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Statistics - the science of collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting data - set of figures/measure 2 Areas of Statistics: 1.

Descriptive Statistics - researchers tries to describe a situation by means of the data collected, organized, & summarized 2. Inferential Statistics - researchers make conclusions from samples to population Basic Terms in Statistics: 1. Universe - collection of things or observational units under consideration 2. Variable - characteristics observed/measured on every unit of the universe 3. Population - set of all possible values of the variable of interest 4. Sample - portion of the population 5. Parameter - numerical measurement obtained using the population data set 6. Statistic - numerical measurement obtained using a sample data set Data - is the collection of observation or values - facts of figures from which conclusions are derived Types of Data: 1. Qualitative (categorical) - data that can be sorted out & group together - answers to "what kind" questions Ex. Color, brands, ID number, nationality, blood type 2. Quantitative (numerical) - value of numbers can be ordered or counted or measured - answers to "how many" or "how much" questions Ex. Height, weight, income, age, household size Types of Quantitative Variables: 1. Discrete/Discounting Variable - by counting 2. Continuous Variable - by measuring Levels of Measurement: 1. Nominal Scale - data into mutually exclusive categories or ranking that can be imposed on data - weakest form of measurement - measures identity & difference, not measuring quantity - can be counted Ex. Blood type, course, breed of dog, gender 2. Ordinal Scale - classifies data into categories that can be ranked - categories are organised Ex. academic grades, ranking of favorites, level of performance 3. Interval Scale - ranks data & precise units of measure do exist - no meaningful zero - can be counted Ex. Thoughts, temperature, grade, behaviours 4. Ratio Scale - same as interval, but zero measurement indicates absence of the quantity being measured - highest level of measurement Ex. Weight, age, number of children

Primary Data - data never gathered before Secondary Data - data that are already available Ex. Books, journals, websites

n - Sample Size N - Population e - Desired margin of error

Sampling - the process of choosing a representative portion of a population Sampling Frame - complete/partial listing of items comprising the population Sampling Technique - the manner by which samples are drawn from the population Types of Sampling Technique: A. Random/Probability Sampling - all observations in the population have equal chance of being included in the sample
1. Simple Random Sampling - chosen as a result of chance occurrence (by lottery/fishbowl method/ table of random numbers) 2. Systematic Sampling - chosen using the k-th member is selected Ex. Every 5th person registered 3. Stratified Sampling - population is divided into groups(strata), and a sample is chosen from each group Ex. Stratify the population by income level and then choose a sample of low, middle, and high income individuals 4. Cluster Sampling - population is divided into groups in a more or less random way, and then a sample is chosen by randomly selecting entire groups

5. Multistage Sampling - technique uses several stages or phases on getting the sample from general population. (random) B. Non-Random/Non Probability Sampling - sample are obtained haphazardly, selected purposively or are taken as volunteers and the probabilities of selection are unknown 1. Purposive Sampling -based on the certain criterion laid down by the researcher. (judgmental) 2. Quota Sampling - sampling method of gathering of representative data from a group 3. Convenience Sampling - chooses individuals who are easy to access