2.
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
IMPORTANT NOTES : (i) The general form of a quadratic equation is ax2 + bx + c = 0; a, b, c are constants and a ≠ 0. (ii) Characteristics of a quadratic equation: (a) Involves only ONE variable, (b) Has an equal sign “ = ” and can be expressed in the form ax2 + bx + c = 0, (c) The highest power of the variable is 2.
2.1 Recognising Quadratic Equations EXAMPLES
No 1. 2.
3. 4. 5.
Quafratic Equations (Q.E.) x2 + 2x 3 = 0 x2 = ½
4x = 3x2 3x (x – 1) = 2 p – 4x + 5x2 = 0, p constant
NON Q.E. 2x – 3 = 0
x2 + 2 = 0 x
WHY? No terms in x2 ( a = 0)
Term 2 x
x3 – 2 x 2 = 0 x2 – 3x 1 + 2 = 0 x2 – 2xy + y2 = 0
Term x3 Term x 1 Two variables
Exercise : State whether the following are quadratic Equations. Give your reason for Non Q.E. No 0. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Function 3x  2 = 10 – x x2 = 102 12 – 3x2 = 0 x2 + x = 6 2x2 + ½ x  3 = 0
− 6 = x x
Q.F.
Non Q.F.
WHY? No terms in x2
√
0 = x ( x – 2) 2x2 + kx 3 = 0, k constant (m1) x2 + 5x = 2m , m constant 3 – (p+1) x2 = 0 , p constant p(x) = x2 + 2hx + k+1, h, k constants f(x) = x2 – 4 (k1)x2 – 3kx + 10 = 0 , k constant
2 Quadratic Equations
1
2 Quadratic Equations
2
. 2 3x + 2x 7 = 0.)
Note : “ROOT” refers to a specific value which satisfies the Q. find k. 22 + 2(2) – 3 ≠ 0. Determine if 3 is a root of the equation 2x2 – x – 15 = 0. Example : Given Q.2 The ROOTs of a quadratic Equation (Q.
EXAMPLE Determine if 2 is a root of the equation C1. If 3 is a root of the equation x2– 2kx + 12 = 0 .E. If 2 and p are roots of the quadratic equation 2x2 + 3x + k = 0. 12 + 2(1) – 3 = 0 Hence 1 is a root of the quadratic equation x2 + 2x – 3 = 0. find p.E. find k. L2.E. But if x = 2. L3.2 is NOT a root of the given equation. find the value of k and p. 3(2)2 + 2(2) – 7 = 12 – 4 – 7 ≠ 0 Hence . L1.2. Determine if ½ is a root of the equation 4x2 + 2x – 2 = 0. it is found that : x = 1 . Determine if 3 is a root of the equation x2 – 2x + 3 = 0. If 1 are roots of the quadratic equation px2 – 4x + 3p – 8 = 0. We say that 2 is NOT a root of the given quadratic Equation.
C2. x = 2. x = 2. x2 + 2x – 3 = 0
By substitution.
L6. (2)2 – k(2) – 10 = 0 4 + 2k – 10 = 0 2k = 14 k = 7 L5. EXERCISE L1. If 2 is a root of the quadratic equation x2– kx – 10 = 0.
L4.
i.3 . x = 2 or x = .
2 Quadratic Equations
3
. Then x = 0 or y = 0 or x = y = 0 (both are zeroes)
Example : If (x – 2) (x + 3) = 0 . Then x – 2 = 0 or x + 3 = 0 .Do you know that
If the PRODUCT of two numbers is zero.
2 and 3 are called the roots of the
equation (x2)(x+3) = 0. then either one or both the numbers must be zero ?
If x y = 0 .e.
Solve the quadratic equation 2x (x – 1) = 6. 4
Ans : 1.
L8. 5
L2.
Ans : – 1 .
Ans : – 5 . Solve the quadratic equation x2 + 5x + 6 = 0. Solve x – 4x – 5 = 0. 3
L5. 4
Ans : – 2 .
Ans : – 3 . 3/2 2
L3. 5
Ans : – ¾ . Selesaikan (x – 3)(x + 3) = 16.3. Solve (x – 3)2 = 1. 1
Ans : – 3 . Solve 5x2 – 45 = 0. Ans: 2x (x – 1) = 6 2x2 – x – 6 = 0 (2x + 3) (x – 2) = 0 2x + 3 = 0 or x – 2 = 0 3 x= − or x= 2 2 L3. Jawapan:
2
EXAMPLE C1.1 To Solve Quadratic Equations : ax2 + bx + c = 0
I.
L6. EXERCISE L1. Solve 2(x2 – 9) = 5x. Solve x ( 1 + x) = 6. Solve 1 + 2x2 = 5x + 4.
Ans : ½ .
Ans : – 6 .
Ans : 2. Answer: x2 + 5x + 6 = 0 (x + 2) (x + 3) = 0 x + 2 = 0 or x + 3 = 0 x = 2 or x = 3 C2.
L4. 2
L4.

By Factorisation
This method can only be used if the quadratic expression can be factorised completely. Solve x( x + 2) = 24. 9/2
2 Quadratic Equations
4
. Selesaikan 3 + x – 4x2 = 0. 1
L7. Solve (2x – 1) = 2x – 1 .2.
x2 – 6x + 3 = 0 −6 −6 x − 6x + − +3 = 0 2 2 (x – 3 )2 .
L4. Solve x2 – 2x – 9 = 0 by completing the square.
Ans : – 2. Solve x + 4x + 3 = 0 by method of ‘completing the square’. By ‘Completing the Square’
. Solve x2 – 6x + 3 = 0 by method of ‘completing the square’. Solve x2 . – 9.6834
L3. give your answers correct to 4 significant figures.
2
EXERCISE L1. 4.2.9 + 3 = 0 2 (x2) – 6 = 0 ( x + 2)2 = 6 x+2 = ± 6
2 2 2
L2.162
Ans : – 0.To express
ax2 + bx + c in the form a(x + p)2 + q
Simple Case : When a = 1
EXAMPLE C1.
x x = 
= 2 ± or x =
6
Ans : 7.2 To Solve Quadratic Equations : ax2 + bx + c = 0
II.5279. Solve x + 4x – 5 = 0 by method of ‘completing the square’. 0.8x + 5 = 0 .3.4 – 5 = 0 ( x + 2 )2 – 9 = 0 ( x + 2)2 = 9 x+2 = ± 3 x = 2 ± 3 x = 5 or x = 1
2 2 2
(Ans : – 1 .472
2 Quadratic Equations
5
. Solve x2 + 10x + 5 = 0 .317.212 . Give your answer correct to 3 decimal places. give your answers correct to 4 significant figures. give your answers correct to 4 significant figures. – 3 )
C2.
2
x2 + 4x – 5 = 0
4 4 x +4x + − − 5 = 0 2 2 2 (x + 2) .
Solve x – 3x – 2 = 0 by method of ‘completing the square’.3.
(Ans : 0. Solve x(2 + x) = 10 Give your answer correct to 4 significant figures. Solve x2 + x – 8 = 0.3 To Solve Quadratic Equations : ax2 + bx + c = 0
II.1459. Solve x + 5x – 4 = 0.702)
L7. but involving fractions when completing the square]
EXAMPLE C3.854)
(Ans : 2. Give your answer correct to 4 significant figures. 6.317 )
2 Quadratic Equations
6
. 5.8541)
L8.
(Ans : 2. Give your answer correct to 4 significant figures.8541.by expressing ax2 + bx + c in the form a(x + p)2 + q [a = 1. x2 – 3x – 3 = 0
− 3 − 3 x − 3x + − −2 = 0 2 2
2 2 2
2
EXERCISE L5.
2
3 9 x − − − 2= 0 2 4
17 3 = x − 4 2 3 17 x− = ± 2 4
2
2
3 17 ± 2 2 x = .372)
(Ans : 0.317 . Solve x2 + 7x + 1 = 0 . Method of completing the square . Solve x( x + 5) = 5. Give your answer correct to 4 significant figures.
x =
(Ans : 0. Give your answer correct to 4 significant figures.7016.5616 atau x = 3. 3.562 L6.2. Give your answer correct to 4 significant figures.372. 4. 5.
L9.0.
Solve 2x2 + 10x + 9 = 0 correct to two decimal places.3.14 . Solve x(3 – 2x) = 6 correct to two decimal places.
.
(Ans : 7.55 .x2 – 4x + 1 = 0 x2 + 4x – 1 = 0 [divide by (1)]
L11.
2
[ ÷ 2 first ]
2
7 −4 −4 x −4 x + − + =0 2 2 2 7 ( x .12x + 5 = 0 correct to two decimal places.2 )2 – 4 + = 0 2 ( x – 2 )2 = ½ 1 x–2 = ± 2 x
1 2 = 2.To express ax2 + bx + c in the form a(x + p)2 + q
If a ≠ 1 : Divide both sides by a first before you proceed with the process of ‘completing the square’. 2.293
= 2 ±
(Ans : 5. Solve .64)
2 Quadratic Equations
7
. 0. 2x2 – 8x + 7 = 0 7 x2 – 4x + = 0 2
2 2
2
EXERCISE L10.2. 4. Solve 2x – 8x + 7 = 0 by completing the square.4051) (Ans : 1.707 atau 1.x2 – 7x + 3 = 0 by completing the square.2361.4 To Solve Quadratic Equations : ax2 + bx + c = 0
II.
EXAMPLE C4.
Solve . Method of completing the square .236 ) (Ans : 0. 5.
L13.x2 – 4x + 1 = 0 by completing the square.405.
(Ans : 0.78 )
L12. Solve 2x . 0.78 .45 )
C5.
By using formula. Give your answer correct to 4 significant figures.550.64)
L2.
(SPM 2003)
(Ans : 1.78)
(Ans : 2. solve 3 – x2 = .
c=
(Ans: 0. 2x(2 – 3x) = 5 4x – 6x2 = 5 6x2 – 4x – 5 = 0 a= .
(Ans : 4.35 )
2 Quadratic Equations
8
. .
L4. Give your answer correct to two decimal places.31 .52 .48 )
L3. Solve 2x2 – 8x + 7 = 0 by using formul.4505)
C2. Give your answer correct to 4 significant figures.591 .449 .
Solve x2 – 4x = 2 by using formula.0.12x + 5 = 0. 11. Give your answer correct to 4 significant figures. Solve x(2x –1) = 2 by using formula. b = 8 . 0.707 atau 1.28. a = 2.35 . 0.2573 )
L5.3.3(4x – 3) correct to two decimal places. solve 2x2 . c = 7
x=
=
− (−8) ± (−8) 2 − 4(2)(7) 2(2)
8 ± 8 4
=
2.5 To Solve Quadratic Equations : ax2 + bx + c = 0
III. 0. Solve the quadratic equation 2x(x – 4) = (1x) (x+2). Solve 2x(2 – 3x) = 5 by using formula. x =
(Ans : 1. Solve the quadratic equation x(x – 4) = (3 – x )(x + 3). 0. qive your answer correct to two decimal places. give your answer correct to two decimal places. Give your answer correct to 4 significant figures. Using Formula
x =
−b ±
b 2 − 4 ac 2a
EXERCISE L1.293
(Ans : 5. By using formula.2.
EXAMPLE C1.
L6.4495)
(Ans : 3. 1.b= .
x= ½ . q =
(Ans : k = 10 . p = 6)
L5. (x – α) ( x – β ) = 0 The quadratic equation is x2 – ( α + β ) x + α β x2 +
Sum of Roots
= 0. Find k and p. Given that the roots of the quadratic 2 2 2x + (p+1)x + q . x – 6 = 0
Ans : 2x2 – 11x – 6 = 0
Ans : x2 + 3x = 0
C2. Given that the roots of the quadratic 2 x + (h – 2)x + 2k = 0 are 4 and 2 . Find the quadratic equation with roots . x= 3 x = 0 or x + 3 = 0
L3.2 = 3 p = . x= 4 x – 2 = 0 or x + 4 = 0 (x – 2) ( x + 4) = 0 x2 + 2x – 8 = 0
EXERCISE L1.4.
(Ans : h = 0.⅔.2 = 0 are 3 and ½ . Given that the roots of the quadratic equation L6. k = 4)
(Ans: p = 2. value of p and q. Find the quadratic equation with roots 2 dan . Given that the roots of the quadratic equation L4. That is. x = β . Find the quadratic equation with roots 0 dan 3. 2p .2. x = ½ x + 3 = 0 or 2x – 1 = 0 (x + 3) ( 2x – 1) = 0 2x2 + 5x – 3 = 0 Comparing with the original equation : p + 1 = 5 . Find the quadratic equation with roots 3 dan 5. x = α .
Product of roots
x+
= 0
EXAMPLE C1. x = 6 2x + 1 = 0 . Find k and p. Find the equation 3x + kx + p – 2 = 0 are 4 and .4 To Form Quadratic Equations from Given Roots
If the roots of a quadratic equation are α and β. k = 15)
2 Quadratic Equations
9
.
Ans : x2 – 2x – 15 = 0
L2. Then x – α = 0 or x – β = 0 . p ≠ 0. q . x=0. Find h and equation 2x2 + (3 – k)x + 8p = 0 are p and k. x=2. x = 6 2x = 1 . x = 3 .½ dan 6.
The Graph y = f(x) cuts the xaxis at
y=f(x)
TWO distinct points.
x
x
y=f(x)
a>0 CASE 2 b2 – 4ac = 0 Q.
a<0
The graph y = f(x) touches the xaxis [ The xaxis is the tangent to the curve]
y=f(x)
x
x
y=f(x)
a>0 CASE 3 b2 – 4ac < 0 Q. has two distinct roots.5 The Quadratic Equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 2 2.
Graph y = f(x) does not touch xaxis.5. has real and equal roots.1 Relationship between “b – 4ac” and the Roots of the Q.
CASE1 b2 – 4ac > 0 Q.
y=f(x)
a<0
x
x
y=f(x)
a>0
Graph is above the xaxis since f(x) is always positive.E. does not have real roots.2.
2 Quadratic Equations
10
.E.
a<0
Graph is below the xaxis since f(x) is always negative.E.E.
5 L3. The roots of the quadratic equation 2x2 + px + q = 0 are 2 and 3.18 = 0 2x2 + 6x – 36 = 0 Comparing : p = 6 .5. 3 )
2 Quadratic Equations
11
.
( Ans : k < 5 . Find (a) p and q. x = 3 (x + 6) (x – 3) = 0 x2 + 3x . Find the range of values of k if the quadratic equation x2 + 2kx + k + 6 = 0 has equal roots. Answer : (a) x = 6 . Find the range of p if the quadratic equation x2 + px = 2p does not have real roots. (b) 2x2 + 6x – 36 = k 2x2 + 6x – 36 – k = 0 a = 2.
L7. Find (a) p and q. (b) the range of values of k such that 2x2 + px + q = k does not have real roots.
(Ans : p ≤ .3 )
( Ans : 8 < p < 0 )
L6 The roots of the quadratic equation 2x2 + 8 = (k – 3)x are real and different.2.36. Find the possible values of p.1/8 ) ( Ans : p = 12 atau 12)
L4 Find the range of p if the quadratic equation 2x2 + 4x + 5 + p = 0 has real roots.
L5.
L2 Find the range of k if the quadratic equation 2x2 – x = k has real and distinct roots. b = 6. q = .k b2 – 4ac < 0 2 6 – 4(2)(36 – k) < 0 324 + 8 k < 0 k < – 40.6 and 3. EXERCISE L1. k > 11 )
( Ans : k 2 .2 Aplication (Relationship between “b2 – 4ac” and the type of roots)
EXAMPLE C1 (SPM 2000) The roots of the quadratic equation 2x2 + px + q = 0 are . The quadratic equation 9 + 4x2 = px has equal roots.
( Ans : k > . (b) range of values of k such that 2x2 + px + q = k does not have real roots. Determine the range of values of k. c = 36 .
(SPM 2003 . One of the roots of the equation roots which are equal. S3).0. Find the range of values of p. P1.2573)
( p . x2 + 3 = k (x – 1). [3]
L3. while 2α and 2β are the roots of the equation x2 + mx + 9 = 0. [3]
( x = 2. Find the values of h. 2 . has two distinct roots. . [3]
L5.591. S4) The quadratic equation x (x+1) = px – 4 has two distinct roots. p > 5)
L4
(SPM 2002) Find the range of k if the Q. Solve the quadratic equation 2x(x – 4) = (1 – x)(x + 2). k constant.E.. k > 6)
2 Quadratic Equations
12
.Reinforcement Exercises (SPM Format Questions)
L1 EXERCISE EXERCISE (a) The equation x2 – 6x + 7 = h(2x – 3) has L2. x = 2 . 2x2 + 6x = 2k – 1 is twice the other. 3 . P1.
k = 9
4
( x = 1 . k = − 3 ) 2
L2. (b) Given that α and β are roots of the equation [1999] x2 – 2x + k = 0 . Determine the possible values of k and m. (≈ SPM 2001) Show that the straight line y = 2 – x does not meet the curve 2x2 – y2 + k = 0 if k > 8. Give your answer correct to 4 significant sigures. (SPM 2003. [3]
( k < 2 . [SPM 1999] [6]
( h = 1 . Find [4] the value of k and the roots of the equation.
2 < k < 6 )
Untuk renungan : Gred MT anda adalah berkadar songsang dengan latihan yang anda buat !
2 Quadratic Equations
13
. find the values of k and m [5]
EXERCISE L7. find k and m.477 atau k > 5.
L9.12.S.
(k < 5.5 )
L10. [3]
(c) Prove that the roots of the equation (1 – p)x2 + x + p = 0 are real and negative IF 0 < p < 1.
(SPM 2000) Find the range of x if the straight line y = 2x + k does not intersect the curve [5] x2 + y2 – 6 = 0. (SPM 2000) The quadratic equation 2x2 + px + q = 0 has roots 2 and 3. m = 3 )
L8. If p + q = 4 and pq = .5. quite challenging!
( k = 15 . k
≥ .Write down the quadratic equation in the form ax2 + bx + c = 0. [5]
( 2x2 + 9x – 5 = 0 . (SPM 2001) Given 2 and m are roots of the equation (2x – 1)(x + 3) = k (x – 1). m = 5 )
P. [4]
( k = 4 . (SPM 1995) (c) Given ½ and 5 are roots of a quadratic Equation.477)
( p = 2 . [2] (b) Find the range of values of x for which the equation x2 + kx + 2k – 3 = 0 has no real roots. q = 12 .L6
EXERCISE p q (SPM 2002) Given and are roots of the 2 2 equation kx(x – 1) = m – 4x. Find the value of p anf q so that 2x2 + px + q = k has real roots. with k as a constant.