AN ERROR ANALYSIS ON THE STUDENTS’ NARRATIVE WRITING A CASE STUDY OF THE SECOND YEAR STUDENTS OF SMK LA TANSA THE

2008- 2009 ACADEMIC YEAR

A PAPER Submitted as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Pendidikan

by VERA MAULIDA SAGITA 0501065163

THE STUDY PROGRAME OF ENGLISH EDUCATION THE DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ART EDUCATION THE SCHOOL OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION THE UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH PROF. DR. HAMKA JAKARTA 2010

2010. the most typical error done by the second year students of SMK La Tansa Banten is in verb tense on percentage 17. Based on the study. The writer used writing test in guiding this study. Jakarta. the writer used the students narrative writing in this study. The writer collected.5 % and 14. Paper.2 %. DR. After getting the data. The Study Program of English Education. The Department of Language and Arts Education. The University of Muhammadiyah Prof.9 % because most students forgot using the simple past when they wrote narrative writing. and underlined the mistake of students narrative writing.2009 Academic Year. HAMKA. Student Identity: 0501065163. . corrected. An Error Analysis On Students’ Narrative Writing A Case Study At Second Year Students Of SMK La Tansa Banten The 2008. The second and the third typical errors done by the students are word choice and capitalization on percentage 16.ABSTRACT VERA MAULIDA SAGITA. To differentiate between errors and mistake. The purpose of this study is knowing the most typical errors done by the second year students of SMK La Tansa Banten. The School of Teacher Training and Education. The errors are mostly made because of their lack of grammar rules and lack of knowledge in foreign language learning. It means intralingual transfer and interlingual transfer are the most typical source of errors. The students did the same test on the different day. then the writer analyze the errors based on the grammatical aspects.

Pipin Zaenal Arifin S.2009 Academic Year”. who has given us much mercy until the writer can finish this paper. who had brought us from the darkness to the lightness. the writer’s parents in law. and guidance to the writer in her writing process. the writer’s brothers who have helped and spent the time. Sofwani Rosad and Hj. advice. the writer’s parents who have supported spiritually. 4. Faizal and Fachry. Suharno and Marsiyah. Martriwati.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Alhamdulillahirobbila’lamin. and prayed the writer in finishing this paper by the title “An Error Analysis on Students’ Narrative Writing a Case Study at Second Year Students of SMK La Tansa the 2008. the most Gracious and the most Merciful. 2. the writer’s husband who has supported materially and spiritually.. Thanks for the pray that given to the writer.. Lets greetings and shalawat to our prophet Muhammad SAW the perfect man and the best leader in the world. the writer also would like to say thank the following people who have supported.I. Martriwati. M. Those people are: 1. In this moment. University of Muhammadiyah . the writer’s advisor who has given a lot of time. the writer’s child thank for motivation.Syifa. motivated.Pd. the writer would like to say thank to our God Allah SWT. M. Aira Arifatunnisa El. Pd. Head of Faculty Language Education Department of Language and Art Program. Siti Sa’adah. Pd. 3. H.

Epi. Drs. February 2010 The writer . Siswana. HAMKA. Then. Teti. Hendri. DR. Nina. Iswahyudi. University of Muhammadiyah Prof. the writer’s sister and brother in law. Secretary of Faculty Language Education Department of Language and Art Program. HAMKA.Prof. The writer is sure that the paper is far from perfect and hopes it would be useful for herself and all of the readers. Jakarta. M. DR. Thanks for you all.Pd. 6. 5. for all my friends that I haven’t mention one by one. Novi. Jakarta. Jakarta.

The Objective of the Study ……………………….... The types of error…………………………... The Method of the Study ………………………… E.. TABLE OF CONTENTS …………………………………………………..... i ii iv CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A... The understanding of error ………………….. The differences between error and mistake….. The Organization of the Study ………………. The procedure of error ……………………. 5.. 6 7 9 10 11 13 ... Error Analysis …………………………………… 1.. 2... The sources of error ………………………. 3. 4. B... C.. D. 1 4 4 5 5 CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK A..TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ………………………………………………………………… ACKNOWLEDGMENT ………………………………………………...... The Limitation and Formulation of the Study ……... The Backgroound of the Study ……………….

CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION A. The Technique of Data Analysis ………………. Suggestion …………………………………….. Population and Sample of the Research ………… D. ... Research Procedures …………………………… CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDINGS A... B. APPENDICES ……………………………………………………………. The Resources in the Grammar Aspects …….. Purpose of the Research ………………………… B...………………………………… 1.. F.. .. The Errors in the Grammar Aspects ………. 2. CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY A. The kinds of writing ………………………… 3... Place and Time of the Research ………………… C. The Method of the Research ……………………. REFERENCES …………………………………………………………….... Conclusion ………………………………….... The process of writing …………………….. Writing …………………………………………… 14 1.B. 58 59 60 62 23 23 23 55 20 20 20 20 21 21 22 14 16 19 . The understanding of writing …………. Instrument of the Research ……………………… E.. 2.. Data Interpretation ……………………………....... Data Analysis…. G. B.

... There is a way…!! . Where there is a will.A lightening life is for succes in the life Who can use the time effectively Spread your ambition in your hand Resign the word with your idea idea in your brain….

As an international language. 1997). In the English language teaching. Therefore. either spoken or written expression. “Language is the method of human communication. Lock states. 219 1 . language helps people to socialize to others. speaking. objective of instruction is commonly divided into four language skills that must be mastered by students. Fungtional English Grammar: An Introduction for Second Language Teacher (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. using English is the easiest way to communicate with people from other countries about many aspects in human life such as technology. English considered as the first foreign language and taught formally from elementary school up to university level. People use it to understand their Graham Lock. English is very important and has interrelationship with various aspect of life owned by human being in Indonesia. social. economy. reading and writing. ideas and emotions.”1 Through the language people can easily share their feelings. In this era. The Background of the Study Language is the most sophisticated and remarkable communication device. English is one of the international languages that is used by many people in the world and in many areas of everyday life. consisting of words either spoken or written.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. In other word. namely: listening. p. politics and also the relation establishment with other nations. It is imposible to communicate without language.

Reynolds. “Writing is a way to discover new thoughts and new ideas.world through listening and reading and to communicate their feeling. Usually. because the content of the composition is not relevant to the topic. Audrey L. the students are asked to write sentences and paragraphs without being given some clue so that it is difficult for them to express their ideas on a piece of paper. the ideas are not clearly stated. need. By having more knowledge about language skill they have much better chance of understanding and being understood and getting what they want and need from these around us. spelling. Another problem is the students have low motivation and are not interested in doing the task since the writing activities are difficult to do. The second problem is that there are many errors in vocabulary. and grammar. Writing is important skill for students because writing is a process of discovering and organizing new ideas and in order to find out what they think about. This is because writing is difficult for them since they have to master enough vocabulary. the ideas and sentences are not well organized.”2 Based on the writer’s experiences. 1983). p. The first problem is that the students’ writing is not comprehensible. as Reynolds states. the students have difficulty at telling their experience. and desires through speaking and writing. grammar. In connection to writing is a difficult. Exploring Written English A Guide for Basic Writers (Canada: United States of America. there are some problems found in the field when giving writing materials to the students. and spelling. Beside that. 4 2 .

The teachers should be aware of this issue and do something to avoid their students make the same errors. One of the strategies to prevent the students from making the same error is by analyzing the learner’s error it self. Because of those problems.”3 Considering the statements above. 3 David Nunan. The reader would be confused or might not understand students’ writing. 1989). The writer has limited the focus only on the second year students’ witing errors. Those problems also made by SMK La Tansa students through error analysis. second or foreign language.p. 36 . “It has been argued that learning to write fluency and expressively is the most difficult to the macro skills for all languages users regardless of whether the language is question is a first. since there are differences in spelling and pronouncing the grammatical system and the use of vocabulary. it can’t be neglected. the writer is eager to analyze the English writing errors. there are several factors which make the students get difficulty in learning writing skill. Designing Task for the Communication Classroom (Cambridge: University Press. It is normal because learning the second language is a process which involves the making of mistake. Most of the students think writing is difficult skill to perform. This errors could affect the content of their writing as a result. However. so their message would not be conveyed well to the reader. Making errors during learning English language is a natural process. even errors.Nunan states. students sometimes make errors when they write English. Based on previous background above.

Limitation and Formulation of the Study To make this research easy to understand. Hopefully by doing so. The students’ acquisition in English narrative writing will be obtained from the result of test given by the writer. This study is also to find out the kinds of resources that the students have made on their English narrative writing. By doing errors analysis that students make. Based on the background of study above. The Objective of the Study The objective of this study is the writer wants to find out the typical errors made by the second grade students of SMK La Tansa Banten on English narrartive writing. the writer is eager to analyze the writing errors made by the students. . B. this study tries to answer the following question “What kind of typical error is generally done by the second year students of SMK La Tansa Banten in their writing?” C. the writer limits the discussion on the errors made by the second year students of SMK La Tansa Banten on English narrative writing. students will not make the same errors anymore in the future. Beside that the teacher could do the remedial for his students. the writer can identify the students error.Based on the problems above.

the objective of the study. . consisting of conclusions and suggestion. part fourth instrument of research and the last part the technique of data analysis. The fourth chapter is research finding. the writer takes field research by visiting the school to give test about English narrative writing to the second grade students of SMK La Tansa Banten. Part one are purpose of the study. The second chapter is theoretical framework. Then the writer analyzed the errors made by students. The first sub is talking about error analysis. including data description and interpretation. it is divided into five parts. The Organization of the Study This paper is divided into five chapters. which includes background of the study. The Method of the Study To support the discussion. and the organization of the study. The first chapter is introduction. which includes understanding of errors. the research method. This chapter is divided into eight sub chapter. the kinds of writing and the process of writing. understanding of writing. types of errors. part three population and sample of the study. E. The fifth is the last chapter. limitation and formulation of the study. differences between error and mistake.D. procedures of error analysis. The third chapter is the research methodology. sources of error. Part two place and time of the study.

1990) p. Principle of Language and Teaching.217. “Analisa kesalahan berbahasa adalah suatu prosedur kerja. In other words. 4 .”4 Therefore. 4th Ed. Error analysis is an invaluable source of information to teacher. According to Ellis cited by Tarigan. Accoding to Brown.which in turn helps teachers to correct the students’ error. and also improves the effectiveness of their teaching. teachers must find out the typical errors made by the students. errors give signs to teachers and researchers whether the learning process is success or not. ( Bandung: Angkasa. penjelasan kesalahan tersebut berdasarkan penyebabnya. 2000). serta pengevaluasian atau penilaian taraf keseriusan kesalahan itu.”5 H. Douglas Brown. “A learner’s error…are significant in (that) they provide to the researcher evidence of how language is learned or acquired. Pengajaran Analisa Kesalahan Berbahasa. It provides information on students’ error. P. It is a way of looking at error made by the learner’s of the target language.68. pengidentifikasian kesalahan yang terdapat dalam sampel. (New York: A Person Education Company. Error Analysis The study of learner’s error is called error analysis. yang meliputi pengumpulan sampel. 5 Henry Guntur Tarigan dan Djago Tarigan. what strategies or procedures the learner is employing in the discovery of the language. The process to find out those errors is error analysis.CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK A. yang biasa digunakan oleh para peneliti dan guru bahasa.

1.As the writer knows.68.1981). identifying the errors. 16 7 Rod Ellis. Corder. “Kesalahan tidak hanya sebagai sesuatu yang tidak dapat dielakkan tetapi juga sebagai bagian yang 6 S. explaining the errors.The Study of Second Language Acquisition.P.”7 As the first methods. “Error analysis (EA) was one of the first methods used to investigate learner language. Error analysis constituted the first serious attempt to investigate learner language in order to discover how learners acquire an second language. According to Corder. (New York: Oxford University Press. Error analysis also involves some procedures such as collecting samples of learner language. the error analysis is an activity to analyze at once to know the types of errors that students made in language teaching.”6 Error analysis is not only for second language learners. The understanding of error According to Tarigan in his book. p. The goals of error analysis are to know the causes of errors made by the students and to correct the errors that learners made. “Error analysis is not applicable only to the language of second language learners. classifying the errors. but also applicable to first language learners. (Walton Street: Oxford University Press. So it can prevent or even avoid the students to do the same error in the future. error analysis was effective methods in learning the second language. Error Analysis and Inter Language. Ellis also stated. the writer can say that error analysis is a tool to help researches to analyze the error made by the students in order to know the students’ mastery in this case about their language ability.p. 1994). . From all the statements above. and evaluating the errors.

”8 In language learning process.”9 Furthermore. reflects the competence of the learner.penting dari suatu proses belajar bahasa. Douglas Brown. There is something wrong in norms of language performance.”10 It means an error comes because the differences of grammar between the native speaker and learner. “Errors are the flawed side of learner speech or writing. “An error. Error happens because of competence error. According to Dullay.138. Error also reflects the learner competence and can help the teacher to know the most typical that student made. 8 9 Henry Guntur Tarigan dan Djago Tarigan.cit. Loc cit. error is one of the good methods to know the students competence. Language Two (New York: Oxford University Press. This method important for learner evaluation in learning process. An error also reflects the learners competence. the writer concludes that error is one part of learning process. p. op.75. Based on the statements above. the learners often made errors and mistake in their tasks. Heidi Dullay. Besides. making of errors is so unavoidable in learning process. 10 H. making of errors is one part of learning and no one can learn without making errors. Brown stated. a noticeable deviation from the adult grammar of a native speaker. They are those parts of conversation or composition that deviate from some selected norm of mature language performance.1982) p. Usually error happens consistently. .

Pengajaran Analisis Kesalahan Berbahasa. but if they can’t it is an error. To clarify it. Furthermore. but most people still misunderstand about the definition of both. and excitement. lebih sadar atau memusatkan perhatiannya.”12 11 Peter Hubbard. may also think about mistake. “Mistake (kekeliruan) biasanya dapat diperbaiki oleh para siswa sendiri bila yang bersangkutan lebih mawas diri. it is crucial to make distinction between error and mistake.75 . Moreover. Hubbard stated. (Bandung: Angkasa.. 1993).2.134 12 Henry Guntur Tarigan. fatigue.”11 Another way to differentiate between error and mistake is if the learners can correct themselves it is probably mistake. Technically. p. It is also caused by the limited time given to the learner in finishing the task. et al.1988). Tarigan stated. error and mistake are different. slips of the tongue and so on.A Training Course for TEFL (New York: Oxford University Press. something it happens because of the learner’s unawareness. while mistakes caused by temporary lapses or memory. p. Differences between error and mistake When talking about error. confusion. Error and mistake are not the same. the learners who made mistakes are able to recognize it and correct it by his self. “Error caused by lack of knowledge about the target language (English) or by incorrect hypothesis about it. The mistake refers to a performance error which characteristically be unsystematic.

OMIT A WORD She entered to the university. WORD ORDER I saw five times that movie. SPELLING An accident occured. for example it is classified based on linguistic or nonlinguistic category. It is occurred consistently. I went to bed because I was tired. However. 3.In contrast. I saw a beautiful picture. Points of view they are. VERB TENSE He is here since June. He has been here since June ADD A WORD I want _ go to the zoo.corrected. 1 SINGULAR. error is systematic. in this case. Because I was tired. Types of Error Error can be classified into many types. the writer classifies the error based on grammatical aspect on Betty Schrampher Azar. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . An accident occurred. I saw that movie five times. taxonomies aspect or descriptive classification.PLURAL He have been here for six month. INCOMPLETE SENTENCE I went to bed. He has been here for six months WORD FORM I saw a beauty picture. She got into the taxi. WORD CHOICE She got on the taxi. She entered the university. I want to go to the zoo. because it reflects the learner’s weak competence in the target language. The errrors cannot be self.

10 PUNCTUATION What did he say. the form of phrasal pattern on their mother tounge in writing a target language. Many students often use a word. Interlingual transfer Interlingual transfer is error that caused by transference of a mother toungue to a target language.pp. I am studying English. speling. intralingual transfer. Understanding and Using English Grammar. Sources of error Basically.cit. we didn’t want to wake her up.223-227 .”13 4. errors occur for many sources. 12 ARTICLE I had a accident . (?????) 14 RUN-ON SENTENCE My roommate was sleeping. 1993). Sometime they use “DM “(Diterangkan-Menerangkan/ Modified-Modifying) instead of the “MD “( Menerangkan.29-30 14 H. We didn’t want to wake her up. context of learning and communication strategies. My roommate was sleeping.Diterangkan/ Modifying-Modified ) for example : 13 Betty Schrampfer Azar. They are interlingual transfer.”14 a. Douglas Brown. pp. Brown determines the sources of error into four types. Op. In this case. (Binarupa Aksara: Prentice Hall. What did he say ? 11 CAPITALIZATION I am studying english. 13 MEANING NOT CLEAR He borrowed some smoke. I had an accident .

There are different style of commucation strategis in second language learning. For example : He is writes a letter instead of They are think He ^ from instead of He writes a letter They think instead of He is from c. With its caused by differences between the teacher or the textbook material in second language learning. they confused from the teacher explanation and presentation of structure in a textbook. Two vocabularies presented contigously. Usually learners use their mother tounge in target language . Context of learning Context that refers to the classroom materials. because of that the students often make error.He got on the bus to He got in to the bus to I bought a new blue jeans I bought a jeans blue new Finaly I go there to Finally I go there b. Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer is error which caused by differences of structure rules of target language. So. On other words. Communication strategies Communication strategies are related to learning style. the error because of the students’ minimum of knowledge in their target language. For example : When and Went Jogging Jocking and I like english lesson and I like English lesson d.

e. Description of errors: make a brief definition of errors that usually done by the students. they are:15 a. 15 Rod Ellis. Memperingkat kesalahan. Tarigan mentions six procedures of error analysis. c. Collection of a sample of a learner language: collecting the data and sample that has been done by the students. In the other hands. b. they are: a. Mengidentifikasi dan mengklarifikasi kesalahan. b. Procedure of error According to Corder in Ellis’ book. The Study of Second Language Acquisition.communication. 1994). there are five procedures in doing error analysis. p. For example : I don’t go to school. Identification of errors: after the data has been collected. Evaluation of errors: evaluate or correct the errors in students’ production. c. Because of the rain I don’t go to school because of the rain I and my friends instead of My friends and I instead of 5. Explanation of errors: explain and show the errors that had been made and try to explain them. Mengumpulkan data. d. then identify the errors that made by the students. 48 . (China: Oxfod University Press.

d. Menjelaskan kesalahan. e. Memprakirakan atau memprediksi daerah atau butir kebahasaan yang rawan. f. Mengoreksi kesalahan.16 Between two theories above, there was different steps between them. Tarigan mention memperingkat kesalahan in third step, but in Corder’s theory not mention it. Then, between two theories the writer chooses Corder’s steps of error analysis as the procedures. B. Writing In learning language, there are four skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. No body seems to like writing. Many learners say it is boring, or that they make too many mistake, or simply don’t know what to write. Writing is partly a talent, but mostly a skill, and like any skill, it improves with practice. Writing is also an action- a process of discovering and organizing ideas, putting them together, reshaping and revising them. Most students thinks that writing is the most difficult subject. In learning writing subject and need hard work to learned it. McCLELLAN said, “Writing is the most difficult; it is hard work.”17 1. The understanding of writing McCLELLAN also stated, “Writing is a method of expressing ideas about any subject content; it appears in classrooms everywhere and therefore, must be the concern of every teacher.”18 Writing is one of

Henry Guntur Tarigan. Op. cit. p. 71 IRIS McCLELLAN TIEDT. Writing From Topic to Evaluation. (London: Northern Kentucky University, 1989), p.6 18 Ibid. p.1
17

16

English skill and one method that express ideas. Teachers and students must be familiar with many types of writing it appears in the classroom or everywhere. According to Wardhany, “Writing is basically a process of communicating something (content) on paper to an audience. It the writer has nothing to say, writing will not occur.”19 Basically writing can use for the speaker performance who nothing to say before he speak to an audience. Mc CLELLAN said, “Writing is one way of expressing what we think.”20 Writing can use to lead an idea or something in our brain. For example when we have a problem, we can share by writing. Mc CLELLAN also said, “Writing is a way of learning in all classroom.”21 Teachers need to see writing as a way of communicating thought in any subject area. Teachers also need to develop realistic expectations for writing as a way of learning and to discover how to create criteria for each writing activity with their students. From the statements above, the writer perceived that writing as a way of expressing thinking also a performance process. By writing also can communicate something or content on paper. Writing skill should grow along with learning and thinking in every classroom.

19

E. Nilla Tramo Wardhany, M.A. Developing Writing Skill. (Jakarta: Departemen Pendidikan Nasional Direktorat Pendidikan Menengah Umum, 2003), p.1 20 IRIS McCLELLAN TIEDT. Op. cit., p.2 21 Ibid., p. 7

2.

The Kinds of Writing To arrange writing, there are some kinds of writing. According to Edward, the kinds of writing can be divided into:”22

a. Narration “Narration is that form of discourse which tells a story or gives an account of an event.”23 Then, the narration means tell something happen based on the sequence of time. On the other word, narration is writing something that like tells a story. For example: One day, I was at a party when somebody dared me to go into the bedroom in the basement, turn off the lights, and close the door. I had stayed there for five minutes. After about a minute, the lights started flicker on and off. I was sure it was one of my friends playing a trick on me. About the thirdtime the lights flickered, I noticed a beautiful girl in the mirror and her hand was reaching toward me. I heard a voice but I had a hard time to understand. I finally realized that the girl was uttering, “Beware, he’s coming.” I felt a tap on my back and all of a sudden, she was gone. I ran out screaming and my friends made fun of me. The next night when my family was asleep, it rained so heavily and my cat, Rosie, was dead.”24

b. Description “Description is that form of discourse which presents a verbal picture of person, a place, a thing, or a scene- an image in the mind of the listener or reader.”25 It is used to create a visual image of people, place,

Edward P. J. Corbitt. The Little Rhetoric and Handbook with Readings. (Glenview: Scott, Foresman and Company, 1983), pp. 173- 211 23 Ibid., p. 173 24 Th. M. Sudarwati and Eudia Grace. Look Ahead An English Course. ( Ciracas, Jakarta, Erlangga 2007), p. 67 25 Edward P. J. Corbitt. Op. cit. p. 185

22

in reports of various kinds.382 28 Edward P. twisting wind storm. It is shaped like a funnel and consists of wind which whirls around and around extremely fast.”28 To explain a process well and clearly. A tornado is a long cloud which comes down from the sky. In fact.p. and in advertisements. Op. and interpreting meanings. Burks. or seasons. (Litton Educational Publishing: 1980) Inc. smell what the writer smells. Exposition Exposition is used in giving information. making explanations. essays.h.”26 c. the purpose of written description is the reader can see what the writer sees. cit. or instructs. Edward states “exposition is that form of discourse which informs. Examples of descriptive writing commonly appear in mail. Fo example: Ibid. Corbitt. 195 27 26 . explains.even of units of time-days. Descriptive passages are very common in novels and short stories too.Let’s Write English. hear what the writers hears. However.27 George E. p. Wishon and Julia M. It includes editorial. the wind can reach a speed of more than 900km per hour. A tornado is also called a waterspout. informative and instructional material. exposition means just only explains about something or giving information. p. For example: A tornado is a powerful.. It is one of the most destructive storms on earth. It may tell about their traits of character or personality.”27 Then.order catalogues. J.

Then radio amateurs. you would have laughed to see how cunningly I thrust it in! Imoved it slowly. closed. so gently! And then. very. For example: Moon tracking is a new science-sport. when I made an opening sufficient for my head. and then I thrust inmy head.oh. so cautiously (for the hinges creaked). Oh.p. so that no light shone out.and then. Argumentation is used to make a case or to prove or disprove a statement or preposition.31 29 30 Ibid. Burks. and thousands of a mateurs are entering it. Loc cit. about midnight I turned the latch of his door and opened it – oh. Wishon and Julia M.Iundid it just so much that a single thin ray fell on the vulture eye. all closed. photographers. p. so that I might not disturb the old man’ssleep. argumentation is made to convince the reader by giving some argument and sometimes supported by some evidence which agree or disagree about one case.. and observers in large numbers began to record the orbiting of artificial satellites. Great scientists are already in the game. It is closel related to exposition and is often found combined with it.29 d. When the first manufactured moon was launched.383 31 George E. when my head was well in theroom. . I undid the lantern cautiously.382 Ibid.. very slowly. Argumentation Argumentation is used in persuading and convincing. I put in a dark lantern. It took me an hour to place my whole head within the opening so far that Icould see him as he lay on his bed….And every night. the game got under way in earnest.”30 Thus.

They think that their writing is bad and ineffective. Langan proposed some steps to make an effective writing which can be seen below: a. 1977).5-25 . students can not communicate their ideas systematically to others in a written language. pp. To make effective writing. a witer requires time and some process to make an effective good writing.3. b. Sometimes. d.”32 32 John Langan. Supporting his general idea with some specific details. (New York: Mc Graw. Actually. The Process of Writing Writing is not a simple process. Checking the draft from sentence. it is a hard work.skill mistake. Inc.. English Skills. Organizing and connecting each specific detail in his witing. c. In his book. A writer should decide first what the general idea of his writing is. the students should know some steps to make a good writing.Hill.

2009 and on Thursday. The population in these classes are 40 students. The text is about their last holiday activities. The writer wants to know the most typical errors and the most sources of error that students made. August 27th. Place and Time of the Research This research took place at SMK La Tansa Banten which is located on Parakan Santri Lebak Gedong. There are two classes in the second grade. Lebak Banten. 4. the sample taken is only one class. Population and Sample of the Research The populations of the research is all students of the second grade. the writer gave a narrative writing test to the second grade students of SMK La Tansa Banten. Instrument of the Research To obtain the data in this research. The test was given to the students on Sunday. Because the population is homogeneous. . Purpose of the Research The purpose of study in this research is to know the errors made by the second grade students of SMK La Tansa Banten in their writing test. August 23rd. The writer uses a random sampling to get a representative data. 2009. It consists of 20 students.CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 1. 3. 2.

47 . The writer also will find the sources of the errors that have been made by the students.. The writer will analyze the errors by collecting the data through a narrative writing task to the students.Sudjana MA. The Method of the Research The method in this research is qualitative and quantitative method where qualitative describe about the most typical error and sources of error.(Bandung: Tarsito. Metoda Statistika.5.M.”33 33 Prof. 6. The students’ errrors in the writing narrative task will be analyzed by the writer as the data.DR. The result of the total errors would be percentage which the writer used formula as follow : P = F/N x 100% Note: P = Percentage F = Frequency of error the occurred N = Number of sample. 2001).p. then quantitative making the percentage of it. The Technique of Data Analysis The technique of data analysis that the writer used in this research is the data tabulation of sample to have the research findings.Sc.

Writing a report for the paper. . the writer used some steps for collecting the data. c. The following steps: a. getting some information from the English teacher such as the abilitty of students writing skill. Collecting the remedial writings’. the material have been given and the schedule. Research Procedures By doing the research. Describing errors in percentage start from the most difficult with the high percentage. and the last k. Second. The writer identifying the students mistakes which have been done by the students. i. The first. h. Collecting the data. Making classification into students errors types. Doing the task in the classroom. j. The writer asks the students to write their narrative writing in a piece of paper given. b. Giving back to the students. Recognizing the mistake. f. the writer had a meeting with the headmaster talking about the porpuse. e. students wrote about their last holiday activities. Preparing the writing task. Then. g.7. d. the writer asks the students to do the remedial writing.

classification. sunset and the other Error Classification Word choice Source of Error Interlingual transfer Reconstruction On the last holiday . To get the data. this skripsi discussed the errors made by the second grade students of SMK La Tansa Banten on narrative writing. For looking some panorama they are from the sea. 1. After collecting the data. sources of error and reconstruction as follows: Respondent 1(I) No. the writer describes the identification. the writer gave writing test which focused on narrative writing. Data Analysis As the writer stated in the preceding chapter. After that we ^ rest for a view minutes in the cage Omit a word Add a word Spelling Word choice Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer Interlingual transfer We came to the beach After that we took a rest for a few minutes in the cottage Verb tense Omit a word Spelling Omit a word Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer Intralingual transfer We went to that place For looking some panorama from the sea. So we coming to Verb tense the beach 5. So we going to that place 3.CHAPTER IV THE RESEARCH FINDINGS A. sunset and teather 4. Error Data When the last holiday 2.

After ^ rest directly we preparing our self Add a word Verb tense Singular plural Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer Context of learning After we took a rest directly we prepared our selves 7. So we have fill Omit a word that seafood is Word choice very and because delicious spicy there Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer So we felt hat seafood is very delicious and spicy. 11. We going to the beside of the beach for have fill fresh blow 14. And after pray Directly we ^ rest because we have very tired 12. some chili at the seafood 9. So directly we Word choice Interlingual transfer After that we Verb tense Article Word choice Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer We went to beside the beach to make our selves fresh Word choice Interlingual transfer Word choice Add a word Verb tense Interlingual transfer Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer Verb tense Word choice Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer We prayed together in the cottage And then Directly we took a rest because we were very tired In the morning after waking up .6. We pray together in the cage 10. We preparing our self ^ eat with some seafood Add a word Verb tense Omit a word Intralingual transfer We prepared our Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer selves to eat seafood 8. In the morning after wake up from our sleep 13.

00 in the noon 3.00 pm Error Classification Article Omit a word Source of Error Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer Reconstruction On my last holiday I went to Jakarta . And we can’t come back Verb tense Intralingual transfer prepared our self Article Word order Word choice Intralingual transfer Communication strategies Interlingual transfer Because my father had to attend the meeting at night Omit a word Verb tense Word choice Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer We could not return home 17.00 am until I arrived there at 13.00 o’clock and I until at the 13. Error Data In my last holiday I went to the Jakarta 2. At the 06. Because at my family just my father which can drive the car Omit a word Word choice Because only my father who could drive the car 18.preparing our self 15. 1. Because at the night my father must to attend the meeting at his office 16. the next time I am swimming Capitalization Omit a word Context of learning Intralingual transfer The next time I swam Omit a word Add a word Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer At 06. I just sleep till come back to the home Verb tense Word choice Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer I slept a long the way to my house Respondent 2 (R) No.

I entered it So I felt that the beach The beach were very cool. I am worked to Ancol 7. I went to taman mini 10. I feel it very sun Verb tense Omit a word Spelling 11. I feel it very happy so after this 9. So I feel that the beach 5. Error Data I do my time in last holiday well 2. I enter to it Omit a word Word choice Verb tense Omit a word 8.Verb tense 4. 1. The next time I walked to Ancol Context of learning I went to Taman Mini Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer Interlingual ttransfer Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer I felt very fun I felt old working is very happy Respondent 3 (E) No. With my family and my friend Error Classification Verb tense Article Run on sentence Source of Error Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer Communication strategies Reconstruction I did my time on last holiday well With my family and my friend. 6. The beach is very cool and the next time. I’m . I feel old working is very happy and very sun Verb tense Omit a word Capitalization Verb tense Omit a word Run on sentence Word choice Verb tense Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer Communication strategies Interlingual transfer Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer I felt it very happy.

We around beside beach we looked area in beach wonderful Word choice Omit a word Word order Run on sentence Article We around the beach. I studid to comunicaton 5. We went to beach for taking freshing Word choice Interlingual transfer We went to beach for refreshing 7. We ^ around beside ^ beach Add a word Word choice Article Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer Intralingual transfer Context of learning Interlingual transfer Interlingual transfer Intralingual transfer Communication strategies Communication strategies Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer Intralingual transfer Context of learning Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer We went around the beach 8. we spoke about Capitalization Word choice We talked about 9. I and with my parents taked picture 4. 10.I’m so happy 3. By using language how I used in college Word order Word choice Article Spelling Word form Word choice Communication strategies Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer Interlingual transfer Interlingual transfer so happy My parents and I took a picture I studied to communicate By Engllish as I used to speak in the boarding school 6. In the evening I was looked ^ sunset and You ^ know?? ^ is the first time for me ^ Word choice Article Punctuation Add a word Add a word In the afternoon I was looked at sunset and you had to know? It is the first time for me to looked it . we looked a wonderful beach.

Error Classification I went to bali for Capitalization holiday with my family Word order Add a word Error Data Source of Error Context of learning Communication strategies Intralingual transfer Reconstruction My family and I went to Bali last holiday . ^ weekend Add a word I met with my friends when in Junior High School 12. Because friendship is never die 16. And we always keep our friendship 15. 1. I think so My friends always ^ support me Verb tense Add a word Omit a word Word form Word choice Word choice Verb tense Article Context of learning Interlingual transfer Interlingual transfer Interlingual transfer Context of learning Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer We talked about our recent school It was a funny event And we wanted to keep our friendship Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer Because friendship never dies Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer I though so My friends always used to support me Respondent 4 (Y) No. And the last Punctuation Context of learning Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer And the last weekend I met with my old friends when I was the Junior High School time. we spoke about our school now Capitalization Word choice Word choice 13. So ^ funny…^ Word choice Punctuation Add a word Article 14. 17.11.

I think Indonesian is ^ beautiful land Word form Article Interlingual transfer I think Indonesia Intralingual ttransfer is a beautiful land 7. Asked to me Omit a word Asked me 5. I felt so happy ^ thats time because I can meet with tourist Verb tense Article Verb tense Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer I felt so happy at that time because I could meet with tourist. May be Indonesian is better than other land Word form Singular plural Interlingual transfer Context of learning May be Indonesia is better than other lands 8. 3. Think about Indonesian is heart of world Word form Article Interlingual transfer Intralingual transfer Think about Indonesia is the heart of the world 6. I can spoke ^ english Capitalization Verb tense Word choice Add a word Context of learning Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer I could practice my English 4. I say again Verb tense Omit a word Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer Context of learning I said 9. Every things in this world is wonderful After Singular plural Every thing in this world is wonderful Word form Word choice Omit a word Add a word Interlingual transfer Interlingual transfer Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer After introduce about panorama in Indonesia the tourist said good bye 10. introduction about panorama in Indonesian and he said .2.

I story with other about my Experience Capitalization Word choice Spelling Singular plural Verb tense Context of learning Interlingual transfer I talked them my experience . and I ^ not forget gift Omit a word Word choice Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer Context of learning Intralingual transfer And I did not forget give something to my neighbor All my friends came to my house Omit a word Verb tense Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer I went to Lombok for picnic Wanted to know Word order Verb tense Article Omit a word Communication strategies Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer Word form Interlingual transfer So happy that time Family and I made a farrewell party In the morning something to my Verb tense neighbour 16. and in the morning 14. So happy that’s time 12.again good bye 11. I’m and family make the farrewell party 13. All my friend come to my house 17. I went to Lombok for traveling and for picnic want to know 15.

Very. 1. Happy Because In jogja is Best city Capitalization Capitalization Context of learning Context of learning happy because In Jogja is best city 8. 2. 4. Jogja also the best city for study In Jogja best Study in that city . 7. 11. In jogja My and Family Capitalization Word order Capitalization 5. In jogja Best Study in the overthere city Word order Add a word Verb tense Capitalization Run on sentence Word choice Capitalization Word choice Communication strategies Context of learning Communication strategies Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer Context of learning Communication strategies Interlingual transfer Context of learning Interlingual transfer There is Borobudur etc.very Omit a word Source of Error Context of learning Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer Context of learning Intralingual transfer Context of learning Communication strategies Intralingual transfer Context of learning Communication strategies Context of learning Intralingual transfer Reconstruction My holiday My family and I went to Jogja last holiday In Jogja Family and I Very 6. Error Data My Holiday Going to jogja same my family I my Holiday Error Classification Capitalization Verb tense Word choice Capitalization Omit a word Capitalization Word order Add a word 3. In Jogja my family and I Went to Jogja by car. There is Run on sentence Borobudur ect in Capitalization jogja my and family ^ 9.Respondent 5 (D) No. Going to jogja By car But if you study in the overthere city 10.

00 o’clock with my family 4. Learning aBout our country and it’s content I came to TMII in the morning at 10. Word order Omit a word Word choice Communication startegies Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer My family and I came to TMII at 10.very Happy Best yes that is pray to Allah Omit a word Capitalization Meaning not clear Run on sentense Capitalization Verb tense Intralingual transfer Context of learning Communication strategies Communication strategies Context of learning Intralingual transfer Very happy. With my family it was my first time for coming to there Run on sentence Communication strategies With my family. Very. Error Data I was going to the recreation ^ 2. jakarta near attin mosque 3. 1. your Family going to jogja Capitalization Verb tense Context of learning Intralingual transfer Your family went to Jogja 13.12. My Holiday I going to jogja My holiday I went to Jogja 15. It best for us pray to Allah 14. It was my first time for coming to there.00 am Capitalization Omit a word Context of learning Intralingual transfer Capitalization Context of learning Error Classification Add a word Source of Error Intralingual transfer Reconstruction I was going to the recreation place Jakarta near Attin mosque Learning about our country . I love jogja city Capitalization Context of learning I love Jogja city Respondent 6 (W) No.

the holiday Word form Interlingual transfer I was learning about Indonesia country Word choice Interlingual transfer I was very glad to visited this place again. Relaxing in my holiday and beside relaxing the holiday 9. Beside relaxing.5. I was learning about Indonesian country 10. but if there is the time in the next Word choice It was evening Run on sentence Add a word Communication strategies Intralingual transfer So it was my time for went home. Name of this place Run on sentence Communication strategies Relaxing in my holiday. All part of Indonesian country Word form Interlingual transfer All part of Indonesia country 6. I was proud of this place . You do not need for erounding Spelling Verb tense Word choice Interlingual transfer Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer Interlingual transfer You did not need to go arround A day was evening 7. I was very glad to visited this place again. So it was my time for went ^ name ^ this place 8.

duck. Lion.Respondent 7 (S) No. 5. And all audience Spelling so happy look this exhibition 8. crocodiles. bird. birds.etc Very good. ducks. elephent. ect. So after I took a picture Punctuation Run on sentence Add a word Word order Run on sentence Word choice Omit a word Context of learning Communication strategies Intralingual transfer Communication strategies Communication strategies Interlingual transfer Intralingual transfer Word choice Singular. 1. crocodile. I took the ficture Article Word choice Omit a word Run on sentence Interlingual transfer Interlingual transfer Intralingual transfer Communication strategies Intralingual transfer All audience were interested in watching them This exhibition.plural Spelling Singular plural Spelling Interlingual transfer Context of learning Interlingual trasfer Context of learning Interlingual transfer I watched a lot of animals there are Lions. This exhibition so after 9. Elephants. cows. They understood the trainers’ instruction Capitalization Word choice Add a word Error Data Source of Error Interlingual transfer Context of learning Interlingual transfer Intralingual transfer Reconstruction My last holiday To my grandparents’ house . The animals All animals very cleaver. cow. I looked much animals theris 4. Error Classification May last holiday Spelling To My grandmother And grandFather 3. Very cleaver ^ so smart all animals understand when its turn up in the steac and when its not turn up in the steac 7. Very good!! the animals 6. 2.

Error Data when last holiday I go to much places I go with my friend I am traveling With my famaly Error Classification Capitalization Verb tense Word choice Verb tense Verb tense Spelling Word choice Punctuation Source of Error Context of learning Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer Intralingual transfer Context of learning Reconstruction My family. and he from Arab 10. When I went to there 3. But I am and my Word order friend ^ not follow ^ competation Verb tense Article Communication strategies Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer But my friend and I did not follow the compeptation . my friends. I go to much places there are mekarsari ^ when I going to over there Verb tense Omit a word Capitalization Verb tense Omit a word Run on sentence Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer Context of learning Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer Communication strategies Context of learning I went to Mekarsari. and I went to a lot of places when last holiday 2.with the tourist. 1. Spelling Word choice Add a word Interlingual transfer Interlingual transfer Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer Intralingual transfer with an Arabic tourist And so after that Word choice I went to home Omit a word And then I return home Respondent 8 (N) No. There is many agenda Singular.plural There are many agenda 4.

There is much places for play and so much the games Singular. When last holiday so nice if long time Word choice Verb tense Interlingual transfer Intralingual transfer My holiday would be different if was much more days 12. There is no my Brother Capitalization Context of learning There is no my brother . from morning until after noun and to night and am so happy play with my friend 8.5.plural Word choice Add a word Singular plural Add a word Word choice Omit a word Spelling Context of learning Interlingual transfer Intralingual transfer Context of learning Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer there were some interesting places to play games there And I am too We played happily a long day 6. But I ^ not very happy because the last holiday not long time Verb tense Word choice Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer But I was not very happy because the holiday lasted 10. In my last holiday Article Intralingual transfer On my last holiday 11. And ^ am too I am playing with my sister and my friend. 7. And ^ am very happy Add a word Intralingual transfer And I am very happy 9.

plural Word choice Verb tense Context of learning Interlingual transfer Intralingual transfer Many activities I also did my hobby such as . 8. Many activity I also did my hobby. like Singular. Many skedjule Spelling Singular. because many time I used it with my family and my friend 4. Error Data Like PRJ or usually we call Jakarta Fair Error Classification Verb tense Source of Error Intralingual transfer Reconstruction Like PRJ or usually we called Jakarta Fair 2. Like many places at Jakarta included in my planed Word choice Interlingual transfer Like visiting my places in Jakarta 7.plural Interlingual transfer Context of learning Context of learning Interlingual transfer Many schedules 5.plural Word form Many plans for making my holiday comfortable 6. because I used to be my familly and my friend 3. Many planing for make my holiday comfortable Singular. My last holiday is very interesting. 1. I went to Kwitang for buy a some book Word form Article Singular plural Verb tense Word choice Interlingual transfer Intralingual transfer Context of learning Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer I went to Kwitang for buying some books My last holiday was very interesting.Respondent 9 (A) No.

played computer 9. I hope next holiday can more interesting than ^ last holiday 14. Everyday I always turn on my laptop 10. I also like made a blog and browsing internet 12. because many activity can I did than last holiday in last years 13. My last hliday is Verb tense valuable. Error Data My nama I come from in Tangerang Error Classification Spelling Omit a word Source of Error Interlingual transfer Intralingual transfer Reconstruction My name I come from Tangerang . because I could did my last holiday before I hoped next holiday would be more interesting than my last holiday I would make many schedules Respondent 10 (M) No. 2. I like log in my account in FB 11. 1. I wanna make many skedjule Word choice Spelling Interlingual transfer Interlingual transfer Verb tense Word choice Add a word Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer Intralingual transfer Word choice Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer Verb tense Omit a word Verb tense Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer Verb tense Intralingual transfer playing computer Everyday I always turned on my laptop I like logging my account in FB I also liked making a blog and browsing internet My last holiday was valuable.

I think that ^ place is very good for refreshing. I fried it by using Word choice Omit a word Interlingual transfer Intralingual transfer After fishing. After finishing take fish. why.?! Punctuation Verb tense Article Context of learning Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer I though that the place is very good for refreshing. I fried fish and we ate fish together.. after that we continue fishing on lake. My last holiday I have gone to kelapa gading lake Word order Ver tense Capitalization Communication strategies Intralingual transfer Context of learning Context of learning Intralingual transfer I went to Kelapa Gading lake last holiday 4. And after dzuhur time we to continue for takking fish at lake Word order Omit a word Run on sentence Word choice Communication strategies Intralingual transfer Communication strategies Interlingual transfer We stop jocking when dzuhur time came to pray. 7. 9. When we jocking together dzuhur time is coming and all job’s is stoped.3. when to kelapa gading lake Capitalization Add a word When I went to Kelapa Gading lake 5. Because Happy together and swimming together and eating together Capitalization Omit a word Word choice Context of learning Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer because I could jock swim and eat together 8. why? 6. .

I went to The Salak Mountain Article Word choice Omit a word Punctuation We left for it at 07. ^ I saw The beatiful Capitalization Verb tense Error Classification Article Omit a word Punctuation Word order Source of Error Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer Context of learning Communication strategies Context of learning Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer Interlingual transfer Communication strategies Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer Context of learning Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer After I arrived there I saw the beautiful panorama.fouder and chili after that we eat all fish we have been taked. 10.00 am . And afternoon is Word order coming and we look a sunset 11. 1. In Salak Mountain we enjoyed. And we go to our home Word choice Add a word Interlingual transfer Intralingual transfer Then we return home in the afternoon Omit a word Communication strategies Intralingual transfer We look a sunset in the afternoon Respondent 11 (A) No. after that we ate together. Reconstruction I went to Salak Mountain last holiday panorama and so Spelling in salak mountain I ate Word choice Run on sentence With famili after Add a word eating My stomach is full 3. Error Data At my last holiday I went to The “Salak Mountain” 2.

on the way to Bali I got some troouble.00 a c’lock at the morning 4. when I went to Bali There’s some trouble I got it. 2. I got trouble like the tire of my car was broken. 6. I went from Spelling Add a word Spelling Spelling Capitalization Wor choice Word choice Interlingual transfer Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer Interlingual transfer Context of learning Interlingual transfer Interlingual transfer Communication strategies Interlingual transfer Interlngual transfer I went to I slept on the way to my home. Then I woke up when we arrived home After looking around we returned hom ein the afternoon In my treveling I Run on sentence slept and so I woke up fom my slept. I got trouble Like The tire of my car was broke.In 07. . Suddnly Word choice Spelling Respondent 12 (H) No. 1. But I can finishing my trouble. So afeter eating I and my mamily Was prepareing our self went to the Home 5. Verb tense Word choice Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer But I could handle it Error Classification Capitalization Capitalization Word choice Verb tense Source of Error Context of learning Context of learning Interlingual transfer Intralingual transfer Reconstruction My last holiday in Bali. Error Data My last Holiday in Bali.

It was the best holiday for me . For Word form Capitalization Run on sentence Interlingual transfer Context of learning Communication strategies Intralingual transfer Context of learning Context of learning I went to Bali Hotel for getting a room. I got Some Experience from Bali Island Is The best Holiday.3. I went to Bali Hotel for got some room. I Sleept Moment Verb tense Singular plural 4. 6. We went to food Spelling cour for buying some food For fill our body 8. Tomorrow I Arround 5. 9. For got The best I’m add My friend is Hunggry Capitalization Verb tense Capitalization Spelling Word order 7. And The last day 10. Buy The Ticket Verb tense Capitalization 11. For Hearing The DJ Players. and drunk the Beverages. And I seen The Capitalization Word choice Capitalization Verb tense Capitalization Capitalization Article Capitalization Omit a word Capitalization Omit a word Capitalization Tomorrow I arround Context of learning Intralingual transfer Context of learning Interlingual transfer Communication strategies Interlingual transfer Intralingual transfer For got the best My friend and I were hungry We went to foodcourt for buying some food Context of learning For listening to Intrallingual transfer DJ and drinking Context of learning Intralingualtransfer Context of learning And the last day Intralingual transfer Context of learning Context of learning Interlingual transfer Context of learning Intralingual transfer Context of learning Bought the ticket I got some experience from Bali Island. for I slept moment.

I have many experiencies and activities that I done it well. The activity of my holiday that Capitalization Omit a word Context of learning Intralingual transfer My friend and I went to lake for Capitalization Word order Verb tense Omit a word Add a word Context of learning Communication strategies Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer My family and I went to visited my grandmother’s house to know her condition last holiday Error Classification Article Capitalization Word order Omit a word Source of Error Intralingual transfer Context of learning Communication strategies Intralingual transfer Reconstruction My family. And The Price Experience Capitalization Omit a word Context of learning Intralingual transfer And the price experience Respondent 13 (D) No. . my old friends. my friends. and I did many experiences and activities on my holiday last month.Panorama. There are many activities which I did it with my family. and my My old Friends 2. my friends. 1. Error Data At my holiday last month. The Activity of my holiday that I do with my family is I went to my grandmother’s house for visiting her and knowing about her condition 3.

That’s all my experience and activity Singular.plural That’s all my experiences and activities Respondent 14 (D) No.I do with my Friend is we Add a word Word order Intralingual transfer Communication strategies Context of learning Intralingual transfer looking at beautiful panorama last holiday went to the Lake Capitalization for Looking the Panorama so Beautiful 4. When I go ^ beach with our Verb tense Add a word Source of Error Context of learning Intralingual transfer Context of learning Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer When I went to beach Reconstruction My last holiday on the beach . my old friend and I went to our formers primary school we went arround it seen before 6. Error Data My Last holiday at Beach Error Classification Capitalization Article Capitalization 2. Word order Word choice Add a word Omit a word Article Context of learning We had never Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer Communication strategies Interlingal transfer Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer The following day. We Never Look it at other time Capitalization Verb tense Word choice 5. 1. My holiday with my old friend is we came back to our school when we school at the primary school. Which there ^ at Add a word Word choice Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer Context of learning Which there is in 7.

I go for magrib praying 8. Happy in ^ last holiday .m o’clock Capitalization Omit a word Capitalization Omit a word Verb tense Word order Capitalization Context of learning Intralingual transfer Context of learning Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer Communication strategies Context of learning Intralingual transfer Context of learning Interlingual transfer Context of learning Intralingual transfer Communication strategies Context of learning Interlingual transfer Interlingual transfer Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer at 07. Wake up From sleept Capitalization Spelling Word choice Verb tense Verb tense 7.3. Wake up from slept When magrib came we prayed We played flying fox 6. 12. I walking with our Family for look sunrise I think sunrise is Very beautyfuly From oTher Verb tense Capitalization Word form Capitalization Add a word Run on sentence After that we walked for looking sunrise.00 am 4. When wake up From sleept Add a word Word choice Verb tense Verb tense Add a word Article Add a word The next day I woke up I felt very fresh I went outside my room Happy on my last holiday 11. I though the sunrise was more beautiful event than others. So ^ come to him Add a word Verb tense Word choice Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer So I came to them 10. Family At 07.00 A. So I register in hotel after that After that I registered in Hotel 5. We are playing flying fox 9. I fell very fresh I go outside room 13.

My father and my mother calling me. I look ^ animal at beach Word choice Singlar plural Article Interlingual transfer Context of learning Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer I found some animals on beach 15. This holiday is my experience In my LiFe Verb tense Capitalization Omit a word Intralingual tranfer Context of learning Intralingual transfer This holiday was experience in my life Respondent 15 (M) No. Elementary school Capitalization Context of learning Elementary School Word choice Omit a word Word choice Singular plural Interlingual transfer Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer Context of learning Error Classification Capitalization Source of Error Context of learning Reconstruction When my last holiday I went to peak When we came. 17. And so come to him for back to house Word choice Verb tense Omit a word Word choice My parents called me to returned home 16. 1. I when to peak And when we came every body brought the bag 3.14. I fell very happy I think This holiday Spelling Capitalization Interlingual transfer Context of learning I felt very happy I think this holiday 18. Error Data When my last Holiday 2. all of us broughts the bag .

We don’t forget Capitalization this Holiday Verb tense Context of learning Intralingual transfer Communication strategies We never forgot our holiday Cibodas Raya peak 11. 8.4. Error Data At my holiday Error Classification Article Sorce of Error Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer Reconstruction On my holiday I went to any place I went to over there I gone to the any Verb tense place Omit a word Verb tense 3. chatting with the Capitalization other Chatting with the other 10. Before that will be meeting In My Home Verb tense Capitalization Omit a word Capitalization Omit a word Word order Before going to Cibodas we met in my home We did dzuhur praying 6. We did the Praying Dzuhur 7. 2. 1. We gone to peak Verb tense with the big Bus Omit a word Capitalization Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer Context of learning Intralingual transfer Context of learning Intralingual transfer Context of learning Intralingual transfer Communication strategies Context of learning Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer Context of learning Context of learning We went there by bus 5. Peak Raya Cibodas Word order Respondent 16 (A) No. I go to over there . And the Agenda We playing any Games Capitalization Verb tense Wod choice Capitalization And the agenda We played many games 9.

When I come to Verb tense Article Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer Interlingul transfer Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer When I came in 7. 8. For sleep because I feel tired . 5. We preparing Incomplete sentence Communication strategies Verb tense Intralingual transfer Verb tense Intralingual transfer After I played at over there we prepared For went home because we felt so fresh 12. We are going to We go after shubuh Verb tense Verb tense Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer We went to We went after shubuh 6. I go to my mattres Verb tense Spelling Verb tense Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer Intralingual transfer I went to my mattress For slept because I felt tired 15. After I played at over there. For go to the home. 10. Very beutyful I preparing I feel very fresh I take ^ rest Spelling Verb tense Word form Verb tense Article Very beautiful I prepared I felt very fresh I took a rest 11. 9.4. We come to the home We came to the home 14. Because we are feel so fresh Incomplete sentence Communication strategies Omit a word Intralingual transfer Verb tense Intralingual transfer 13.

1. 2. I will miss that place so much! Punctuation Word order Communication strategies Context of learning Punctuation Context of learning Punctuation Context of learning I love this place so much. . I went to my grand father house. and my grand father house located at the mountain. Word order Communication strategies In my grandfather house the air and the water is so pure Error Classification Article Word choice Word order Run on sentence Source of Error Intralingual transfer Iterlingual transfer Communication strategies Communication strategies Reconstruction On my last holiday. What a beautiful place that I ever seen! 5. What a beautiful place that I ever seen.Respondent 17 (H) No. I went to my grandparent’s house. and it is very far from the town. The air and the water is so pure in my grandfather house 3. Error Data At my last holiday. I must went to my home back 6. I must went back home I will miss that place so much. It’s located at the mountain far from the town. I love this place so much! 4.

Respondent 18 (A) No. I Bought the stect 9. I went to them at Word order Useding a car ^ I Spelling came 4. . and I ate Intralingual transfer together Communication strategies Interlingual transfer I arround in Communication I saw beautiful strategies panorama Interlingual transfer Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer I swam with my friend Error Classification Article Word order Omit a word Source of Error Reconstruction Intralingual transfer My family. I came to my Home 10. my Communication friend. I flet happy Spelling Capitalization Word choice Capitalization Context of learning Interlingual transfer Context of learning I came to my home Interlingual transfer I felt happy I bought the steak Communication I went with them strategies Interlingual transfer Using a car and I Intralingual transfer came Interlingual transfer My family. Error Data At my last holiday I went to water park with our friend and my family 2. After I came I ate with our friend and my family 5. 6. 1. 3. I play the swiming with our friend Omit a word Verb tense Word choice Intralingual transfer Interlingual transfer 8. and I went strategies to water park last Intralingual transfer holiday. I around in I see panorama so beutyful Add a word Word choice Omit a word Add a word Word order Spelling Word order Spelling Omit a word 7. my Intralingual transfer friend.

I want to do it with my friend or my brother and my sister and special with my family. 1. 4. 3. This holiday I have the good experience with our friend and my family Word order Add a word Word choice Omit a word Communication We have good strategies experience this Intralingual transfer holiday Interlingual transfer Intralingual transfer Respondent 19 (M) No. Error Data In the last holiday ago 2. .11. I have some plain for doing it. Good for feel it Before swimming to swimming pool Verb tense Omit a word Intralingual transfer Good for felt it Intralingual transfer Before swam to swimming pool Error Classification Article Omit a word Spelling Omit a word Word order Source of Error Reconstruction Intralingual transfer On the last Intralingual transfer holiday Interlingual transfer My family and I Intralingual transfer have some plan Communication strategies for doing it.

We come to Verb tense Word choice Interlingual transfer I went with my friend from my home Intralingual transfer We came to our Intralingual transfer Villa in Puncak Context of learning Bogor Word choice Capitalization Word order Verb tense Run on sentence Interlingual transfer My family and I Context of learning Communication strategies Communication strategies went to Puncak Bogor when holiday. 3. I when to Villa I when to with my friend to the Puncak 4. Error Data Playing Foot ball 2. We are playing foot ball Verb tense Capitalization Verb tense Article Verb tense Intralingual transfer We took a rest Intralingual transfer Intralingual transfer We took ablution Intralingual transfer We played foot ball .Respondent 20 (F) No. Word choice Word choice Word order Interlingual transfer I went to Villa Interlingual transfer My friend and I Interlingual transfer went to Puncak Error Classification Capitalization Source of Error Context of learning Reconstruction Playing foot ball Villa our Puncak Add a word bogor 7. I when with my friend in my home 6. My young brother and I swam in the Villa. We are take ^ rest 8. 1. We are taking ablution 9. When holiday I when to Puncak bogor with family in the puncak bogor I with young brother swimming in the Villa 5.

we bought snack. In front of Villa we are over there Run on sentence Communication strategies In front of Villa.10. In front of villa we are overthere Run on sentence . We are happy in Puncak Bogor Omit a word Capitalization 14. We buy snack We are in Puncak bogor we are happy Verb tense Word order Intralingual transfer We bought snack Communication strategies Intralingual transfer Context of learning Communication strategies In front of villa. We are overthere. We are over there 11. 13. We are come back go to jakarta before come back we buy snack Word choice Capitalization Run on sentence Word order Verb tense Interlingual transfer Before return Context of learning Communication strategies Communication startegies Intralingual transfer home to Jakarta. 12.

Total errors of add a word are 41 errors on percentage 7.67 % 2. Total errors of capitalization are 76 errors on percentage 14.2 % 7. Total errors of run-on sentence are 23 errors on percentage 4.70 % 6.plural are 16 errors on percentage 3. Total errors of meaning not clear are 1 errors on percentage 0. Total of communication strategies are 61 errors on percentage 11. Total errors of singular.37 % 9.20 % 13. Total errors of verb tense are 92 errors on percentage 17. Total of context of learning are 104 errors on percentage 19. Total of interlingual transfer are 131 errors on percentage 24.2 % 12.25 % 3.00 % 2.18 % 14.57 % 8.Based on the data above. Total of intralingual transfer are 235 errors on percentage 44. Total errors of word order are 35 errors on percentage 6. Total errors of word form are 13 errors on percentage 2.2 % 5.48 % .01 % 10. Total errors of omit a word are 65 errors on percentage 12.44 % 3. Total errors of incomplete sentence are 2 errors on percentage 0. Total errors of spelling are 32 errors on percentage 6.32 % It is also can be stated the percentage of source of error: 1. it can be seen that: 1.58 % 4.9 % 4.69 % 11. Total errors of word choice are 85 errors on percentage 15. Total errors of article are 33 errors on percentage 6. Total errors of punctuation are 9 errors on percentage 1.

Some of students still confused in transferred their idea into English . The total number of errors of add a word is 41 on percentage 7. it can be visualized that the most error that the students make in their writing is in verb tense which has the percentage error of 17.2 %.2 % as the second typical error. The total number of errors of singular. The total number of errors of word form is 13 on percentage 2. It means they used simple words in their writing without thinking. The total number of errors of verb tense is 92 on percentage 17. Source of error in intralingual transfer. It cause that some of the students can not differentiate between singular and plural form. 5. Source of error in interlingual transfer. There are the detail explanation can be visualized as follows: 1. Many students still confused in choosing the right word in their writing.2 % in third place.9 %.44 %.9 %.plural is 16 on percentage 3.00 %. 3. They still confused to compare between simple present and simple past. Source of error in intralingual transfer. followed by the error of capitalization with 14. Most of students using simple present in their narrative writing. The total number of errors of word choice is 85 on percentage 15.B. 4. The second most errors are in word choice which has the percentage error of 15.70 %. 2. Source of error in intralingual transfer. Data Interpretation According to the data analysis above.

It means that students use the punctuation incorrectly. 10. 9. The students finished their sentence without thinking before. 11. they wrote the wrong words in their writing.69 %. Source of error in context of learning. Source of error in intralingual transfer. The total number of errors of spelling is 32 on percentage 6. Source of error in context of learning. The total number of errors of punctuation is 9 on percentage 1.57 %. Then.2 %. The total number of errors of incomplete sentence is 2 on percentage 0. Source of error in intralingual transfer. They have a bad habit. The students still confused in arranging and making a good sentence in their writing. Source of errore in communication strategies. mostly they wrote with capitalization in the midle of the sentence. The total number of errors of word order is 35 on percentage 6. Source of error in communication strategies.2 %. The total number of errors of capitalization is 76 on percentage 14. Source of error in interlingual transfer. They do not memorize the words well. They used many words in their writing based on their mother tongue.37 %.sometime they used their mother tongue. 6. It is the most typical errors that students made in their witing. . 7. The total number of errors of omit a word is 65 on percentage 12. 8.01 %.

12. They still forget use article in target language. They think a good sentence is a long sentence. Then. 13. Based on the data interpretation above.20 %. The total number of errors of meaning not clear is 1 on percentage 0. A few numbers of students finished their sentence. The students still did not understand how make a good sentence. . Source of error in communication strategies. most typical error that the second grade students of SMK La Tansa Banten in verb tense. Source of error in intralingual transfer.18 %.on sentence is 23 on percentage 4. 14. it make the reader confused. students must improve their knowledge and study more in making a good sentence in their writing.32 %. Source of error in communication strategies. word choice and capitalization. The total number of errors of article is 33 on percentage 6. The total number of errors of run.

2 %. Based on the explanation above. and then the third is capitalization on percentage 14. then word choice become the second place. the writer concludes that mostly the second year students of SMK La Tansa Banten made the errors because of the lack of structure rules of target language. It means intralingual transfer and interlingual transfer are the most typical source of errors.CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION A.9 %. Verb tense takes the first place error because most students forgot using the simple past when they wrote narrative writing. the second is word choice on percentage 15. Most students chose the wrong words in their narrative writing. Conclusion Having analyzed. . Then capitalization become the third place because most students commonly have a bad habit that they wrote freely the characters in the middle of the sentence.2 %. the writer knows the second year students of SMK La Tansa Banten did the most typical errors first is verb tense on percentage 17. and also the lack of knowledge in learning second language.

d. Suggestion After conducting the research.B. Then. The suggestions are. The students should do an exercise that given by the teacher. b. the writer would like to give some suggestions hopefully those can be useful for the learning process. Then. The teacher must give more practice on grammar exercise. 2. b. 1. For the students: a. The students must ask a question when their found difficulties in their study. the teacher should make a nice condition in learning process. e. The students must give more attentions when the teacher explain the subject. the teacher must give the explanation clearly. For the teachers: a. d. The teachers should know the students problem in writing subject through error analysis. the teacher must make an evaluation regularly. c. . To know the students competence. the students must study hard in second language learning. c. Before starting the lesson.

L. Ellis. 1982. 1981. John. Al. Rod. Walton Street: Oxford University Press. Canada: United States of Americe. Cambriddge: Cambridge University Press. 1983. Eudia. 1990. Lock. 1997. Nunan. Bandung: Angkasa. Fungtional English Grammar: An Introduction for Second Language Teacher. Graham. English Skills. H. A Training Course for TEFL. Ciracas: Erlangga. China: Oxford University Press. P. Cambridge: University Press. et. 1989. Jakarta: Binarupa Aksara. E. Audrey. 1994. S. Pit. . Sudjana. Tarigan. New York: Mc Graw. 1983. Metoda Statistika. 2000. Reynolds. New York: Oxford University Press. Rod. Ellis. Designing Task for the Communication Classroom. Error Analysis and Inter Language. Inc. Douglas. Corbitt. Understanding and Using English Grammar. The Study of Second Language Acquisition. New York: Litton Educational Publishing. Dullay. Edward. 1977. George. New York: A Person Education Company. New York: Oxford University Press. Let’s Write English. 2007. Exploring Written English A Guide for Basic Writers. Langan. Pengajaran Analisa Kesalahan Berbahasa. Grace. Bandung: Tarsito. et. al. et al. David. Peter. Principle of Language and Teaching. The Little Rhetoric and Handbook With Readings. Betty S. Wishon. 1993.REFERENCES Azar. Corder. 1993.Hill. et al. The Study of Second Language Acquisition. 2001. 1994. Heidi.J. Hubbard. Glenview: Scott Foresman Company. Brown. New York: Oxford University Press.G. 1980. Look Ahead An English Course. H. Language Two.

Wardhany. H. McCLELLAN. Writing from Topic to Evaluation. 1988. Tramo. .N. I. Bandung: Angkasa.Tarigan. E. Pengajaran Analisis Kesalahan Berbahasa. London: Northern Kentucky University. 1989. Developing Writing Skill.G. TIEDT. Jakarta: DEPDIKNAS Direktorat Pendidikan Menengah Umum. 2003.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful