build,

draw up,

marshal.
Insula, -ae, f., island.
intellego,

item, adv., in like manner, likewise.


iter, itineris, n. [eo], (a going),

way,

-legere,

-lexi,

-lectum
know,

route, journey, march.

[inter + lego, gather], learn,

iubeo, iubere, iussi, iussum, order.

understand.
inter,

prep.

w.

ace,

between,

judgment, trial. iudico, -are, -avi, -atum, judge, deiudicium,


cide.
-I, n.,

among; as

prefix, between.

VOCABULARY
iugum,
-I,

315

n.,

yoke; ridge

(of

Latinus, -a, -um, Latin; as noun,


Latini,

mountain).
Iulia, -ae, f., Julia.

-drum,

the Latini.

latitude, -inis, f. [latus], width.


latus, -a,

Iulius,

-1,

Julius.
-1,

-um, broad, wide.

iumentum,
iungo,
join.

N.,

yoke-animal,

latus, -eris,

w,
f.,

side, flank.

beast of burden.

laudo, -are, -avi, -atum, praise.


iunxi,

iungere,

iunctum,

laus, laudis,

praise.

Lavinium,

-i,

n.,

Lavinium.
ambassa-

iunior,

comp.

of iuvenis.

legatio, -onis, f., embassy, mission.

Iuno, -onis,

f., Juno, queen of the gods and wife of Jupiter.

legatus,
dor.

-i,

m., lieutenant,

Iuppiter, Iovis, m., Jupiter, the su-

legio, -onis, f., legion.

preme god. Iura, -ae, m., Jura, a

mountain from the Rhine range running to the Rhone.


-atum, swear.
n., oath.

lego, legere, legi, lectum, gather, choose, read.

Lemannus,
Geneva.

-i,

m., w. lacus,

Lake

iuro, -are, -avi,

lenitas, -tatis,
tleness.

f.,

smoothness, gen-

ius, iuris, n., right, justice, law.

iusiurandum, iurisiurandl,

lex, legis, f., law.

iustitia, -ae, f. [iustus], justice.

iuvenis, iuvenis, gen. pi. iuvenum, adj., young; as noun, youth.


iuvo, iuvare, iuvi, iutum, help, aid.

libenter, adv., gladly, willingly. liber, libri, m., book.


liber, -era,

-erum,

free.

liberalitas, -tatis, f., liberality.


libere, adv., freely.
liberi,

Kalendae (Calendae), -arum, f., the Calends, the first day of a month.

free

-orum, m. [liber], children, members of a household


.

libero, -are, -avi,


free.

-atum,

set free,

L
Labienus,
Titus Labienus, Caesar's chief lieutenant.
-1,

libertas, -tatis, f. [liber], freedom-,


liberty.
licet, licere, licuit,

m.,

impers.,

it

is

per-

labor, -oris, m., labor,

toil.

mitted.
lictor, -oris,

labyrinthus,

-i,

m., labyrinth.

m., lictor, official at-

Jacesso, -ere, assault, harass.

-ivi,

-itum, provoke,

tendant

of a

Roman

magistrate.

lacrima, -ae,

f., tear.

Lingones, -um, m., the Lingones (ling'go-nez), a Gallic tribe.


lingua, -ae,
f.,

lacus, -us, m., lake.


lapis, lapidis, m., stone.
late, adv., broadly, widely.

tongue, language.

linter, lintris, f., boat.


littera, -ae, f., letter of the

alphalocate.

Latinus,

-1,

m.,

Latinus (la-ti'nus),

bet; pi.,

letter (epistle).

legendary king of Latium.

loco, -are, -avi,

-atum, place,

316
locus,
-I,

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


M.,pl. loca, -orum, n.,

manus,
band.

-us,

f.,

hand; armed force,

place.

longe, adv., far, by far.

longitudo,

-inis, f.

[longus], length.

Marcus, name.

-i,

m.,

Marcus, a

Roman

longus, -a, -um, long. loquor, loqui, locutus sum, dep.,


speak.

mare, maris, n., sea. Marius, -i, m., Marius (ma/ri-us), a famous Roman general.
Massilia, -ae,
Marseilles.
f.,

Lucius,

-I,

m.,

Lucius (lu'shius), a

Massilia,

now

Roman name.
luna, -ae,
lupa, -ae,
lux, lucis,
f., f.,

moon.
she-wolf.

mater, matris,

f.,

mother, matron.
n.,

f.,' light.

matrimonium, -i, Matrona, -ae,


(marn).

marriage.
the

m.,

Marne

M
magis, comp. adv. (sup. maxime),
more, rather.

maturo, -are, -avi, -atum, hasten. maturus, -a, -um, ripe, early. maxime, sup. adv. [magnus], most,

magister,
teacher.

magistri,

m.,

master,

maximus,
medius,
of.

very greatly, especially. see magnus.


-a,

magistrates, -us, m., magistracy,


magistrate.

-um, middle,
-i, n.,

the

middle

magnificus, -a, -um, magnificent,


splendid.

membrum,
memoria,
ory.

limb.

-ae, f., recollection,

mem-

magnitudo,

-inis,

f.

[magnus],
espe-

greatness, size.

mensa,
greatly,

-ae,

f., table.

magnopere,
cially.

adv.,

mensis,

-is, m.,

month.

mercator,-6ris, m., trader, merchant.

magnus, -a, -um (comp. maior, sup. maximus), great, large.


maiestas, -tatis,
f. [maior], great-

Mercurius, -i, m., Mercury. mereor, -eri, -itus sum, dep., deserve, merit.

ness, dignity, majesty.

meridies,

maiores, -um,

m. [maior], ancestors.

midday, noon. Messala, -ae, m., Messala (me-ei, u.,

male, adv., badly.


maledico, -dicere, -dixi, -dictum,
speak
ill of,

sa 'la), a family

name.
dep.,

abuse.
mischief, harm.

metior, metiri, measure.

mensus sum,

maleficium,
maleficus,

-i, n.,

meus,

-a,

-um, my.
to

-i,

m., evil-doer.

malus,

-a,

-um,

bad.

miles, militis, m., soldier. militaris, -e [miles], pertaining

mando,

-are, -avi, -atum, intrust, order; w. se fugae, take to flight.

soldier, military. mille, adj., a thousand ; pi. as noun,

maneo, manere, mansi, mansum,


remain.

milia, -ium, n.; milia


miles.

passuum,

VOCABULARY
minime,
means.
adv.,
least,

3*7

by

no

N
nam,
conj., for.
tell,

minimus,

-a, -urn (sup. of parvus),

narro, -are, -avi, -atum,


rate.

nar-

least, very little.

minor, minus (comp. of parvus),


smaller, less.

natio, -onis,

f.,

nation, tribe.

natura, -ae,

f.,

nature, character.

minus, adv. [minor], less. -erum, -wretched, -era, miser,


poor.

nauta, -ae,

m., sailor.
sail.

navigo, -are, -avi, -atum,


navis, navis,
f.,

mirus, -a, -urn, wonderful, surprising, strange.

ne, conj., that

ship.
not, lest.

-ne, enclitic interrog. particle; w.


misi,

mittere, mitto, send.

missum,

direct questions, not to be transw. indirect questions, lated;

modo,

adv., only.
-ui,

whether.

molo, -ere,

-itum, grind.
-itum,
advise,

nee, see neque.

moneo,
warn.

-ere,

-ui,

necesse, indecl. adj., necessary.

nemo,
-i, n.,

dat. nemini, ace.

neminem,
not;

mons, montis, m., mountain.

M., no one, nobody.

monstrum,
mora, -ae,
die.

monster.

neque

f.,

delay.

(nee), neque, neither


conj.,

and

neque

nor.

morior, mori, mortuus sum, dep.,

neuter, -tra, -trum, neither.

nex, necis,
-ari,

f.,

death.

moror,

-atus sum, dep., delay,

tarry.

niger, nigra, nigrum, black. nihil, indecl. noun, n., nothing.


nisi, conj., if not, unless.

mors, mortis, f. [morior], death. mos, moris, m., manner, custom;


pi., customs, character.

nobilis,-e, famous, high-born, noble. nobilitas, -tatis, f. [nobilis], nobility, nobles.

moveo,
move.

movere,

movi,

motum,

noceo, -ere, -ui, -itum, harm, insoon, presently.


f.,

mox, adv.,

jure.

mulier, mulieris,

woman.

multitudo, -inis, f. [multus], great number, multitude.

nolo, nolle, nolui, ing, not wish.

be unwill-

nomen, nominis,
non, adv.,
not.

x.,

name.

multus,

-a,

-um,
-ivi,
f.

much;

pi.,

nominatim, adv. [nomen], by name.


nonaginta, indecl. adj., ninety.

many. munio, -ire,


tion.

-itum, fortify.
[munio], fort ifica-

munitio, -onis,

nondum,

adv., not yet.

murus, -I, m., wall. mus, muris, m., mouse. muto, -are, -avi, -atum, change.

nonne, interrog. particle, implying an affirmative answer.


nonnullus,
-a,

-um,

(not

none),

some;

pi.,

as noun, some.

3i8
nonnumquam,
sometimes.
nos,

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


adv.,
(not
never),

occupo, -are, -avi, -atum,


take possession of, occupy.

seize,

pi. of ego, we. nosco, noscere, novi, notum, know.

occurro, -currere, -curri, -cursum

[ob+curro,
meet.

run],

run

to, meet,

noster, -tra, -trum [nos], our, ours.

novem,

indecl. adj., nine.

Oceanus,

-I,

m., ocean.

novus, -a, -um, new: novae res,

octo, indecl. adj., eight.

new
see

state of

affairs,

revolution;

octoginta, indecl. adj., eighty.

agmen.
f.,

oculus,
night.

-I,

m., eye.

nox, noctis,

odium,
olim,

-I, n.,

hatred.
once,

nudus,

-a,

-um, naked, exposed, un-um,


not

protected.

adv., formerly, upon a time.

once

nullus, -a, none.

any,

no,

omnino, adv. [omnis],


all.

altogether, in

num,

interrog. particle implying a

omnis, -e,
onus,
weight.

all,

every.
n.,

negative answer. numerus, -1, m., number.

oneris,

load,

burden ,
it

numquam,

adv., never.

oportet, -ere, -uit, impers. verb,


is necessary.

nunc, adv., now.


nuntio, -are, -avi, -atum, report,

oppidanus,
inhabitant

-i,

m. a

announce.
nuntius, news.
-I,

of

town,

[oppidum], towns-

m.,

messenger; message,

nuper, adv., recently.

man. oppidum, -I, n., town. oppugno, -are, -avi, -arum [ob-f
pugno], fight against, attack. opus, operis, n., work.
oratio, -onis, f. [oro], speech, address, argument.

nympha,

-ae, f.,

nymph.

O
ob, prep. w. ace, on account of; as prefix, towards, against, in front.

orator,

-oris,

m.

[orol,

speaker ,

obaeratus,
debtor.

-1,

m.

[aes,

money]

orator.

orbis, orbis, m., circle, ring.

obicio, -icere, -ieel,


iacio],

-iectum [ob+
set

throw in front,

up; op-

Orgetorix, -igis, m., Orgetorix (orjet'o-riks), a chief of the Helvetii.

pose, expose.

obliviscor, oblivisci, oblltus

sum,

oro, -are, -avi, -atum, speak, plead,


entreat.

dep., forget.

obses, obsidis, m. or

f., hostage.

obtineo, -tinere, -tinui, -tentum

mouth, face. ostendo, -tendere, -tendi, -tentum


6s, oris, n.,

[ob+teneo], hold, possess, gain. occido, -cidere, -cldl, -cisum [ob-fcaedo,


cut], kill, slay.

[ob+tendo,
out, declare.

stretch],

show, poini

ovum,

-I, n.,

egg.

VOCABULARY
penna, -ae,
p.,

3X9
feather.

pabulum,

-i, n.,

food, fodder.

paco, -are, -avi, subdue.

-atum [pax], pacify,

per, prep. w. ace., through, by, by means of, during; as prefix,

through, thoroughly, very.

paene, adv., almost. paeninsula, -ae, f. [paene+insula],


peninsula.

peragro, -are, -avi, -atum [per-fager], wander through, wander.

perduco, -ducere, -duxi, -ductum


[per + duco], lead through, extend.
perfacile, adv., very easily.
perfacilis, -e, very easy.

pagus,

-I,

m., canton, district.

par, paris, adj., equal.

paratus, -a, -urn [pard], prepared,


ready.

pareo,-ere, -ui, -itum, obey, submit


to.

perfero, -ferre, -tuli, -latum [per-ffero], bear through, endure, suffer.


perficio, -ficere, -feci,
4-facio], do thoroughly,

paries,

parietis,

m.,

wall

(of

-fectum [per accom-

house).

plish, complete, bring about.

paro, -are, -avi, -atum,

prepare,
direction.

provide
pars, partis,
f., part, side,

perfringo, -fringere, -fregi, -fractum [per+frango, break], break


through.

partim, adv. [pars], partly.

perfugium,
periculum,
skillful.

-i',

n., shelter, refuge.

parvus, -a, -um

(comp. minor, sup.


little.

-i, n.,

danger, risk, peril.

minimus), small,

peritus,-a,-um, experienced, skilled,

passus, -us, m., step, pace (five Roman feet) mille passus, mile;
;

permitto, -mittere, -misi,

-missum

pi.

milia passuum.

[per+mitto,

let

go through], per-

pastor, -oris, m., shepherd, herds-

mit, grant, allow.

man

pateo, -ere, -ui, stand open, extend.


pater, patris, m., father.
patior, pati,

lie

open,

permoveo, -movere, -movi, -motum [per+moveo], move thoroughly, rouse, influence.

perpauci, -ae, -a, very few.

passus sum, dep., suf-

fer, permit, allow.

perrumpo, -rumpere, -rupi, -ruptum [per+rumpo, break], break


through.

patria, -ae, f.

(supply terra), fatherland, native land, country.


f.,

persequor, -sequi, -secutus

sum
after,

pauci, -ae, -a, few.

[per+sequor], dep., follow


pursue.

pax, pads,

peace.
f.

pecunia, -ae,

[pecus], money. pedes, peditis, m. [pes], foot soldier.


pello, pellere, pepuli,pulsum, drive,
beat, rout.

persuaded, -suadere, -suasi, -sua-

sum, persuade. perterreo, -ere, -ui, -itum [per+


terreo], frighten thoroughly, terrify.

pendeo, pendere, pependi,


hang, be suspended.

pertineo,

-ere,

-ui,

[per+

320
teneo],
pertain.

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


reach
through,
extend,

possideo, -sidere, -sedi, -sessum, have possession of.

perturbo, -are, -avi, -atum [per+


turbo], disturb, confuse.

possum, posse, potui


sum], be
able, can.

[potis, able-h

pervenio, -venire, -veni, -ventum

[per+venio], come through, arrive, reach.

post, prep. w. ace, behind, after. postea, adv. [post+ea], afterwards.

posterus, -a, -urn, following.

pes, pedis, m., foot.


peto, -ere, -ivi
(-ii), -itum, attack,

postquam,

conj., after.

postridie, adv., on the

day

after.

aim
pilum,

at, seek, ask.


f.,

postulo, -are, -avi, -atum, ask, de-

phalanx, phalangis,
-i, n.,

phalanx.

mand.
potens, -entis, adj., powerful.
potentia, -ae,

javelin.

Piso, -onis, m., Piso (pi 'so), a

Ro-

f.,

power, ability.
power.

man
placeo,

family name.
-ere,
it

potestas, -tatis,
please;
potior, potiri,

f.,

-ui,

-itum,

impers.,

pleases.
f.,

potitus sum, dep., get control of, obtain possession


of, secure.

plebs, plebis,
plebeians.

common

people,

plenus, -a, -urn, full.

prae, prep. w. abl., before, in front of, in comparison with; as prefix,


before, over, very.

plurimus, -a, -urn, sup. of multus. plus, pluris, comp. of multus.

praecedo, -cedere, -cessi, -cessum


[prae+cedo], go before, surpass,
precede, excel.

poena, -ae,
alty.

f.,

punishment, pen-

Poeni, -drum, m., the Carthaginians.

praecipio, -cipere, -cepi, -ceptum [prae+capio], (take in advance),


order, direct.

poeta, -ae, m., poet.


polliceor,
-eri,

-itus

sum, dep.,

promise.

Pompeius,

-i,

m.,

Pompey.
camp).

praeda, -ae, f., booty, plunder. praefero, -ferre, -tuli, -latum [prae +fero], bear before, choose, prefer.

pono, ponere, posui, positum, put,


place, pitch (a

praericio,

-ficere,

-feci,

-fectum

pons, pontis, m., bridge. populus,


porto,
-i,

[prae+facio], put before, put over,


place in

m., people, nation.


f., gate.

command.

porta, -ae,

-are,

-avi,

-atum,

carry,

praemitto, -mittere, -misi, -missum [prae fmitto], send before,

bring.

send in advance.

portus, -us, m., harbor, port.

praemium,
,

-i, n.,

reward.

posco, poscere, poposci,

de-

mand.
possessio,
property.
-onis,
f. 3

praeopto, -are, -avi, -atum [prae + opto, choose], choose rather, prefer.

possession,

praesens, -entis [praesum], adj.,


present.

VOCABULARY
praesidium, -1,
garrison.
n., protection,

321

guard,

progredior, -gredi, -gressus

sum

praesto, -stare,

-stiti,

-stitum [prae

[pro+gradior], dep., go forward, advance.

+sto, stand], stand before, excel.

prohibeo, -ere, -ui, -itum


vent, hinder.

[pro-f-

praesum, -esse,

-fui [prae + sum],

habed], keep from, prohibit, preproicio, -icere, -ieci,

be before, be over,

command.

praeter, prep. w. ace, except, besides; beyond, by, past; as prefix,

-iectum [pro

+iacio],

throw forth, hurl, cast

by, past.
-ire,
-ii

down.
(IvI),

praetereo,

-itum

prope,
near.

adv.,

and prep. w. ace,

[praeter +eo], go by.

prendo, prendere, prendl, pren-

sum, lay hold


prex, precis,
f.,

of,

grasp.

propello, -pellere, -puli, -pulsum [pro+pello], drive before, rout.

prayer, entreaty.
before.

propinquus, -a,
neighboring;

-um
as

[prope], near,
relative,

pridie, adv., on the day

noun,

primo, adv.,

at first.

kinsman.
place, first.

primum, adv., in the first primus, -a, -um, first.


noun,
chief, leader.

propono, -ponere, -posui, -positum


[pro+pono],
set

forth,

declare,

princeps, principis, adj., chief;


principatus,

as

propose.

propter, prep. w. ace, on account


[princeps],
of.

-us,

m.

leadership, chief position.


pristinus, -a,

-um, former,
before.

old.

prius, comp. adv., priusquam, conj.,

propterea [propter+ea], adv., for this reason; propterea quod, for the reason that.
prospicio, -spicere, -spexi, -specturn, look forward, look out for,

before,

sooner

than.

privatus, -a, -um, private, personal. pro, prep. w. abl., before, for, considering, in behalf of, in proportion to; as prefix, before, forth,
out.

provide for.
provincia, -ae,
est, last.

f.,

province.
next, near-

proxime, adv. [prope],

proximus,
test,

-a,

-um, -um,

nearest,

next,

probo, -are, -avi, -atum,


approve.

prove,

last.

publicus,
wealth.

-a,

public;

res

prodo, -dere, -didi, -ditum [pro+ do], transmit, hand down.

publica, state, republic,

common-

proelium,
parture.

-i, n., battle.

puella, -ae, f.,

girl.

profectio, -onis, f., setting out, de-

puer,

-i,

m., boy, child.

proficiscor,

proficisci,

profectus

sum, dep.,

set out, depart.

pugna, -ae, f., fight, battle. pugno, -are, -avi, -atum, fight. pulcher, -chra, -chrum, beautiful.
punio, -ire,
-ivi,

profugus, -a, -um, fleeing, fugitive.

-itum, punish.

322

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


quo, conj.

puto, -are, -avi, -atum, suppose,


reckon, think.

(=ut

eo), in order that.


si,

quod, conj., because; quod


with montes,
if-

but

Pyrenaeus,

-a, -urn;

the Pyrenees.

quondam,

adv., formerly, once


also.

upon

Q
qua, adv., by which way, where.

a time.

quoque, conj.,

quadraginta, indecl. adj., forty. quadringentl, -ae, -a., four hundred.

quot, indecl. adj.,

how many?

quaero, quaerere, quaesivi, quaesi-

R
ramus,
-I,

tum,

seek, ask.

m., branch.

qualis, -e, of what sort? what?

rapid, rapere, rapui, raptum, seize.


ratio, -onis, f., reckoning, plan, rea-

quam, adv. and


than;

conj.,

how, as,
as

with

sup.,

as

son, account.
ratis, ratis, f., raft.

possible.

quantus, -a, -um, how great; tantus


as.

quantus,

so (as) great

re- (red-), prefix, back, again.

recens, -entis, fresh, recent, new.


recipio, -cipere, -cepi",

-ceptum

[re

quartus, -a, -um, fourth.


quattuor, indecl. adj., four.

+capio], take back, receive.


recreo, -are, -avi,

-atum [re+creo],

quattuordecim, indecl. adj., fourteen.

make anew,
reded,
back, return.

restore, revive.

-ire, -ii,

-itum [red+eo], go
a going

-que, enclitic conj., and.


qui, quae,

quod,

rel.

pron., who,
in-

reditio, -onis, f. [redeo],

which, that.

back, return.

quldam, quaedam, quoddam,


def. pron., a certain, certain.

reduco, -ducere, -duxi, -ductum [re + duco], lead back, withdraw.


refero, -ferre, -tuli, -latum [re-f
fero], bring back, report.

quindecim, indecl.

a.dj., fifteen.

quingenti, -ae, -a, five

hundred.
fifty.

quinquaginta, indecl. adj.,

regina, -ae,
regius, -a,

f.,

queen.
kingly, royal.

quinque, indecl.
Quintus,

adj., five.
fifth.

-um,
n.,

quintus, -a, -um,


-i,

regno, -are, -avi, -atum, reign.

m., Quintus, a personal

regnum,
power.

-i,

sovereignty,

royal

name.
quis,

quid, interrog. pron., who?

rego, regere, rexi, rectum, rule.


reicio, -icere, -ieci,

which? what? indef. pron., any


one, anything, any.

-iectum

[re

quisquam, quidquam [quicquam], indef. pron., any one, anything. quisque, quaeque, quidque [quodpron., every one, each.
quej,
indef.

iacio], throw back, drive back. relinquo, -linquere, -liqui, -lictum

[re+linquo], leave behind, aban-

don; pass, be
reliquus, -a,

left,

remain.
the rest of, re-

each

one,

-um,

maining.

VOCABULARY
remaned, -manere, -mansi, -mansum, remain. removed, -movere, -mdvi, -motum [re+moved], move back, remove.

323
-i,

Rhodanus,
rima, -ae,

m., the

Rhone.

f.,

opening, crack.
(of a river),

ripa, -ae, f.,

bank

rogd, -are, -avi, -atum, ask.

renovd,

-are,

-avi,

-atum [re+

Roma, -ae, f., Rome. Rdmanus, -a, -um, Roman;


noun, Rdmani, -drum,
m.,

as
the

novo], renew.

renuntid, -are, -avi, -atum [re + nuntid], bring back word, report.
repelld, repellere, reppuli, repulsum [re+pello], drive back, repulse.

Romans.

Romulus,
rostrum,
ship).

-i, -i,

m.,
n.,

Romulus.
beak (of bird or

repentlnus, -a, -um, sudden.


reperio, reperire, repperi, reper-

ruina, -ae, ruins.

f.,

downfall, ruin;

pi.,

rursus, adv., again, in turn.


rus, ruris, n., the country (opposed to city).

tum

[re+parid, procure], find out,

discover.

repetd, -petere, -petivi, -petitum, seek again, return to.


res, rei, f., thing, affair, fact;

rusticus, -a,
try, rural.

-um

[rus], of the

coun-

see

S
saepe, adv., often.

publica.

rescindd, -scindere, -scidi, -scissum [re+scindd], break down,


destroy.

saevus, -a, -um,


age.

fierce, cruel, sav-

sagitta, -ae, f., arrow.


[re

resistd, -sistere, -stiti,

salus, -utis,

f., safety.

sisto, stand], resist, withstand.

sanguis, sanguinis, m., blood.

responded,

-spondere,

-spondi,

-sponsum, answer, reply. respdnsum, -i, n., reply.


restitud,
-stituere, -stitul,
-stitu-

Santones, -um, m., the Santones (san'to-nez), a Gallic tribe,


sapiens,
-entis,
adj.,

wise;

as

noun, wise man.


sarcinae, -arum,
satis, indecl.
f., soldiers''

tum
retined,
tain.

[re

+ statud],

set

up again,
-tentum

packs,

restore.

baggage (carried
-tinere,
-tinui,

by noun and

soldiers),
adj.,

enough;

[re+tened], hold back, detain, rerevertor, revert!,


reverti, reversum

adv., sufficiently.
satisfacid, -facere, -feci,

-factum

[re+vertd], usually dep. in pres. system, turn back, return.

[satis +f acid], do enough, satisfy, make amends.

scelus, sceleris, n., crime.


scid, scire, scivi, scitum,

revocd, -are, -avi, -atum [re + vocd],


call back, recall.

know.

Scipid, -dnis, m., Scipio (sip'i-d).

rex, regis, m., king.

scribd, scribere, scripsi, scriptum,

Rhenus,
22

-i,

m., the

Rhine.

write.

3 24

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


singuli, -ae, -a, distrib.
sec-

scutum, -I, n., shield. secundus -a, -um, following,


s

num.

adj.,

one at a time, one by one, single.


sinister, -tra, -trum, left

ond, favorable.

(opposed

sed, conj., but.

to dexter).
societas, -tatis, f. [socius], partnership, alliance.

sedecim

[sex], indecl. adj., sixteen.

Segusiavi, -orum,

m., the Segusiavi

(se-gu-shi-a/vi), a Gallic tribe.

socius,

-I.

ally.

sementis,

-is, f.,

sowing, planting.

sol, solis, m., the sun.

semper, adv., always. senatus, -us, m., senate.


senex, senis, adj., old;
old

solum, adv., only. solum, -I, n., soil, ground.


as noun,
solus, -a,

-um,
-i, n.,

alone, only.

man.

soror, -oris,

f., sister.

separatim, adv., separately.

spatium,
spero,

space, period.

Septimus, -a, -um, seventh.


sepultura, -ae, f., burial.

-are,

-avi,

-atum

[spes],

hope, look for, expect.


f., hope. statim, adv. [sto], on the spot, at

Sequana, -ae, f., Sequani, -orum,


lic tribe.

the Seine. m., the

spes, spei,
once.

Sequani

(sek'wa-ni), Sequanians, a Gal-

statuo, -uere, -ui, -utum, set up, es-a,


tablish, determine, decide. sto, stare, steti,

-um, Sequanian. sequor, sequi, secutus sum, dep.,


Sequanus,
follow.

statum, stand.
,

studeo, -ere, -ui,


-tutis, f.

be eager for,

servitus,

[servus], slavery.

desire.

servo, -are, -avi, -atum, save, guard,


preserve.
m., slave.

studium,

-I,

n., eagerness, desire.

sub, prep. w. ace. or abl., under,


beneath,

servus,

-I,

up

to;

as prefix, under.

sex, indecl. adj., six.

sexaginta, indecl. adj., sixty. sexcenti, -ae, -a, six hundred.


sextus, -a, -um, sixth.
si, conj., if.

subduco, -ducere, -duxi, -ductum [sub + duco], draw up, withdraw. subeo, -ire, -ii, -itum [sub+eo], go
under, go near, undergo.
subito, adv., suddenly.

sic,

adv., so, thus.

subsidium,
ment.

-I,

n.,

aid,

reinforce-

signifer, -feri, m., standard bearer.


signified, -are, -avi,

-atum [signum

succedo, -cedere, -cessi, -cessum


[sub + cedo], go under, go near,

+ facio],
signum,

indicate.
signal, standard.

-I, n.,

approach, advance, succeed.


sui, sibi, se [sese], himself, herself,
itself,

silva, -ae, f., forest.

similis, -e, like, similar.

themselves.

simul, adv., at the


sin, conj., but
if.

same

time.

Sulla, -ae, m., Sulla, a tator.

Roman

dic-

sine, prep. w. abl., without.

sum, esse,

fui,

be.

VOCABULARY
summa,
sum,
-ae,
f.,

325
control,

{highest

point),

tempero, -are, -avi, -atum,


refrain.

total.

summus,

-a, -urn [superus], high-

tempestas,

-tatis,

f.,

season,

est, greatest;

the top of.

weather, storm.

sumo, sumere, sumpsi, sumptum,


take, claim.

templum,
tempt.

-i, n.,

temple.
try, at-

tempto, -are, -avi, -atum,

sumptus, -us, m., expense. super, prep. w. ace. and abl., above,
over; as prefix, over.

tempus, temporis,

n., time.

teneo, tenere, tenui, tentum, hold.


terra, -ae, f., earth, land, country.

supero, -are, -avi, -atum, surpass, conquer, overcome.

terreo, -ere, -ui, -itum, frighten.


tertius, -a,

supersum,

[super + sum], be over, survive, remain.


-esse,
-fui

-um,

third.

Tiberis,

-is, m., the

Tiber.

superus, -a,
higher.

-um (comp.

superior,

Tigurinus, -a, -um, of the Tigurini


(tig-u-ri'ni);

sup. supremus,

summus), upper,
n.,

Tigurini,

M., the Tigurini, a


-1,

-orum, canton of the

supplicium,
penalty.

punishment,

Helvetii.

timeo, -ere, -ui,


timidus, -a,
Titus,
-i

fear.

supporto, -are, -avi, -atum [sub-f


porto], bring up, convey, supply.

-um

[timed], timid.

timor, -oris, m., fear.


(abbr. T.), m., Titus
(ti'-

suscipio,

-cipere,

-cepi,

-ceptum

[sub-f capio], undertake, undergo.


suspicio, -6ms,
f., suspicion. sustineo, -tinere, -tinui, -tentum [sub+teneo], hold up, hold out,

tus), a personal

name.
-atum, endure,
sublatum,

tolero, -are, -avi,

support, sustain.
tollo,

tollere,

sustuli,

sustain, withstand.

suus, -a, -um, his, her,

its, their.

lift up, take away. tot, indecl. adj., so many.

totus, -a,

-um

(gen. -ius, dat. -i),

the whole of, all, entire.

tabula, -ae,
tacitus, -a,

f.,

board, tablet, record.


silent.

-um,

trado, -dere, -didi, -ditum [trans-f do], give over, hand down, surrender.

talis, -e, such.

tarn, adv., so.

traduco, -ducere, -duxi, -ductum


[trans +duco], lead across.

tamen, adv., nevertheless, yet. tandem, adv., at length, finally.


tango,
touch.

trans, prep. w. ace, across; as prefix,

tangere,

tetigi,

tactum,

across, through.
-ii (ivi)

transeo, -ire,
so great, so

,-itum [trans

tantus, -a, -um,

much.

eo], go across, cross.

taurus,

-i,
-I,

m., bull.
n.,

transfero,
javelin,

-ferre,

-tuli,

-latum

telum,
spear.

weapon,

[trans +fero], carry over, transfer. trecenti, -ae, -a, three hundred.

326
tres, tria, three.

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


uter, -tra,
three days.

-tram (gen. -ius, dat.

-I),

triduum,
triplex,
triple.

-I, n.,

which
utilis,

(of two),

triginta, indecl. adj., thirty.

-e [utor], useful.

-ids,

adj.,

threefold,

utor, uti,

usus sum, dep.,


f., wife.

use.

uxor, -oris,
cele-

triumpho, -are, -avi, -atum, brate a triumph.


Troia, -ae,
f.,

Troy.

vaco, -are, -avi, -arum, be vacant,


Trojan.
be unoccupied.
-i, N.,ford, shoal. valeo, -ere, -ui, -itum, be strong,

Troianus,
tuba, -ae,
Tulingi,

-a, -urn,

tu, pers. pron., thou, you.


f.,

vadum,

trumpet.
u., the

-oram,
a

Tulingi

be well.

(tu-lin'ji),

German
tower.

tribe.

turn, adv., then, at that time.

validus, -a, -um, strong. vallum, -i, n., rampart, barricade.

turns, turris,

f.,

vasto, -are, -avi, -atum, lay waste,


devastate, ravage.

tuus, -a, -urn, thy, your.

U
ubi, adv.

vastus, -a, -um, immense,

vast.

veho, vehere, vexi, vectum, carry.

and

conj.,

when, where.
-i),

vel, or; vel

vel, either

or.

ullus, -a, -urn (gen. -ius, dat.

velox, -ocis, swift.

any.
ulterior, -ius,

comp.

adj.

[ultra],

venio, venire, veni, ventum, come. ventus, -i, m., wind.

farther.
ultra, adv.

verbum, and prep. w.


ace., be-

-i, n.,

word.

yond.

vereor, -eri, -itus sum, dep., fear, dread.


Vergilius,
-i,

umbra, -ae, f., shade. umerus, -i, m., shoulder.


una,
adv., with.
together,

m., Vergil (ver'jil),


B.C.).

great Latin poet (70-19

in

company
place,

verus, -a, -um, true.

vesper, -eri, m., evening.

unde,

adv., whence.

from

which

vester, -tra, -tram, your, yours.

veteranus, -a,

-um

[vetus],

old,

undique [unde], adv., from all parts,


on
all sides.
-i),

veteran; as noun, veteran soldier, veteran.

unus, -a, -urn (gen. -ius, dat.


one.

vetus, veteris, adj., old, former. via, -ae, f., way, road.
victor, -oris, m. [vinco], victor, con-

urbanus,
city,

-a,

-um, belonging
f., city.

to

of a

city.

queror.
victoria, -ae, f., victory.

urbs, urbis,

usus, -us, m., use, advantage. ut [uti], conj. w. subj., that,


order that; w. ind., as, when.

vicinus, -a,

-um

[vicus], neighbor-

in

ing, near.

vicus,

-i,

m.

village.

VOCABULARY
video,

327

videre,

vidi,

visum,

see;

vita, -ae, f., life.

pass., be seen, seem.


vigilia, -ae, f.,

vivo, vivere, vixi, victum,


vix, adv., hardly, scarcely.

live.

watch of the night,

watch.
viginti, indecl. adj., twenty.

voco, -are, -avi, -atum,

call,

sum-

mon.
i.

vinco, vincere, vici, victum, conquer.

volo, -are, -avi, -atum, fly.


volo, velle, volui,
willing.
,

2.
-i, n.,

wish, be

vinculum,

bond.

vinum,

-i, n.,

wine.

voluntas,

-tatis,

f.,

willingness,

violentia, -ae, f., violence.


vir, -i, m.,

wish, consent, good-will.

man.
{manliness),

vos,

pi. of tu. f., voice,

virtus, -tutis, f. [vir],


virtue, valor.

vox, vocis,

word.

vulnero, -are, -avi, -atum [vulnus],

vis, vis, f., force, violence; pi. vires,

wound.
vulnus, -eris,
n., woutid.

strength.

ENGLISH-LATIN VOCABULARY
arrive,

pervenio,

-venire,

-veni,

-ventum.
able:

be able,

about,

possum, posse, potui. circum, w. ace; de (conw. numerals,

arrow, sagitta, -ae, r. as as possible, quam w. super-

cerning), w. abl.; ad.

lative.

ascent, ascensus, -us, m.

about

to,

expressed by fut. act. part.


be absent,

ask, rogo, -are, -avi,

-atum.

absent:
afui.

absum, abesse,
of,

assemble, convenio, -venire, -veni,

-ventum.
ob, propter,
at,

account: on account

ad, w. ace.

w. ace.
accuse, accuso, -are, -avi, -atum. across, trans, w. ace.
advise,

attack,

(noun) impetus,

-us,

M.;
-avi,

(verb)

oppugno,

-are,

moneo,

-ere, -ui, -itum.

after, (prep.) post,

w. ace; (conj.)

-atum; adgredior, -gredi, -gressus sum. attempt, conor, -ari, -atus sum.
authority, auctoritas, -tatis, p.

postquam.
aid, (noun) auxilium, subsidium,
-l,

away: be away,
afui.

absum, abesse,

n.; (verb)

iuvo, iuvare, iuvi,

iutum.
all,

away from, a
totus, -a, -um. pati, passus sum.
;

(ab).

omnis, -e

allow, patior,

B
bad, malus, -a,

almost, fere, paene.

-um.

always, semper.

badge, insigne, -is, n.


-I,

ambassador, legatus,
and,

m.

baggage, impedimenta, -orum, n.

among, inter, apud, w. ace.


et,

-que, ac, atque.

band, manus, -us, f. bank (of a river), ripa, -ae,


battle,

f.

animal, animal, -alis, n.

proelium,

-i,

n.

announce, nuntio, -are, -avi, -atum.


another, alius, -a, -ud.

be,

be

sum, esse, fui. away, absum, abesse,

afui.

any

one, quis,

quisquam.

bear, fero, ferre, tali, latum.

April, Aprilis, -e. are, see be.

beast of burden,

iumentum,

-i,

N.

beautiful, pulcher, -chra,

-chrum.

arms, anna, -orum, n.

because, quod.
-inis,

army, acies,

-ei, f.;

agmen,

n.; exercitus, -us, m. arrival, adventus, -us, m.

propter, w. ace. before, (prep.) ante, w. ace; pro, w. abl.; (conj.) priusquam.

because

of,

328

VOCABULARY
began, coepi, -isse. in behalf behalf:
abl.

329

of,

pro,

w.

-atum; (summon), voco, -are, -avi, -atum.


call back,

revoco.

behind, post, w. ace.

call together,

convoco.

Belgians, Belgae, -arum, m. credo, credere, credidi, believe, creditum.


(adv.) melius. better, melior; w. ace. between, inter,
boldly, audacter.

camp, castra, -orum, n. can, possum, posse, potui.


capital, caput, capitis, x.
captive, captivus,
-i,

m.

capture, capio, capere, cepi, cap-

turn;

boldness, audacia, -ae, f. book, liber, libri, m.


booty, praeda, -ae, f.

town), (jugno, -are, -avi, -atunx


capture
(a

ex-

care, cura, -ae, f.

both

and,
et

carry, porto, -are, -avi, -atum.

et.

carry on (war), gero, gerere, gessi,

boy, puer, pueri, m.


brave, fortis, -e.

gestum.
cart, carrus, -i,

m.
;

bravely, fortiter.

cavalry, equites
tUS, -US, M.
Celts. Celtae,

-urn, m.;

equita-

bravery, fortitudo, -inis, f.; virtus,


-tutis, f.

-arum, m.
certus,
-a,

breadth, latitudo, -inis, f.


bridge, pons, pontis, m.

centurion, centurio, -onis, m.


certain,
(adj.)

-urn;

bring,

fero,

ferre,

tuli,

latum;

(pron.)

quidam.
-orum, m.;
liberi,

porto, -are, -avi, -atum.

chief, princeps, -cipis, m.

bring in, importo. bring together, conduco, -dticere, -duxi, -ductum; confero. bring upon, infero.
broad, latus, -a, -urn.
brother, frater, fratris, m. Brutus, Brutus, -1, M.

children, pueri,

-orum, m.
choose, deligo, -ligere, -legi, -lec-

tum.
citizen, civis, -is, m. or f.
city,

urbs, urbis,

f.

climb,

ascendo,

ascendere,

as-

building, aedificium,

-i,

n.

cendi, ascensum.
cohort, cohors, cohortis, f.

bum, incendo, -cendere, -eendi,


but, sed,

-censum. autem.

come, venio, venire, veni, ventum. come together, convenio.

buy,

emo, emere, emi, emptum.


a (ab) w. &bl

command,
-atum;

impero,
be in

-are,

-avi,

buy up, coemo.


by, sign of abl.;

command, praesum
put
in

-esse, -fui;

co-mmand,
-oris, m.

praeficio, -ficere, -feci, -fectum.

commander, imperator,
Caesar, Caesar, Caesaris, m.
tall

compel, cogo, cogere, coegi, coac-

(by name), appello, -are, -avi,

tum.

33
complete,
perficio,

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


-ficere,
-feci,

deserve,
desire,

-fectum.
concerning, de, w. abl.

mereor, -eri, -itus sum. (noun) cupiditas, -tatis, f.;


cupio,

(verb)

cupere,

cupivi,

conquer, vinco, vincere, vici, vic-

cupitum.
desirous, cupidus, -a,

tum; supero, -are, -avi, -atum. conspiracy, coniuratio, -onis, f. construct, facio, facere, feci, factum.
consul, consul, -is, m.

-um.

determine, constituo, -stituere, -stitui, -stitutum.


devastate, vasto, -are, -avi,
difficult, difficilis, -e.

-atum.

contend, contendo, -tendere, -tendi,

diligence, diligentia, -ae, f.


direction, pars, partis, f.

-tentum.
Corinth, Corinthus,
-1, f.

discover, reperio, reperire, repperi,

Cornelia, Cornelia, -ae, f. Cornelius, Cornelius, -I, m.


could, see can.
council, concilium,
-I,

repertum.
distant: be distant,
afui.

absum, abesse,
m.

n.

district,

pagus,

-i,

country, terra, -ae, fines, -ium, m.; native country, patria, -ae,
;

f.

Divico, Divico, -onis, m.


divide, divido, -videre, -visi, -vi-

f.;

country

(as

distinguished

sum.
do, ago, agere, egi,

from

city), rus, ruris, n.

actum;

facio,

course, iter, itineris, n.


cross, transed, -ire, -ii (ivi), -itum.

facere, feci, factum. down from, de, w. abl.

custom, mos, moris, m.

D
danger, periculum,
daring, audax,
-i,

each, quisque,
n.

quaeque, quidque.

eager, cupidus, -a,


for, studeo,

-um;

be eager

-acis.

-ere, -ui.
-tatis,
f.;

-ae, f. day, dies, -ei, m.

daughter,

filia,

eagerness,

cupiditas,
-i,

studium,
statui,

n.

death, mors, mortis, f.


decide,

easily, facile.

statuo, statuere, statutum; constituo.

easy, facilis, -e.


eight, octo.

deep, altus, -a,

-um.
-atum.

eighth, octavus. eighty, octoginta.


cither
t,

defeat, supero, -are, -avi,

defend, defendo, -fendere, -fendi,

or,

aut

aut;

vel

vel.

-fensum.

creo, creare, creavi, creatum.


f.

mora, -ae, f. dense, densus, -a, -um.


delay,

embassy, legatid, -onis,

depart,

discedo,

-cedere,

-cessi,

encourage, hortor, -ari, -atus cohortor.

sum;

-cessum.
depth, altitudo, -inis, f.

enemy, hostis, hostis, m.


enough, satis.

VOCABULARY
enroll, conscribo, -scribere, -scripsi,

33 1
out,

find

cognosco,

-gnoscere,

-scriptum.
-l,

envoy, legatus,

m.

-gnovi, -gnitum. fire, ignis, ignis, M.


first,

equal, par, paris.


establish,

confirmo,

-are,

-avi,

fit,

primus, -a, -um. idoneus, -a, -um.


quinque.

-atum.
evening, vesper, vesperi, m.
every,

five,

flee, fugio, fugere, fugi, fugitum.

omnis, -e; thing, omnia.

quisque;

every-

fleet, classis, classis, f.

flight,

fuga, -ae,

f.

excel,

supero, -are, -avi, -atum; praecedo, -cedere, -cessi, -ces-

flow, fluo, fluere, fluxi, fluxum. food, cibus, -i, m.


foot, pes, pedis, m.;
at the foot of,

sum.
except, praeter, w. ace. expect, exspecto, -are, -avi,

sub, w. abl.

-atum.
-avi,

for, sign of dat. case; pro, w. abl.

explain,

demonstro,

-are,

forage, frumentor, -ari, -atus


force, vis, vis, f.
forces, copiae,
f.

sum.

-atum.
extend, pateo, -ere, -ui; pertineo,
-ere, -ui.

-arum,
n.
-i,

ford,

vadum,

-i,

F
fact, res, rei, f.

fort,

castellum,

n.

fortification,

faithfully, diligenter.

munitio, -onis, F. fortify, munio, -ire, -ivi, -itum.


-i,

famous, clarus,

-a,

-um.

forum, forum,
four, quattuor.

n.

far, (adv.) longe.

farmer, agricola, -ae, M.


farther, (adj.) ulterior, -ius.
farthest,

fourth, quartus, -a,


free,
ulti-

-um.
-era,

(adj.)

liber,

-erum;

extremus,
-a,

-a,

-um;

mus,

-um.
-dulgere, -dulsi,

(verb) libero, -are, -avi, -atum. friend, amicus, -i, m.


friendly, amicus, -a,

father, pater, patris, m.

-um.
f.

favor, indulged,

friendship, amicitia, -ae,

-dultum.
fear,

(noun)

timor,

-oris,

m.;

frighten, terreo, -ere, -ui, -itum. from, sign of abl.; ab, de, ex, w.
abl.

(verb) timed, -ere, -ui; vereor,


-eri, -itus
fertile,

sum.
very few, per-

ferax, -acis.

few, pauci, -ae, -a;


pauci.
field,

Galba, Galba, -ae,


gate, porta, -ae, f.

if.

Gallic, Gallicus, -a,

-um.
P.;

ager, agri, m.

fiercely, acriter.
fight,

Gaul, Gallia, -ae,

the Gauls.

pugno, -are, -avi, contendo, -tendere, -tendi, -ten-

-atum;

Galli,

-drum, m.

turn.

general, imperator, -oris, m. Geneva. Genava, -ae, f.

33 2

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


higher, altior;

German, Germanus, -a, -um; the Germans, German!, -orum, m. Germany, Germania, -ae, f.
get possession of, potior, -In, -Itus

(upper) superior.
m.

hill, collis, collis,

himself, ipse, sui. his, eius.


his own, suus, -a,

sum.
girl,

-um.
tentum.
at
f.;

puella, -ae,

f.

hold, teneo, -ere, -ui,

dare, dedi, datum. ii (Ivi), itum. Ire, go, eo, transeo. go across,
give, do,

home, domus, -us, doml.

home,

hope, (noun) spes, spei, f.; (verb)

go out, exeo.
god, deus,
-I,

spero, -are, -avi, -atum.


m.

horn, cornu, -us, n.

good, bonus, -a,


grain,

-um.
so great,

frumentum, -I, n. great, magnus, -a, -um; tantus, -a, -um.


guard, praesidium,
-I,

horse, equus, equl, m. horseman, eques, equitis, m.

hostage, obses, obsidis, m. or f.

hour, hora, -ae,


house,

f.

n.

domus,
being,

-us, f.

guide, dux, ducis, m.

human
or
f.

homo, hominis, m.

H
Haeduan, Haeduus, -a, -um; Haedui, Haedui, -orum, m. hand, manus, -us, f.
happen:
est.
it

hundred, centum.
the
hurl, iacio, iacere, ieel, iactum.

happens, accidit, accifit,

/,

ending of verb; or pron. ego.

dere, accidit;

fieri,

factum

if, si.

harbor, portus, -us, m.


hasten,

import, importo, -are, -avi, -atum. in, sign of abl.; in w. abl.


induce,

maturo, -are, -avi, -atum; contendo, -tendere, -tendi, -tenhabeo, -ere, -ui, -itum. ending of verb; or pron. is.

induco,

-ducere,

-duxl,
-ta-

-ductum.
influence, (noun)
tis, f.;

turn.

auctoritas,

have,
he,

(verb) adduco, -ducere,

-duxl, -ductum.

hear, audio, -ire, -Ivi, -Itum.

inform,

certidrem facio;

be

in-

heavy, gravis, -e.


height, altitudo, -mis, f.

formed, certior flo.


inhabit, incolo, -colere, -colui.

Helvetia, Helvetia,

-ae, f.

Helvetian, Helvetius, -a,


Helvetii, Helvetii,
her, eius.

-um;

the

inhabitant, incola, -ae, m. or F. intend, in animo habeo.


into, in w. ace.
is,

-orum, m.

see be.

her own, suus, -a,


herself, ipsa, sul.

-um.

it,

ending of verb; or ipsum,


sui.

id,

hoc.

Italy, Italia, -ae, f.


itself,

high, altus, -a,

-um.

VOCABULARY
love,

333

javelin, pflum,

-i,

N.

-are, -avi, -atum. Lucius, Lucius, -i, m.

amo,

journey,

iter, itineris, N.

Julia, Iulia, -ae, f.

M
magistrate, magistratus, -us,
it.

make, facio, facere,


keep away, keep -ul, -itum.
kill,
ojf,

prohibed, -ere,

be

made,

fio, fieri,

factum; factus sum.


feci,

make upon,
-latum.

infero,

-ferre,

-tuli,

occido, -cidere, -cidi, -cisum;

interficio, -ficere, -feci,

-fectum.

king, rex, regis, m.

man, vir, viri, m.; homo, many, multi, -ae, -a.


march,

-inis, m.

know,

scio, scire, scivi, scitum.

(noun)

iter,

itineris,

N.;

(verb) iter facio.

Labienus, Labienus,
lack, inopia, -ae, f. lake, lacus, -us, m.

-i,

m.

Marcus, Marcus, -i, m. master, dominus, -i, m. memory, memoria, -ae,


message, nuntius,
-i,

f.

merchant, mercator, -oris, m.


native land,

land, terra, -ae, f.;


patria, -ae, f.

m.

language, lingua, -ae, f


large,

magnus,

-a, -urn.

messenger, nuntius, -i, m. mile, mille passus. mind, animus, -i, m.

law, lex, legis, f.


lead,

duco, ducere, duxi, ductum.

lead across, traduco. lead out, educo.


leader,

money, pecunia, -ae, f. month, mensis, mensis, m. moon, luna, -ae, f.


more, comp. ending; plus, magis.
most, sup. ending;

dux, ducis, m.
cog-

plurimus, -a,

learn, disco, discere, didici;

nosce, -gnoscere, -gnovi, -gni-

tum.
legion, legio, -onis, f.

-um; maxime. mountain, mons, montis, m. move, moveo, movere, movi, motum.
-a, -um; (adv.) multum, by much, multo. my, meus, -a, -um.

length, longitude,
less,

-inis, f.

much, multus,

minus.
epistula, -ae, f.

letter,

liberty, libertas, -tatis, f.

lieutenant, legatus,
like, similis, -e.
little,

-I,

M.

N
name, (noun)
(verb)

nomen,

-inis,

x.;

parvus, -a, -um.


habito,
-are,
-avi,

appello,

-are,

-avi,

live,

-atum;
(adv.)

-atum.
narrow, angustus, -a, -um. narrowness: narrow pass, angustiae,

incolo, -ere, -ui.


long,

longus, -a,

-um;

long time, diu.

-arum,

f.

334

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


populus,
our, noster, -tra, -trum. out of, ex (e), w. abl.
over, trans,

nation, natio, -onis, f.; -1, M.

nature, natura, -ae, f.


near, ad, w. ace;
nearest,

w. ace.

(adv.) prope.
-a,

-um. neighboring, finitimus, -a, -um. neighbors, flnitimi, -orum, m.


proximus,
neither,

overcome, supero, -are, -avi, -atum. owe, debeo, -ere, -ui, -itum.

(pron.)
(conj.)

neuter,

-tra,

pace, passus, -us, m.

-trum;
next,

neque.
-a,

pack animal, iumentum,

-i,

N.

proximus,

-um;

on the

next day, postero die.

part, pars, peace, pax, pacis, f.

partis, f.

new, novus, -a, -um,


night, nox, noctis, f.

people, populus,
peril,

-i,
-i,

m.
n.

periculum,

no, none, nullus, -a,

-um.
m.

persuade,
-suasi,
pitch (a
sui,

persuadeo,

-suadere,

no one, nemo, dat., nemini.


noon, meridies,
nor,
not,
-ei,

-suasum.

camp), pono, ponere, po-I,

neque
non.

(nee).

positum.
m.; pi., loca,

place, locus,

-orum,

nothing, nihil.

N.

now, nunc.

pleasing, gratus, -a,


-I,

-um.
n.
f.
of,

number, numerus,

m.

plan, consilium,

-i,

O
obey, pareo, -ere, -ui.
of,

plunder, praeda, -ae,


possession:
get
tior, -iri, -itus

possession

po-

sign of gen. case;


abl.

de, ex, w.

possible:

as

as

sum.
possible,

quam

w. a superlative.

often,

saepe.

powerful, potens, potentis.


praise, laudd, -are, -avi,

on, in, w. abl.;

on account of, ob, propter, w. ace; on all sides, undique. one, unus, -a, -um.
opportunity, facultas, -tatis, f.
or, aut.

-atum.

prepare, paro, -are, -avi, -atum;

comparo.
present: be present,

adsum, adesse,

adfui.

promise, polliceor, -eri, -itus sum.


'

orator, orator, -oris, M.

property:

your

property,

vestra,

order, iubeo, iubere, iussi,

iussum.
quo;
in

order:

in

order

that,

ut,

order not. ne.


other (of

more than two),


the

alius, -a,

-orum, x.; -orum, n. protect, defendo, -fendere, -fendi, -fensum.


province, provincia, -ae,
I

their property, sua,

-ud;

other

(of

two), alter,

-era, -erum.
ought, debeo, -ere,
-ui, -itum.

punishment, poena, -ae,

F.

purpose: for the purpose, causa.

VOCABULARY
sailor,
f. queen, regina, -ae,

335

nauta, -ae, m. sake: for the sake, causa.

quickly, celeriter.

Quintus, Quintus,

-I,

m.

same, idem, eadem, idem. dico, dicere, dixi, dictum.


say,
f. scarcity, inopia, -ae,

R
f. raft, ratis, ratis,

u, scout, explorator, -oris, n. sea, mare, maris,

reach (arrive at) pervenio, -venire, -veni, -ventum, w. ad.


,

second, secundus, -a, -urn. visum. see, video, videre. vidi,


seek,

lectum. read, lego, legere, legi, -urn. -a, ready, paratus,


receive, recipio, -cipere, -cepi,

peto, petere,

petivi

(petii),

petitum.
Seine, Sequana, -ae, f.
select,

-cep-

tum.
recent, recens, recentis.

-lecdeligo, -ligere, -legi,

tum.
m. senate, senatus, -us,

recently,

nuper.

remain, maneo, manere, mansi,

send, mitto, mittere, misi,

missum.
-visi,

mansum.
remember, memoria teneo, -ere, -ui, tentum. nuntio, -are, -avi, -atum.
report,
-stiti. resist, resisto, -sistere,

send ahead, praemitto.


separate,

divido,

-videre,

-visum.
servant, servus,
-i,

m.

set free, libero, -are, -avi, set out, proficiscor, -ficisci,

-atum.
-fectus

rest:

the rest of, reliquus, -a, -urn.

retreat, se recipio, -cipere, -cepi,

sum.
severely, graviter.

-ceptum.
return,

revertor, reverti, reverti,


N.

she, ea, ilia;

sui.
-i,

reversum.
reward, praemium,
-i,

shield,

scutum,

N.

f. ship, navis, navis,

Rhine, Rhenus, -i, m. Rhone, Rhodanus, -i, m.


right,

short, brevis, -e.

(noun)

ius, iuris, n.;

(adj.)

-atum. show, demonstro, -are, -avi, this side of, on f. side, pars, partis,
;

dexter, -tra, -trum.


river,

citra,

w. ace.

fiumen,

-inis, N.
iter, itineris, n.

sides:
sight,

road, via, -ae, f.;

from all sides, undique. conspectus, -us, m.


signum, -i, n. (conj.) cum.
-inis, f.

Roman, Romanus, -a, -urn; Romans, Romani, -orum, m.


Rome, Roma, -ae, f. royal power, regnum,
-i,

the

signal,
since,

f. sister, soror, -oris,

N.
size,

magnitudo,
servus,
-i,

rule, rego, regere, rexi,

rectum.

-a. -urn. skillful, peritus.


slave,

S
f. safety, salus, -utis,

mJ.

sail,

navigo, -are, -avi, -atum.

slavery, servitus, -tutis, small, parvus, -a, -urn.

336
so, ita, sic, tarn;

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


so great, tantus,
territory, fines,

-ium, m.
ea, id;

-a, -urn;

so that, ut.

than,

quam.
(pron.)
is,
ille, ilia,

soldier, miles, militis, m.

some, aliquis, -qua, -quid; some


others, alii

that,

illud;
their,

(conj.) ut.
their

alii.

son, filius,

-i,

m.

eorum, earum; suus, -a, -um.

own,

speak, loquor, loqui, locutus sum.


spear, pilum,
-i,

them, eos, eas, ea.


themselves, ipsi, -ae, -a;
sui.

N.
-i,

standard, signum,

n.
-feri, m.

there, (in

standard bearer, signifer,


state, civitas, -tatis, f.

that place), ibi; tive) not expressed.

(exple-

these, see this,

stone, lapis, lapidis, m.


street, via,

they,

ending of verb;
illi,

or

ei,

eae,

-ae,

f.

ea;
think,

-ae, -a.

strong, fortis, -e.

thing, res, rei, f.

subdue, paco, -are, -avi, -atum. such: in such a manner, sic.


sufficiently, satis.

puto,

-are,

-avi,

-atum;
exis-

arbitror, -ari, -atus

sum;

timo, -are, -avi, -atum.


third, tertius, -a,
this, hie,

suitable,

idoneus, -a, -um.


-tatis, f.

-um.
is,

summer, aestas,

haec, hoc;

ea, id.

sun, sol, solis, m.

those, see that,


f.

supply, copia, -ae,

thousand, mille.
three, tres, tria.

surpass, praecedo, -cedere, -cessi,

-cessum;
-atum.

supero,

-are,

-avi,

through, per, w. ace.

throw, iacio, iacere, ieci, iactum.


time,
to,

surrender, trado, tradere, tradidi,

tempus, temporis, n.

traditum.
swift, celer, celeris, celere;

velox,

-oris.

sign of inf.; ad, w. ace; ut, w. subj. today, hodie.


together,

sign of dat. case;

sword, gladius,

-i,

m.

con- (prefix); una (adv.).

tomorrow, eras.
too,

express

by ending
-i,

of

comp.

take, capio, capere, cepi,

captum;

tower, turris, turris, f.

(a town), expugno, -are, -avi, -atum.


teach, doceo, -ere, -ui,

town, oppidum,
trader,

N.

mercator, -oris, m.
transporto,
f.

doctum.
if.

transport,

-are,

-avi,

teacher, magister, -tri,


tell,

-atum.

dico,

dicere,

dixi,

dictum;

tree,

arbor, -oris,
civitas,
f.

narro, -are, -avi, -atum.


ten, decern.

tribe,

-tatis,

f.;

gens,

gentis,
-a,

tenth,

decimus,

-um.

troops, copiae,

-arum,
f.

f.

terrify, terreo, -ere, -ui, -itum.

trumpet, tuba, -ae,

VOCABULARY
try,

337

conor, -ari, -atus sum.

were, see be.

twenty, viginti.
two, duo, duae, duo.

what,

quis

(qui),

quae,

quid

(quod).

two hundred, ducentl, -ae, -a.

when, ubi, cum.


where, ubi. whether, -ne.
;

U
under, sub, w. ace. (of motion)
abl. (of rest).

w.

which, qui, quae, quod; (interrog.)

quis (qui), quae, quid (quod);


-legere,
(of

understand, intellego, -lectum. -lexi,

two) uter, utra, utrum.

while,

dum.
(interrog.) quis.

unfortunate, miser, -era, -erum. unfriendly, inimicus, -a, -um.


unlike, dissimilis, -e.
until,

who, qui, quae;


whole, totus, -a, whose, cuius.

-um.

dum. -um;
be

why, cur. unwide, latus, -a, -um.


widely, late.

unwilling, invitus, -a,

willing, nolo, nolle, nolui.

urge, hortor, -ari, -atus


us, see we.

sum.

width, latitude, -mis, f.


willing:
be willing,

volo,

velle,

use, utor, uti,

usus sum.

volui.

winter, hiems, hiemis, f.;


winter,
valor, virtus, -tutis, f.

pass the

hiemo, -are,

-avi,

-atum.

winter quarters, hiberna, -orum, x.


(intensive)

very,

ending of sup.; ipse, -a, -um.

wish, volo, velle, volui.


with, sign of abl.;

cum, w.

abl.

very few, perpauci, -ae, -a.


victory, victoria, -ae, r.
village, vicus, -i,

within, sign of abl. (time). without, sine, w. abl.

m.

W
wage, gero, gerere, gessi, gestum. wagon, carrus, -i, m.
wait, exspecto, -are, -avi,
wall,

woman, mulier, -eris, word, verbum, -i, n.


work, opus, operis, n.

f.

wound, (noun) vulnus, vulneris,


n.;

(verb) vulnero, -are, -avi,

-atum.

-atum.

murus,

-i,

m.
n.

Y
year, annus,
yet,
-i,

war, bellum, was, see


be.

-i,

m.

warn, moneo, -ere, -ui, -itum.


watch, vigilia, -ae, f.
water, aqua, -ae, f.
iter, itineris, n.

tamen.

yoke,

iugum,

-i,

n.

you, ending of verb;


your, tuus, -a,

or tu.

-um;

vester, -tra,

way, via, -ae,


we,

f.;

-trum.
yourself, tu;

endmg

of verb;

or nos.

ipse, -a,

-um.

VOCABULARY FOR THE FIRST YEAR


As
specified

by the New York State Syllabus Adopted 191 7

The
250
for

following

lists,

each half of the

which are to be memorized, include 500 words, In each division the words are in first year.

alphabetic order, except that compounds of verbs are grouped together. The principal parts, the genitive case, and the gender are indicated for a few words that are not found in the general vocabulary of this book.

FIRST HALF YEAR

VERBS
ago, drive, do. cogo, drive together,
pel.

dico, say.
collect,

com-

do, give.

duco, lead.

redigo (-ere, redegi, redactum),


drive back, reduce, render.

amo,

love.
call.

abduco, lead away. adduco, lead to, influence. educo, lead out.
indued, lead in. induce. perduco, lead through, extend. produco, lead forward. reduco, lead back. existimo, think, consider. exspecto, expect, wait, await. gero, carry, accomplish.

appello, name,

audeo

(-ere, ture.

ausus),

dare,

ven-

capio, take. accipio, accept, receive. incipio, begin, undertake. intercipio, intercept, cut of. suscipio, undertake. (cedo, go, yield.) discedo, go away, depart. excedo, go out. procedo, go forward, advance. cognosco, learn, ascertain.

habeo, have, hold. adhibeo, apply, employ.


prohibeo, prohibit, prevent. iubeo, order. laboro (-are, -avi, -atum) labor,
suffer.

confirmo,

strengthen,

encourage,

consulo

affirm. (-ere,

consului, consul-

libero, set free. loco, place, put, mitto, send.

set.

turn), consult. debeo, owe, ought.

amittd, send away,

lose.

committo, commit, intrust;


proelium, begin.
128

w.

defendo, defend.

VOCABULARY FOR THE FIRST YEAR


dimitt'',

339

send away.

intermitto, interrupt, discontinue. permitto, permit, grant, intrust. praemitto, send ahead. remitto, send back.

putd, think. relinqud, leave behind, abandon. responded, answer.


scribd, write.

moneo, advise, warn. admoneo, remind. moved, move. commoved, alarm, excite. permoved, arouse, disturb.
removed, move back, remove.
navigd, sail. nuntid, announce, declare. occupd, seize, occupy.
oportet, it is necessary. pacd, pacify. pard, get ready, prepare for. compard, get together, provide. petd, seek. portd, carry, take. properd (-are, -avi, -atum), hurry.

cdnscribd, enroll. servo, save, protect. cdnservd, save fully, preserve.

sum, be. absum, be away. adsum, be near, be possum, be able.

present.

tened, hold, keep. contined, hold together, contain,


confine.

obtined, obtain, get. pertineo, reach, extend, pertain. retineo, hold back, retain. sustineo, hold up, sustain.

pugnd, fight. expugnd, capture by assault. oppugnd, attack.

timeo, fear. video, see. provided, foresee. voco, call. convoco, call together, summon. evoco, call out.

NOUNS
aestas, summer. ager, field. agricola, farmer. amicitia, friendship.

fama, reputation,
filia,

report.

daughter.

fflius, son. flumen, river.

animus, spirit, annus, year. arma, arms.

life,

soul.

fortuna, fortune, wealth.


frater, brother.

frumentum,
fuga, flight.

grain.

auctoritas, influence.

auxilium, aid, help. bellum, war.


caput, head. castra, camp. celeritas, speed, swiftness.
civitas, citizenship, state. consilium, advice, plan.

hiems, winter. homo, man.

impedimentum,
baggage.
iniuria, wrong.

hindrance;

pi.

insula, island.

iudex

(iudicis,
trial,

consul, consul.

iudicium,
lex, law.

M.), judge, juror. judgment.

deus, god.
dignitas, worth, position. dfligentia, painstaking, care.

liber, book.

libertas, freedom.

dux, leader. eques, horseman. equus, horse. exemplum, example, precedent. factum, thing done, act, deed.
23

lingua, tongue, language. locus, place.


lux, light.

mater, mother.

memoria, memory.

340

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


regnum, kingdom.
rex, king. salus, safety. servitus, slavery.

miles, soldier. natura, nature. negotium, business, trouble.

nomen, name. numerus, number.


officium, duty, service, courtesy.

servus, slave.

slgnum, sign, signal, standard.


silva, forest.

oppidum, town.
pater, father.

pax, peace. pecunia, money.

socius, ally, comrade. soror, sister.

supplicium, punishment.

periculum, trial, danger. poena, penalty. populus, people.


porta, gate.

tempus, time.
terra, land, earth. via, highway, road. victoria, victory. Villa (-ae, F.), farmhouse, tryseat. vir, man, hero.

praemium, reward.
praesidium. garrison, guard.
princeps, leader, chief man.

conn-

proelium,

battle.

virtus, manliness, courage.


vita, life.

puella, girl. puer, boy. regina, queen.

vox, voice, speech, remark.

ADVERBS CONJUNCTIONS, PREPOSITIONS


a
(ab), away from, by. ac (atque), and also.

longe, far.

ad, to. ante, before (prep.). antea, before (adv.). aut aut, either
. . .

-ne (sign of a question). nee (neque) nee


.

(neque).

neither
.

nor.

or.

non, not. nunc, now.


per, through. post, after, behind. postea, afterwards. pro, in front of, in behalf of. quam, than.

certe, certainly. cum, with.

cur, why. de, down from, concermng. e (ex), out from.

and. etiam, even.


et,

-que, and. sed, but.


trans, across.
turn, then. ubi, where,

hie, here. iam, by this time, already. in, in, on (w. abl.) ; into (w. ace).

when.

PRONOUNS, ADJECTIVES
aequus,
level, even, just, fair. altus, high, deep.

egregius, eminent, unusual. finitimus, neighboring.


hie, this, he. idem, the same.
ille, that, he.

as noun, friend. amicus, friendly amplus, large, distinguished. barbarus, foreign, barbarous. bonus, good.
;

inimicus,

unfriendly,

hostile;

aft

certus, fixed 'certain. creber, frequent, thick.

noun, enemy.
iniquus, uneven, unfavorable, unjust.

VOCABULARY FOR THE FIRST YEAR


integer (-gra, -grum), whole, unimpaired.
ipse, self, the very.
is, this, that, he.

341
.
.
.

primus

decimus, first
belonging
to

tenth.
state,

publicus,

the

liber, free.

longus, long.

public. pulcher, beautiful. quis, who? reliquus, the rest, remaining,


official,

re-

magnus,

large.
of.

medius, middle, middle meus, my, mine.


noster, our. notus, known.

mainder of. sacer (-era, -crum), sacred.


tardus, slow, late. timidus, fearful. tuus, your. unus decern, one verus, true. vester, your.
.

novus, new. parvus, small.


pauci, few.

ten.

SECOND HALF YEAR


VERBS
appropinquo,
proach. audio, hear.
(capio, take.) excipio, take, accept. praecipio, order, instruct,
vise.

draw

near

to,

ap-

dormio

(-ire, -ivi, -itum), sleep. dubito (-are, -avi, -atum), doubt,

hesitate.

ad-

(ducd, lead.) traduco, lead, across. eripio, snatch away.


facio, do,

make.

recipio, take back

w. se, with-

draw. cedo, go, yield. antecedo, go before, precede. succedo, come up, succeed. claudo, close, confine. exchido, shut out. intercludo, shut off, cut off, stop.
coepi, begin.

conficio, finish, exhaust. deficio, fail, revolt, rebel. interficio, kill.


perficio, accomplish. praeficio, put in charge of. reficio, repair. satisfacio, satisfy. iacio, throw, hurl.

concito

(-are,

-avi,

-atum),
trust.

arouse, excite.

adicio, throw to, add. conicio, hurl. deicio, throw down.


eicio,

confido (-ere, confisus),

throw out.

cupio, desire. demonstro, point out, show.


(died, say.)

obicio, throw against, oppose. proicio, throw forward. reicio, throw back.
traicio, throw across, pierce. ignoro (-are, -avi, -atum), ignorant of. impedio, hinder. imperd, command, order. incendo, burn.

praedico,
(do, give.)

foretell.

be

abdo, put away, hide. ad do, add.

circumdo (-dare, -dedi. -datum),


put around, surround. reddo, give back.
trado,

hand

over.

doceo, teach.

lego, pick, gather, read. deligo, select, choose. licet, // is lawful, permitted.

342

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


servio (-ire,
-ivi,

maneo, remain. permaned, remain, hold out. remaned, stay be/r'rd, remain.
(mitto, send.)

-itum), serve*

(sisto, stand.)

consisto, stand, take one's place. desisto, desist from, cease.


resisto, resist.

submitto, send
yield
to.

to the assistance,

spero, hope.

munio,

fortify.

noceo, injure.
odi (ddisse), hate.
pello, drive, defeat. expello, drive out. impello, drive on, excite. repello, drive back, repulse.

despero, lose hope, despair. (struo, pile up, arrange.) exstruo, pile up, erect. instruo, arrange.

(sum,

be.)

persuaded, persuade. pono, put, place. depono, put down, put aside. expono, set forth, explain. oppono, put against, oppose. prdpono, put before, propose. premo (-ere, press!, pressum),
press, oppress. quaero, seek, inquire. rideo (-ere, risi, rlsum), laugh. (scando, climb.)

desum, be lacking. praesum, be in command sumo, take, assume.

of.

supero, overcome, excel, surpass. tempto, try, test, attempt.


(tendo, stretch.)

contendo, struggle, hasten. ostendo, show.


(terreo, frighten.)

perterreo, alarm. traho, -ere, traxi, tractum, drag. venio, come.

ascendo, climb, ascend. descendo, descend. scio, know. sedeo (-ere, sedi, sessum), sit. obsideo (-ere, obsedi, obsessum), besiege.
sentio (-ire, sensi, sensum), feel,
realize.

circumvenio, come around, surround. convenio, come together. invenio, come upon, find. pervenio, come through, arrive.
(video, see.) invideo, look on, envy. vinco, conquer.

vulnero, wound.

NOUNS
acies. line of battle.

domus, home, house.


(to), arrival.

adventus, a coming

aetas, age. altitudo, height, depth. beneficium, kindness.


civis, citizen. cohors, cohort.

equitatus, cavalry. exercitus, army. exitus (-us, M.), a going forth, outcome, departure.
fides, good faith, protection.
finis,

condicid, condition, terms. consuetudo, custom, habit. copia, supply ; pi., forces. cornu, horn, wing (of army). corpus, body. cupiditas, desire, grt,zd. dies, day.
difficultas, difficulty. dolor (-oris, M.), gruf.

end; pi., boundaries, genus, race, kind.


hostis,
,

territory*

enemy (of the state). imperator, commander general. imperium, command, power.
inopia, need, lack.
iter,

journey.

ius, justice, right. laus, praise.

magnitudo,

size,

importance-

VOCABULARY FOR THE FIRST YEAR


manus, hand, group,
mare,
sea.
force.

343
manner.

potestas, power, authority, chance.


ratio, account, theory,

mens (mentis, F.), mind. modus (-1, M.), manner.


mons, mountain.
mors, death.
multitudo, multitude.
boat.

res, thing.

res frumentaria, supplies. res militaris, military affairs, art of war. res publica, commonwealth, govem-

navigium,
nox, night.

navis, ship.
ratio, speaking, speech. (-dinis, M.), rank, class. pars, part. passus, pace, step. pons, bridge.

senatus, senate. [ment. spatium, space, time, distance. spes, hope. timor, fear.
turris

ordo

tower.
city.
pi., strength.

urbs,

vis, force, violence;

vulnus, wound.

ADVERBS, CONJUNCTIONS, PREPOSITIONS


acriter, keenly, sharply. ample, fully. apud, among, at the house of.

magnopere, greatly. multum, much.

autem
bene,

(postpositive), moreover.
well.

nam, ne
.

for.
. .

celeriter, swiftly, quickly. diligenter, with care.

quidem, not even. ob, on account of. quidem (postpositive),


certainly, at least.

indeed

',

enim

(postpositive), /or.

facile, easily. fortiter, bravely.

quod, because. propter, on account


satis,
serisi, if.

of.

enough, quite.

graviter, heavily, weightily, ously. inter, between, among.

interim, meanwhile.

sine, without. trans, across. vero, in truth, but.

PRONOUNS, ADJECTIVES
acer, sharp, keen. celer, swift.

idoneus, fit, suitable. immortalis, without


mortal.

death,

im~

centum, hundred. communis, common.


cupidus, desirous, eager, dexter, right (hand),
difiicilis, difficult.

incolumis, unharmed, safe. levis, light (in weight), militaris, military.


mille, one thousand.

ducenti, two hundred. ego, /. equester, cavalry (adj.).


facilis, easy.

multus, much; pi., many. necessarius, necessary, urgent. nobilis (knowable), noble, famous.

omnis, every;
inti-

pi., all.

familiaris,

of the household,

par, equal.

mate.
fortis, brave.

pedester
(adj.).
to grain.

(-tris,

-tre),

infantry

trumentarius, pertaining
gravis, heavy, serious.

peritus, skilled^ experienced.

plenus, full.

344

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


sui
(of) himself, herself, itself, selves.

propinquus, near; a relative. praesens, present. quadringenti, four hundred. qui, who. recens, fresh, new, recent. sescenti, six hundred.
similis, like.

them-

suus, his, her, its, their talis, such.


trecentl, three hundred. tu, you.

(own).

undecim

viginti,

eleven

singularis, single, unusual.


sinister, left (hand).

twenty. vivus, alive.

INDEX
The numbers
refer to sections, unless otherwise indicated.

Abbreviations, table of, page 288. Ablative, absolute, 564; denned,


65; of accompaniment, 136; of agent, 149; of cause, 361; of comparison, 472; of description, 531; of manner, 137; of means, 66; of measure of difference, 473 of place in which,
;

nominal, 315-318; used as nouns, 319. Adverbs, formation and comparison of, 487-489. Agent, ablative of, 149; dative
of, 573-

Agreement, of adjective, 118; of


appositive, 98; of participle, 259; of predicate noun, 99; of relative pronoun, 329; of verbs,
26.

67; of place from which, 222; of separation, 221; of specification, 377; of time, 292; with certain deponents, 403; with certain prepositions, 541, b; re-

alius, alter, etc., 315-317.

Answers, 198.
Apposition, 97, a. Attributive adjective, 120.

view

of,

643.
of, 214.

Abstract nouns, gender Accent, 16-18.

B
Base, 49.

Accompaniment, ablative of, 136. Accusative, defined, 39; of direct


object, 42; of duration of time, 291; of extent of space, 522; of place to which, 134, 282; predicate, 190; subject of in-

capio, conjugation

of,

156.

Cardinal numerals, 518.

342; review of, 639; with prepositions, 76, 541.


finitive,

Case endings, 49.


Cases, defined, 47. Causal clauses, 612.

Adjectives,
of,

attributive,

agreement of, 118; 120; comparison 466-481; dative with, 245;

Cause, ablative of, 361. certior, with facio, fid, 598.


Characteristic vowel, 107. Clauses, classified, 331; of cause, 612; of condition, 621; of purpose, 411, 420; of result, 446-

declension of, 58; declension of comparative, 469; genitive with, 353; numeral, 517; of
first

and second declensions, 126; of third declension, 242, 243; ordinal, 528; possessive, 127; predicate. 120; pro115,

448; of time, 512, 605; reviewed, 628; used as nouns,


438, 448.

U5

346
coepi, 379,
a.

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


Demonstrative pronouns,
declen35o, 365, 39o.

348-

Comparative adjective, sion of, 469; special meanings


of,

Deponent

verbs,

400;

ablative

481.

with certain, 403.


ablative
of,

Comparison,

472;

of adjectives, 466-481; of adverbs, 488, 489.

Description, genitive and ablative of, 53 1Direct object, 42.


do, conjugation of, 43, a; 147, dum, use of, 605.
a.

Complementary infinitive, no. Complex sentences, 330.

Compound
with, 456.

verbs,
of

277;
454.

dative

Duration of time, 291:

Compounds

sum,

Conditional sentences, 620. Conjugations, denned, 23; distinguished, 107; first, 31-33, 196, 226-228; fourth, 104, 105, 155, 234-236; second, 73, 74, 326-228; third, 104, 105, 155, 234-236; third conjugation in
-io, 156.

E
eius

and

suus, distinguished,

368.
Enclitic, 18.

Endings, case, 49; of indicative,


ticiples,

Conjunctions, classified, 632.

308; of infinitive, 376; of par556; of subjunctive, 509; personal, 32, 146, 186, 251.

cum cum

(conj.), causal, 612, b;

tem-

eo, conjugation of, 604.


et,

poral, 512.
(prep.), with ablative of ac-

-que,

atque, distinguished,

229, a.

companiment, 136; of manner, 137; enclitic, page 128, note 2.


fero, 611.
fid,

passive of facio, 597; with

certior, 598.

Dative, defined, 59, a; of agent,


573; of indirect object, 60; of possessor, 458; review of, 638; with adjectives, 245; with compound verbs, 456; with verbs of special meaning, 436.

from, how to say, 219. Future, indicative, 227, 235, 236;


infinitive, 374, 375; participle,

373, 556, 57i, 572 ;

Future perfect indicative, 306,


37-

Declension, defined, 46; of adjectives, 58; of comparatives,


469.

Declensions, distinguished, 289; fifth, 285-288; first, 48, 56; fourth, 270-273; second, 8789, 95, 125; third, 162-165, 171-173, 178, 179, 208-210;
214.

Gender, 86; in third declension,


214.

Genitive,

general rule, 634, a; objective, 352; of description, 531; of possession, 50; of the whole, 529; review of, 634; with

INDEX
adjectives, 403, a.

347

353; with potior,


of

Irregular verbs, 619. is, 365; is and sui, distinguished,


386.

Genitive singular

nouns

in

-ium, -ius,

96.

Genitive plural in -ium, 208.

Gerund, 580, 581. Gerundive, 579.

Length Length

of vowels,

7.

of syllables, 13-15-

Locative case, 47, a; 279.

M
hie, declension of, 348. Historical present, 431.

idem, 390.
Idioms, 599.
ille,

Manner, ablative of, 137Means, ablative of, 66. Measure of difference, 473. mule, 519, 520. Moods, 407.

349.

N
196;

Imperative mood, 549, 55Imperfect tense, indicative, 185188,

subjunctive,

424-

427.

Impersonal verbs, 627. Indefinite pronouns, 538, 539.


Indicative, endings, 308; future, future perfect, 227, 235, 236; 306', 307; imperfect, 185-188, 196; perfect, 251-253, 261; pluperfect, 297-299; present, 33,
73, 104, 146, 147, 155;
of, 308. Indirect object, 60, 436, 456.

ne, in clauses of purpose, 419. nolo, 618. Nominative, as subject, 26; in the a review 99, 191
predicate, of, 633.
>
'>

Noun
438.

clauses, of result, 448; with


advise,

verbs

persuade,

etc.,

Numerals,
S*9-

517;

declension

of,

^view

Indirect question, 501, 502.


Infinitive,

Object, direct, 42; indirect, 60,


436, 456.

complementary, no;

endings, 376; future, 374, 375; 106 perfect, 358, 359; present, uses of, 342; 338; subject of,
109, 339-341Intensive pronoun, 391.

Order

of words, 68

and page

286.

Ordinal adjectives, 528.

Interrogative adjective, 327. Interrogative pronoun, 326.

ipse and sui, distinguished, 392.

Participles, declension of, 558; defined, 259; future active,

348

LATIN FOR THE FIRST YEAR


390; indefinite, 538, 539; intensive, 391; interrogative, 326; personal, 367, $&3; reflexive, 384, 385; relative, 325, 328, 329.

373, 556, 57i; future passive, 556, 572; perfect, 260, 556, 559; present, 556-559Parts of speech, 20.

Passive voice, 145, 146. Perfect, indicative active, 251253; indicative passive, 261;
infinitive, 358, 359; participle,

Pronunciation, 3-6. Purpose, 411, 419, 420, 588.

260, 556, 559; stem, 250; subjunctive, 497-499; system, 589.

Periphrastic
572.

conjugations,

571,

quam,
32,

in comparisons, 472;

with
197;

Personal

endings, active, 186, 251; passive, 146.

superlative, 492.

Questions,

how

expressed,

Personal pronouns, 367, 383. Place, from which, 222, 281; in which, 67, 280; to which, 134,
282.

indirect, 501, 502.

qui, 325, 327, 328.

quis, indefinite, 538; tive, 326.

interrogaa.

Pluperfect, indicative, 297-299; subjunctive, 506-508. Possession, expressed by dative, 458; by genitive, 50. Possessive adjectives, 127.

quo, with subjunctive, 511,

possum, 443, 444. postquam, with perfect


tive, 310, a.

indica-

Reflexive pronoun, 384, 385. Relative pronoun, 325, 328, 329. Result, clauses of, 446-448.

Predicate,

accusative,

190;

ad-

Review

jective, 120; nominative, 97, b.

Prefixes, 277.

lessons, 82, 141, 204, 267^ 322, 397, 463, 546, 593, 632. 638, 643.

Prepositional
219.

phrases,

132-135,

Prepositions, 541.

Present, indicative active, 33, 73, 104; indicative passive, 146, 147, 155; infinitive, 106, 338; participle, 556-5 59; stem, 33; subjunctive, 408, 417, 418;

Secondary tenses, 429.


Separation, ablative of, 221. Sequence of tenses, 430.

Space, extent of, 522. Specification, ablative

of,

377.

system, 589.

Primary

tenses, 429.

Stems, present, 33; perfect, 250; supine, page 122, footnote 1.


Subjunctive, endings of, 509; general uses of, 410; imperfect, 424-427 in causal clauses, 612;
;

Principal parts, 249, 258.

Pronominal adjectives, 315-318. Pronouns, classified, 393, 540;


demonstrative, 348-350, 365,

in conditions, 621;

in indirect

INDEX
501; questions. clauses, 438, 448; in purpose clauses, 420; in result clauses, 446; in temporal clauses, 605;
in

349

noun

ubi, 605; with postquam, a. 310, Tenses, named, 184; primary and secondary, 429; sequence of,
43o.

497-499; pluperfect, 506-508; present, 408-410, 417, 418; review of forms, 509, 510. Subordinate clauses, reviewed,
perfect,

Tense signs, 186. Third conjugation in -io, 156. Time, ablative of, 292; duration
of,

628.
Suffixes,

291; clauses

of, 512,

605.

of

adjectives,

595;

of
to,

how

to say, 133.

nouns, 548.
sui, 384.

sum, compounds

of,

454;

con-

U
ubi, with 310, a.
perfect
indicative.

jugation of, 24, 174, 180, 251, 309, 418, 426.


Superlative with

quam,

492..

Supine, forms and uses, 586, footnote 587; stem, page 122, 589. 1; system,
Syllables, 9-15.

ut clauses,

summary

of,

449.

Synonyms,

294.

Synopsis of verbs, 309, 510. Systems, three stem, 589.

Verbs, agreement

of, 26. a, 551.

Vocative case, 47,


volo, 618.

W
Temporal
clauses,

with

cum,
with,

512; with

dum, priusquam,

how

to say, 135.

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