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TRAIT TRANSMISSION HEREDITY- the transmission of traits and characteristics from the parent to the offspring.

CELL- basic structure function of all living things NUCLEUS- w/ in the cell; the center of all activities of the cell -responsible for the human bodys physiologically fitness -responsible for the reproduction of the cell to maintain bodily structure and function through out the life span of an individual

REPRODUCTION- the process of replicating or duplicating into another living organism. CELL DIVISION- the increase in size or cell growth resulting reproduction -varies in terms of MITOSIS and MEIOSIS MITOSIS- indirect cell division regenerates an identical reproduction of cell for growth when damaged. -responsible for the growth of the human body (hair, nails, height, weight etc.) -when a person is ill, the cell is likewise afflicted to some extent and cured by chemical reactions to regenerate the same cell. MEIOSIS- the reproduction process mainly involved in the production of sexual cells -responsible for the propagation of species of offspring CHROMOSOMES- are contained in the nucleus -remarkably relevant for they present the distinctive or unique features of the parents -46 chromosomes (diploid) in every individual and arranged into 23 pairs (haploid)= during -responsible for carrying the traits and characteristics of an individual contained in the gene GENE- having the traits and characteristics becomes the basic unit of heredity -composed of detailed hereditary traits and characteristics which are transmitted to and acquired by the offspring. GENOTYPE- the underlying genetic pattern contained in the offspring , which cannot be seen, and can only be

determined later. PHENOTYPE- composed of characteristics that can be seen in how the individual actually looks and acts. DOMINANT TRAITS- the phenotype resulting from genotype; predominates over the other alleles. RECESSIVE TRAITS- controlled traits HORMONAL INFLUENCE ENDOCTRINE SYSTEM- it sustains the biological and physiological processes to make the body fit and well in order to go on living. -responsible in regulating, controlling, and producing biochemical reactions of the bodyThese chemicals are important in integrating the actions and responses of the individual to obtain HOMEOSTASIS (makes the body conditions balance) within the system of human body.

LOCATION of the Endocrine Glands GLAND PITUITARY (Hypophysis) Master Gland LOCATION HORMONES ACTH (Adrenocorti-cotropic Hormones FUNCTIONS -Having the most numbered of varied hormones -The master in controlling other glands of the body (thyroid, adrenal, gonads) Stimulates the thyroid gland Stimulates the growth of ovaries and testes Stimulates sex hormones by ovaries and testes Controls the color of the skins


Base of the brain or just below the hypothalamus

TSH (Thyrotropic Stimulating Hormones) FSH (Follicular Stimulating Hormones LSH ( Luteinizing Stimulating Hormones) MSH (Melanocyte Stimulating Hormones)

pigmentation SH (Somatotropic Hormones) Prolactin POSTERIOR PITUITARY (Neurohypophysis) ADH (Antidiuretic Hormone Oxytocin Stimulates growth Milk production and secretion by mammary glands Controls water concentrations in the body -Uterus contraction - Delivery of inborn - Enlargement of pelvis -Milk release by mammary gland -Regilate metabolism of physical growth, maturation, and mental alertness [HYPOTHYROIDISMis an underactivity of the thyroid gland causing laziness, dullness and goiter. HYPERTHYROIDISMdemonstrates a very active behavior resulting to loss of weight and insomnia.] -Metabolism of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins -Affects temperature, heart rate, heartbeat, appetite, digestion, muscle activity, and oxygen uptake and calcium metabolism -Fight or flight reactions in emergency cases (adrenalin raises blood sugar levels, causes nervousness and perspirations on acute emergencies. -Function mostly on cardiovascular system -Sleep and wakefulness -Learning process -Regulates salt and water balance of the body, blood pressure, immune system, and proteinand carbohydrate production -Controls sodiumpotassium metabolism; essential for


Below the neck or behind the Adams apple

Thyroxin Trilodothyronine Calcitonin

ADRENALS Adrenal Medulla (source of hormones)

Upper part of the kidney

Epinephrine (Adrenalin) Norephinephrine(Noradren alin)

ADRENAL CORTEX (outer part of the adrenal gland)

Mineralocorticoids (aldosterone) Glucocoticoids (Cortisone)


Right side of the navel (umbilicus) Islet of Langerhans Pancreas

Pancreatic Hormone (Insulin)



GONADS- stimulate the hormones responsible for boys and girls during puberty stage




Testes/ Androgen


PARATHYROID GLAND- a pearshaped or butterfly shaped gland

At the back of the thyroid



Present only in pregnancy

Placental Hormone


Mid Cerebrum

Pineal Hormone (Melatonin)

adapting to stress and maintaining blood sugar level. -Utilization of sugar concentration in the body- raising the blood- sugar level or glucose of the body - Affects carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolismindividuals with high blood sugar suffer from diabetes mellitus or hyperglycemia Stimulated and released from the liver to temporarily raise the blood-sugar level when the insulin is absent or lacking. -Secondary sex characteristics -Increase in hair, change in voice -Maintenance of pregnancy -Widening of pelvis -Enlargement of breast -Beard, moustache -Narrowing of the hips -Enlargement of the Adams apple -production of sperm -Controls calcium and Phosphorus (Bones and teeth) -Metabolism of Vitamin D. -Too much secretion of parathormone presents poor physical coordination -Less secretion presents symptom of tetany (the irregular, involuntary twitching and spasms of the muscles.) Connects fetus to the mother -Also releases CGH (chronic gonadotropin hormone) found in the urine constituting the basis of pregnancy test. Helps pituitary gland in regulating its function

THE PHYSIOLOGICAL BASIC OF BEHVIOR: A. RECEIVING MECHANISMS - include the receptors of external stimuli- the sense organs. B. REACTING MECHANISM - include the muscles of the body and the hormones of the glandular system. C. CONNECTING MECHANISMS - include the nervous system, which is divided into two: 1. central 2. peripheral nervous system NEURON- typically consisting of a cell body, axon, and dendrites, that transmits nerve impulses and is the basic functional unit of the nervous system. - nerve cells - each neuron consists of a cell body and its branching fibers - the basic structural unit of the nervous system

PARTS: 1. CELL BODY OR SOMA - contains the nucleus and serves as the center for nourishment 2. DENDRITES -short fibers projecting from the cell body. - receive information from adjacent cells and conduct the neural impulses to the cell body (cellulipetal) 3. AXON - long extension at one side of the cell body that carries messages to other cells or glands. - they conduct neural impulses away ( cellulifugal) from the cell body. 4. SYNAPTIC TERMINALS OR BUTTONS - small knobs at the end of the axon branches that relay messages to other cells. 5. MYELIN SHEATH - axons protective coating; fatty layer of cells 6. NODES - are interruption on the myelin sheath; it controls the speed of transmission of information or stimulus on the neurons; these also serve as break on the momentum of the speed.

SYNAPSE- tiny gaps in axon; where transmission of signaled stimulus from one neuron to another takes place; serve as passageway for the connection of neurons.

DIFFERENT KINDS OF NEURONS ACCORDING TO THEIR FUNCTIONS: A. SENSORY/ AFFERENT NEURONS - neurons that receive impulses from the sense organs and send messages to the central nervous system. - Sensory neurons in the skin, muscles, joints, and organs indicate pressure, temperature and pain. - Neurons in the nose and tongue that are sensitive to the molecular shapes we perceive as tastes and smells. - Neurons in the inner ear provide us with information about sound. - Rods and cones of the retina allow us to see. B. MOTOR/ EFFERENT NEURONS - send messages from the central nervous system to stimulate muscle cells throughout the body, including the muscles of the heart, diaphragm, intestines, bladder and glands. C. INTERNEURONS - are the neurons that provide connections between sensory and motor neurons; as well as between themselves - the neurons of the central nervous system, including the brain, are all interneurons.

NEUROTRANSMITTER The reason why neurons of the nervous system can communicate with each other. These are chemical substances released by one neuron through the synapse and affecting another neuron. It generates excitatory current when the neurons charge increase upon connection through synapse and inhibitory current for decreasing charge. It is responsible for sensation, perception, cognitive, and motor behavior. NEUROTRANSMITTER 1.ACETYLCHOLINE (cholinergic)/ ACH FUNCTION/s -Utilized by the motor neuron of the spinal cord to the muscles and glands of the body -It also found in at the limbic system (forebrain) -Deficiency in ACH causes paralysis, forgetfulness, and intellectual losses; also results to a degenerative disorder called ALZHEIMERs disease -Composed of epinephrine (adrenalin/adrenergic) and norepinephrine (noradrenalin/noradrenergic) -Located at the reticular formation (hindbrain). -Involved in arousal or wakefulness, learning process, and regulation of moods. -Individuals reaction to fight or flight stress causes catecholamine to be released increasing alertness -Significant for memory, motor, and emotional behavior. -Located at the midbrain of the nervous system -Increase in dopamine can lead into schizophrenia -Decrease can lead to Parkinsons disease. -Affects body temperature, sleep, moods,


3.DOPAMINE (dopaminergic)


5.GABA (Gamma-amino-butric acid)

and pain sensation. -Food rich in carbohydrate leads to high level of serotonin producing drowsiness in women and calmness in men -When serotonin becomes active, it supports in blocking pain sensation - Produces widespread excitatory action of the neuron -A reduction of GABA leads to severe anxiety -A dysfunction of GABA has been implicated to epilepsy and Huntingtons disease EPILEPSY- intense repetitive convulsive seizure due to excessive excitation of neurons. -Loss of GABA leads to inability to control movement of the upper and lower extremities