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HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

DEVELOPMENT- a process that continues from conception to death -It is a process of a life-span from a single cell through late adulthood, and is influenced by the interaction of heredity and environment. PERIODS OF LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT LIFE SPAN DEVELOPMENT- the number of periods in the life cycle. PRENATAL PERIOD - Starts from conception to birth. - CONCEPTION- the union of a female ovum w/ a male spermatozoon (a single sperm cell), that usually occurs in the female fallopian tube ( the pathway from the ovary to uterus). - If no ovum is encountered w/ in 24-48 hours, all the sperm cells can be expected to die. - From a single cell, an organism complete w/ brain and behavioral capabilities is produced in approximately nine months. - FERTILIZATION- the process by w/c the ovum becomes impregnated w/ a spermatozoon creating the conditions for continued growth. - 3 stages: o GERMINAL STAGE- begins at conception, when the male sperm unites w/ the female egg or ovum. A day or so after conception, the zygote ( fertilized egg) begins to divide into two parts and into few more days, it attaches itself to the wall of the uterus- the outer part becomes the placenta and the umbilical cord and the inner portion becomes the embryo. PLACENTA- serves as the growing embryos food and supply from the mother; this is connected to the embryo itself through the umbilical cord; allows food to get through and waste to get out; it screens out some but not all harmful substances o EMBRYONIC STAGE- begins about after two weeks of conception until eight week of conception. This stage is a critical period whereby the embryo is most vulnerable to damage and defect. During the first trimester of pregnancy, almost all birth defects occur and if they form abnormally, the defect will be permanent. The embryo develops webbed fingers and toes, a tailbone, eyes, ears, a nose, a mouth, a heart and circulatory system, and spinal cord. The embryo is only 1 inches long at eight weeks. o FETAL STAGE- begins after eight weeks. The embryo, now called a FETUS, further develops the other organs and systems. NEW BORN and INFANCY- Kids have built in REFLEXES- automatic behaviors that are very necessary for survival. INFANCY- extends from birth to eighteen to twenty- four months or two years. - Often referred to as babyhood - NEONATE- term for infant for the first few days after birth. MOTOR DEVELOPMENT The baby is seen with his head turning to the direction of the touch; the infant can also lifts chin when lying on stomach. The baby lifts chest, holds head erect, reaches for an object and sits with support The infant can hold head steadily, can transfer an object from one hand to another. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Infants prefer looking at faces; like familiar sounds and are interested in novelty that they track where things are. Infants are interested in recognizing different faces and details of objects Infants start to develop depth perception and understand object identity, meaning that a thing is the same each time it is presented or encountered Infants can recall familiar EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT Infants can imitate adult facial expressions and cries when distress

0-2 months

3-4 months

5-6 months

7-8 months

the infant can sit alone and get

Infants smile and show interest in slightly unfamiliar objects and maybe distress by objects that are too unfamiliar Infants show apparent fear at visual cliff and facial expressions of anger may appear in response to frustration especially if not fed. Infants show first signs of

into sitting position 9-10 months 11-12 months the infant can stand with help and crawl. he can pull self to a standing position and walk with support

face Infants can understand some words Infants utter some meaningful words

stress and anxiety to separation. --Infants show sadness upon loss of an attachment figure like the mother or yaya.

EARLY CHILDHOOD

LATE ADULTHOOD

PUBERTY

ADOLESCENCE

ADULTHOOD

EARLY ADULTHOOD MIDDLE ADULTHOOD

LATE ADULTHOOD/ SENESCENCE

-End of infancy or babyhood to about 5-6 years. -Pre-school years- the child prepares for formal schooling especially at age 6. -Developmental tasks mastered are the ability to care for oneself (personal hygiene and dressing oneself) self sufficiency like initiating self play, development of school-readiness skills (e.g. following simple instructions, using writing implements, identifying sounds, letters and numbers) -Peer relationship and play become more evident. -A child who is given the loving attention and proper guidance learns to act on his needs effectively -The quality of the interaction between the child and parents affects the childs own attitude. -Usually recognized as extending from about six to twelve years of age. - Elementary school years -Physical, motor, social, emotional, moral and intellectual changes are sources of anxiety for the growing child. - This is the critical period for the development of his achievement motivation or the need to achieve. - The quality of experience, stimulation, guidance and encouragement expected of their parents and teachers helps determine the childs pattern of success or failure when he is taught the strategies for solving problems or changes he takes. - The period in the development of a man at w/c the individual is physically capable of sexual reproduction. - It extends to the time when the primary and secondary sex characteristics of the body emerge. -GROWTH SPURT-refers to the rapid acceleration in height an weight that signals the beginning of adolescence . * GIRL- start her period of rapid growth at age 10 to reach a peak growth at age 12 and return slower ret of growth spurt by age 13-15. *BOY- growth spurt at the age 13 to a peak growth at 14 and return to a More gradual rate at age 15-16. -Begins when children become sexually mature and ending when they reach the age of maturity -Early adolescence extends roughly from 13-16 or 17 years. - Late adolescence is a short period from age 16-18 or 21 for those who depend for financial support until they are through with a college course. - The developmental tasks of adolescence are focused on developing independence in preparation for adulthood and in establishing a sense of identity. - They realize that people treat those who are attractive more favorably than those who are less attractive. -It is in this period that they move from a period of exploration to one of stabilization -They are refining or improving the pattern of their lives w/c is done by accepting and accommodating to social norms. -The basic psychological needs of adulthood are affiliation and achievement. -The stage of development between 19 and 35 years and is characterized by a peak physical performance and health. -A phase of life cycle approximately 35-65 years -Characterized by physical and biological changes -A people move through middle adulthood, their height decreases gradually. - Goodness of health ratings are related to emotional stability and controlled response to stress. -Lasts from approximately 65-80 years of age until death. - It is a stage of adjustment to decreasing strength and health and to retirement and reduced income. -Old age establishes affiliations w/ members of ones group and they, too adapt to social roles.

THEORIES OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT


THEORY OF PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SIGMUND FREUD- the father of Psychoanalysis - Believed that all human beings pass through a series of psychosexual stages- each stage is dominated by the development of sensitivity in a particular erogenous (pleasure- giving spot in the body). - Each stage poses for individuals a unique conflict that they must resolve before they go to the next higher stage. - If individuals are unsuccessful in resolving the conflict, the resulting frustration becomes chronic and remains central feature of their psychological make-up. - Individuals may become so addicted to the pleasure of a given stage that they are unwilling o move on to the later stages. - FIXATION- the tendency to stay at a particular stage.

1.ORAL STAGE

2.ANAL STAGE

3. PHALLIC STAGE

-1st year of life -Marks the infants need for gratification from the mother -The erogenous zone is the mouth, particularly the lips, tongue and later the teeth -Physical expressions are sucking, biting and licking or smacking ones lips.] -It is normal to retain some interest in oral pleasures, but it can be pathological if this is the dominant mode of gratification (if a person is excessively dependent on oral habits to relive anxiety or tension) - 2nd year of life -The erogenous zone is the anus or buttocks region.- Toilet training -In then early part of this stage, pleasure is derived from feces expulsion; fixation results in the lack of sphincter control or enuresis. -Symbolical acts are over generosity or wanting to give away everything he or she owns- anal explosive -In later anal stage, pleasure comes from feces possession, and affection is manifested through constipation- symbolic acts are stinginess, orderliness and perfectionism- anal retentive. -3rd to 5th year of life - The erogenous zone is the genital area. -This is considered the most controversial stage. -Both female and male children develop strong positive feelings toward the mother because she satisfies their needs. - In contrast they resent the father who is seen as a rival for the mothers attention and affection- this feeling will persist in males but will change in female children. OEDIPUS COMPLEX -The male begins to fear the father who is viewed as his dominant rival- the fear becomes constriction anxiety, such as the boy develops a fear of losing his sex organ w/c is assumed to be responsible for the conflict between him and his father-the anxiety causes a repression of sexual desire for the mother and hostility towards the father- when he grows up , he will seek characteristics in women like his mother. ELECTRA COMPLEX -The female child discovers she does not possess a penis, for w/c she holds the mother responsible and comes to hate her for it. -Her positive feelings for her father are mixed w/ envy since he has something she does not have- Freud termed this penis envy- the only hope for a female child is to have a baby boy. -6th year of life to puberty -Lower sexual energy and no love object, a time of relative calm - Ones personality is generally completed by this stage - The final stage following puberty - This is when a person emerges from the pre-genital stage as the adult he or she is destined to become. -the individual has been transformed from a selfish, pleasure seeking child to a realistic social adult w/ heterosexual interests leading to marriage and child rearing.

4.LATENCY STAGE

5. GENITAL STAGE

THEORY OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT ERIK ERIKSON- concerned w/ psychosocial development -EPIGNETIC PRINCIPLE- anything that grows has a ground plan, and out of this ground plan the parts arise, each having its time of special ascendancy, until all parts have risen to form function as a whole. TRUST vs. MISTRUST -Birth to 1 year old/ Infancy -Infants develop a relative sense of trust and mistrust of the whole world around them- crucial to this development is their experience w/ the motherif the mother is sensitive and responsive to the needs of the child, the infants sense of security increases, and frustration due to hunger and discomfort is tolerated AUTONOMY VS. SHAME AND DOUBT -2-3 years old/ Toddler -This stage is concern w/ muscular maturation and the accompanying ability to hold on or to let go. - A sense of autonomy develops w/ the sense of free choice, a feeling of being able to choose what to keep and what to reject- the infants basic faith in existence is tested in sudden and stubborn wishes to choose (to grab demandingly or to eliminate inappropriately) -Shame stems from a sense of self exposure , a feeling that ones deficiencies are exposed to others- it is also associated w/ the childs first experience of standing upright and feeling small, wobbly and powerless in an adult world. - Doubt is closely related to the consciousness of having a front and a back; our front is the acceptable face that we turn towards the world; the back part of the body cannot be seen by the child. INITIATIVE VS. GUILT -4-5 years old/ pre-schooler -During this stage, the repertoire of motor and mental abilities that are open to children greatly expands -Parents who give their children freedom in running, sliding, bike riding, etc. are allowing them to develop initiative. -Parents who curtail this freedom are giving children a sense of themselves as nuisances and useless intruders in an adult world- rather than actively and confidently shaping their own behaviors, such children become passive recipients of whatever the environment brings. INDUSTRY VS. INFERIORITY -6-11 years old/ School age -During the elementary school years, a child becomes concerned w/ how things work and how they are made. - Parents and teachers who support, reward and praise children are encouraging industry -Parents and teachers who rebuff, ridicule or ignore childrens efforts are strengthening feeling of inferiority IDENTITY VS. IDENTITY CONFUSION -12-20 years old/Adolescent -As children enter adolescence, they experience a psychological revolution and at the same time, they must answer the question Who am I?. -They try on many new roles as they grope with romantic involvement , vocational choice and adult statuses. -When the adolescent fails to develop a centered identity, he or she becomes trapped in either role confusion or a negative identity (delinquent). -The adolescent is likely to suffer from confused roles- doubts about sexual attractiveness and sexual identity are common at this stage. INTIMACY VS. ISOLATION -20-24 years old/Young Adult -Only after a relatively firm sense of identity is developed are we capable of committing ourselves to a partnership, an affiliation, and an intimate relationship w/ others. -Without a sense of intimacy and commitment , one may become isolated and unable to sustain an intimate relationship. GENERATIVITY VS. STAGNATION -25-65 years old/ Middle adult -Generativity - entails selflessness, includes concern for children and ideas and products that we have created. -Stagnation- is a condition in w/c individuals are preoccupied w/ their material possessions or physical well being EGO INTEGRITY VS. DESPAIR -65 years- death/ Old adult -The sense of ego integrity includes the acceptance of a unique life cycle w/ its triumphs and failures- it brings sense of order and meaning to the person and the world around him or her, as well as a new and different love of parents -DESPAIR- the feeling that the time is now short, too short for the attempt to start another life and to try out alternative roads to integrity.

COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT THEORY JEAN PIAGET- presents the intellectual development into four major periods. SENSORIMOTOR STAGE (Birth-2 years) -Determined basically on actual perception of the senses and the external or physical factors. -The first experience develops continuously on its encounter- how learning takes place depends on what is experienced at the beginning -OBJECT PERMANENCE- what and where it is seen for the first time will still exist even though it disappears- it marks the start of developing memory for the nursing object. -Cognitive process increases the ability to store words and language structures- there is the capacity to understand and store wordslanguage develops when there are more verbal communication. - Children are more eager in imitating and trying various sounds and words than their correct usage; they are able to fantasize, dream, imagine, and freely associate with others. - COLLECTIVE MONOLOGUE- children talk to toys, tell wild stories, and have imaginary friends. - The cognitive system develops in creating a symbolic thinking wherein they can socially communicate w/ the adults. -Children begin to wonder what is happening around them- their minds are full of questions wanting to be answered. -They are puzzled between what is taught to them and what they actually experience. - There is difficulty of being convinced by new information once the mind is already made up -To see is to believe -This is characterized by hypothesis testing. -METACOGNITION- they have their own mind and thoughts of others - this is self reflection wherein ideas and imaginations are tried out to be aware of existing realities. -Experience is the best teacher.

INTUITIVE or PREOPERATIONAL STAGE (2-7)

CONCRETE OPERATIONAL STAGE (7-11)

FORMAL OPERATIONAL STAGE (11-up)

MORAL DEVELOPMENT LAWRENCE KOHLBERG- worked on the understanding of moral development PRE CONVENTIONAL STAGE 1 -Centers on the self -Might makes right -survival of the fittest -Behavior is based on obedience and moral understanding -It is dependent on physical cause and effect - Learning moral value and obedience is determine out of fear -Satisfies the self at the expense of what other people can do or what benefit can be achieved- you scratch my back, ill scratch yours. - It is not concerned w/ others but w/ what can fulfill ones own personal need. -Others directed -This is to please everybody by conforming to social roles. -Makes decision according to the established rules and laws where one lives. -Depends on a social contract- systems are written in documents Behaves according to the universal social justice- documents may not be written.

STAGE 2

CONVENTIONAL

STAGE 3 STAGE 4

POST CONVENTIONAL

STAGE 5 STAGE 6

-EMVFERRER-