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Myocardial Thickness and Function
*Thickness of myocardium varies according to the function of the chamber *Atria are thin walled, deliver blood to adjacent ventricles.
27. Atrioventricular Valves Open
• A-V valves open and allow blood to flow from atria into ventricles when ventricular pressure is lower than atrial pressure. *Blood moves from a higher pressure and the atria to a lower pressure in the ventricles through open AV valves. Occurs when ventricles are relaxed, chordae tendineae are slack and papillary muscles are relaxed. • When the ventricles contract, the pressure of the blood drives the cusps upward until their edges me" is the opening. A-V valves close preventing backflow of blood into atria. *Occurs when ventricles contract, pushing valve cusps closed, chordae tendineae are pulled (tightens) & papillary muscles contract to pull cords and prevent cusps from everting. *Response to the high ventricular pressure.
Two closed circuits, the systemic and pulmonic; • Systemic circulation-left side of the heart. Receives bright red, oxygen- rich blood from the lungs.
28. Atrioventricular Valves Close
29. Blood Circulation; Systemic circulation
-left side of heart pumps blood through the body. -left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into aorta. -aorta branches into many arteries that travel to organs. -arteries branch into many arterioles in tissue. -arterioles branch into thin-walled capillaries for exchange of gases and nutrients. -deoxygenated blood begins its return in venules. -venules merge into veins and return to right atrium.
Right side of heart pumps deoxygenated blood to lungs. causes the SV valves to close tightly. -oxygenated blood returns to heart in pulmonary veins. Aortic valve *Two types. -right ventricle pumps blood to pulmonary trunk. *Allows ejection of blood from the heart into arteries. Each cusp attaches to the arterial wall by its convex. *Semilunar valve *located between the left ventricle in the aorta. . 31. Blood Circulation .) • Pulmonary circulation Pulmonary circulation. As the ventricles relax blood starts to flow back towards the heart. permitting ejection of blood from the ventricles into the pulmonary trunk and aorta. pulmonary veins) 32.30. outer margin. Semilunar Valves 33. vena cavae) – red = oxygenated (aorta. pulmonary trunk. *Opens when pressure in the ventricles exceeds the pressure in the arteries (contraction). Aortic & pulmonary valves *Made up of three crescent-shaped cusps. Blood Circulation (cont. but prevents backflow of blood into the ventricles. This backflowing blood fills the valve cusps. .Pulmonary arteries carry blood to lungs for exchange of gases. -pulmonary trunk branches into pulmonary arteries. • Blood flow – blue = deoxygenated(pulmonary arteries.
The right side of the heart is pump for pulmonary circulation. arteries gave rise to smaller diameter arterioles.) • Pulmonary circulation 34. the heart like a crown. entering progressively smaller systematic arteries that carry it to all organs throughout the body (except for the air sacs (alveoli) of the lungs.Blood Circulation. • Coronary circulation -blood supply to the heart. Ultimately the blood flows back to the right atrium. • Many anastomoses – Connections between arteries supplying blood to the same region provide alternate routes (collateral circuits) if one artery becomes occluded(blocked). The freshly oxygenated blood then flows into pulmonary vein and returned it to the left atrium. Coronary Circulation Left ventricle ejects blood into the aorta from the aorta. which finally lead into extensive beds of systematic capillaries. which is exhaled. it receives all dark red oxygen-poor blood returning from systematic circulation. In most cases. • Coronary arteries-branch from the ascending aorta. Systemic circulation Blood Circulation (cont. Blood ejected from the right ventricle flows to be pulmonary trunk. Exchange of nutrients in gases occurs across the thin capillary walls. and encircle. coronary or cardiac circulation. Pulmonary capillaries. • Heart is a very active muscle needs lots of O2. blood flows through only one capillary and then enters a systematic venule. Heart contracts little blood flow in the coronary arteries because they are squeezed shut. into capillaries & then into coronary veins. The blood divides in two separate streams. blood unloads carbon dioxide. . supplied by pulmonary circulation). Systematic tissues. The blood unloads oxygen & picks up carbon dioxide. • When the heart relaxes high pressure of blood in aorta pushes blood into coronary vessels. Venules carry oxygen poor blood away from tissues and urged to form large systematic veins. & picks up inhaled oxygen. which branches into pulmonary arteries that carry blood to the right and left lungs. • Myocardium network of blood vessels.
Posterior interventricular branch follows the posterior interventricular sulcus & supplies the walls of the two ventricles with oxygenated blood. Left coronary artery-passes inferior to the left auricle & divides into the anterior interventricular branch or left anterior descending artery is in the anterior interventricular sulcus & supplies oxygenated blood to the walls of both ventricles. it flows into capillaries. After blood passes through the arteries of the coronary circulation. Great cardiac vein-anterior interventricular sulcus. Most of the poor oxygenated glide for the myocardium drains into a large vascular sinus in the coronary sulcus of the posterior surface of the heart called the coronary sinus. . where it delivers oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscles and collects carbon dioxide and waste & then moves into coronary veins. Carrying blood into the coronary sinus are the following. Middle cardiac vein-posterior interventricular sulcus. Drains the area supplied by the posterior interventricular branch of the right coronary artery (left & right ventricles). Drain the right atrium & right ventricle.35. 36. Coronary veins 37. Drains the area of the heart supplied by the left coronary artery (left & right ventricles & left atrium). Circumflex branch lies in the coronary sulcus & distributes oxygenated glide to the walls of the last ventricle & left atrium. Coronary Arteries *Two coronary arteries. branch from the ascending aorta & supply oxygenated blood to the myocardium. Right coronary artery-supplies small branches (atrial branches) to the right atrium. Anterior cardiac vein-drains the right ventricle & open directly into the right atrium. Small cardiac vein-coronary sulcus. Continues inferior to the rights auricle & ultimately divides into the posterior interventricular & marginal branches. Poor oxygenated blood in the coronary sinus empties into the right atrium. A vascular sinus is a thin walled vein that has no smooth muscle to alter its diameter.
Source of this electrical activity is a network of specialized cardiac muscle fibers. Pacemaker-setting the rhythm of electrical excitation that causes contraction of the heart. Right & Left Bundle Branches 5. Conduction system. Cardiac Muscle Histology • Cardiac muscle fibers are shorter in length and less circular in transverse section. Purkinje fibers 39. striated. . Rapidly generate action potentials that trigger heart contraction.38. Ensures that cardiac chambers become stimulated to contract in a coordinated manner. SA node. Begins heart activity that spreads to both atria excitation spreads to AV node. 1. Two important spontaneously functions. Conduction System of Heart (Autorhythmic fibers) 40. • Intercalated discs. single central nucleus per cell. (must know in order) 41. because it initiates action potentials first. *fires spontaneously 90-100 times per minute. Self excitable.cluster of cells in wall of right Atria just inferior to the opening of the superior vena cava. Conduction System of Heart.a network of specialized cardiac muscle fibers that provide a path for each cycle of cardiac excitation to progress through the heart. • Mitochondria are larger and more numerous.contain desmosomes (hold the fibers together. Called the pacemaker. makes the heart an effective pump. Atrioventricular (AV) Bundle(of His) 4. • Branching. intercalated discs with gap junctions. Do not have a stable resting potential. Sinoatrial (SA) node 2. 2. involuntary. Autorhythmic Cells. 1. Sinoatrial (SA) node 1. Atrioventricular(AV) node 3. Stimulates the atria to contract. Conduction System of Heart.
upward to the remainder of the ventricular myocardium. AV node. . The only site where action potentials can connection between atria and ventricles. • In 50 msec excitation spreads through both ventricles simultaneously.located in the interatrial septum. AV Bundle (of His)-located in a membranous septum. Purkinje fibers-located in the apex of the myocardium & lateral walls of the right and left ventricles. Since action potentials to the bundle branches. Right & Left Bundle Branches -located in the interventricular septum toward the apex of the heart. In atrial septum.42. Sends action potentials to the purkinje fibers. 44. Atrioventricular(AV) node 2. Then the ventricles contracts pushing the blood upward toward the semilunar valves. • SA node setting pace since is the fastest • In 50 msec excitation spreads through both atria and down to AV node. anterior to the opening of the coronary sinus. • 100 msec delay at AV node due to smaller diameter fibers & allows atria to fully contract filling ventricles before ventricles contract. *fires at 40-50 times per minute. *Sends action potentials to the ventricular cardiac muscle fibers & papillary muscles & stimulates them to contract. Timing of Atrial & Ventricular Excitation 5. Atrioventricular (AV) Bundle(of His) 3. Purkinje fibers 46. Large diameter fibers that rapidly conduct signals. 43. 45. Right & Left Bundle Branches 4. transmits signal to bundle of His.
. AV bundle. *contractile fibers. represents ventricular repolarization & occurs just before the ventricles relax. Depolarization-Cardiac cell resting membrane potential that is close to -90mV. Refractory period -time interval during which a second contraction cannot be triggered. let Ca +2 enter from outside cell & from storage in sarcoplasmic reticulum.Excitation spreads through gap junctions. Cardiac muscle fiber lasts longer than the contraction itself.action potential initiated by the SA node travels along the conduction system and spreads out to excite the “working” atrial & ventricular muscle fibers. QRS complex. 48.short downward deflection(Q). ventricular depolarization spreads from the AV node. curved upward deflection.Ca+2 channels close and K+ channels open & -90mv is restored as potassium leaves the cell. Depolarization & Repolarization. Very long so heart can fill. EKG-Action potentials of all active cells can be detected and recorded. & to the Purkinje(conduction) fibers. P wave.first wave. small.47. Typical three lead. while K+ channels close. Plateau phase -250 msec (only 1msec in neuron) slow Ca+2 channels open. tall upward deflection (R). Just before the ventricles contract. Action potentials & contraction of contractile proteins. which also contributes to repolarization. Electrocardiogram(ECG or EKG) Typical three lead. Calcium channels in the sarcolemma & the sarcoplasmic reticulum are closing. Fast Na+ channels open for rapid depolarization. right & left bundle branches. medium downward deflection (S). Repolarization. T wave. atrial depolarization that spreads from the SA node just before the atria contract. Ca +2 binds to troponin to allow for actin-myosin cross-bridge formation & tension development.medium curved upward deflection.
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