Notated and Heard Meter Author(s): Joel Lester Source: Perspectives of New Music, Vol. 24, No.

2 (Spring - Summer, 1986), pp. 116-128 Published by: Perspectives of New Music Stable URL: . Accessed: 08/04/2013 12:12
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only approximate RatherI am thinkingmore seriouslyof scoresI have performed. regular groupingof these pulses. and frequentimpulses reinforcingthe notated meter.such as Babbitt's Composition for FourInstruments (1948) or Arie Da Capo(1974).130. have a theatrical component) have surelypuzzled on occasion as we watched the conductor'sbaton performa wondrously intricatedance: what does that metriccommotion have to do with the sounds emanatingfrom the ensemble? For while most tonal works easilyimparttheir metric hierarchy to us via continuouslyregular pulseson severallevels.19.NOTAIED AND HEARD METER LL JOEL TIFS1 ER OFUSwho attend to concertsof contemporary music with our eyes as well as our ears(foreven the most severelyabsolutemusicdoes. although such works may well fallinto this category. afterall. many a mid and late twentieth-century compositiondoes not pretendto informus of its metricstructure if indeed it has one in the sense of the metricstructure of a tonal composition. 8 Apr 2013 12:12:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .155 on Mon. which HOSE This content downloaded from 200.I am not referring to those unfriendlyscoresthat refuseto specifydurationsor them.

or even decades.then commonly-held conceptions of rhythm in this music need to be reassessed from the bottom up. for they must learn the metricnotationsin orderto playthe piece. "jazzy" seems the appropriateterm to describehow I heardand played the rhythmsagainstthe silent metricgrid.hearonly this latterpiece and neverthe one that I had strivenso hardto perform? Now to be sure we all go through periodswhere we get to know a piece in considerabledetail followed by other periods lasting months.For in these scoresour currentwisdom and our knowledgeof the serialpermutations by which the durationsariselead us to assumethat the precisionof these durations is quite importantto the structureof the piece. in order to play the notes at the right time.Did an audience. For that experienceraisesquestionsthat go to the heartof what we understand to be the rhythmic-metric structureof this music. Yet with the music of Babbittand other twenwith a frequencythat distieth-centuryscoresI find that experiencerecurring turbs me. For the bulk of the tonal repertoire.learnthe ensembleof Babbitt'sCompositionfor ing the violin partand then rehearsing FourInstruments. 8 Apr 2013 12:12:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . I rememberquite vividlythe scores of hours I spent in 1970 as a memberof the Da Capo ChamberPlayers.Indeed. has not meant that I find myselfunable to orient myself in the work.for me at least. I could easilyhearit autoin the notated meter. I had to Simply learnto hearmy own partas well as all the other partsin the texturein a metric for framework-the notated one. I had forgotten the measure-by-measure metric structureof the piece.155 on Mon. In effect. Does the piece that I hearone waywhile performing it changeits verynaturewhen it crossesthe proscenium?Does the piece that I hearone way when I tape it change its nature when passingthrough the playback of the system?Are the metric calculations performeras unintelligibleand irrelevantto the listener as some apian dance would be in helping us locate a particular wildflowerin a meadow? Are the rhythmic-serial computationsof the theorist (or the composeras well) equally This content downloaded from 200. If.130. I must have ratherthoroughly memorized that metric grid. Seemingly impulsesdominatedthe soundscape. matically But I can also rememberwell my surprisesome months later when I listened againto the tape.Notated and HeardMeter 117 specifywith considerable precisionconventionalmeters and durations. But the experience.any audience. years.when we do not hearthat piece. I had memorizeda silentclick-track the piece-a click-track which the out their rhythmsplayed jazzy synagainst copations and crossrhythms.19. as I arguein this paper. these durationsare not accuratelyperceptiblein the absence of a traditional metric hierarchy. when we re-encounter the work we may well have lost our detailedmemoryof it. are perhapsmost immediatelyawareof the disparitybetween Performers the metric notations of such scores and their sound. And what had seemed to me in my days of a rhythmic-metric structureof crystallineclarityhad become thorfamiliarity erratic oughly opaque. In the interim. for if I listened to the concerttape not long afterperforming the piece.

I will summarizethat discussion found in the cited source. for instance.Accentuations arisefrom manydifferent factors and occur in a virtuallyinfinite rangeof strengths. and that occur aftera beat due to suspension.We perceivequite differently. ing points Meteris one form of accentuation in music. These types of accentresonatein us as listenersby markingoff points in time differentiatedfrom those points that do not receive such impulses. for metric accentsnot only can but factoris present. The impulse that repetitions of the preceding pitch (pitch-change launchesa relatively duration is in accented relation to the beginningof a longer shorter duration The durational (the accent).155 on Mon.But I raisethe here because recent work on my questions rhythm and meter in tonal music leadsme to believethat the answersto these questionsmay well requirea thorough rethinkingof the natureof meterand rhythmin much twentieth-century music. The point of a changein melodiccontouris accentedin relationto the melodic motion that continuesin one direction(the contour The beginningof a textureof greater accent). to the listener? irrelevant sincefor nearlytwo decadesnow I have been lecturingto classes and preconcert audiences(mostly in connection with Da Capo ChamberPlayersconcerts)on the easeof perceiving the rhythmic-metric structure of this music. but without supportingarguments on to those relevant nontonal music. quite frequentlydo occur at points in time where no accentual Once the meter is established. accent). 8 Apr 2013 12:12:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .130.19. portionof the preceding The beginningof a new pitch aftera repeatedpitch is accentedin relationto the accent).' That discussionpertainsdirectlyto tonal music. All of these types of accentare caused by an event occurringin the music.118 of NewMusic Perspectives I must confesssome chagrinat raising these questions. in its role of This content downloaded from 200.The point of harmonicchange is accented (the harmonic-change And so forth. densityis accented(the texturalaccent).The impulse that begins a note createsan accentin relationto the sustainedportion of that note and the sustained note (orto the silencethatprecedesthe note). Metric accentsare somewhat differentin nature. harmonicchangesthat anticipatea beat.we perceivemetricaccentson silent downbeats and on beatsand beat-subdivisions that no event articulates. but many pointsareextensibleto nontonalmusicaswell. preceding impulse that articulates the beginningof a motive or patternis accentedin relationto the interiorof that motive (thepattern-beinningaccent) . THE NATURE OFMETER I havearguedelsewhereabout the factorsthat give riseto meterand to our perception of meter. that occur on a beat. It is the yardstick wherebywe locatethe musical of the piece in a gridof time-points. concentrathere. The grid of the metric hierarchy. Accentis an impulsethat marks off a point of initiationin music. For meteris a psyevents chological phenomenon.

the accentual and commonlyreinprofileof the musiccreates forcesthe metrichierarchy for much of the piece.durational accents..a two-measurepulse arisesfrom the bass-notepat4.19.b . Allegro molto 1 Vln.130. All of these terning. the same in one frame the face is covered where by the partly perceive portrait p '^r 1 0 Bf r Vcl. Accents on one level group the pulses on lower levels.and texturalaccents. The violin confirms this ing melody quarter-notelevel by offering notes as well as two-note slurs the quarter grouping melodiceighths. Consider. Half-note the in arise from the violapatterning aswell as the pulsesgrouping quarters pairs motivicrecurrences in the melody. JX 1 I r r tr r tr:r-L X r. II 17 I^ / ^ dir. Bass . The accentsthat most convincof levelsthat is the metrichierarchy inglygroup pulses to createthe interaction areharmonic-change accents. Accentscausedby a varietyof factorsestablish pulses-regularly recurring impulses-on severallevels.Finally. J I A EXAMPLE 1: MOZART.the very opening of Mozart'sFortieth The continuous eighths in the viola establishan eighth-note pulse. 40. MM.155 on Mon. d '' P .for instance. R '' 2 2r n J J 3 - I i k.and in a thirdframethe faceis offcenter. The bassnotes on everydownbeatgroup the half notes in pairs. A quarternote pulsethatgroupsthe eighthsin pairsarises from the repeatedpitchpatternin the viola. I. in Example1. J ^ r Srrr T-r-^^ r r X Via. 1-9 This content downloaded from 200. ry - r .Notated and HeardMeter 119 is akinto the frameof a painting-considerhow differently we would yardstick. 8 Apr 2013 12:12:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . In tonalmusic.confirmedby the paceof harmonicchangesaftermeasure levelsof pulse nest within one anotheras depictedin Example2. SYMPHONY anotherframethe faceis centered.

being we hear the itself down so that successivelylonger or Rather. We recognizeconstantpulses even when a performer employsrubato.when it does arisein tonal music. aware of even minute alterations of the in terms of clock or metrobeing tempo nomic time.pulsesmarkofffiunctionally equivalntunits of time. All this makesthe metricyardstick a measuringsystem marvelously flexible it we can the metric and hence yet quite precise. while the higheror lower impliedby the quadruple groupingof eighths becausegroupingsof two are the only possiblelevel that can nest within four.19. While we aremeasuringmusicalevents within a metrichierarchy.120 Perspectives of NewMusic 2o o o I\ /\ r r Alllevels arecontinually present during the firstphrases. In this our notational sense. we do not hearfractional portionsof a beat added to or subtracted from the successive as durations. some levels may be presentby implicationonly.02 and 2 secondslong.but ratherthat durationsof somewhat differing are heard as functionally lengths equivalenteven while we recognize theirclock-timedifferences. we hear a ritardando 3b. pulse slowing shorter durationsare functionallyequivalentto the preceding and following as in Example3a.130.155 on Mon. And metricalambiguity. virtuallyalwaysaffectsonly one or two levels of the metric hierarchy.Psychologicalstudies suggest that for isolated tones between . markoff equal pulsesdo not necessarily units in termsof clock time.Through appreciate position the of structural status of note or event in a while at the same time part any piece. a listener buildsthe frameof the metrichierarchy so that he or she can measureall rapidly the musicalevents in relationto the multiplelevelsof the metrichierarchy. The quarter-notelevel at the opening of Beethoven'sFifth. tones differing in lengthby less than 10% This content downloaded from 200. 8 Apr 2013 12:12:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . in Example3b. In a ritardando or an accelerando. At all levelsof the metrichierarchy. we are capableof markingfine distinctionsthat are apparently far beyond our normal perceptualcapabilities. The because openingof Mozart'sFortieth projectsa rather completemetrichierarchy of the continuouspulseson so manylevels. In other tonal passages. Example system does not insist that durations be equallylong with a mechanical precision. But actualquarternotes in any dimension barelyoccur during the entire first theme-groupof this work. In other words. and not as in pulses. EXAMPLE 2 Becauseof the immediatepresenceof all these nested pulse levels. Rather.for instance.

as a result.but it would surelydisturbgreatlyour sense of arrival Thatwe not only can but quite easilydo makesuchresponsesto the musicdemonstratesour abilityto calculate quite accurately largemultiplesof short pulses..Notated andHeardMeter 121 areroutinelyheardas equivalent.we expect that cadenceto arriveon a specificpoint in the metric a sixteenth hierarchy-on the downbeatof a specificmeasure. the metrichierarchy to and respondto a tonal composition. Example4 presentsthe beginningof the clarinetsolo that opens the piece. METER IN THE MUSIC OF BABBITT Turningfrom the tonal repertoireto more recentmusic. phrase. J = 90 ritardado al . the levelsof pulses that hierarchy plicationfor us.155 on Mon. for instance.= 60 a) P b) jJ J one two three J J J one two three -J J i r one two three one two three 11I one two three one two three one two three one two three one two three EXAMPLE 3 while we listen invitesus to use it as a yardstick Indeed.Shorterrhythmicvaluesdo not occurin extendedseries. Constant sixteenths.2 But whateverthe valueof this findingfor isolated tones. As a phrasemoves towardits cadence..At the rhythmiclevels that would group these short pulses. are the metric in effect do this multiindeed. it is clearlyirrelevantin a musical setting. and the metricstatusof these valuesremains. from those valuesas the at J = 120 areeasilydifferentiated eighthsor quarters metronome changesto J = 112or J = 128 (changesof less than 10%).19.130. 8 Apr 2013 12:12:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . those causes of metric accentuationthat are most in their occurrences powerfulin tonal musicareeitherabsentor areso irregular This content downloaded from 200.this passage projectsa paucityof pulse levels.A cadencearriving beforeits notated downbeat would not greatlyalterthe clock-timelength of a on that cadence.these pulses are establishedonly intermittently.. but sixteenthsremainsixteenths. let us now study the accentual-metric for profile of the opening passagefrom Babbitt'sComposition FourInstrments (1948).We are awareof the changein pace. In relation to almostanytonalpassage..eighths remain eighths...

of course. even if there were greaterregularity weak and subjectto passages. The variousimpulsesareall audible.19. markingoff hierarchy in any set of impulses. Composition Instruments.any perceivedsense of meter would be relatively being easilyupset by conflictingaccentuations.130. alongwith other weakeraccentuations such as contouraccents. Used by permission of the publisher EXAMPLE4: BABBITT. change pattern-beginningaccents. Durational accentsarethe only strongaccentual factorsat work here. . P I II J 3 21 4 3 1 4 LJ . the sensein which some eventsanticipate the beat.But the rhythmicserialization that gives rise to the rhythmicvaluesin this and other passages precludessuch The resultis the absenceof a metrichierarchy in the sensethat such a regularity. 4 3 2 14 3 2 r 199 M -rin M ? 1949 Merion Music Inc. aresuspendedpast the beat. itself differ all from their in tonal music. or arriveon the beat is irrelevant here.But without a grid of pulses. 2 1 it. as aretheirmanifoldcombinations.and the sense of points hierarchy. i. This situationhasramifications for the perceptionof suchmusic. there are time-points.The sensein which events gain some of their structural meaning by occurringat particular in the metric the measurement of durations.texturalaccents.. without the powerfuleffectsof the arrival of an expectedeventon a predictable timeor of the of accentuations off the beat. But without sufficientregularity too few cueswhich resonatewithin a listenerto enablehim or her to establisha metricgrid. is projectedby almost all tonal music.155 on Mon.and pitchchangeaccents. there point syncopatedplacement strong This content downloaded from 200.122 Perspectivesof New Music that they fail to lay out the next higher level of regularity that would itself be still to create the metric Harmonicregularities hierarchy. organizedby higher accents are irrelevant to this as are music. 8 Apr 2013 12:12:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .OPENING for Four of pulses at severallevelsin these Thus. Impulses occur. tempo counterparts Without the perceptualmetricgrid synchronizedwith the sounding music.

I can conceiveof no model that might explainhow the mind could measuredurationswith any one to anotherwithand relatethe lengthsof these durations degreeof accuracy out a pulseas a common denominatorof two or more durations. Linearand harmonic ric hierarchy. This rhythmicsense is akin to aspectsof the pitch structuring The variouspermutations. depicted scorein Example 4. Example proportion. in music that we measure projectsa metrichierarchy lengthsof notes in termsof pulsesat their metriclevel.130. a listenerwould have to be maintaining a sixteenth-note pulse throughout measures1 and 2.155 on Mon.In the absence of a metrichierarchy. But how could a listenerever know to subdividethat measure-long pulseinto twelfths(eighthtriplets)so that This content downloaded from 200.say. 3. of nonmetricrhythmicstructure-the This leadsto the second ramification manner in which durationsare perceived. the concentration the agregates formed monic intervalswithin each section of the Composition.But all of the gravitational exist without the yardstick these relationships pull of a tonic all float in relationto each other. of the piece. no matterhow metromanyof the durations not be in the mannerimpliedby are nomicallythey performed. And though a listenermust be awarethat afterthe establishes the C and Db are each shorterthan their precedingnote.and inversionsof the combinatorial on a veryfew hartrichordsthat give riseto the derivedsets. But thereis a difference between havingpitchrelationships functioningwithout a central tonic and havingrhythmicrelationships functioningwithout a metentities. note or sonority. But in orderto perceive.may perceptible theirnotated duration. Review the opening clarinetsolo of the Composition in for FourInstruments 2 4. but not to the yardstick the rhythmicstructurings metrichierarchy.Notated and HeardMeter 123 is a sense in which the impulses are not moored to a larger system of measurement. ensuing advanceand apartfrom the impulses in the music) to use a six(in deciding teenth-note pulse. in this piece. The measure-long pulse is clearin measures1-2.the Db in measure2 as halfthe durationof the Ebin measure1. As discussedabove. The sixteenth is the common denominatorof the Eb (foursixteenthslong) and the C (threesixteenthslong). throughout by the combinatorialset segments in each of the four structural voices-all these are audibleand form the substanceof pitch relations.But in the absenceof the yardstick we may not be perceiving metrichierarchy.19. 4. The lone opening B hardly a sixteenthpulse. Pitchesarediscreteand identifiable intervalsmaintaintheir identitywhether or not a tonic is present. not in termsof durationmeasuredby clock time. The durations arise from a as over the 1.And a given of a pitch remainsthat pitch when it recurs.transpositions. Similarly. he or she would have no way to measureexactlyhow much shorterthese notes are. without Eb. Or considerthe opening three measuresof the Arie da Capoin Example5. durationsin the samemanneraswe perceivethem in musicwith a metrichierarchy.The relationships of a relateto one another. 8 Apr 2013 12:12:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .

Arie da Capo. ji ' _ d a con V sord. Violoncello X "J' 8 l 2 EXAMPLE 5: the absenceofmetmeasure-pulse ric pulses.19. J=90 Flute .155 on Mon.. The followof the could anylistenereverperceivethe 2:1relationship of the firsttwo durationsin measure3? I understandthat at the opening of Arie da different metricstructures arisethat operateindependently of one another. : - b Clarinelt 1^j .124 of NewMusic Perspectives that listenercould understandthe durationfrom the downbeatof measure3 to the cello Ab as 5/2 of that measurepulse?For without havingdecided to subdivide the measureinto twelfths. Capo And the measure-pulse that is establishedby the downbeats of measures1-3 may exist on a differentstructuralplane from that that arisesby the 2:1 relationship among the first two composite-rhythmdurationsin measure3.I can imagineno way a listenercould measurethat relationship.130. OPENING It mattersnot thata sensitiveperformance ofArie da Capo might delineate5/2 of a measurein measure1 by a precisecutoffof the clarinetnotes.the decisionto dividethe measure-pulse into twelfthsis whollyarbitrary. But that does not altermy question concerninghow a listenermight ever learnto hearsuch a simplerelationship as the 2:1 in measure3 in the absenceof a metric that allows that listener to measurethose units as units. 8 Apr 2013 12:12:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .composite-rhythmdurationthat opens measure3 is simplyan unequaldivisionof the measurepulse. But without may opening havingheardthat opening durationas a singlepulse with a subpulseof half the duration. hierarchy This content downloaded from 200. or not to divide the at allpendingsome cue from the music. The issuehere is whetherthereis a conceivable model that explainshow the mind can calculate a 5/udivisionof a pulsewithout havingmade the decisionto subdividethe measure-pulseinto twelfths. I believe that it is a fallacyto treatperceiveddurationsaccordingto their notations. For without that arbitrary decision to subdividethe notated measures in twelfths (tripleteighths)and then considerfive twelfthsas a unit to be dividedin half. that J-3 .3. In the sense that a listenermight just as well decide to divide the measure-pulseinto elevenths or thirteenths. Therefore.#^ Violin ' ' R 5 con sord.between the celloAband the clarinet Cing subdivision be in half the duration of the measure clock time.

Example3)? Werethe 2. But in orderto perceivethe durationsas such.130. in the absenceof such a pulse. Problemsarisenot only in connection with assumptions about the perception of compositions. when played"at a brisktempo.That tempo refersto the speed of pulses at a metriclevelor levelsand not to the speed of actualnotes should be clear primary from slow movementswith rapidmelodicfiguresor rapidaccompaniment patterns that remainslow.mayvery well be misleadingus in our attempts to understandthe rhythmic effects of much recent music. 4.155 on Mon. the listenerrealizesthat the second durationis somewhat longerthan the first. 5 multiplesof eighths. Finally. What other decision could the listenermakethan to heara ritardando of a unit value(c. 5 seriesis not. 3. 3.That is why those oft-cited passages in workslike Stravinsky's L'Histoire du soldat are heardin termsof changingmeters. of intersectinglevels of pulses. and from quite fastmovements that do not necessarily maintainquicknote-valuesin termsof clock time.then ritarding pulse accompaniment.Ratherthe listenerwould easilyhear2. In musicsuch as Composition Instruments andArie da Capo one perceives forFour longerand shorterdurations.but not so long as twice as long.) (rit. music without a metric hierarchy the very sense of tempo changes. 5. J Jd . 4.19. 4." is processedby listenersas J J I J J (rit. But a sustainedsense of tempo is often absent.while Lewin's 2. the rhythmicnotationalsystemthat our centuryhasinheritedfrom the tonalera. for instance. but also in considerationof abstract issues.and thatis fullycapable of depictinggraphically the perceivedeffect of an extraordinarily broadrangeof rhythmicsubtleties in tonalmusic.f. 4.) Lewin'sstudyof this phenomenon beginsfrom the premisethat thesedurations can be represented by the numberseries2. Consider. David Lewin's recent study exploring why the rhythm J J.The thrustof the presentdiscussion is to detail the natureof the relationshipbetween notated and perceived This content downloaded from 200.Notated and HeardMeter 125 In short. 8 Apr 2013 12:12:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . a listenerwould have to set up an eighth-notepulse and subdividethe firstpulse into two. CONCLUDING REMARKS None of the foregoingis intended to be or should be construedas a critiqueof the musicof Babbittor of anyother composer. But why would a listenerbe so disposedto subdivide the firstvaluein the absenceof any subdividingpulse?And thus. halves. 3. 5 rhythmicseriesabove performed with a constanteighth-note as no listener would hear a of quarters.

I believethat rhythmicnotationsof the Babbittcompositions and of manyother twentieth-century workscannot reliably be consideredaccuraterepresentations of the perceivedmetricstructureof this music.155 on Mon.126 of NewMusic Perspectives rhythms. passage In conclusion.130. the listenerprobablyhearsthe fourth-movement as in Example7. Nevit is my experience thatthe melodyis heardby listeners the samewayin ertheless. in those sectionsof the piece featuring nationsbetween J = 120 and J = 80. Example6. in workslike Babbitt'sComposition for FourInstrumntsand Arie da Capo this is not the case.I defyanylistenerwho hasneverseen the scoreof eitherpiece to re-create the barring of eitherone afteras many hearings as he or she wishes. Imaginetryingto performthe passagefrom movement 4 were it notated as in Example7. The performer. 8 Apr 2013 12:12:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . That the rhythmic notation does not accuratelyrepresentthe peron the systemof notationwe have ceivedrhythmicstructures is morea reflection inheritedthan on the music. alterIndeed. discussesa similarnotationaldilemmaconcerningmetricnotation in his TechofMy Musical niques Langutge4 writtenin the samedecadeas Babbitt'sComposition Instruments. namelyusing 3jas the denominatorof the metersignature for the J = 80 sectionsso that the entirepiece could be notated at J = 120 (Vat 120 = 3J. given the waywe havebeen trainedto count durations.must have some metricframein orderto learnto playthe durationsintended by the is composer. As soon as other conflictingpartsentered the score. Attempts to explainor analyzethe rhythmic-metric structure of this or much other posttonalmusicon the basisof these notationsinsteadof on the basisof the perceptionof these valuesmay very well be a misdirected study. which presentsthe unison opening of the sixth movement from Messiaen's Quatuorpour lafin du and an earlier of the same tune in an ensemble texture in the temps appearance fourthmovement. movements4 and 6-that is. such a notation had to be abandonedin favorof an arbitrary metricnotationso that all be could coordinated in See parts performance. and cannot be consideredaccurate of the perceiveddurationsof necessarily representations individualtones. Messiaenfound that when he composed passages with for Four the added-value of his music. I am not sure that I can contributeat this time to an approachto these This content downloaded from 200. OlivierMessiaen. But the violinistand cellistmust also learnthe tune in strict2/4 in orderto staywith the clarinetist in movement 4.whose music surelycontrastsgreatlywith that of Babbitt.But whereasin tonalmusicthe metricframeused by the performer the metric in of to frame re-created the mind the listener the generally perceive 80). The metrically freenotationof the sixthmovementis finefor ensembleperformance. Milton Babbitthimselfhas informedme in the context of readings or rehearsals of the Compositionfor FourInstruments that the metricnotationsarefor the convenienceof the performer. Babbittwould have preferred a notation that had not yet been used in 1948.he could notate and bar durationsso characteristic them as he pleasedonly so long as all partsin the ensemblewere in rhythmicor ensembleunison.

MOVEMENT - Clar pp FOURTH Used by permission of the publisher. 8 Apr 2013 12:12:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . vigoureux.) 1A ^ ? Iq 6r-r?b if 1 lJ 7r SIXTH MOVEMENT g I r _ I von (doublcd thrcee octaves lower I . Theodore PresserCompany Sole RepresentativeU. granitique. \1\ \ h'. and Canada EXAMPLE 7 This content downloaded from 200. Decide. I 11 r P sf b4 66r s t l JJ b bh L Zj i ? 1942 Durand S. Quatuorpour lafindu temps rIU ^P< LJ |l6 |IvJ^f 17 tFf J I II e _ 1 IIJ li bi2 J i l4 _ Ld |4 TTJ . we will have failedto syswith addresstemporalaspectsof this musicin a mannerthat accords tematically our hearingof the music..19.130.S. .). and Canada EXAMPLE 6: MESSIAEN.7- ? 1942 Durand S.h176 env.Notated and HeardMeter 127 between issuesthat does not rely on assumingsuch a one-to-one relationship notated symbol and perceivedduration.A.A.155 on Mon. Used by permission of the publisher.A.A. Theodore PresserCompany Sole RepresentativeU.S. But I am convincedthat until we as theoristscan createa model that solves this problem. un peu vif (.

155 on Mon. John Satterfield(Paris: Alphonse Leduc. The Rhythmsof TonalMusic (Carbondale:Southern Illinois University Press." York: AcademicPress.128 of NewMusic Perspectives NOTES 1. Patterning of Time(New Haven: YaleUniversityPress. The problemwasfirstproposed by JeanneBamberger. and Leonard Doob. The Techniques of My Musical Language. 28-30). 8 Apr 2013 12:12:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . This content downloaded from 200. See C.trans.1981). "Some Investigations into Foreground RhythmicandMetric in Browne (New Music ed. DavidLewin. pp. Richmond Theory: Topics.19." in Society Journal of theAcoustical ofAmerica34 (1962): 582-93. Creelman. 2.1986). 101-37."Human Discrimination of AuditoryDuration.1971). 4. 1944). Special Patterning. chapter7 (pp.130. 3. D.

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