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Executive summary

Stress is the "wear and tear" our bodies experience as we adjust to our continually changing environment; it has physical and emotional effects on us and can create positive or negative feelings. As a positive influence, stress can help compel us to action; it can result in a new awareness and an exciting new perspective. As a negative influence, it can result in feelings of distrust, rejection, anger, and depression, which in turn can lead to health problems such as headaches, upset stomach, rashes, insomnia, ulcers, high blood pressure, heart disease, and stroke. With the death of a loved one, the birth of a child, a job promotion, or a new relationship, we experience stress as we readjust our lives. In so adjusting to different circumstances, stress will help or hinder us depending on how we react to it. As we have seen, positive stress adds anticipation and excitement to life, and we all thrive under a certain amount of stress. Deadlines, competitions, confrontations, and even our frustrations and sorrows add depth and enrichment to our lives. Our goal is not to eliminate stress but to learn how to manage it and how to use it to help us. Insufficient stress acts as a depressant and may leave us feeling bored or dejected; on the other hand, excessive stress may leave us feeling "tied up in knots." What we need to do is find the optimal level of stress which will individually motivate but not overwhelm each of us. There is no single level of stress that is optimal for all people. We are all individual creatures with unique requirements. As such, what is distressing to one may be a joy to another. And even when we agree that a particular event is distressing, we are likely to differ in our physiological and psychological responses to it. The person who loves to arbitrate disputes and moves from job site to job site would be stressed in a job which was stable and routine, whereas the person who thrives under stable conditions would very likely be stressed on a job where duties were highly varied. Also, our personal stress requirements and the amount which we can tolerate before we become distressed changes with our ages. It has been found that most illness is related to unrelieved stress. If you are experiencing stress symptoms, you have gone beyond your optimal stress level; you need to reduce the stress in your life and/or improve your ability to manage it. Identifying unrelieved stress and being aware of its effect on our lives is not sufficient for reducing its harmful effects. Just as there are many sources of stress, there are many possibilities for its management. However, all require work toward change: changing the source of stress and/or changing your reaction to it. How do you proceed? There are some stress busters which can act wonders to your body and mind and which can make your life stress free. These can be done individually or it can be organized by the company for the betterment of the employees

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Richard Earle, Ph.D., is Managing Director of the Canadian Institute of Stress and the Hans Selye Foundation. Three top stress complaints seen almost daily at our Institute Clinic are family or marital problems, fatigue and I cant get no satisfaction. Often theyre closely related. There just isnt enough time and energy to make ends meet. Short of having yourself cloned, somethings bound to get short shrift. And its usually personal or family life. Work is the easy winner. Fortunately, radical lifestyle surgery typically isnt required. The answer is to stand back and see the big picture, and then to make one or two small, personally strategic changes. Take the little quiz Ive prepared for you. Youll likely be amazed at how big a difference five or 10 minutes taking your needs seriously will make. Youll find below a list of some of the activities that make up work and personal life These are the balls that todays working adult is juggling. Rate each of the activities based on how much time or energy they receive in your situation. Step #1, think about how much time or energy you would like to give each activity of the following activities: a)Family recreation activities b) Personal recreation activities c) Doing my core job at work d) Housekeeping chores e) Professional development/courses f) Easy time with spouse g) Taking on extras at work h) Easy time with children i) Doing office work at home j) Meal preparation k) Taking children to sports / activities l) Relaxing / socializing with friends

Rate each activity on the following scale from 0-4 as follows: It should get no time or energy = 0 It should get very little time or energy = 1 It should get medium time or energy = 2 It should get quite a bit of time or energy = 3 It should get a lot of time or energy = 4 Step #2, think about how things actually work in your life. Rate each activity again on the following scale from 0-4 as follows: At present it really gets no time or energy = 0 At present it really gets very little time or energy = 1 At present it really gets medium time or energy = 2 At present it really gets quite a bit of time or energy = 3 At present it really gets a lot of time or energy = 4 Step 3, write down the number that shows the difference between your two ratings. Simply subtract whichever number is smaller from the larger one. Add up these numbers - this is your juggling stress number. (Interpreting your score IF you have no children or no spouse: If you have no children , multiply your score by 1.2 if no spouse, multiply it by 1.1 to interpret your score correctly.) Stress is the gap between your real situation and your ideal situation. To see how successfully you are juggling the demands of work and personal life, check your total against our stress thermometer.

Hot Zone (score = 11+) If your score is in the hot zone, some changes may be necessary to reduce the level of stress in your juggling situation.

Make some adjustments to close the larger gaps between the real and the ideal in your situation. And build on the satisfactions you get from those areas where the gaps are smaller. Warm Zone (score = 7-10) If your score is in the warm zone, you are juggling time and priorities just about as well as most working adults. Build on your strengths to bring your real situation and goals closer together. Cool Zone (score = 0-6) If your score is in the cool zone, then you are managing the demands of work and personal life better than most people. By keeping your real achievements in line with your ideal situation, you can maintain a balance of activities and keep the juggling stress down. Assess overall pattern of energy investment: Take a look at where you spend most of your time and energy. You may want to readjust this to better suit your goals. Find creative new options: Maybe some of the old traditional ways of being close to your spouse, or of developing yourself in your career really just dont fit your situation very well. Invent a new way! Make some adjustments to close the larger gaps between the real and the ideal in your situation. And build on the satisfactions you get from those areas where the gaps are smaller.

Weatherford Enterras stock dropped more than 10% when the company revealed that the Chief Executive was going to take time off for stress related health reasons 30 year old Rukmini works in a firm where she files papers and has to deal with the education department on and off everyday .she has been working for 10 years now and she realizes that work is getting tougher and tougher but she is a strong willed women and has always been career oriented and she thinks that it must be normal as every body is feeling the job pressure, not only she! But after completion of 11 years she notices a change in her; .she notices that she comes home very depressed everyday and that she has undergone some physical and mental changes. She has also become very cranky and gets irritated easily; it is after consultation from a doctor that she comes to know the reason STRESS!

So after all what is stress?

The Pali term Dukkha, which is traditionally translated in the commentaries as, "that which is hard to bear", is notorious for having no truly adequate equivalent in English, but stress - in its basic sense as a strain on body or mind Dukkha applies both to physical and to mental phenomena, ranging from the intense stress of acute anguish or pain to the innate burdensomeness of even the most subtle mental or physical fabrications.(1a)Stress is mental or physical tension that results from physical, emotional, or chemical causes. (1b) stress is found in all men women or even fetuses. No body is spared The word stress is defined by the Oxford Dictionary as "a state of affair involving demand on physical or mental energy". A condition or circumstance (not always adverse), which can disturb the normal physical and mental health of an individual. In medical parlance 'stress' is defined as a perturbation of the body's homeostasis. This demand on mind-body occurs when it

tries to cope with incessant changes in life. A 'stress' condition seems 'relative' in nature. Extreme stress conditions, psychologists say, are detrimental to human health but in moderation stress is normal and, in many cases, proves useful. Stress, nonetheless, is synonymous with negative conditions. Stress is a consequence of a general response to an action or situation that places special physical or psychological demands or both on a person. The physical or psychological demands from the environment are known as stressors. Here are what some working women had to say about stress: Stress is a state of mental tension or emotional strain caused by the need to finish more than one job within a limited time schedule-M Zachanah (assistant general managerIDBI) Boss fear-N M Shinde(assistant to officer- Reliance energy) Stress is an condition when you are feeling your body is being pressed by two large heavy objects and when things start going haywire, when you find everything out of control - O Meachair(Canadian citizen and a retired woman) Stress means mental and physical pressure on a person to adapt and adjust to things which is not suitable or which is not preferred by themShriya (ABN AMRO Bankofficer) In my experience (in my role as a student) stress comes during peak stages which normally occur when exams or tests or evaluation time comes near basically when a student is being judged and those judgments are being noted down to be verified .there are events showing high level of stress like flunking or death of a parent and there are periods when there are low levels of stress in a childs life like change in eating or sleeping habits, illness, arguments with friends family etc.

RESEARCH WORK CONDUCTED ON STRESS ALL OVER THE WORLD : STRESS AND WOMENS HEALTH: Doctors in the Netherlands recently reviewed the medical literature from 1966 through 2002 to examine all studies on the relationship of breast cancer and life stress. In their review published in the December 2003 issue of the International Journal of Cancer, the Netherlands team concluded that an overall association between stress and breast cancer risk could not be substantiated, but a moderate increase in cancer risk with severe stress (e.g. death of a spouse) was observed. Some individual studies have shown an increase in breast cancer risk following stressful life events. An example of these comes from a Finnish study published in 2003. In this investigation, over 10,000 women from the Finnish Twin Study, a population composed of same-sex twins born in Finland, were followed for 15 years from 19821996. The women completed baseline health questionnaires in 1975 and follow-up questionnaires in 1981 and 1990. The questionnaires were designed to assess known breast cancer risk factors along with individual life events and stressors. During the 15-year study period, 180 cases of breast cancer occurred in the study population. Examination of the relationship between cancer development and selfreported life events and psychological stressors revealed that accumulated life stressors in the five years before the baseline assessment was associated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer during the 15 year follow-up period. Likewise, the occurrence of severe life stresses (divorce/separation, death of a spouse, or death of a close friend or relative) were all associated with a small (1.36 to 2.26 times normal rate) but significant increase in breast cancer incidence. The researchers confirmed these findings in studies of twin pairs in which one twin developed breast cancer and the other did not. Again, severe life stresses were associated with the incidence of breast cancer in the affected twin. Data analysis was repeated to exclude potential confounding factors such as changes in body weight, smoking, or alcohol use that often accompany stressful life events. Independent of these factors, stress alone appeared to increase the risk for development of breast cancer. Results were also

adjusted to eliminate the influence of known breast cancer risk factors such as nulliparity or late age at the first term pregnancy. This study, published in the March 2003 issue of the American Journal of Epidemiology, supports the hypothesis that psychological stress may in some way predispose the body to a greater risk of breast cancer development. The exact way in which stress may act to increase cancer risk is not clear. Possible explanations for the increased cancer incidence include:

Stress is known to affect hormone secretion in the body, for example, with increases in the hormone cortisol seen in response to any type of stress. It might be postulated that the hormonal changes induced by the body during the stress response may increase the risk of cancer development.

The known affects of stress on inhibition of the immune response could play a role in tumor causation. Stress may lead to other lifestyle alterations including dietary changes, medication use, or other practices which theoretically could explain the increased incidence of cancer.

Individual styles of coping with stress may have also led to behaviors or hormonal changes that increase cancer risk.

In summary, medical experts still do not agree whether psychological stress alone can increase our risk of cancer development. Some studies support the notion of some role for stress in the cancer development process, although the precise nature of this effect has not been confirmed. Other research indicates a negligible, or minimal, effect of stress in cancer development. Further studies are needed before the relationship of stress and other psychological factors to cancer can be established.

KARACHI: Eighteen percent women and more than 10 percent men in Pakistan are suffering from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), according to psychiatrist Dr Ali Wasif. Talking to the Daily Times here on Wednesday, he said 33-90 percent people who had

passed through trauma had chances of developing PTSD. PTSD can be associated with depression, rather they are at the risk of developing depression, panic disorder, generalized anxiety and substance abuse. He said such people were more vulnerable to PTSD who had adversities in their childhood and development years.

Recent advances in studies of the neurobiology of PTSD have underscored that, from a biological perspective, PTSD develops from an inadequate termination of a stress response. The failure to contain the biological alterations initiated by stress may have long-term adverse consequences. In particular, a prolonged continuance of biological responses following stress may lead to an inappropriate pairing of the traumatic memory with distress, and may then initiate a cascade of secondary biological alterations, says the clinical manual of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

Those who suffer from traumatic events during childhood, and those who are exposed to chronic or repeated traumatic stress, are also at risk of developing physical illnesses such as hypertension, asthma and psychosomatic illnesses.

The type of events that are thought to give rise to PTSD could be defined in two broad categories: (a) those involving interpersonal violence; and (b) those involving potentially life-threatening accidents and disasters, either man-made or naturally occurring hazards, that occur in the absence of a conscious attempt of one person to harm another. In addition to single-episode traumatic events that are truly outside the range of an individuals experience, many individuals experience chronic or repeated trauma exposure. Soldiers engaged in prolonged combat, hostages or prisoners in the concentration camp, or victims of repeated domestic violence may come to expect violence as part of their daily life.

The prevalence of a history of childhood sexual and physical abuse is disproportionately high among persons with a history of substance abuse, male prisoners, and psychiatric inpatients.An entirely new phenomenon noticed in the nineties was not only state torture

or extra-judicial killings but private torture and brutal killings among the political and/or ethnic divide in Sindh, according to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder And Acute Stress Reaction, a study conducted in 1996 by a team of doctors, including Dr Haroon Ahmed, Dr Syed Ali Wasif, Dr Rafey Ahmed, Dr Waqar Siddiqui and Dr Yasir Maqsood. The survey in the four districts of Karachi has now been compiled and the preliminary report indicates that during 1996 there was definite change in the behaviour of the people of Karachi,

ORLANDO -- A study by Duke University Medical Center researchers suggests that the cumulative effect of the daily mental and emotional stresses of life reduces the heart's ability to respond appropriately to the outside world. This insight, the researchers said, could help explain the mechanism behind the known links between mental stress and heart disease. The researchers also said their findings emphasize the importance of stress reduction techniques and exercise in maintaining a healthy environment for the heart. By continually monitoring the electrical activity of the hearts of 135 patients with coronary artery disease during a 48-hour period, the researchers found that higher levels of negative emotions were strongly associated with a reduction in the ability of the heart to respond to stress and negative emotions. Duke researcher Simon Bacon, Ph.D., presented the results of the Duke analysis today (March 4, 2004) at the annual meeting of the American Psychosomatic Society. The research was supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). "While we have known that emotional stresses have been linked to the development and progression of coronary artery disease, it has not been clear why this is so," Bacon said. "Past laboratory studies in humans and animals have demonstrated that mental stress can negatively affect the autonomic control over the heart." Autonomic control is the reflexive control of heart action over which people have no conscious control. "What we

have shown for the first time, using detailed cardiac measurements during everyday life, is that such negative emotions as anger, stress or sadness were associated with a reduction in autonomic control of the heart," For the study, the researchers attached portable electrocardiogram (ECG) machines to 135 heart patients, who wore them continually for two days. While the monitors recorded the heart's electrical activity minute-by-minute during this period, a tone would sound every 20 minutes during waking hours. This signal prompted patients to record in a portable diary their activities and emotions at that moment. "In this way, we were able to correlate what each patient was experiencing during everyday life with what was happening with their hearts," Bacon explained. "The monitors showed that during periods of mental stress and negative emotions, the hearts showed a reduced capacity to respond." The monitors measured each patient's heart rate variability -- a phenomenon by which the brain controls the rate at which our heart beats. For example, when humans encounter danger, the brain triggers the sympathetic nervous system, which in turn makes the heart beat faster. Once the danger has passed, the brain initiates the parasympathetic nervous system, which then slows the heart rate down. In normal daily life these two systems, the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, help maintain the heart rate at an equilibrium guarding against sudden cardiac events. "Sick hearts show very little heart rate variability, so they are not as responsive, leaving them vulnerable," Bacon said. "Healthy hearts have a better ability to respond to anything that occurs. The bottom line is that stress we experience throughout the course of the day can be bad for our hearts. Our study showed that even small fluctuations can have a cumulative impact." Such techniques as stress and anger management, or behavioral modification techniques, may be effective in reducing the body's unhealthy reactions to stress. Exercise may also be an effective method of stress reduction, Bacon said.

According to Bacon, future research should be directed at intervention strategies for minimizing the effects of mental stress. At Duke, the NIH-funded SMART HEART trial is currently evaluating the potential benefits of exercise training and stress management programs for patients with coronary artery disease. Other colleagues on the study included Lana Watkins, Ph.D., Michael Babyak, Ph.D., Andrew Sherwood, Ph.D., Robert Waugh, M.D., and James Blumenthal, Ph.D. Other members of the team were Alan Hinderliter, M.D., University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill and Junichiro Hayano, M.D., Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan. Vital Stats The 1998 National Study of the Changing Workforce shows that Americans feel they are working longer, harder and faster. Work! work! work!: 88 percent reported having to work very hard, and 68 percent have to work very fast, yet 60 percent still do not have time to get it all done -- much higher percentages than 20 years ago. Hours worked at all jobs for employees average 46 per week -- up from 43.6 hours in the 1997 survey. Tired or burned out: 71 percent feel used up at the end of the day; 57 percent reported being burned out or stressed by work; 53 percent reported feeling nervous or stressed in the past three months. Health problems: 38 percent said stress has caused minor health problems. The commute: Commute time now averages nearly 50 minutes a day. One in three of those surveyed brings home work at least once a week. Supportive bosses: More than 90 percent said their supervisor and co-workers are supportive; only 70 percent said their employer is supportive. Looking for new jobs: 37 percent are "somewhat" or "very likely" to make a genuine effort to find a new job with another employer in the next year. Sources: The Orange County Register/KRT; Families and Work Institute, Ceridian Performance Partners, 1998

SOME TRIVIA: With the advent of MNC work culture in India, increased work pressure and increasing need for performance in the workplace, it has led to increased stress in the executive lifestyles. This type of a lifestyle increases the risk of developing heart disease by 10-15 times. Nearly half of all American workers suffer from symptoms of burnout, a disabling reaction to stress on the job. 1 in 5 people suffer stress in the workplace at any one time. That is equivalent to 5 million workers. Around 500,000 workers have reported experiencing stress at a level they believe made them ill. Each year approximately 6.7 million working days are lost due to stress or stress related illness. The cost of workplace stress on society is between 3.7 and 3.8 billion each year. Stress is second only to back problems as being the most common type of work related ill health reported. An estimated 1 million workers are absent on an average workday because of stress related complaints. Stress is said to be responsible for more than half of the 550,000,000 workdays lost annually because of absenteeism. A three-year study conducted by a large corporation showed that 60% of employee absences were due to psychological problems such as stress. The proportion of workers who reported "feeling highly stressed" more than doubled from 1985 to 1990.

Job stress is estimated to cost U.S. Industry $300 billion annually, as assessed by absenteeism, diminished productivity, employee turnover, direct medical, legal and insurance fees, etc. 60-80% of industrial accidents are due to stress. Workers' compensation awards for job stress, rare two decades ago, have skyrocketed and threaten to bankrupt the system in some states. California employers shelled out almost $1 billion for medical and legal fees alone. Nine out of ten job stress suits are successful, with an average payout more than four times that for regular injury claims.

The market for stress management programs, products, and services was $9.4 billion in 1995, and is projected to be $11.31 billion for 1999. 40% of worker turnover is due to job stress. The Xerox Corporation estimates that it costs approximately $1-$1.5 million to replace a top executive, and average employee turnover costs between $2,000 to $13,000 per individual. Workplace violence is rampant. There are 2 million reported cases of homicide, aggravated assault, rape or sexual assaults causing stress.

75% of the general population experiences at least "some stress" every two weeks Half of those experience moderate or high levels of stress during the same two-week period. Tranquilizers, antidepressants, and anti-anxiety medications account for one fourth of all prescriptions written in the U.S. each year.

Job stress
Job stress is a chronic disease caused by conditions in the workplace that negatively affect an individual's performance and/or overall well-being of his body and mind. One or more of a host of physical and mental illnesses manifests job stress. In some cases, job stress can be disabling. In chronic cases a psychiatric consultation is usually required to validate the reason and degree of work related stress. In my project I will be dealing only with stress related activities at work and stress related effects; causes symptoms and effective stress busters. And because stress is a vast topic and it has many effects on various people I will be studying only one section of people i.e. WOMEN who are more likely to be affected by this syndrome. This poll was conducted by the About .com team which is a site specifically for topics related to stress and how to manage with the daily pressure and they took this poll to prove to the people that women are the ones who have to face more stress in life

Among people you know, are the women or the men more "stressed out?" women (179) men (76) about the same (39) Total Votes: 294 60% 25% 13%

But interestingly , Researchers at the University of Duesseldorf in Germany have

evidence that young women are better able to cope with stress than young men, according to a study published in the October 2001 issue of Psychoneuroendocrinology.

Womens role is increasing day by day because of which it is important to know how to use this resource productively and also to see that a balance is maintained .hence stress management is required and important for women Women, in these days, have a lot of balancing to do between home and workplace, including balancing between social and personal requirements. The issues of maternity, menopause, parenthood, gender roles, conditions at home and workplace, familial and social support et al, often blight women's lives in the long run. I have conducted a study on how stress has effected women working in each and every sectors of the industry (here in India and abroad in places like Canada) and my research has divided women in: Higher level positions like managers Middle level positions like officers Lower level positions like stenographers The sectors that I have covered are: Banks private and government like SBI,ABN AMRO Bank, Financial institutions like SICOM,IDBI, LIC Education centers-government and private like Sydenham College of commerce and economics ,Mulund camp municipal school Medical centers and hospitals. like Peoples mobile hospital

Private sectors like Reliance energy limited I interviewed 27 women in from 5 fields and I have asked them questions related to : Effects of stress Causes of stress Symptoms Stress busters The data is on a comparative basis; where a comparison is done with the women working in the various hierarchical positions within different sectors in Mumbai and also with women working in a developed country (Canada) (wherever possible). This study can also show the awareness of women about their stress factors and if they take some remedial actions to solve it. This study has been used in each and every section (and wherever necessary) to support my ideas on stress and its management and which are the popular modes of stress management. It also points to us one factor which states that not many organizations take up stress programmes for their workers and why is it necessary to take up such programmes as it can be beneficial to the organizations. (references and data has been used to support my point of view)

What is the meaning of stress according to you? . . What are the most common reasons for stress? (rank them between 1 :the most important reason and 5: the least important reason) Work Family and children Other people like relatives; neighbours; not related people like Politicians Peer pressure Finances School Driving /traffic What are the most common symptoms found in a stressed person? (rank them 1 being the most important reason and 5 being the least important reason) Insomnia,(lack of sleep) Loss of mental concentration, Anxiety, Absenteeism, Depression, Substance abuse, (excessive use of alcohol drugs) Extreme anger and frustration, Family conflict Physical illnesses such as heart disease, migraine, headaches, stomach problems, and back problems. Any other reasons. How has stress affected our body? (Tick the apt reasons)

Tension Frustration Migraine Loss of Confidence and Concentration Fear Aging Indigestion Insomnia Irregular periods Any other reasons.

What are the most common causes for stress at the workplace? ( rank them 1 being the most important reason and 5 being the least important reason)

Job Insecurity

High Demand for Performance Technology Workplace Culture Peer pressure What are your reasons for stress at the workplace? ( rank them 1 being the most important reason and 5 being the least important reason)

Job Insecurity High Demand for Performance Technology Workplace Culture Peer pressure Any other reasons

Do you take steps to recover from stress? Yes No Can the following Stress busters help you? Praying Biofeedback Yoga Exercising Time management Anger management Music Laughter Positive self talk Meditation Which is the most effective stress buster for you ?( Tick only one!)

Praying Yoga Exercising Time management Anger management Music Laughter

Positive self talk Meditation If any others..

Have you undergone any stress management /consultation? Yes No If yes, then was it arranged by your company? What exercises were included in that stress management session? . Do you recognize stress in your body ? Yes No What are the immediate after effects of stress that you feel in your body? Did stress take a toll on family life? Yes No Any other comments on stress?

CAUSES OF STRESS: In the USA nationwide surveys show that above 25% of all employees suffer from a variety of stress-induced problems. A survey of 400000 employees conducted by International Survey Research of Chicago reported that about 40% of these people say that their workload are excessive and that they have too much pressure at work According to the studies that I had taken the results in the higher level category of women workers showed that they are more stressed out because of work. CAUSES OF STRESS



50 15 15 10 10

The middle level results showed that most women faced stress from work and then family took a major portion along with other factors like traffic and money And the lower level showed these results said that family was the main reason why they were s stressed out and which affected work too.



WORK 30 FAMILY 35 FINANCES 25 SCHOOL 5 TRAFFIC 5 A poll was also conducted by me with women working abroad in Canada and the results are as follows. Around 7 women voted in this poll and a major chunk of their worries were caused by stress:




60 10




POLITIANS 10 HEALTH 10 ANY OTHER REASON 10 When asked about other reasons they said that included finances and traffic and so on . But the above causes are not from the perspective of work stress .They are basically personal views or opinions. Following are the reasons or causes related to stress at work : Job Insecurity Organized workplaces are going through metamorphic changes under intense economic transformations and consequent pressures. Reorganizations, takeovers, mergers, downsizing and other changes have become major stressors for employees, as companies try to live up to the competition to survive. These reformations have put demand on everyone, from a CEO to a mere executive. High Demand for Performance Unrealistic expectations, especially in the time of corporate reorganizations, which, sometimes, puts unhealthy and unreasonable pressures on the employee, can be a tremendous source of stress and suffering. Increased workload, extremely long work hours and intense pressure to perform at peak levels all the time for the same pay, can actually leave an employees physically and emotionally drained. Excessive travel and too much time away from family also contribute to an employee's stressors. Technology The expansion of technologycomputers, pagers, cell phones, fax machines and the Internethas resulted in heightened expectations for productivity, speed and efficiency, increasing pressure on the individual worker to constantly operate at peak performance levels. Workers working with heavy machinery are under constant stress to remain alert. In this case both the worker and their family members live under constant mental stress. There is also the constant pressure to keep up with technological breakthroughs and

improvisations, forcing employees to learn new software all the times. Workplace Culture Adjusting to the workplace culture, whether in a new company or not, can be intensely stressful. Making oneself adapt to the various aspects of workplace culture such as communication patterns, hierarchy, dress code if any, workspace and most importantly working and behavioral patterns of the boss as well as the co-workers, can be a lesson of life. Maladjustment to workplace cultures may lead to subtle conflicts with colleagues or even with superiors. In many cases office politics or gossips can be major stress inducers.

Personal or Family Problems Employees going through personal or family problems tend to carry their worries and anxieties to the workplace. When one is in a depressed mood, his unfocused attention or lack of motivation affects his ability to carry out job responsibilities. Job Stress and Women Women may suffer from mental and physical harassment at workplaces, apart from the common job stress. Sexual harassment in workplace has been a major source of worry for women, since long. Women may suffer from tremendous stress such as 'hostile work environment harassment', which is defined in legal terms as 'offensive or intimidating behavior in the workplace'. This can consist of unwelcome verbal or physical conduct. These can be a constant source of tension for women in job sectors. Also, subtle discriminations at workplaces, family pressure and societal demands add to these stress factors. According to my studies the causes of stress which they face at work amongst the women in the higher positions were work culture:






10 FOR 30 10 50

And the lower level revealed insecurity of job as the major stress : CAUSES OF STRESS AT WORK




50 FOR 25 20 5

But basically work seems to be a dominating cause to cause stress in many people and amongst work stressors high demand for performance seems to be creating havoc in womens life. Because of this we push ourselves too hard When we take on the responsibility of becoming a worker, we take on a lot more than we really realize. Sometimes we "Spread ourselves too thin." We commit ourselves to do more than our

bodies will allow; keeping up with our social lives, as well as our work , can lead to damage of our bodies and emotional well being. Fear of failure also causes enough stress for us to worry on . Other causes: Peer Pressure supposedly a very demanding factor in the lives of young workers.. Along with peer pressure comes decisions about drinking, smoking, drugs, and sexual activity. For example, The pressures to drink can be quite compelling at times. In fact, peer pressure is the reason most people give for why they started drinking and continue to drink Poor Nutrition Some times women do not eat healthy foods, instead they rely on fast food restaurants, microwaveable meals, and quick foods/snacks. Poor nutritional habits depletes or bodies immune system and energy levels. Sleeping Habits The human body in order to function properly needs on average between 7 to 9 hours of sleep each day.

Sughandita has been noticing for the past several months that she is facing lots of disturbance in her sleep .her sleep is incomplete because of which she gets bouts of acidity and that disturbs her whole schedule as she gets up very late in the morning and her whole routine fails .she has been noticing this from the past 4 months, basically since the time she was promoted to the post of a manager. She thinks that it must be the food at first but then slowly it comes to her head that it must be the work pressure she find out about the Symptoms of Stress

This symptom list is based on a compilation of information relating to stress and anxiety found in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), copyright 1994, American Psychiatric Association. Symptoms of Stress or Anxiety




heart pounding headaches sweaty palms indigestion skin breaks out shortness of breath holding breath cold hands sleeplessness sleep too much fatigue nausea diarrhea tight stomach tight muscles pain

moody irritability depressed anxious lack of sense of humor abrasive hostile nervous emotional

forgetfullness loss concentration poor judgment disorganized fuzzy perception confused lack of interest math errors stop thinking diminished fantasy life of

negative self-talk

How serious are your stress symptoms? Acute Stress In determining how to cope with your stress symptoms, it is helpful to know what type you are dealing with. The most common form, acute stress results from demands and pressures of the recent past and anticipated demands and pressures of the near future. In

small doses, acute stress is thrilling and exciting, but too much is exhausting. The same ski run that feels so great in the morning can be quite taxing at the end of the day. Skiing beyond your limits can lead to falls and injuries. In the same way, too much short-term stress can lead to physical or emotional symptoms. Most people recognize the signs of acute stress. They appear when something major happens like moving, changing jobs, experiencing losses. You probably feel stressed when something goes wrong, i.e., your fender is crumpled in a car accident, you lose an important contract, you're racing to meet a deadline, your child is having problems at school. Daily hassles with a demanding boss, a nagging spouse, or irritating noise also can make you feel stressed. Normally, as our ancestors did, our bodies rest when the stressful event is over. Moreover, because it is short term, acute stress doesn't have enough time to do the extensive damage associated with long-term stress. Episodic Acute Stress If you endure acute stress frequently, you probably are experiencing episodic stress. Your life feels like a disorderly exercise in chaos and crisis. You are always rushing, always late. If something can go wrong, it does. Trying to do too much, you can't organize the tangle of self-inflicted demands clamoring for your attention. You seem to be constantly in a state of acute stress. Chronic Stress The grinding stress that wears people down day after day, year after year is chronic stress. It destroys bodies, minds, and lives. It's the relentless stress of poverty, dysfunctional families, and despised jobs. The people of Northern Ireland, Eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union, and the Middle East live with the chronic stress engendered by their endless troubles. If you are experiencing chronic stress, you can't figure out how to alleviate a miserable situation that seems to go on for an interminable period of time. Devoid of hope, you stop searching for solutions. Some chronic stress stems from traumatic, early childhood experiences that change the brain and become internalized, remaining forever present and painful. These experiences

can affect personality profoundly. You create a belief system or view of the world that causes you constant stress. The worst aspect of chronic stress is that you get used to it. You forget it's there and learn to endure it. The study where I had interviewed women showed that women are not quick to respond to such symptoms; they took easily around 6 months or so to find out about stress and that they were undergoing a physical and a mental change. And when asked whether they recognize stress in their bodies around 65% said yes and the remaining said no.

The symptoms of stress in higher level women showed:




30 25


The middle level women responded in such a manner:




10 20 40 10 20

The lower level women ranked stress symptoms and they showed following results:






Once these symptoms start showing up in our day to day life it is an indicator that stress management techniques should be devised to keep stress in control.


Medically, it has been established that chronic symptoms of anxiety and stress can crumble our body's immune system. Irrespective of the nature of the causes of stress real or perceivedour subconscious mind reacts with the same body response by releasing stress hormones equal to the degree of our fear, worry or sense of threat. It brings about changes in the body's biochemical state with extra epinephrine and other adrenal steroids such as hydrocortisone in the bloodstream. It also induces increased palpitation and blood pressure in the body with mental manifestations such as anger, fear, worry or aggression. In short, stress creates anomalies in our body's homeostasis. When the extra chemicals in our bloodstream don't get used up or the stress situation persists, it makes our body prone to mental and physical illnesses.

For example, imagine a secretary in an office. Her boss comes in, angry and furious. He starts blasting the secretary for no apparent reasons. Now, her activated adrenaline cycle would tell her to flee or fight. Her senses become acute, muscles tighten, heartbeats and blood pressure increase and brain activity speeds up. She would probably like to walk out or alternatively, turn around and punch him in the face. But she does neither, for to do so might mean losing her job. So what follows? She burns up a lot of her body energy without achieving anything. At the end of the day she would be left mentally, physically and emotionally exhaustedclassic symptoms of anxiety and stress. It can happen to anybody from a high profile businessman to a student, an executive or a homemaker. All are burning out their energies to defend themselves from their real or perceived causes of stress. Stress effect us in many ways like: PHYSICALLY Any challenge that overwhelms us a serious illness, the death of a family member, troubles at school, the loss of a job or a lover can be so stressful to you that it can have major effects upon your physical well being. Common effects of stress upon the body are as follows:

-Headaches -Feelings Of Warmth -Heart Palpitations -Rapid, Pounding Heartbeat -Tightness Of Chest -Butterflies In Stomach -Hyperventilation -Weakness All Over -Tremors -Dizziness -Dry Mouth -Sweaty All Over -Confusion -Speeded Up Thoughts -Muscle Tension -Fatigue -Decreases In Immune System Functions -Rashes -Backaches -Stiffness In Your Joints -Elevated Blood Pressure

BEHAVIORALLY High levels of stress does have a direct effect upon the way we interact with the world around us. Stress levels do have a direct link to the way we behave. The higher the stress and the longer we are exposed to it the more likely we are to alter our normal behavior patterns. The most common effects of stress upon our behavioral patterns are as follows:

-Fidgeting -Chain smoking -Forgetfulness -Cry a lot -Becomes very bossy -Isolate yourself -Get angry easy -Overeat -Grind teeth -Lose control -Trouble concentrating -Cant turn off thoughts -Moodiness

EMOTIONALLY Our emotional state just like our behavioral state is directly effected by our stress levels. The most common effects that high stress levels have upon our emotional state is as follows:

-Cannot think clearly/focus easily -Get cold and unfeeling -Feelings of depression -Low self image -Feelings of loneliness -Constant worry about the future -Feelings of helplessness

The above symptoms are by no means comprehensive. Please remember stress can have numerous effects upon the body it can be just one elements from above or a combination of them. Stress will effect everyone differently please keep this in mind. Estimates are such that each employee who suffers from a stress related illness losses an average of 16 days of work a year.Over three fourths of all industrial accidents are caused by a workers inability to cope with emotional problems which is worsened by stress.The American Institute of Stress estimates the cost to the US economy from stress related medical problems and lost productivity at $300 billion per year. these cost include child lost productivity ,mistakes and medical treatment

Job burnout is also a important factor women are more likely to face burnouts more tha men. A Northwestern life insurance study found out that job burnout rate was 36% for women versus 28% for men.


The positive and negative effects of

stress are most apparent in the relationships between stress and performance.

At low levels of stress employees may not be sufficiently alert, challenged or involved to perform their best .As the curve indicates, increasing a low amount of stress may improve performance but only up to a point. An optimal level of stress probably exists for most tasks. Beyond that point, performance begins to deteriorate. At excessive levels of stress, employees are too agitated, aroused, or completely threatened to perform their best. The downsizing of many organizations yields good examples of the effects of excessive stress on performance. A survey of 531 large companies indicated that 85% expected their restructuring to raise profits. Yet, only 46% of these companies actually had increased earnings after downsizing.

Studies of stress- performance relationships in companies often show a strong negative correlation between amount of stress in a team and its over all performance .this is , the greater the stress that employees are experiencing , the lower will be their productivity. This negative relationship indicates that these work settings are operating on the right hand side(excessive stress) of the curve . Managers and employees in these situations need to find ways to reduce the number and magnitude of stressors

Effects of Stress on the Immune System: research /studies

Implications for Health Summary Association Ronald Glaser, Ph.D. Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Behavioral Medicine Research Institute, Ohio State University Health Sciences Center Over the last several years, we have been examining the impact of different kinds of psychological stressors on different aspects of the immune response. These studies included studies on the impact of academic stress on medical students, and also studies involving spousal caregivers of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients. In general, in our studies we found that psychological stress can inhibit different aspects of the cellular immune response. In order to explore whether these changes were biologically significant, we performed a study in which 48 medical students were inoculated with a series of three injections of a Hepatitis-B (Hep-B) vaccine. Each vaccination was administered to coincide with the third day of a three day examination series. Hep-B specific antibody levels and the Hep-B specific T-cell response were measured. Twelve of the forty-eight medical students inoculated with the vaccine had Hep-B antibody after the first injection; these students were characterized by falling into the lower stressed/lower anxiety group of students. of Presentation on December 17, 1996

Science Writers Briefing Sponsored by the OBSSR and the American Psychological

Student who reported greater social support and lower anxiety and stress had higher antibody levels to the vaccine and a more vigorous T-cell response at the end of the third inoculation. In a second series of studies with caregivers of AD patients, similar down-regulation of several aspects of the cellular immune response was observed in caregivers as compared to well-matched control subjects. Once again, we explored the possibility that these changes were significant enough to effect how a person responds to a vaccine; we used the influenza virus vaccine. We measured the antibody and virus-specific T-cell response to the vaccine. AD caregivers showed a poorer antibody response and virus-specific Tcell response following vaccination of the flu vaccine as compared to the control subjects. The differences in antibody and T-cell responses to these two viruses provide a demonstration of how psychological stress may be able to alter a person's response to a vaccine and therefore risk for infection. We believe that the data obtained with these two vaccines provide a clue for how stress can affect how a person would respond to infection with a live virus. In the above two studies, we were focusing on the impact of immune changes associated with stress in regard to risk for infectious disease. We have also found that stress can affect wound healing. We found that women who were engaged in stressful dementia caregiving activities took an average of 9 days longer to completely heal a small punch biopsy wound than well matched control subjects, i.e., 24% longer to heal a small, standardized wound. We also measured a cytokine (IL-1) produced by blood cells in the laboratory. IL-1 plays a very important role in wound healing. We found that blood cells obtained from the AD caregivers produced less IL-1 than cells obtained from matched control subjects. These stress related alterations in wound repair could have important clinical implications, particularly for surgical recovery

PTSD - Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder More than a manifestation of lifestyle stress, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric condition that develops in the wake of a catastrophic life experience. While written acounts of PTSD-like symptoms exist from observations of WWII Holocaust survivors, interest in and recognition of this condition escalated following the war in Viet Nam when many returning U.S. veterans developed disturbing symptoms and impaired functioning. Symptoms of PTSD may vary among individuals, but almost all who suffer from this condition will manifest one of the following:

"flashbacks" about the traumatic event feelings of estrangement or detachment nightmares sleep disturbances impaired functioning occupational instability memory disturbances family discord parenting or marital difficulties

Symptoms may be mild or severe and often vary in intensity with periods of remission occurring between symptomatic intervals. . Although PTSD has been extensively documented in combat veterans, other tragic and catastrophic events can lead to the development of PTSD. Examples include - but are not limited to - assaults, torture, natural disasters such as earthquakes, and terrorism. While the stresses associated with lifestyle events such as divorce and serious illness can be devastating, these are different from the catastrophic nature of the events that are associated with the development from PTSD Statistics and Risk Populations

PTSD can develop in persons of any age, including children. Symptoms generally begin within three months of the tragic event but may develop later. The diagnosis of PTSD is made when symptoms persist for greater than one month. Since individuals react in different ways to trauma and stress, it is not possible to predict in advance who will develop PTSD. PTSD has been observed in all US veteran populations and in veteran populations from other countries. PTSD is more common than one might expect:

3.6% of U.S. adults have PTSD in a given year PTSD is observed in up to 30% of those who have been in combat zones Among U.S. civilians, 5% of men and 10% of women develop PTSD in their lifetime

Classified among the anxiety disorders, PTSD often occurs in association with other emotional and psychiatric conditions, most commonly alcohol or substance abuse and depression. Experts have identified certain patterns and characteristics of both individuals and events that have an increased likelihood of leading to PTSD. Persons with prior vulnerability factors like early age of onset, concurrent lifestyle stress, genetic factors, and inadequate social support networks are more prone to develop PTSD after a traumatic event than their counterparts

WINSTON-SALEM, N.C. - Reduced estrogen levels due to stress could put some young women on a high-risk course for heart disease, reported Jay Kaplan, Ph.D, from Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center today at the American Psychosomatic Society Annual Meeting.

"Observations of female monkeys show that stress during the years before menopause can lead to the early development of hardened arteries," said Kaplan, professor of comparative medicine. "Applied to women, this suggests that having an estrogen deficiency in the pre-menopausal years predicts a higher rate of heart disease after

menopause." Kaplan said that women have traditionally been considered "immune" from heart disease until after menopause, when their estrogen levels dramatically drop. His research showed that stress can actually reduce estrogen levels much earlier in life and cause the early development of hardened arteries that can lead to heart attacks and strokes. "This research demonstrates that stress can contribute to blood vessel disease, a longstanding hypothesis previously supported by little direct evidence," said Kaplan. In the study, female monkeys were placed in groups so they would naturally establish a pecking order from dominant to subordinate. Monkeys that were socially stressed because they were in subordinate roles in their group - produced reduced amounts of the hormone estrogen. In women, the estrogen produced before menopause helps protect against heart disease and osteoporosis.

Kaplan's results showed that the estrogen-deficient monkeys had four times more atherosclerosis than dominant monkeys that produced normal levels of estrogen. When the subordinate, or "stressed," monkeys received estrogen treatments either before or after menopause, their rates of atherosclerosis were cut in half. When they got a "double dose" of estrogen - both before and after menopause - their rates of atherosclerosis were equal to the dominant monkeys.

An ongoing study of human autopsy results supports Kaplan's findings. Results released last year showed that by age 35, one-third of women have substantial atherosclerosis in the vessels leading to their hearts.

In women, stress, anorexia nervosa and hormone imbalances can all reduce estrogen levels to the point that menstrual periods stop. But Kaplan and colleagues theorize that more moderate drops in estrogen - that don't produce symptoms - can also affect health.

"We know from monkey studies that stress can lower estrogen levels to the point that health is affected, even though the animals still have menstrual periods," he said. In a study of 66 women having normal-length menstrual periods, estrogen levels were low enough in half of the participants to cause the bone loss that can lead to osteoporosis. Kaplan theorizes that if reduced estrogen levels can cause bone loss in women, they can also cause atherosclerosis.

In Kaplan's monkey study, estrogen was given in the form of oral contraceptives prior to menopause. After menopause, it was given as hormone replacement therapy. Monkeys were selected for the study because they closely resemble humans in behavioral and reproductive characteristics. The cynomolgus macaques, used in the study, have a 28-day menstrual cycle and the females (except stressed subordinates) have a natural resistance to heart disease compared to males. The research was funded by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute.

Researchers at the Hopital L. Heriot in Lyon, France, studied blood pressure in over 300 workers in a chemical company, who were healthy full-time employees without high blood pressure. The workers, who ranged in age from 18 to 55, underwent medical examinations and answered questionnaires designed to rate the overall stress level of their jobs. The workers were also given a computerized mental stress test. Researchers measured the participants' blood pressure levels in the workplace, both at rest and during the mental stress test. In addition, 70 randomly-selected participants wore monitors that provided a 24-hour assessment of blood pressure. Twenty percent of the study subjects reported the highest levels of job strain. These workers showed significantly higher diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels during the work day than those of their coworkers. DBP refers to the blood pressure measurement

obtained when the heart is between beats, and is given as the second number in the blood pressure reading. A DBP of 90 or greater is generally considered to be elevated. Interestingly, DBP levels were not elevated in these persons outside of the work environment. Furthermore, non-job-related stresses such as the mental stress test did not cause a comparable elevation in blood pressure in the high-stress group. Blood pressure measurements outside of the working environment were similar in all workers studied. Factors such as age, gender, diet, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and occupation were equivalent between the highest-stress and lower-stress groups, and these factors did not influence the study results. This research, published in the July 2001 edition of Hypertension: Journal of the American Heart Association, is unique because it shows that workers' individual feelings about their stress levels may in fact lead to elevated blood pressure while at work. Despite the objective demands of a job, this study suggests that individual perception of job stress might be an important risk factor for the development of hypertension. Reference Fauvel JP, Quelin P, Ducher M, Rakotomalala H, Laville M. Perceived job stress but not individual cardiovascular reactivity to stress is related to higher blood pressure at work. Hypertension 2001 Jul;38(1)71-5.

According to my studies, women were asked about the various immediate effects of stress for which the replies were as follows: Emotional imbalance increase in blood pressure irritability headache stomach ache palpitation sleepiness lethargy excessive hunger tension loss of appetite and weakness and so on Also when asked about the question of whether it took a toll on the family life around 60% women answered positive and around 40 %said that it did not effect family directly but it some how must have affected

The effect on stress in women working on a higher position: EFFECTS OF STRESS



The studies in the middle level working women showed: EFFECT OF STRESS


40 OF 20 10


20 10

The studies with lower level working women were as follows: EFFECT OF STRESS


40 OF 20 15 15 10

Organizational and individual programs to help managers and employees cope with stress have become increasingly popular as the toll taken by stress has become widely known. Methods are available to individuals and organizations for managing stress and reducing its harmful effects. Stress management refers to any program that reduces stress by helping people understand the stress response, recognize stress, and use coping techniques to minimize the negative impact of stress. INDIVIDUAL METHODS Stress management by individuals includes activities and behaviors designed to eliminate stress or control the stressors and to make the individual more resistant to cope to stress.

The above figure shows how personal goals and values coupled with practical stress management skills ,can help individuals cope with stressors and reduce negative stress reactions. Source: Kindler, H.S. and Ginsburg, M. Stress Training for Life Some interesting ways to kill stress: These aspects were mentioned in the book Simple Ways to Manage Stress-guru mantras by Pramod Batra. ANGER MANAGEMENT: Add D to anger and it becomes danger! Anger is one of the emotions experienced by each one of us. Let me give you the famous example of anger from RAMAYANA. Ravana was the wisest of the wise, with the ten wise heads on his shoulders. However, his successes had killed his humility and along with it , many of his virtues too. So, when his sister Sarupnakha, who had her nose chopped off because of her wrongdoing ,presented her distorted story ,Ravana, who by now had developed the habit of being short tempered , forgot to ask simple questions like: Why did you go to meet Rama and laxmana?

What exactly happened? Why should not I talk to Rama and find out his side of the story? The result was nothing but stress for himself because he angered himself too easily! Strategies To Keep Anger At Bay Relaxation: Breathe deeply, from your diaphragm; breathing from your chest won't relax you. Picture your breath coming up from your "gut." Slowly repeat a calm word or phrase such as "relax," "take it easy." Repeat it to yourself while breathing deeply. Use imagery; visualize a relaxing experience, from either your memory or your imagination. Non strenuous, slow yoga-like exercises can relax your muscles and make you feel much calmer. Cognitive Restructuring: Simply put, this means changing the way you think. Angry people tend to curse, swear, or speak in highly colorful terms that reflect their inner thoughts. When you're angry, your thinking can get exaggerated and overly dramatic. Try replacing these thoughts with more rational ones. For instance, instead of telling yourself, "oh, it's awful, it's terrible, everything's ruined," tell yourself, "it's frustrating, and it's understandable that I'm upset about it, but it's not the end of the world and getting angry is not going to fix it anyhow." Be careful of words like "never" or "always" when talking about yourself or someone else. Problem Solving: Sometimes, our anger and frustration are caused by very real and inescapable problems in our lives. Not all anger is misplaced, and often it's a healthy, natural response to these difficulties. There is also a cultural belief that every problem has a solution, and it adds to our frustration to find out that this isn't always the case. The best attitude to bring to such a situation, then, is not to focus on finding the solution, but rather on how you handle and face the problem make a plan, and check your progress along the

way. Resolve to give it your best, but also not to punish yourself if an answer doesn't come right away. If you can approach it with your best intentions and efforts and make a serious attempt to face it head-on, you will be less likely to lose patience and fall into allor-nothing thinking, even if the problem does not get solved right away. Better Communication: Angry people tend to jump to conclusions, and some of those conclusions can be very inaccurate. The first thing to do if you're in a heated discussion is slow down and think through your responses. Don't say the first thing that comes into your head, but slow down and think carefully about what you want to say. At the same time, listen carefully to what the other person is saying and take your time before answering. Listen, too, to what is underlying the anger. For instance, you like a certain amount of freedom and personal space, and your "significant other" wants more connection and closeness. If he or she starts complaining about your activities, don't retaliate by painting your partner as a jailer, a warden, or an albatross around your neck. Yoga: Stressed out individuals carry a great deal of physical tension in their bodies. In these cases the natural unblocking effected by yoga postures are helpful. When one rests between postures, abdominal tension is released from the body promoting deep breathing. The benefits of yoga postures (asana), breathing (pranayama), and meditation (dhyana) include increased body awareness, release of muscular tension and increased coordination between mind-and body. It helps in better management of stress and ensures an overall feeling of well being. Some custom made yogic techniques include Sudarshan Kriya by Sri Sri Ravishankar, Sahaja Samadhi by Ma Anandmayee and Kriya Yoga by Paramashansa Yoganandaare three widely practiced techniques of yoga devised by three epoch making spiritual gurus. Yogasanas and Mudras For Some Stress Induced Disorders:

Stress and TensionSavasana, sarvangasana, pranayama, siddhasana (with kumbhaka), makarasana, trikonasana, padmasana, yogic mudras

FrustrationDeep breathing (see Methods of Nadi Shodhanam), savasana, padmasana, yogic MigraineSavasana, viparitakarani, sarvangasana, mudras. pranayama.

Loss of Confidence and ConcentrationSirsasana (practice under the supervision of a yoga teacher), bhujangasana, trikonasana, matsyasana, padmasana, Vajroli mudra, utthita parsvakonasana, sarvangasanas, meditation, yoga-mudra.

FearVirabhadrasana, siddhasana (with kumbhaka) padmasana, sirsasana (practice under the supervision of a yoga teacher), sarvangasanas, matsyasana, meditation, deep breathing (see Methods of Nadi Shodhanam), padmasana, vajroli-mudra. yoga-mudras



IndigestionSavasana, pranayama, vajroli & other mudras, ardh matsyendrasana, Forward and backward bending asanas (paschimottanasana), virasana, vajrasana InsomniaArdha matsyendrasana, trikonasana, savasana, deep breathing (see Methods of Nadi Shodhanam), halasana An example : Method of Nadi Shodhanam

Hold your right hand up and curl your index and middle fingers towards your palm. Place your thumb next to your right nostril. Close the left nostril by pressing gently against it with your ring finger and inhale through the right nostril. The breath should be slow, steady and full.

Now close the right nostril by pressing gently against it with your thumb, and open your left nostril by relaxing your ring finger and exhale fully with a slow and steady breath. Inhale though the left nostril, close it, and then exhale through the right nostril.

(That's one complete round of Nadi ShodhanaInhale though the right nostril, Exhale through the left, Inhale through the left, Exhale through the right) Begin with 5-10 rounds and add more as you feel comfortable. Remember to keep your breathing slow, easy and full Nadi Shodhana can be practiced just about any time and anywhere. Nadi Shodhana helps control stress and anxiety. If you start to feel stressed out, 10 or so rounds will help calm you down. It also helps soothe anxiety caused by flying and other fearful or stressful situations. Walking provides you with an excellent opportunity to recharge and invigorate your body with extra intake of oxygen and release of muscle tensions. Through long walks, important organs such as heart, lungs, digestive system, and muscles get thoroughly exercised, facilitating blood circulation. The act of walking is recognized as a therapy with multifaceted benefits. Walking is also an effective and handy stress buster. Biofeedback is a technique in which stress affected persons are taught to improve their health and physical performance by altering their brain activity, blood pressure, muscle tension, heart rate and other bodily functions. Under stress these functions become unusual. Patients are taught to use signals from their own bodies, recognize the anomalies and redirect them accordingly. Under Biofeedback method of treatment, mechanical sensor devices are used to pick up electrical signals from the muscles and translate the signals into a form that people can decode. This device triggers a flashing light or activates a beeper every time muscles become tenser. If one wants to relax tense muscles, one must try to slow down the flashing or beeping. People learn to associate sensations from the muscle with actual levels of tension and develop a new, healthy habit of keeping muscles only as tense as and for as long as that are necessary. After treatment, individuals are often able to reproduce this response at will without being attached to the sensors. Music: Music, or sound coordinated in a rhythmic manner, is known to appeal to our inner being so powerfully that it can effect healing in our body. The science of yoga

reveals that body is made of vibrating energy. Difference in physicality suggests the presence of different types of vibrations in that energy. Music, whether vocal or instrumental, basically sends out various forms of vibrating sound-energy to its surrounding. People are generally attracted to the types of music appealing to their inherent body vibration. Some people may love to listen to the high and racy vibrations of jazz, but to some other it's the slow and lilting sound of flute that appeals most. In human body, the music appreciation center is located in the right hemisphere of the brain. By listening to music one 'switches-over' from the left hemisphere (dominant for binary activities) to the creative right hemisphere. It helps stimulate one's thinking pattern. Music has tremendous relaxation effect on our mind as well as our body. Surveys on the effect of music therapy reveal that favorable musical vibrations can promote a positive thought process in an individual. Time management:

Time is money. Every minute costs a large company 3 paisa of every Rps 100 give by it as a basic pay to each of its employees. We are talking about the effective minute-after allowing for vacations, coffee breaks and personal politics. To get a better idea of time management, read and observe your smiling colleagues. you many learn the following from the ones who manage their time well: Be Flexible. There is always more than one solution to a problem. One should be flexible enough to accept alternative solutions and experiment with them. It doesn't help becoming anxious, depressed and staying screwed, if one's dream formula for a problem didn't work. Be Realistic About Your Ability. It does help to set realistic and achievable goals? Long term or short term, in life. The targets should correspond to one's capability to achieve them. Making unrealistic demand on oneself and others is a sure way to invite stress. Prioritize Your Tasks. Prioritizing the tasks on hand can help reduce the challenges in completing them. Putting time and energy to important tasks and breaking a big task into smaller steps makes things easier. When one finishes one thing at a time and is able to meet one's responsibilities in time, the effect can be inspiring. Do Not Baulk At Delegating Responsibility. Delegating responsibility when it is appropriate, prevents emergence of stress. When one has several tasks at hand and puzzles over how to go about them, assigning smaller tasks to others can work wonders. This can be done both in office and at home. Learn To Be Assertive. Practicing to be a little more assertive or learning to say `no' when required can prevent you from taking up extra tasks which can eat into your precious time and energy. We often come across a housewife at home or an executive in office putting themselves under

unwelcome stress by taking more than what they can handle. Keep A Time Planner. Keeping a time planner ready helps going about one's task systematically. The listings should be scheduled on a day-to-day basis and should be striked off as soon as they get completed. Use this effective method of knowing your time stealers like frequent meetings too many interruptions and recognize your time savers and work on them like cut social functions, use exclusive transport, get up early in the morning. LAUGHTER: Laughter kills stress. Now modern medicine is backing this up with research that has shown that smiling and laughing cause physiological changes in your body. There is a reduction in cortisol, a chemical that indicates stress in the body, and an increase in mood elevating endorphins. Laughter is also thought to improve circulation, stimulate the nervous system, heighten the immune system, and make the heart stronger. Laughing releases the tension of pent-up feelings and can help us keep things in perspective. Laughter is one of the body's safety valves, a counter balance to tension. When we release that tension, the elevated levels of the body's stress hormones drop back to normal, thereby allowing our immune systems to work more effectively. A few good laughs shake up the liver and make us feel better in every way. As Osho Rajneesh rightly pointed out if you can decide that for every year ,for one hour, at a certain time ,the world will laugh, think it will help to dispel darkness violence ,stupiditiesJust the touch of laughter can make some thing worth living ,some thing to be grateful for.. He also said my definition of man is that man the laughing animal. No computer laughs, no ant laughs, no bee laughs; it is only man who can laugh. Laughter is prayer. If you can laugh, you have learnt how to pray. Dont be serious. A serious person can never be religious. Prepare * *Use Pop your some some kind of popcorn MasterCard notes without to pay with such putting your lines the Visa on lid it: on. bill.

*When someone says, "have a nice day", tell them you've made other plans. *Make a "things to do" list of things you've already done, then cross them off. *Retaliate *Pay *Drive *Have *Brush *Read *Bill the your your your dictionary doctor for for tax your to surname teeth upside the woes by filling out tax bill work legally down time changed and you look spent in to with for his vigorously in "Your Cheese secret waiting forms in in Roman Numerals. pennies. reverse. Majesty". Whiz. messages. room. hydro

*Stare at people you don't like through the tines of a fork and pretend they're in jail. You may want to subscribe to email newsletters that provide you with a joke a day. You can call an old friend who is known for their humor and spend some more time with them. Try watching hilarious cartoons or children playing or doing silly things. Watch a comedy or rent 2 or three for the weekend. Go see a live comedian or watch one on TV. Get into a tickling match with the kids and let them get you back. Learn to write jokes and share them with friends. Let their contagious uproars lead you into fits of joy. Do things that bring you joy and let smiles turn to laughing out loud. Listen to funny talk radio shows. Watch sitcoms. Try writing lymrics. Try spinning or standing on your head. A little exercise or a glass of wine can get the ball rolling, making a long stretch of the giggles an easy next step. Looking and listening for the irony in life can provide a storehouse of funny memories to draw from. Politicians and corporate heads are frequently given to public embarrassments of all sorts. The people all around you will prove themselves human again and again with words and actions that will leave you rolling, just as you will do for them. Turn the dial on the radio station and listen to people talking in another language, perhaps in a radio romance novel. Listen to foreign language music on the Internet. If youre alone where you can laugh at these and other things that you might not be able to find funny in the company of other people, go for it. You wont

be offending them and you may be doing yourself a world of good. Cartoons can do a very decent job of making you laugh:

There are other techniques like: Meditation: you could join any art of the living course or rather meditate in the house by keeping your mind blank for a few seconds and by thinking about nothing and you could keep your eyes closed or even chant lords name. Praying: You can say om or one and concentrate on emptying your mind of thousands of thoughts. count your blessings. Some studies have suggested that people who use "religious coping" -- seeking God's help, finding comfort in religion -- have lower blood pressure than those who use alternate stress relievers. The simple act of praying for stress relief might be enough to achieve your goal. Sleep: About 60 percent of people who are stressed say they don't get enough sleep, according to a National Consumers League survey. If falling asleep is your trouble, it's

time to start a calming bedtime routine. Start with a soothing shower and some lavender body wash. Then slip between the covers with a light novel and you'll be asleep in no time. According to my survey, the stress busters which are useful for ladies working in the higher order are as follows:



40 10 5 10 10 10 10 5

When asked to the middle level working women about their effective stress busters they said:




20 5 30 5 30 5 5

And the lower level workers responded as such:




45 5 5


And the Canadian women answered during the polls:

Which is the most effective stress buster for you ? Praying Time management Music Laughter any others Total Votes: 12 ORGANIZATIONAL METHODS After a major lay off, Phillips Petroleum Company formed a team to respond to problems created by stress among its current and former employees. Phillips paid for outside help to supplement the counseling available within the organization. Ford motor company offers stress management classes and free counseling services for workers who feel overload. Chevron corporation conducts workshops to help employees deal with stress. [1] [1] [2] [5] [3] [8.33%] [8.33%] [16.67%] [41.67%] [25.00%]

Why organizations need to carry such events out? Researchers from the Nevada Stress Center of the Sierra Nevada Health Care System carried out a study designed to test the effectiveness of a workplace stress management program. Participants in the program were randomly assigned to one of three groups. The first group received a full stress management program including self-help materials,

assessments, feedback, and face-to-face small group counseling sessions. The second group received an intermediate level of stress management support consisting of assessment and personalized feedback by mail. The third group served as the control group and were placed on a waiting list for stress counseling services Over 500 volunteers participated in the study and were followed for a period of one year. Participants answered questionnaires about their levels of stress and anxiety and their coping strategies at the beginning of the study and after 6 and 12 months of participation. Health information was also reported at three-month intervals. For a subgroup of the volunteers, doctors completed objective health reports throughout the year. While all three groups, including the waitlisted participants, reported improvement in their stress and anxiety during the year, the group receiving the full stress management program showed a faster reduction in negative reactions to stress. This group also reported fewer days of illness than their counterparts receiving limited stress management intervention or those on the waiting list. Doctors' reports showed that those receiving full stress management intervention utilized health care services 34% less frequently than the others. These results confirm that office-based stress management programs can be of value in reducing employee illness and its resultant absenteeism. Additionally, these programs can significantly reduce employee anxiety and stress, likely further contributing to increased productivity. As in this study, stress management programs that involve small group or individual counseling seem to be most effective in managing employee stress. Reference Rahe RH, Taylor CB, Tolles RL, Newhall LM, Veach TL, and Bryson S. A novel stress and coping workplace program reduces illness and healthcare utilization. Psychosomatic Medicine 2002 Mar-Apr;64(2):278-86. Stress management programs are aimed at eliminating or modifying work stressors like improvements in the physical work environment, changes in schedule, workshops dealing

with role analysis, MBO, job redesigning etc. These are basically targeted at work stressors the experience of stress by the employees and the outcomes of stress. A workshop that promotes role clarity and role analysis can be particularly useful in removing or reducing role ambiguity and role conflicts- two main sources of stress. Companies have workshops on the following: Team building Behavior modification Career counseling Time management Job burnout and its symptoms and remedies Relaxation techniques Wellness programs

An article which was published in a site The new corporate mantra: What do Maruti, Eicher Consultancy, Pepsi and Mahindra & Mahindra have in common apart from being profitable market-leading companies? A different approach to the most significant and impactable resourcetheir employees? Corporate organizations have always had profit as their sole objective. A prerequisite for profit is getting maximum results at the least cost of resources. The most profitable companies are the ones which do this best. It is not surprising then that in the muddle of conflicting priorities, the human resource is largely taken for granted.

In fact, in most organizations, the role of the human resource development manager is more of a compensation administrator, "body"-buyer and arbiter in case of conflict. Development in real terms is largely confined to management doublespeak. That really is myopic, considering that most people working in the corporate sector spend practically all of their waking, conscious, productive and creative hours in their offices. Moreover, stress is increasingly exacting a heavy toll. Says Dr. Bimal Chhajer, who runs the SAAOL heart program in Delhi, India: "What multiplies stress hundred fold is the fact that today executives are constantly working against time, creating an information and time overload." Fortunately, market leaders are beginning to get wise to the need to better utilize their existing human resources. In the new global, competitive scenario where the old rules of the game have changed faster than field hockey, the rules by which human resources have been looked after had to change, too. Clearly only quality people can produce quality goods and services. To that end, programs catering to the physical and mental well being of employees are getting institutionalized. These include stress-buster plans, personal growth programs and communication workshops.

This is obviously going a few steps beyond the standard medical expense reimbursement and motivation workshops. Many of the new meditation and personal growth workshops being tried out are New Age in nature. In fact, Deepak Chopra, the USA based ayurveda proponent and best-selling author, commented that the first signs of New Age consciousness in India first appeared in the corporate sector. Opinion on the pace of change, however, varies. Lt. Gen. S.S. Apte, PVSM, a consultant who strongly endorses the direct relationship between corporate health and employee well being, doubts whether the corporate sector sees employees as a resource to be nurtured. In the public sector specifically, Apte feels that frequent top management changes hinder growth schemes from getting the required gestation period to take root. Nurturing the employee takes many forms, for example, worker

empowerment, facilities for physical exercise, counseling and new approaches to the worker management interface. The single most critical factor affecting productivity of workers is stress.

Corporations are increasingly acknowledging it. As expected, they are looking to traditional Indian systems such as yoga and meditation for inducing peace and relaxation. The erstwhile DCM Co. of India, which is now trifurcated, has a long history of introducing programs to tackle executive stress. Siddharth Shriram, CEO of SIEL, is bullish about yogahe turned an enthusiast over six years ago, and never misses his daily yoga session. He is willing to sponsor his employees for memberships to clubs that teach yoga. More than the industry dowagers, however, it is the leading edge electronics and telecommunications companies that are increasingly adopting the new approach. Weston Electroniks chief Sundar T. Vachani is not only personally committed to yoga, he had employed full time yoga instructors for the staff at his Kalkaji Headquarters in Delhi, India.

Amul Behl, CEO of Logic Control, who follows Swami Parthasarathi in using Vedanta in management, generously shares his farm with his employees, which is the venue for regular retreats and workshops, open even to people from other companies such as Vam Organics. Another transformed company is Himachal Futuristic Communications Ltd. (HFCL), and not just because of the volume of team service business it has bagged. As the company grew rapidly, so did the quantum of employee stress. Three years ago, Vinay Maloo, a promoter of HFCL, introduced the meditative technique of preksha dhyan, devised by the Jain Guru Acharya Tulsi, in the company.

The results reported by the management; greater teamwork and improved individual effectiveness. Meditation, once considered the preserve of Himalayan yogis, has

proved to be very successful in a number of organizations. Some years ago, DCM Shriram organized a series of workshops on meditation, beginning with a common session for employees, followed up with individual sessions that taught techniques of stress management. The response was tremendous. In Bombay, employees of Benzer have been taking a 10-day break to learn meditation. Maharishi Mahesh Yogi's transcendental meditation too, is in demand because it is said to help boost productivity, cut down absenteeism as well as medical bills. The Maharishi Institute of Management (MIM), which teaches the technique, has set up a separate cell to deal with corporate development programs

Tata Tea and Tata Chemicals have got the full treatment from MIM. Visiting professors from the Maharashi Vedic University in Holland, conducted sessions at Tata Tea headquarters in Calcutta, and then visited the company's tea gardens in Tamil Nadu and Kerala, two Southern Indian states, for a repeat. ACC, the Oriental Bank, Indian Petrochemcials Corporation and Reckitt and Colman are some other companies that have called in MIM. Says N. Ramanathan, president TQM and People Development, SRF Ltd. We chose the TM program to achieve well balanced personality development. SRF conducted TM programmed in its offices in Delhi, followed up with sessions at its plants in Bhiwadi and Gwalior, other Indian towns. Its Chennai office, in India, is next on the agenda. A preliminary session introduced employees to the system, and they were invited to learn the technique along with spouses and children.

Employing systems with religious or spiritual overtones raises the issue of values, not quite unwelcome. Says Anil Sachdev, Managing Director, Eicher Consultancy Services (ECS): "The single biggest conflict for employees is their personal values clashing with the values dictated by business practices. Often, ECS has willingly sacrificed the interest of the company for a set of principlessomething that every new recruit may not be comfortable with. Humanity and ethics are the foundation of ERCS", says Sachdev.

He believes that if the leadership of any company is willing to walk the talk, it inspires everyone concerned. Personal growth, communication workshops, yoga, group activity and meditation are very much in place in ECS but ethics remains paramount. Management guru Mrityunjay B. Athreya is often described as having developed the Vedic style of management. He recommends the universal principles from the scriptures or principles that are consistent with our culture and ethos. Professor S.K. Chakraborty of the Indian Institute of Management, Calcutta, is another guru who teaches a connection to Vedic principles in management. He heads the Management Center for Human Values, a research center of management through based on traditional Indian ethos. He says that only after reading several Japanese books on management did he realize that Indians could turn to the scriptures for inspiration. The research center is supported by the Tata Group , Union Trust of India, HDFC, the Bhilwara Group, and Indian Oil. Like Athreya Chakraborty also points at a lack of rootedness in the modern value system that leads to overwhelming stress. *A number of organizations have been lining up for the programs based on 18 years of research. A unique stress busting program developed by him has been used by companies as diverse as TELCO, Shriram Fibres, Salora and BHEL. The Japanese management principles, too, are finding many takers in India. In today's push button existence, one is reminded of the startling results of a study done by some Japanese auto companies. In one plant, the assembly line system where one worker put in one component, was changed. Instead, groups were formed where one entire crew completed the assembly of one car.

The new system led to improved productivity, although logically this should not have happened. It is well known that Maruti Udyog has tried to copy the Japanese management ethos here. When it introduced a common canteen a few years ago, it

was considered revolutionary. But today, argues R Vasudevan its DGM Personnel in a new company, the same step would be received in a more matter of fact manner. The standard uniform code (gray) also prevails, which makes the employees equal and which is the first, external symbol of a flat organization. The lower you are in an organization, the higher the sense of satisfaction about commonality says Vasudevan. Similarly, everybody, bar none, punches in the morning and punches out at the end of the shift.

At the regular morning meetings, the supervisor or group leader also leads the group for a few minutes of exercise. External faculty is regularly called in to conduct stress management programs On the first Wednesday of every month, the plant is stopped for one hour in every shift for small group activity a total of 600 groups meet to discuss changes, improvements and solutions, in their area of work. Anothercompany committed to worker empowerment is Belgaum-based polyhedron, which manufactures hydraulic valves. Its managing director, Suresh Kundre, was inspired by management books based on Japanese principles.

Kundre tries to keep the company functioning totally transparent. The 120-odd employees do not have to be assigned task, as they set their own targets, and handle functions such as placing purchase orders without constant management vigil. Attitudes towards propriety, personal and spiritual growth are changing widely. Earlier, the boss had to be tough: the managers could not show that they were stressed or worried. Says Swami Premananda of the Sivandanda Yoga Nataraja Center in Delhi: They had to show that they were tigers in the filed. And 10-15 years ago, if your boss revealed a spiritual side, or talked about yoga, he was a weirdo. Today, these qualities and extra value to the person. The Sivananda Center has taught asanas, pranayama, and meditation to companies such as NTPC and ABB. Swami Premananda recommends yoga as the more holistic approach for, as he says. Allopathic medicine will cure the headache, but not the stiff neck, not the root cause.

You still wake up with low energy levels. Another system, rarely heard of earlier in corporate quarters, is reiki. To contain stress, the Bombay-based Mahindra & Mahindra uses the Rational Emotive Therapy developed by the US psychologist Albert Ellis. It works on the precept that a small crisis engenders negative feelings stress and turmoil soon balloon the incident out of proportion. The system requires that the employees involved write down their negative feelings.

Then, a contrary statement is also written down, leading to catharsis. Given the demand, seminar leaders, counselors and consultants are moving in to work with the corporate sector. One familiar names is Shiv Khera's who runs open house programs that have proved popular. USA based Khera, who periodically visits India, has a three pronged approach, to impact attitude, ambition, and action for the transformation of people into Total Quality People in their professional as well as private lives. Dr. Salim Sharif and Dr. Shakuntala David, who run Sandarshan in Delhi, started counseling the corporate entity with BHEL, Bhopal, as their first client. They look at the holistic health of the organization through counseling programs on personal growth, interpersonal effectiveness, team building, and workshops in related areas. They have worked with Escorts, Pepsi, Engineers India, DCM, Max Page, Shriram Foods and Fertilizers, among others. Says Dr. David: When the company moved from the trader to an organization, a lot of institutionalization had to be done, but does that mean that you lose the organizational values that that lala had ? * Sandarshan recently held a family communication and problem solving workshop with the employees of Bluestar, and a workshop on counseling skills and human resources with senior rung management of DCM Consolidated. The Company's brief was that it wished to break the hierarchical style. Sandarshan also ran a program for Pepsi Foods at its plant in Patiala, where the spouses of employees were involved in the workshop. Dr. Vanit Nalwa, director, Empower-Counseling Psychologists, who had worked in the UK, encourages companies to work towards developing the full potential of their employees, even if it means completely relocating them.

She has found employees most responsive to workshops on parenting skills and communication, followed by programs on assertiveness training. Says Dr Nalwa the increase in output is incidental. We monitored whether the employee felt that he was personally benefited. Programs to improve the physical health of employees have also gone beyond providing for table tennis in the common room. Companies such as NIIT and Cynamid have set up fully equipped gymnasiums at their corporate offices and the facilities are available before and after office hours without any membership chargers. A&M magazine and the Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India were quite open to the idea when employees asked if they could run aerobics classes within office hours. A happy median was reached when the space was made available, and employees in both organizations decided to forego their lunch break in favor of an aerobics workout. It appears that there are today more innovative and progressive pro-happy median was reached when the space was made available, and employees in both organizations decided to forego their lunch break in favor of an aerobics workout. It appears that there are today more innovative and progressive programs for employees as the human resource function is given more teeth in the organization. Most of these programs are designed to improve the overall life of the employee and not just to improve a certain set of skills. Most companies do not see these as additional costs when they do cost benefit analysis. Apart from this communication being so sharp these days, if, an organization shows commitment to the all round development of its employees, the good word spreads fast, good for PR. What remains true, however, is that most of the new programs are usually confined to the top brass in a company. It is always the top management that decides whether employees at lower levels too should under go the same training.

Admits Anant P. Dehadrai, country head of Sumitomo Corp: Yes this movement has to be top down, but in some instances, the top has no problem; it is the down that may

not be ready just yet. He quotes examples of companies where there is suspicion about such moves being some sort of management drama, and the union has not been entirely convinced of any benefits accruing to workers. In such cases, where the management is committed, it will decide to start a program with only union committee members; different kinds of stresses operate at different levels of work. At the other end of the spectrum are some companies like NIIT, which try to impact the life of the employees way beyond the work area. The company has evolved a personal effectiveness program that allows each individual to prioritize and work on targets in all areas of life.

Says Sanjiv Kataria, vice President, corporate communications: Feedback suggested that a major concern was balancing work and personal life. The company has evolved such schemes as the Granny Gratitude Day (because values are learnt from parents and grandparents), since the stability of the individual at home is important to functioning well in office. Unlike other companies, NIIT encourages employees to find a marriage partner within the organization (We attract the best people, and they should make the best partners too) and offers the couple two months basic salary as gift apart from interest-free loans. Undoubtedly, companies have to become more sensitive to worker issues instead of just paying lip-service. The momentum has to be sustained, and if the organization takes a step in this direction, the employees have to ensure that it is nurtured. Growing the employee will grow the organization but, like Kaizen, these cannot be one-time inputs, they have to become a normal way of life.

Wellness programs: Wellness programs are activities that organizations sponsor to promote good health habits and correct health problems. More than 50,000 USA firms provide some type of a company sponsored health promotion program. Each year, the Health Project (a nonprofit group of business executives, labor leaders, professors) award the C. Everett Koop National Health Award to companies having the most successful wellness program.

Wellness programs are aimed at raising awareness and providing information.some wellness program involve the employees directly and some create an environment that will help employees maintain their lifestyle. For example: Sara lee provides female workers with a series of workshops on prenatal care ,nutrition, and strategies for preventing diseases. Johnson and Johnson has lunch hour seminars on stress coping techniques. they receive free checkups six times annually for infants . Prevention saves $13 million a year. L.L.Bean has a running club for employees that offer ballroom dancing lessons and cross-country skiing. They also provide for a series of exercise programs and a built tennis and volleyball courts a shower lockers and so on . AT &T employees formed support groups to help each other maintain their health lifestyle .They have noticed dramatic health benefits in terms of reduced blood pressure and cholesterol levels from its Total Life Concept program. DuPont budgets $20 million per year on tests and checkups for employees. Free treatment includes frequent mammography and flu shots. Steelcase tests 4000 employees for health problems and safety awareness. Estimated savings from promoting lifestyles are $20 million over 10 years. First Chicago pays for 800 births a year in its female workforce .Educational programs have reduced C- sections and underweight babies. Dows Backs in Action encourages exercising and dieting. On-the-job strains and sprains have decreased by 90%

As you have seen above there are many organizations that have adopted various kind of stress management programmes and welfare events for their employees globally. But when I asked the women I interviewed whether they had undergone such kind of stress management training then most of the women replied in the negative Around 80 per cent of the women said no and only 20 per cent of the women said yes The company which had welfare programmes was Reliance and SICOM. When asked to the women who have undergone stress management tests and training, they said the following these tests have helped us to control our anger and focus on rather important issues in our lives. They have helped us to prioritize work and sort problems effectively and solve problems in a faster way

The women in Reliance underwent programmes which included various techniques to combat stress .They used popular methods like yoga and meditation and forms of exercises which was taught to the women .These exercises were used to alleviate stress and to be practiced on a day to day basis. Also along with these techniques certain other issues were also dealt with like Goal setting which was basically done so that women can prioritize work and family and create a favorable balance between the two. The women in SICOM had a rather personalized programme where they were interviewed on one to one basis and they were given individual, personalized solutions to combat stress. So basically the event was in the form of consultation for the employees. Looking at the way stress management was conducted in these organizations (nationally and internationally) ,I feel that such programmes should be taken in a company where there are a sizeable number of women .Women have to face several issues in their life .They have to handle the family life as well as their work responsibilities in a balanced way . The increasing pressure from the work can take a toll on their lives and also on the lives of their family. Hence it is important the stress management is undertaken. The company should at least make their employees aware about the various individual techniques to combat stress. Tension is who you think you should be. Relaxation is who you are BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Organizational behaviour by STEPHEN ROBBINS Organizational behaviour by FRED LUTHANS Simple ways to manage stress by PRAMOD BATRA How to cope with stress by JACQUELINE M. ATKINSON Web sites: Newspapers: The Times of India Corporate dossier