Nelson Mandela - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia | Nelson Mandela | Apartheid


Nelson Mandela - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Nelson Mandela
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (Xhosa pronunciation: [xoˈliːɬaɬa manˈdeːla]; born 18 July 1918) is a South African antiapartheid revolutionary and politician who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was the first black South African to hold the office, and the first elected in a fully representative, multiracial election. His government focused on dismantling the legacy of apartheid through tackling institutionalised racism, poverty and inequality, and fostering racial reconciliation. Politically an African nationalist and democratic socialist, he served as the President of the African National Congress (ANC) from 1991 to 1997. Internationally, Mandela was the Secretary General of the Non-Aligned Movement from 1998 to 1999. A Xhosa born to the Thembu royal family, Mandela attended Fort Hare University and the University of Witwatersrand, where he studied law. Living in Johannesburg, he became involved in anti-colonial politics, joining the ANC and becoming a founding member of its Youth League. After the Afrikaner nationalists of the National Party came to power in 1948 and began implementing the policy of apartheid, he rose to prominence in the ANC's 1952 Defiance Campaign, was elected President of the Transvaal ANC Branch and oversaw the 1955 Congress of the People. Working as a lawyer, he was repeatedly arrested for seditious activities and, with the ANC leadership, was prosecuted in the Treason Trial from 1956 to 1961 but was found not guilty. Although initially committed to non-violent protest, in association with the South African Communist Party he cofounded the militant Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK) in 1961, leading a bombing campaign against government targets. In 1962 he was arrested, convicted of sabotage and conspiracy to overthrow the government, and sentenced to life imprisonment in the Rivonia Trial. Mandela served 27 years in prison, first on Robben Island, and later in Pollsmoor Prison and Victor Verster Prison. An international campaign lobbied for his release, which was granted in 1990 amid escalating civil strife. Becoming ANC President, Mandela published his autobiography and led negotiations with President F.W. de Klerk to abolish apartheid and establish multiracial elections in 1994, in which he led the ANC to victory. He was elected President and formed a Government of National Unity in an attempt to

His Excellency

Nelson Mandela

Mandela in May 2008 President of South Africa In office 10 May 1994 – 14 June 1999 Deputy Thabo Mbeki F. W. de Klerk

Preceded by F. W. de Klerk Succeeded by Thabo Mbeki Personal details Born Rolihlahla Mandela 18 July 1918 Mvezo, South Africa South African African National Congress Evelyn Ntoko Mase (1944–1957) Winnie Madikizela (1958–1996) Graça Machel (1998–present) Children Madiba Thembekile Makgatho Lewanika

Nationality Political party Spouse(s)


Nelson Mandela - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

defuse ethnic tensions. As President, he established a new constitution and initiated the Truth and Reconciliation Commission to investigate past human rights abuses. Continuing the former government's liberal economic policy, his administration introduced measures to encourage land reform, combat poverty and expand healthcare services. Internationally, he acted as mediator between Libya and the United Kingdom in the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial, and oversaw military intervention in Lesotho. He declined to run for a second term, and was succeeded by his deputy Thabo Mbeki, subsequently becoming an elder statesman, focusing on charitable work in combating poverty and HIV/AIDS through the Nelson Mandela Foundation.

Makaziwe Maki Zenani Zindziswa Residence Houghton Estate, Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa Alma mater University of University of System University of University of Fort Hare London External South Africa the Witwatersrand

Christianity (Methodism) Religion Controversial for much of his life, right-wing critics denounced Mandela as a terrorist and communist Signature sympathiser. He has nevertheless received international acclaim for his anti-colonial and anti-apartheid stance, having received over 250 awards, including the 1993 Nobel Peace Website Prize, the US Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Soviet ( Order of Lenin. He is held in deep respect within South Africa, where he is often referred to by his Xhosa clan name of Madiba or as Tata meaning Father; he is often described as "the father of the nation".

1 Early life 1.1 Childhood: 1918–1936 1.2 Clarkebury, Healdtown and Fort Hare: 1936–1940 1.3 Arriving in Johannesburg: 1941–1943 2 Revolutionary activity 2.1 Law studies and the ANC Youth League: 1943–1949 2.2 Defiance Campaign and Transvaal ANC Presidency: 1950–1954 2.3 Congress of the People and the Treason Trial: 1955–1961 2.4 Umkhonto we Sizwe and African tour: 1961–1962 3 Imprisonment 3.1 Arrest and Rivonia trial: 1962–1964 3.2 Robben Island: 1962–1982 3.3 Pollsmoor Prison: 1982–1988 3.4 Victor Verster Prison and release: 1988–1990 4 The end of apartheid 4.1 Early negotiations: 1990–1991 4.2 The CODESA talks: 1991–1992 4.3 General election: 1994 5 Presidency of South Africa: 1994–1999 2/39


Nelson Mandela - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

5.1 National reconciliation 5.2 Domestic programs 5.3 Foreign affairs 5.4 Withdrawing from politics 6 Retirement 6.1 Continued activism: 1999–2004 6.2 "Retiring from retirement": 2004–present 6.2.1 Health 7 Personal and public life 7.1 Image 7.2 Political ideology 7.3 Family 8 Legacy 8.1 Orders, decorations and monuments 8.2 Artistic tributes 8.3 Cinema and television 9 References 9.1 Footnotes 9.2 Bibliography 10 External links

Early life
Childhood: 1918–1936
Mandela was born on 18 July 1918 in the village of Mvezo in Umtatu, then a part of South Africa's Cape Province.[1] Given the forename Rolihlahla, a Xhosa term colloquially meaning "troublemaker",[1] in later years he became known by his clan name, Madiba.[2] His patrilineal great-grandfather, Ngubengcuka, was ruler of the Thembu people in the Transkeian Territories of South Africa's modern Eastern Cape province.[3] One of this king's sons, named Mandela, became Nelson's grandfather and the source of his surname.[4] Because Mandela was only the king's child by a wife of the Ixhiba clan, a so-called "Left-Hand House", the descendants of his cadet branch of the royal family were morganatic, ineligible to inherit the throne but recognized as hereditary royal councillors.[4] Nonetheless, his father, Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa, was a local chief and councillor to the monarch; he had been appointed to the position in 1915, after his predecessor was accused of corruption by a governing white magistrate.[5] In 1926, Gadla, too, was sacked for corruption, but Nelson would be told that he had lost his job for standing up to the magistrate's unreasonable demands.[6] A devotee of the god Qamata,[7] Gadla was a polygamist, having four wives, four sons and nine daughters, who lived in different villages. Nelson's mother was Gadla's third wife, Nosekeni Fanny, who was daughter of Nkedama of the Right Hand House and a member of the amaMpemvu clan of Xhosa.[8] Later stating that his early life was dominated by "custom, ritual and taboo",[10] Mandela grew up with two sisters in his mother's kraal in the village of Qunu, where he tended herds as a cattle-boy, spending much time outside with other boys.[11] Both his parents were

"No one in my family had ever attended school [...] On the first day of school my teacher, Miss Mdingane, gave each of us

[28] Continuing his interest in sport. native administration and Roman Dutch law in his first year.[17] He developed a love of African history. K. history and geography. There he studied English.[19] Aged 16. Baptised a Methodist. Mandela was given the English forename of "Nelson" by his teacher.[14] His mother took Mandela to the "Great Place" palace at Mqhekezweni.[25] Spending much of his spare time longdistance running and boxing.[32] Although having friends connected to the African National Congress (ANC) and the anti-imperialist movement. Why this particular name I have no idea. That day. Mandela felt that Jongintaba and his wife Noengland treated him as their own child. he gave Bible classes in the local community.[18] At the time he nevertheless considered the European colonialists as benefactors. Justice and several other boys travelled to Tyhalarha to undergo the circumcision ritual that symbolically marked their transition from boys to men. the rite over. Mandela began his secondary education at Clarkebury Boarding Institute in Engcobo. where he died of an undiagnosed ailment which Mandela believed to be lung disease. Christianity became a significant part of his life. raising him alongside their son Justice and daughter Nomafu.[20] Clarkebury. politics.wikipedia. Mandela took up ballroom dancing. anthropology. but Mandela became increasingly interested in native African culture.Wikipedia. making his first non-Xhosa friend. around 1937 With Jongintaba's backing.[29] and performed in a drama society play about Abraham Lincoln. Miss Mdingane told me that my new name was Nelson. Chief Jongintaba Dalindyebo.[13] Feeling "cut adrift". studying English.[21] Made to socialise with other students on an equal basis.D. listening to the tales told by elderly visitors to the palace.[33] Helping found a first-year students' House en. Xhosa. a Xhosa who broke taboo by marrying a Sotho. This was the custom among Africans in those days and was undoubtedly due to the British bias of our education. Matanzima. Eastern Cape with around 150 students. Mandela began work on a Bachelor of Arts (BA) degree at the University of Fort Hare. desiring to become an interpreter or clerk in the Native Affairs Department. in his second year Mandela became a prefect.[16] He attended a Methodist mission school located next to the 4/39 . 1994. [9] illiterate. Mandela avoided any involvement.[22] Completing his Junior Certificate in two years. Healdtown and Fort Hare: 1936–1940 Intending to gain skills needed to become a privy councillor for the Thembu royal house. his father came to stay at Qunu. where he was entrusted under the guardianship of Thembu regent.[24] The headmaster emphasised the superiority of English culture and government.[27] Mandela stayed in the Wesley House dormitory. Although he would not see his mother again for many years. he began playing sports and developed his lifelong love of gardening.7/1/13 Nelson Mandela . the free encyclopedia an English name. including Justice.[26] Mandela.[12] When Mandela was about nine. a Sotho languagespeaker.[31] and became a vocal supporter of the British war effort when the Second World War broke out. he claimed that he lost his "stuck up" attitude. not oppressors. befriending Oliver Tambo and his own kinsman.[15] As Mandela attended church services every Sunday with his guardians. and coming under the influence of one of his favourite teachers.[23] in 1937 he moved to Healdtown. and becoming influenced by the anti-imperialist rhetoric of Chief Joyi.[30] A member of the Students Christian Association." — Mandela. he later said that he inherited his father's "proud rebelliousness" and "stubborn sense of fairness". but being a devout Christian. the Methodist college in Fort Beaufort attended by most Thembu royalty. he. an elite black institution in Alice. he was given the name "Dalibunga". becoming best friends with a girl for the first time. his mother sent him to a local Methodist school when he was about seven. a Western-style institution that was the largest school for black Africans in Thembuland.

Mandela befriended Gaur Redebe. but that he "simply found myself doing so.wikipedia. arriving in April 1941.[44] In order to save money and be closer to downtown Johannesburg. The company was run by a liberal Jew.[37] Staying with a cousin in George Goch Township. who was sympathetic to the ANC's cause. and though facing racism. Indians and Coloureds were mixing as equals.[41] Continuing his higher education.[52] Deciding on the need for a youth wing to mass mobilise Africans in opposition to en. the free encyclopedia Committee which challenged the dominance of the second-years. Mandela found that Jongintaba had arranged marriages for him and Justice. Lazar Sidelsky. he briefly courted a Swazi woman before unsuccessfully courting his landlord's daughter.[34] at the end of his first year he became involved in a Students' Representative Council (SRC) boycott against the quality of food. his "first sight of South African capitalism in action". dismayed. Mandela met Anton Lembede. believing that black Africans should be entirely independent in their struggle for political self-determination.[49] Joining the ANC. but was fired when the induna (headman) discovered he was a runaway. among them Joe Slovo.[46] After passing his BA exams in early 1943. Mandela supported Lembede's views. a Jewish communist who became his first white friend.[42] Earning a small wage. and Indian students. as the compound was a "way station for visiting chiefs". although rife with poverty. as well as Nat Bregman. Alexandra always remained "a treasured place" for him.[36] Mandela found work as a night watchman at Crown Mines. he left without receiving a degree. in August 1943 Mandela marched in support of a successful bus boycott to reverse fare rises. Mandela was the only native African student.[35] Arriving in Johannesburg: 1941–1943 Returning to Mqhekezweni in December 1940. and could not do otherwise. However. On returning to Thembuland.[43] Although embarrassed by his poverty. a Xhosa member of the ANC and Communist Party. an African nationalist virulently opposed to a racially united front against colonialism and imperialism or to an alliance with the communists. Mandela was introduced to the realtor and ANC activist Walter Sisulu."[48] Revolutionary activity Law studies and the ANC Youth League: 1943–1949 Beginning law studies at the University of Witwatersrand. Jewish. including old friend Oliver Tambo. forgiving Mandela for running away. working on his BA at night. Mandela returned to Johannesburg to follow a political path as a lawyer rather than become a privy councillor in Thembuland. Mandela rented a room in the house of the Xhoma family in the Alexandra township. Harry Schwarz and Ruth First.[51] Despite his friendships with non-blacks and communists. and because he saw the South African struggle as being racially based rather than class warfare. spending much time with other activists at Sisulu's Orlando house. for which he was temporarily suspended from the university.[40] Becoming increasingly politicised.[38] At the firm.[50] In 1943.[47] He later stated that he experienced no epiphany.[45] In late 1941. Sidelsky and Edelman. they fled to Johannesburg via Queenstown.[39] Attending communist talks and parties. the regent died in winter 1942. who secured him a job as an articled clerk at law firm Witkin. Jongintaba visited. he befriended a number of liberal and communist European. crime and 5/39 . Mandela and Justice arrived a day late for the funeral. Mandela moved into the compound of the Witwatersrand Native Labour Association.7/1/13 Nelson Mandela . Africans. Mandela was impressed that Europeans. Mandela signed up to a University of South Africa correspondence course. Mandela was increasingly influenced by Sisulu.Wikipedia. living among miners of various tribes. he once met the Queen Regent of Basutoland. he stated later that he did not join the Party because its atheism conflicted with his Christian faith.

replaced by James Moroka and a more militant cabinet containing Sisulu.[58] Mandela disagreed with Mda's approach.[55] Mandela enjoyed home life. 8115 in Orlando from early 1946. Sidelsky and Edelman. he was succeeded as ANCYL president by the more moderate Peter Mda.wikipedia. considering their ideology un-African. in which only whites were permitted to vote. in December 1947 supporting an unsuccessful measure to expel communists from the ANCYL. and he decided to become a full-time student. the Afrikaner-dominated Herenigde Nasionale Party under Daniel François Malan took power. bringing together African. When Ramohanoe acted against the wishes of the Transvaal Executive Committee by co-operating with Indians and communists. he was ultimately denied his degree in December 1949. influenced by friends like Moses Kotane and by the Soviet Union's support for wars of national liberation. while a daughter named Makaziwe was born in 1947. Mandela met Evelyn Mase. he altered his entire perspective. 1950. Mandela was elected national president of the ANCYL. Tambo and Godfrey Pitje.[66] Thenceforth. the party codified and expanded racial segregation with the new apartheid legislation.[57] In July 1947. Mandela's mistrust of en. 1948. such as boycotts and strikes. Mandela later related that "We had now guided the ANC to a more radical and revolutionary path. Madiba "Thembi" Thembekile. they rented House no. Mandela was elected to the executive committee of the Transvaal ANC. Openly racialist.[54] Their first child. influenced by the tactics of South Africa's Indian community. Xuma did not support these measures and was removed from the presidency in a vote of no confidence. embracing such an approach. the free encyclopedia their subjugation. where he died. subsisting on loans from the Bantu Welfare Trust. he continued arguing against a racially united front.[61] Gaining increasing influence in the ANC.[64] That month. with Lembede as President and Mandela as a member of the executive committee.Wikipedia. Transkei. Mandela was one of those who forced his resignation. an ANC activist and nurse from Engcobo. Mandela was among a delegation that approached ANC President Alfred Bitini Xuma on the subject at his home in Sophiatown. soon uniting with the Afrikaner Party to form the National Party. was born in February 1946.S. Mandela rushed Lembede to hospital.[63] Defiance Campaign and Transvaal ANC Presidency: 1950–1954 Mandela took Xuma's place on the ANC National Executive in March 1950. the Defend Free Speech Convention was held in Johannesburg. Married on 5 October 1944. Mandela opposed the strike because it was not ANC-led. affecting the actions of all protest groups. but was 6/39 . Indian and communist activists to call an anti-apartheid general strike. but a majority of black workers took part.[59] In 1947. dying nine months later of meningitis. after initially living with her relatives. Mandela and Evelyn in 1944 who agreed to co-operate with communists and non-blacks.[53] At Sisulu's house. Mandela failed his final year at Witwatersrand three times. resulting in increased police repression and the introduction of the Suppression of Communism Act.[65] In 1950. Mandela and his cadres began advocating direct action against apartheid. Mda.7/1/13 Nelson Mandela .[60] In the South African general election."[62] Having devoted his time to politics. his three years of articles ended at Witkin. welcoming his mother and sister Leabie to stay with him. at the ANC national conference of December 1951. Ramohanoe. serving under regional president C.[56] In early 1947. the African National Congress Youth League (ANCYL) was founded on Easter Sunday 1944 in the Bantu Men's Social Centre in Eloff Street. appointing Mandela ANCYL secretary.

and embraced dialectical materialism.[77] In August 1953.[71] With further protests.[67] In April 1952.000.wikipedia.000 to 100. operating in downtown Johannesburg.7/1/13 Nelson Mandela . He became influenced by the texts of Karl Marx. Andrew Kunene read out Mandela's "No Easy Walk to In the early 1950s. a seminal influence on Mandela's thought. but Mandela instead considered it pragmatic. Mandela began work at the H.[78] Though a second daughter. Mandela was National Congress elected regional president in October. 1953 to permit martial law. the title wing. passing qualification exams to become a full-fledged attorney. The speech laid out a contingency plan for a scenario in which the ANC was banned. Although the ultraThe tri-colour flag of the African Africanist Bafabegiya group opposed his candidacy. the free encyclopedia communism also broke down. Mandela was given a six-month ban from attending meetings or talking to more than one individual at a time. the ANC began preparation for a joint Defiance Campaign against apartheid with Indian and communist groups. Jawaharlal Nehru. initiating the campaign protests. some considered it the ethical option. Joseph Stalin and Mao Zedong. and she accused him of adultery. Vladimir Lenin. Makaziwe Phumia. including figures like was taken from a quote by Indian independence leader Karl Marx (left) and Jawaharlal Nehru (right). Found guilty of "statutory communism". The only African-run law firm in the 7/39 . before moving to the liberal-run Helman and Michel.[72] In May. introducing the Public Safety Act.[73] On 30 July 1952. Mandela and Oliver Tambo opened their own law firm. Basner law firm.[68] though his increasing commitment to work and activism meant he spent less time with his family. for which he was arrested and briefly interned in Marshall Square prison. Mandela was arrested under the Suppression of Communism Act and stood trial as a part of the 21 accused – among them Moroka. anti-colonialist thought.M. the firm was forced to relocate to a remote location after their office permit was removed under the Group Areas Act. authorities banned Transvaal ANU President J.[74] In December. their sentence of nine months' hard labour was suspended for two years. often dealing with cases of police brutality. he recommended Mandela as his successor. the government responded with mass arrests. Friedrich Engels. Deciding on a path of nonviolent resistance influenced by Mohandas Gandhi.[75] In September 1953. their custom dwindled. the ANC's membership grew from 20. The Defiance Campaign meanwhile petered out. founding a National Voluntary Board to recruit volunteers. unable to maintain his position. Mandela was influenced by leftFreedom" speech at a Transvaal ANC meeting. Mandela addressed an assembled crowd of 10. B. Sisulu and Dadoo – in Johannesburg. as a result. it was popular with aggrieved blacks. Marks from making public appearances. Mandela and Tambo. involved dividing the organisation into a cell structure with a more centralised leadership.Wikipedia.[76] Mandela obtained work as an attorney for the firm Terblanche and Briggish.[70] At a Durban rally on 22 June. was born in May 1954. This Mandela Plan. or M-Plan.000. Mandela's relationship with Evelyn became strained. Disliked by the authorities.[69] In 1952. making his Transvaal ANU presidency impractical. Evidence has emerged indicating that he was having affairs with ANC member Lillian Ngoyi and en.

non-racialist state with the nationalisation of major industry. When the charter was adopted at a June 1955 conference in Kliptown attended by 3000 delegates. China's government believed the on the will of the people.Wikipedia. who he married in Bizana on 14 June 1958. the people of South Africa.[81] He advised Sisulu to request That South Africa belongs to all who live in it. one charge was dropped.wikipedia. restricting him to Johannesburg for five years.[79] Congress of the People and the Treason Trial: 1955–1961 Mandela came to the opinion that the ANC "had no alternative to armed and violent resistance" after taking part in the unsuccessful "We. a Freedom Charter was drafted by Rusty Bernstein. en. with the defendants successfully applying to have the three judges – all linked to the governing National Party – replaced. Held in Johannesburg Prison amid mass protests.[86] During the divorce proceedings. police cracked down on the event. Mandela was arrested alongside most of the ANC Executive for "high treason" against the state. but Mandela filed for divorce in January 1958. also visiting his mother and Noengland before proceeding to Cape Town. Winnie Madikizela. the divorce was finalised in March. the South African Congress of Trade Unions and the Congress of Democrats. submitting a reformulated version in November which argued that the ANC leadership committed high treason by advocating violent revolution. Nosekeni returned to Transkei. taking their children to live with her brother. and in October the prosecution withdrew its indictment. and continued until adjourning in September. Disgusted by her son's behaviour. she claimed that Mandela had physically abused . but while supporting can justly claim authority unless it is based the anti-apartheid struggle. the free encyclopedia secretary Ruth Mompati." movement insufficiently prepared for guerilla warfare. with the children placed in Evelyn's care.[88] The defence's refutation began on 9 January 1957. spending several weeks imprisoned. declare protest to prevent the demolition of the all-black Sophiatown suburb for all our country and the world to know: of Johannesburg in February 1955. and in February he ruled that there was "sufficient reason" for the defendants to go on trial in the Transvaal Supreme Court. Initiating divorce proceedings in May 1956. before being granted bail.[90] 8/39 The apartheid system pervaded all areas of life. he began courting and politicising a social worker. they underwent a preparatory examination in Drill Hall on 19 December. In August. She later became involved in ANC activities. black and white.[83] Following the end of a second ban in September 1955. overseen by defence lawyer Vernon Berrangé.[85] His marriage broke down as Evelyn left Mandela. persistent but unproven claims assert that the latter bore Mandela a child. and fought for custody of their children.[87] On 5 December 1956. while Evelyn embraced the Jehovah's Witnesses and rejected Mandela's obsession with politics.[82] With the involvement of the South African Indian Congress. calling for the creation of a democratic. but it remained a key part of Mandela's ideology. In January 1958. Based on the responses.[84] In March 1956 he received his third ban on public appearances. the ANC planned a Congress of the People. Mandela went on a working holiday to Transkei to discuss the implications of the Bantu Authorities Act. She withdrew her petition of separation in November. judge Oswald Pirow was appointed to the case. but he often defied it.7/1/13 Nelson Mandela .[89] The formal Treason Trial began in Pretoria in August 1958. the Coloured — The opening of the Freedom Charter[80] People's Congress. and that no government weaponry from the People's Republic of China. a charge the defendants denied. calling on all South Africans to send in proposals for a post-apartheid era. he denied the allegations. 1951 with local tribal leaders.

[93] This made it difficult for their lawyers to reach them. and after the government failed to prevent the strike. after hiding in communist Wolfie Kodesh's flat in Berea.[91] Both parties campaigned for an anti-pass campaign in May 1960. resulting in the deaths of 69 protesters in the Sharpeville massacre.Wikipedia. Mandela and other activists were arrested on 30 March.7/1/13 Nelson Mandela . where Mandela hid Inspired by Fidel Castro's 26th of July Movement in the Cuban Revolution. agreeing on a stay-at home protest to mark 31 May. bombing military installations. the MK publicly announced its existence with 57 bombings on Dingane's Day (16 December) 1961."[102] Soon after ANC leader Luthuli was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.[94] Mandela used his free time to organise an All-In African Conference near Pietermaritzburg.[101] Operating through a cell structure. power plants. organising the ANC's new cell structure and a mass stay-athome strike for 29 May. the free encyclopedia In April 1959. militant Africanists dissatisfied with the ANC's united front approach founded the Pan-African Congress (PAC).[97] Mandela held secret meetings with reporters.[103] The ANC agreed to send Mandela as a delegate to the February 1962 Pan-African Freedom Movement for East.[92] Under the State of Emergency measures. the MK agreed to acts of sabotage to exert maximum pressure on the government with minimum casualties. Mandela travelled the country incognito. Mandela moved to the communist-owned Liliesleaf Farm in Rivonia.wikipedia. in 1961 Mandela co-founded Umkhonto we Sizwe ("Spear of the Nation". Becoming chairman of the militant group. the day South Africa became a republic. when civilians were not present. he gained ideas from illegal literature on guerilla warfare by Mao and Che Guevara. though Mandela thought the group "immature". in March.[95] On 29 March 1961. in later years MK became the group's armed wing.[100] Most early MK members were white communists. telephone lines and transport links at night. imprisoned without charge in the unsanitary conditions of the Pretoria Local prison.400 anti-apartheid delegates met. Natal. Referred to as the "Black Pimpernel" in the press – a reference to Emma Orczy's 1905 novel The Scarlet Pimpernel – the police put out a warrant for his arrest.[105] After the en. at which 9/39 . and it was agreed that the defence team for the Treason Trial should withdraw in protest. he warned them that many anti-apartheid activists would soon resort to violence through groups like the PAC's Poqo. Slovo and Bernstein. Mandela publicly burned his pass as rioting broke out across South Africa. there joined by Raymond Mhlaba. who put together the MK constitution.[96] Umkhonto we Sizwe and African tour: 1961–1962 Disguising himself as a chauffeur. in which Africans burned the passes that they were legally obliged to carry. Central and Southern Africa (PAFMECSA) meeting in Addis Ababa. Mandela's friend Robert Sobukwe was elected president. after a six-year trial. Ethiopia. convincing both ANC leader Albert Luthuli – who was morally opposed to violence – and allied activist groups of its necessity. Representing themselves in court. Officially separate from the ANC. In solidarity. One of the PAC-organized demonstrations was fired upon by police. the judges produced a verdict of not guilty. while the ANC and PAC were banned in April. followed by further attacks on New Year's Eve.[98] He believed that the ANC should form an armed group to channel some of this violence. MK would resort to "guerilla warfare and terrorism. the accused were freed from prison when the state of emergency was lifted in late August.[99] The thatched room at Liliesleaf Farm. Mandela met with Emperor Haile Selassie I. embarrassing the government.[104] Traveling there in secret. leading the government to proclaim martial law. abbreviated MK) with Sisulu and the communist Joe Slovo. Mandela noted that should these tactics fail. and gave his speech after Selaisse's at the conference.

and then went to Tunis. Representing himself with Slovo as legal advisor. The University of London Union voted Mandela to its presidency. who called for them to receive the death penalty.[114] Judge Quartus de Wet soon threw out the prosecution's case for insufficient evidence. police captured Mandela along with Cecil Williams near Howick. who was innocent of all charges. I realized the role I could play in court and the possibilities before me as a defendant. KwaZulu-Natal "In a way I had never quite comprehended before. Guinea. Egypt. Tunisia. some of which mentioned Mandela.[109] Jailed in Johannesburg's Marshall Square prison. with Mandela and his comrades charged with four counts of sabotage and conspiracy to violently overthrow the government. London.7/1/13 Nelson Mandela . admiring the political reforms of President Gamal Abdel Nasser. he was charged with inciting workers' strikes and leaving the country without permission. but completed only two months before being recalled to South Africa.[117] However. Found guilty. England. and on 12 June 1964 de Wet found en. where Winnie could visit him. Mandela and the accused admitted sabotage but denied that they had ever agreed to initiate guerilla war against the government. and nightly vigils for him were held in St.[112] Monument erected in 1996 marking the site where Mandela was arrested near Howick. 1994[113] On 11 July 1963.[110] Moved to Pretoria. He proceeded to Morocco. presenting his new case from December until February 1964. supporters sang Nkosi Sikelel iAfrika.[115] With the exception of James Kantor. but Yutar reformulated the charges. he travelled to Cairo.wikipedia. in his cell he began correspondence studies for a Bachelor of Laws (LLB) degree from the University of London. one of Mandela's speeches – inspired by Castro's "History Will Absolve Me" speech – was widely reported in the press despite official censorship.[108] Imprisonment Arrest and Rivonia trial: 1962–1964 On 5 August 1962. but he disrupted proceedings by wearing a traditional kaross. The subsequent Rivonia Trial began at Pretoria Supreme Court on 9 October. I realized then and there that I could carry on the fight even in the fortress of the enemy. Mandela intended to use the trial to showcase "the ANC's moral opposition to racism" while supporters demonstrated outside the court. fairness and democracy in a society that dishonoured those virtues. South Africa's government ignored all calls for clemency." — Mandela. the representative of the great ideals of freedom. and turning his plea of mitigation into a political speech. with global calls for the release of the accused from such institutions as the United Nations and World Peace Council.Wikipedia. deeming them to be violent communist agitators. as he left the courtroom.[107] Returning to Ethiopia.[106] Leaving Africa for London. Their chief prosecutor was Percy Yutar. They used the trial to highlight their political cause. calling 173 witnesses and bringing thousands of documents and photographs to the trial. arresting those they found there and uncovering paperwork documenting MK's activities.[111] His hearing began on 15 October.[116] The trial gained international attention. where President Habib Bourguiba gave him £5000 for weaponry. reporters and prominent leftist politicians. Paul's Cathedral. I was the symbol of justice in the court of the oppressor. he began a six-month course in guerrilla warfare. refusing to call any witnesses. Liberia and Senegal. Sierra Leone. police raided Liliesleaf Farm. Mali. he met antiapartheid activists. he was sentenced to five years' imprisonment. the free encyclopedia 10/39 . receiving funds from Liberian President William Tubman and Guinean President Ahmed Sékou Touré.

and food quality increasing. games being permitted. but newspapers The lime quarry at Robben Island were forbidden.[135] In 1970. and he was locked in solitary confinement on several occasions for possessing smuggled news clippings. being regularly imprisoned for political activity.[131] His mother visited in 1968.1 m). still unable to visit him.Wikipedia.[121] At night. he was permitted one visit and one letter every six months.7/1/13 Nelson Mandela . but it was abandoned after being infiltrated by an agent of the South African Bureau of State Security (BOSS).[136] He was replaced by Commander Willie Willemse.[138] allowing greater numbers of visits and letters. Winnie got out of prison in 1977 but was forcibly settled in Brandfort.[129] In September 1970 he met British Labour Party MP Dennis Healey. he corresponded with anti-apartheid activists like Mangosuthu Buthelezi and Desmond Tutu. Class D. Mandela. but he and Mandela did not get on. through which he forged links with PAC and Yu Chi Chan Club members. getting into fierce arguments on the latter with Marxists like Mbeki and Harry Gwala.4 m) by 7 feet (2. he worked on his LLB degree. while he also involved himself in a group representing all political prisoners on the island.[119] Isolated from non-political prisoners in Section B.[139] That year.[120] Verbally and physically harassed by several white prison wardens. he debated topics such as homosexuality and politics with his comrades. the free encyclopedia Mandela and two of his co-accused guilty on all four charges. and the glare from the lime permanently damaged his eyesight. the Rivonia Trial prisoners spent their days breaking rocks into gravel. Mandela was initially forbidden to wear sunglasses. complained to visiting judges. Ulundi. Mandela studied Islam. with black prisoners given trousers rather than shorts.wikipedia.[125] Initiating the "University of Robben Island. Mandela was imprisoned in a damp concrete cell measuring 8 feet (2. most significant was the liberal parliamentary representative Helen Suzman of the Progressive Party.[118] Robben Island: 1962–1982 Mandela and his co-accused were transferred from Pretoria to the prison on Robben Island." whereby prisoners lectured on their own areas of expertise.[134] In 1969.[130] South African Minister of Justice Jimmy Kruger visited in December 1974. viewing this as a microcosm of the anti-apartheid struggle. which was en. he began his autobiography.[128] Various official visitors met with Mandela.[127] He also studied Afrikaans.[132] His wife was rarely able to visit. Mandela was forbidden from attending either funeral. while his daughters first visited in December 1975. until being reassigned in January 1965 to work in a lime 11/39 . an escape plan for Mandela was developed by Gordon Bruce. Commander Piet Badenhost became commanding officer. seeing an increase in the physical and mental abuse of prisoners. Mandela had become a Class A prisoner. hoping to build a mutual respect with the warders and convert them to his cause.[126] Though attending Christian Sunday services. with a straw mat on which to sleep.[123] The political prisoners took part in work and hunger strikes – the latter considered largely ineffective by Mandela – to improve prison conditions. dying shortly after. who hoped to see Mandela shot during the escape. prison conditions improved. who developed a cooperative relationship with Mandela and was keen to improve prison standards. remaining there for the next 18 years. and his firstborn son Thembi died in a car accident the following year. who had Badenost reassigned.[124] ANC prisoners elected him to their four-man "High Organ" along with Sisulu.[133] From 1967.[122] Classified as the lowest grade of prisoner. Govan Mbeki and Raymond Mhlaba.[137] By 1975. sentencing them to life imprisonment rather than death. who championed Mandela's cause outside prison. although all mail was heavily censored.

many BCM activists were imprisoned on Robben Island. releasing a statement through his daughter Zindzi stating "What freedom am I being offered while the organisation of the people [ANC] remains banned? Only free men can negotiate.[149] Mandela's cell and the prison yard at Robben Island. where he was imprisoned Pollsmoor Prison: 1982–1988 In April 1982 Mandela was transferred to Pollsmoor Prison in Tokai. Mandela spurned the offer.wikipedia. Numerous banks and Thatcher asked Botha to release Mandela – then at the height of his international fame – to defuse the volatile situation. when he celebrated his 60th birthday.[154] Violence across the country escalated.[156] in February 1985 Botha offered him a release from prison on condition that he '"unconditionally rejected violence as a political weapon". they believed that they were being isolated to remove their influence on younger activists. prison authorities discovered several pages. the UDF saw this as an attempt to divide the anti-apartheid movement on racial lines. although he was critical of their racialism and contempt for white anti-apartheid activists. the free encyclopedia smuggled to London.[151] Getting on well with Pollsmoor's commanding officer. the government refused. and the Freedom of the City of Glasgow.[148] Despite increasing foreign pressure. but following the Soweto uprising of 1976.[143] Renewed international interest in his plight came in July 1978. Ahmed Kathrada and Raymond Mhlaba.[155] Although considering Mandela a dangerous "arch-Marxist".[142] Mandela tried to build a relationship with these young radicals.[153] He was appointed patron of the multiracial United Democratic Front (UDF). now permitted 52 letters a year. resulting in economic stagnation. Botha. Andrew Mlangeni.W. the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding in India in 1979.[140] Instead he devoted his spare time to gardening and reading until he resumed his LLB degree studies in 1980. Thatcher considered Mandela a communist terrorist and supported the suppression of the ANC. with many fearing civil war. relying on powerful foreign Cold War allies in US President Ronald Reagan and UK Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher.Wikipedia. Cape Town along with senior ANC leaders Walter Sisulu.[150] Conditions at Pollsmoor were better than at Robben Island. founded to combat reforms implemented by South African President P. Botha's National Party government had permitted Coloured and Indian citizens to vote for their own parliaments which would have control over education. although Mandela missed the camaraderie and scenery of the island. Scotland in 1981.[144] He was awarded an honorary doctorate in Lesotho.[145][146][147] In March 1980 the slogan "Free Mandela!" was developed by journalist Percy Qoboza. Mandela was permitted to create a roof garden. Under pressure from an international lobby. health. multinational banks stopped investing in South Africa."[157] en. and housing. Mandela's fame had been eclipsed by Steve Biko and the Black Consciousness Movement (BCM).[141] By the late 1960s.7/1/13 Nelson Mandela . Seeing the ANC as 12/39 . the BCM called for militant action. and his study privileges were stopped for four years.[152] also reading voraciously and corresponding widely. like Mandela. but remained unpublished at the time. Brigadier Munro. A prisoner cannot enter into contracts. sparking an international campaign that led the UN Security Council to call for his release. but black Africans were excluded from the system.

using the time to complete his LLB Ken Livingstone in 1985 degree.7/1/13 Nelson Mandela . before releasing Mandela unconditionally and legalising all formerly banned political parties on 2 February 1990.[159] Mandela requested talks with Botha but was denied. with the ANC committing 231 attacks in 1986 and 235 in 1987. Utilising the army and right-wing paramilitaries to combat the resistance. an invitation Mandela considered genial. The anti-apartheid resistance fought back.[166] In a surprise move. Mandela organised secret communications with exiled [165] ANC leader Oliver Tambo.[164] Allowed many 13/39 .[161] Although presented globally as a heroic figure. he faced personal problems when ANC leaders informed him that Winnie had set herself up as head of a criminal gang. Here.[170][171][172] en. break links with the Communist Party and not insist on majority rule.wikipedia. but Botha's government refused to co-operate. In 1989. having a further 11 meetings over 3 years. Botha invited Mandela to a meeting over tea in July 1989. the "Mandela United Football Club".[167] Botha was replaced as state president by de Klerk six weeks later. the free encyclopedia In 1985 Mandela underwent surgery on an enlarged prostate gland. the government secretly funded Zulu nationalist movement Inkatha to attack ANC members. Botha suffered a stroke. Coetsee organised negotiations between Mandela and a team of four government figures starting in May 1988.[160] Mandela's 70th birthday in July 1988 attracted international attention. de Klerk. furthering the violence. de Klerk met with Mandela in December to discuss the situation. retaining the state presidency but stepping down as leader of the National Party. W.[162] Victor Verster Prison and release: 1988–1990 Recovering from tuberculosis caused by dank conditions in his cell. the team agreed to the release of political prisoners and the legalisation of the ANC on the condition that they permanently renounce violence. Mandela rejected these conditions. who had been responsible for torturing and killing opponents – including children – in Soweto. with the BBC organising the Nelson Mandela 70th Birthday Tribute music gig at London's Wembley Stadium. the first photograph of Mandela published in over 20 years. to be replaced by the conservative F. instead secretly meeting with Minister of Justice Kobie Coetsee in 1987. Though some encouraged him to divorce her. before being given new solitary quarters on the ground floor.[158] He was met by "seven eminent persons". he was housed in the relative Greater London Council comfort of a warders house with a personal administration of socialist cook. an international delegation sent to negotiate a settlement.[169] The government published a photograph of Mandela meeting with de Klerk in Cape Town. he decided to remain loyal until she was found guilty by trial.[163] in December 1988 Bust of Mandela erected on Mandela was moved to Victor Verster Prison London's Southbank by the near Paarl. insisting that the ANC would only end the armed struggle when the government renounced violence. de Klerk called his cabinet together to debate legalising the ANC and freeing Mandela. Although some were deeply opposed to his plans. a meeting both men considered friendly.Wikipedia. the new president believed that apartheid was unsustainable and Mandela on a 1988 Soviet [168] commemorative stamp unconditionally released all ANC prisoners except Mandela. Following the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989. in June calling a state of emergency and initiating a police crackdown on unrest.

giving a speech to 14/39 . continuing to Sweden where he was reunited with Tambo. multi-gendered national executive was elected. and then London. which negotiations with a government delegation of 11 Afrikaner men. Mandela held Winnie's hand in front of amassed crowds and press. Libya and Algeria. in France he was welcomed by President François Mitterrand. the free encyclopedia Leaving Victor Verster on 11 February.[181] At the ANC's July 1991 national conference in Durban.[182] en. Zimbabwe. the event was broadcast live across the world. with the two becoming friends. Mandela became ANC headquarters in 1991 impressed them with his discussions of Afrikaner history. many of whom found him more moderate than expected. and press. in the Vatican City by Pope John Paul II.[176] Encouraging foreign countries to support sanctions against the apartheid government. In the United States. Namibia. in which the government lifted the state of emergency. he met President George H. and the negotiations led to the Groot Schuur Minute. Bush. being particularly popular among the African-American community. whom he had long emulated. and would continue as "a purely defensive action against the violence of apartheid.[179] In May 1990. he was elected ANC President.wikipedia. and in England he met Margaret Thatcher. President Suharto in Indonesia and Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad in Malaysia.7/1/13 Nelson Mandela .Wikipedia. while a 50strong multiracial.[177] In Cuba he met President Fidel Castro. the Pretoria Minute. Mandela met with friends. a longtime ANC supporter. for which he was widely criticised by MK activists.000 people at Johannesburg's Soccer City. in the following days." He expressed hope that the government would agree to negotiations. appearing at a Johannesburg conference in December attended by 1600 delegates. In August Mandela – recognising the ANC's severe military disadvantage – offered a ceasefire. Mandela led a multiracial ANC delegation into preliminary Shell House in Johannesburg. Venkataraman in India.[174] Staying at the home of Desmond Tutu. addressed both Houses of Congress and visited eight cities.[180] He spent much time trying to unify and build the ANC. so that "there may no longer be the need for the armed struggle". Mandela admitted the party's faults and announced his aim in building a "strong and well-oiled task force" for securing majority rule. he gave a speech declaring his commitment to peace and reconciliation with the white minority. before visiting Australia and Japan.[173] Driven to Cape Town's City Hall through crowds.W. replacing the ailing Tambo. activists.[178] In Asia he met President R. he notably did not visit the Soviet Union. At the conference. and insisted that his main focus was to bring peace to the black majority and give them the right to vote in national and local elections.[175] The end of apartheid Main article: Negotiations to end apartheid in South Africa Early negotiations: 1990–1991 Mandela proceeded on an African tour. but made it clear that the ANC's armed struggle was not over. where he appeared at the Nelson Mandela: An International Tribute for a Free South Africa concert in Wembley Stadium. meeting supporters and politicians in Zambia.

while the ANC forced her to step down from the national executive for misappropriating ANC funds.[186] The CODESA talks: 1991–1992 The Convention for a Democratic South Africa (CODESA) began in December 1991 at the Johannesburg World Trade Center.[190] Following the Bisho massacre. The negotiations agreed that a multiracial general election would be held. Mandela publicly announced his separation from Winnie.wikipedia. de Klerk reluctantly agreed. Mandela recognised that there was a "third force" within the state intelligence services fuelling the "slaughter of the people" and openly blamed de Klerk – whom he increasingly distrusted – for the Sebokeng massacre. before attending a meeting of the Organisation of African Unity in Senegal. but the ANC prevented further negotiations on the issue.[187] CODESA 2 was held in May 1992.Wikipedia. in which 28 ANC supporters and one soldier were shot dead by the Ciskei Defence Force during a protest march. Mandela realised that mass action was leading to further violence and resumed negotiations in September. such concessions brought fierce internal criticism. Mandela opposed this. guaranteeing separation of powers. He gained funding for her defence from the International Defence and Aid Fund for Southern Africa and from Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi. little negotiation was achieved. while supporters marched on Pretoria. a concession between de Klerk's desire for federalism and Mandela's for unitary government. but he supported her during her trial for kidnap and assault. The UN subsequently sent special envoy Cyrus Vance to the country to aid negotiations. it also divided the country into nine provinces. under increasing pressure. reduced to two on appeal. in which de Klerk insisted that post-apartheid South Africa must use a federal system with a rotating presidency to ensure the protection of ethnic minorities. that Zulu traditional weapons be banned.[188] Following the Boipatong massacre of ANC activists by government-aided Inkatha militants. Mandela met with Inkatha leader 15/39 . The ANC also conceded to the World Economic Forum. On 13 April 1992. He agreed to do so on the conditions that all political prisoners be released. Although Cyril Ramaphosa led the ANC's delegation.[184] Mandela's reputation was further damaged by the increase in "black-on-black" violence. central Johannesburg. Mandela called off the negotiations. discredited minority regime".[191] The duo agreed on an interim constitution. though the violence continued. particularly between ANC and Inkatha supporters in KwaZulu-Natal. 1992 safeguarding the jobs of white civil servants. the latter two measures to prevent further Inkatha attacks.[192] en. Mandela moved into the mostly-white Johannesburg suburb of Houghton.[189] Calling for domestic mass action. Buthelezi and de Klerk signed a peace accord. Dominated by the National Party and ANC. creating a constitutional court.[183] Their marriage was increasingly strained as he learned of her affair with Dali Mpofu. each with its own premier and civil service. in August the ANC organised the largest-ever strike in South African history. and that Zulu hostels would be fenced off. while moving with Winnie to her large Soweto home.[185] In September 1991 a national peace conference was held in Johannesburg in which Mandela. he took to the stage to denounce him as "head of an illegitimate.7/1/13 Nelson Mandela . demanding a unitary system governed by majority rule. and including a US-style bill of rights. but in June 1991 she was found guilty and sentenced to six years. and after de Klerk used the closing speech to condemn the ANC's violence. the free encyclopedia Mandela was given an office in the newly purchased ANC headquarters at Shell House. in which thousands died. attended by 228 delegates from 19 political parties. resulting in a five-year coalition government of national unity and a constitutional assembly that gave the De Klerk and Mandela shake hands at National Party continuing influence. at which he called for a special session of the UN Security Council and proposed that a UN peacekeeping force be stationed in South Africa to prevent "state terrorism". Mandela remained a key figure.

1994 With the election set for 27 April 1994. and though he was elected President. and with de Klerk convinced Inkatha's Buthelezi to enter the elections rather than launch a war of secession.[199] The ANC campaigned on a Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) to build a million houses in five years.[197] Mandela also made a cameo appearance as a schoolteacher reciting one of Malcolm X's speeches in the final scene of the 1992 film Malcolm X. Pik Botha and Constand Viljoen. an alliance of farright Afrikaner parties and black ethnic-secessionist groups like Inkatha. with Inkatha and the National Party each taking another. Mandela's offer to shake his hand surprised him. he was encouraged to embrace private enterprise by members of the Chinese and Vietnamese Communist parties at the January 1992 World Economic Forum in Switzerland. Europe and Asia to meet wealthy donors. Mandela began meeting with big business figures. Mandela made a publicised speech to calm rioting. The party's slogan was "a better life for all".[204] As leaders of the two major parties. this policy became the subject of ridicule. the ANC was just short of the two-thirds majority needed to change the constitution.[202] He also urged a reduction in the voting age from 18 to 14. at which Mandela could appear. respectively – Mandela met with Afrikaner politicians and generals. touring North America.[203] Mandela casting his vote in the 1994 elections.Wikipedia. though a poor public speaker. he was a popular figure with great status among black South Africans. he publicly accepted that the election had been marred by instances of fraud and 16/39 . South Africa's press opposed Mandela's election. leading some commentators to consider it a victory for Mandela. although an AWB cell killed 20 with car bombs.wikipedia. the ANC began campaigning. they were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in Norway. soon after appearing at a mass funeral in Soweto for Tambo.[196] Influenced by young ANC leader Thabo Mbeki. including former supporters of the apartheid regime. who had died from a stroke.[193] Following the murder of ANC leader Chris Hani. introduce universal free education and extend access to water and electricity. de Klerk and Mandela appeared on a televised debate.[200] With the exception of the Weekly Mail and the New Nation. although de Klerk was widely considered the better speaker at the event.[207] en. although it was not explained how this development would be funded. instead supporting the National or Democratic Party. Concerned that COSAG would undermine the election. Although criticised by socialist ANC members.[201] Mandela devoted much time to fundraising for the ANC. independently meeting President Bill Clinton and each receiving the Liberty Medal.[206] Having taken 62% of the national vote. the free encyclopedia The democratic process was threatened by the Concerned South Africans Group (COSAG). including P. Greenberg orchestrated the foundation of People's Forums across the country.[198] General election: 1994 Main article: South African general election. persuading many to work within the democratic system. opening 100 election offices and hiring advisor Stanley Greenberg. particularly in the wake of the Battle of Bop and Shell House Massacre – incidents of violence involving the AWB and Inkatha. The ANC was also victorious in 7 provinces.7/1/13 Nelson Mandela . in June 1993 the white supremacist Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging (AWB) attacked the Kempton Park World Trade Centre. fearing continued ethnic strife. both Mandela and de Klerk visited the US. and played down his support for nationalisation.[195] Soon after. Botha. Mandela voted at the Ohlange High School in Durban. rejected by the ANC.[205] The election went ahead with little violence.W.[194] In July 1993. fearing that he would scare away much-needed foreign investment.

[216] Changing clothes several times a day. he faced various 17/39 .[211] Retaining his Houghton home. while Thabo Mbeki was selected as second.[215] Although speaking out in favour of freedom of the press and befriending many Mandela moved into the Presidential journalists. Nelson initiated divorce proceedings in August 1995. meeting with locals.000 rand annual income to the Nelson Mandela Children's Fund. instead settling into the nearby Westbrooke manor. de Klerk became first Deputy President. including world leaders from disparate backgrounds. he also had a house built in his home village of Qunu.[218] In late 1994 he attended the 49th conference of the ANC in Bloemfontein.wikipedia. after assuming the presidency. Cape Town. but their friendship grew into a partnership. walking around the area. he felt isolated and lonely. Mandela's autobiography. Mandela was critical of much of the country's media.[212] Aged 76. Mandela became head of a Government of National Unity dominated by the ANC – which alone had no experience of governance – but containing representatives from the National Party and Inkatha. when she was still in mourning. which he renamed "Genadendal". and befriended a number of ultra-rich businessman.[221] Having seen other post-colonial African economies damaged by the departure of white elites. that it was overwhelmingly owned and run by middle-class whites and believing that it focused too much on scaremongering around crime. noting Office of Tuynhuys.[219] By 1995 he had entered into a relationship with Graça Machel. such as Michael Jackson.Wikipedia. with Machel accompanying him on many of his foreign visits. Mandela allowed de Klerk to retain the presidential residence in the Groote Schuur estate.[220] National reconciliation Presiding over the transition from apartheid minority rule to a multicultural democracy. She turned down Mandela's first marriage proposal. Mandela worked to reassure South Africa's white population that they en. Mandela would grow to rely heavily on him throughout his presidency. Whoopi Goldberg. although she expressed an interest in reconciling. the free encyclopedia Presidency of South Africa: 1994–1999 Main article: Presidency of Nelson Mandela Mandela's inauguration took place in Pretoria on 10 May 1994. Mandela saw national reconciliation as the primary task of his presidency. meaning "Valley of Mercy" in Afrikaans. a Mozambican political activist 27 years his junior who was the widow of former president Samora Machel.7/1/13 Nelson Mandela .[217] In December 1994. at which a more militant National Executive was elected. which he visited regularly. and the Spice Girls. donating a third of his 552. was finally published. which he had founded in 1995.[213] He often entertained celebrities. even on formal occasions. allowing him to organise policy details. known as "Madiba shirts". Long Walk to Freedom. wanting to retain some independence and dividing her time between Mozambique and Johannesburg.[210] Moving into the presidential office at Tuynhuys in Cape Town. Mandela lived simply. resulting in strong criticism from ANC anti-capitalists. They had first met in July 1990. as well as British monarch Elizabeth II on her March 1995 state visit to South Africa.[208] South Africa's first black President.[209] Although Mbeki had not been his first choice for the job. The event was attended by 4000 guests. In keeping with earlier agreements.[214] Despite his opulent surroundings. televised to a billion viewers globally. one of Mandela's trademarks was his use of Batik shirts. and although exhibiting continued energy. among them Winnie Mandela. and judging tribal disputes. like Harry Oppenheimer of Anglo-American.

Mac Maharaj and Dullah Omar – had long been comrades. the Springboks. although others. Of a population of 40 million. bombings. Winnie. including Hendrik Verwoerd's widow Betsie Schoombie and the lawyer Percy Yutar. with none of the proposed nationalisation or job creation. appointing Desmond Tutu as its chair.Wikipedia. and Minerals and Energy. the free encyclopedia were protected and represented in "the Rainbow Nation". Dedicated in February 1996. After the Springboks won an epic final over New Zealand. though only de Klerk's appeal was successful. There was 33% unemployment.7/1/13 Nelson Mandela . wearing a Springbok shirt with Pienaar's Flag of South Africa. Mandela oversaw the formation of a Truth and Reconciliation Commission to investigate crimes committed under apartheid by both the government and the ANC.[233] en. before issuing its final report in October 1998."[227] Mandela's efforts at reconciliation assuaged the fears of whites.[228] More controversially. stating that it "had helped us move away from the past to concentrate on the present and the future". Alfred Nzo.[223] The other cabinet positions were taken by ANC members. as de Klerk later put it. emphasising personal forgiveness and reconciliation. but also drew criticism from more militant blacks.[229] Mandela praised the Commission's work.wikipedia.[222] Mandela attempted to create the broadest possible coalition in his cabinet.500 police just before the election.[224] Mandela's relationship with de Klerk was strained. Mandela presented the trophy to captain Francois Pienaar. with a fifth of the national budget being spent on debt repayment."[226] He encouraged black South Africans to get behind the previously hated national rugby team. To prevent the creation of martyrs. an Afrikaner. In January 1995. torture. Joe Slovo. with de Klerk as first Deputy President while other National Party officials became ministers for Agriculture.[232] Instead. Mandela thought that de Klerk was intentionally provocative. Energy.[225] Mandela personally met with senior figures of the apartheid regime. This was widely seen as a major step in the 1994 reconciliation of white and black South Africans. the Commission granted individual amnesties in exchange for testimony of crimes committed during the apartheid era. were much younger. he announced that "courageous people do not fear forgiving. Both de Klerk and Mbeki appealed to have parts of the report suppressed. as South Africa hosted the 1995 Rugby World Cup. His estranged wife. and Buthelezi was named Minister for Home Affairs. around 23 million lacked electricity or adequate sanitation. for the sake of peace.[230] Domestic programs Mandela's administration inherited a country with a huge disparity in wealth and services between white and black 18/39 . and just under half of the population lived below the poverty line. 12 million lacked clean water supplies. the government adopted liberal economic policies designed to promote foreign investment.[231] Government financial reserves were nearly depleted. many of whom – like Joe Modise. adhering to the "Washington consensus" advocated by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund. Environment. "Mandela won the hearts of millions of white rugby fans. and later criticised him for defending former Minister of Defence Magnus Malan when the latter was charged with murder. meaning that the extent of the promised Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) was scaled back. while de Klerk felt that he was being intentionally humiliated by the president. it held two years of hearings detailing rapes. adopted April own number 6 on the back. accused the ANC of being more interested in appeasing whites than in helping blacks. with 2 million children not in school and a third of the population illiterate. and assassinations. such as Tito Mboweni and Jeff Radebe. Mandela heavily chastised him for awarding amnesty to 3.

he took a soft diplomatic approach to removing Sani Abacha's military junta in Nigeria but later became a leading figure in calling for sanctions when Abacha's regime increased human rights violations.[242] Mandela's administration was mired in corruption scandals.000 whites who emigrating in the late 1990s. 500 clinics were upgraded or constructed. 2 million people were connected to the electricity grid.[245] He echoed Mbeki's calls for an "African Renaissance". free healthcare was introduced for children under six and pregnant women.[240] The Basic Conditions of Employment Act of 1997 improved enforcement mechanisms while extending a "floor" of rights to all workers. 13% in 1997/98.5 million children were brought into the education system. with South Africa having one of the world's highest crime rates. leaving it for Mbeki to deal with. 1.[239] The Labour Relations Act of 1995 promoted workplace democracy.[237] The Land Reform Act 3 of 1996 safeguarded the rights of labour tenants who live and grow crops or graze livestock on farms. by 1999. orderly collective bargaining. and 750.[235] By the 1999 election.[247] In South Africa's first post-apartheid military operation.[248] en.[241] Mandela also received criticism for failing to sufficiently combat crime.[236] The Land Restitution Act of 1994 enabled people who had lost their property as a result of the Natives Land Act. and was greatly concerned with issues on the continent. 3 million people were connected to telephone lines. the ANC could boast that due to their policies.[234] In 1994. which had previously been set at different levels for South Africa's different racial groups. water access was extended to 3 million people. and the effective resolution of labour disputes. housing nearly 3 million people. this was a key reason cited by the 750. the free encyclopedia Under Mandela's presidency. leading to the settlement of tens of thousands of land claims. a provision extended to all those using primary level public sector health care services in 1996. Mandela encouraged other nations to resolve conflicts through diplomacy and reconciliation.wikipedia. This legislation ensured that such tenants could not be evicted without a court order or if they were over the age of sixty-five.7/1/13 Nelson Mandela .[238] The Skills Development Act of 1998 provided for the establishment of mechanisms to finance and promote skills development at the workplace. and old-age pensions. with Mandela being perceived as "soft" on corruption and greed. Mandela ordered troops into Lesotho in September 1998 to protect the government of Prime Minister Pakalitha Mosisili after a disputed election prompted opposition uprisings. child maintenance grants. 1913 to claim back their land. welfare spending increased by 13% in 1996/97. and 7% in 1998/99. Critics like Edwin Cameron accused Mandela's government of doing little to stem the HIV/AIDS pandemic in the country.[240] while the Employment Equity Act of 1998 was passed to put an end to unfair discrimination and ensure the implementation of affirmative action in the workplace.[243] Mandela on a visit to Brazil in 1998 Foreign affairs Following the South African example.[246] In 1996 he was appointed Chairman of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and initiated unsuccessful negotiations to end the First Congo War in Zaire.[234] The government introduced parity in grants for communities. including disability grants.Wikipedia. Mandela later admitted that he had personally neglected the issue.000 houses were constructed. 10% of South Africa's population were HIV positive.[240] Many domestic problems however 19/39 .

but he was challenged by Winnie.wikipedia. chauvinistic interests" of the Israeli government in stalling negotiations to end the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and urged India and Pakistan to negotiate to end the Kashmir conflict. whose populist rhetoric had gained her a strong following within the party. Mandela sought greater economic relations with East Asia. he set a wedding for his 80th birthday. a Zulu who had been imprisoned on Robben Island.[261] Mandela had never planned on standing for a second term in office.[250] He attracted controversy for his close relationship with Indonesian President Suharto. Mandela and the Executive supported the candidacy of Jacob Zuma. Mandela was appointed Secretary-General of the Non-Aligned Movement.[256] The ANC took over the supported him during his cabinet positions formerly held by the National Party. in particular with Malaysia. Though publicly criticising administrative authority within a constitutional democracy. governed by Scots law. Mandela proposed that they be tried in a third country. He used the event to criticise the "narrow. who urged him to set an example for young people.[249] Inspired by the region's economic boom. withdrawing liked Clinton. marking an improvement in his relationship with Mandela.Wikipedia. Zuma defeated her in a landslide victory vote at the election. which was agreed to by all parties. [244] becoming sole Deputy President. whose regime was responsible for mass human rights abuses. in February 1998 he publicly stated that "I'm in love with a remarkable lady". enshrining a series of institutions to check political and Clinton. and personally from the coalition government in protest.[252] When western governments and media criticised these visits.[255] De Klerk him on several occasions. although this was scuppered by the 1997 Asian financial crisis. and gave his farewell speech on 29 March 1999.[253] Mandela hoped to resolve the long-running dispute between Libya and the US and Britain over bringing to trial the two Libyans.[258] Mandela stepped down as ANC President at the December 1997 conference.[254] Withdrawing from politics The new Constitution of South Africa was agreed upon by parliament in Mandela with US President Bill May 1996. although privately urged him to withdraw from the occupation of East Timor. while Mandela met Gaddafi in Libya to award him the Order of Good Hope. the free encyclopedia In September 1998. in July. after which he retired. Castro visited in 1998.[251] Mandela faced similar criticism from the west for his personal friendships with Fidel Castro and Muammar Gaddafi.[257] When both Mandela and Mbkei were out of the country in one 20/39 . the trial was held at Camp Zeist in the Netherlands in April 1999. and found one of the two men guilty.7/1/13 Nelson Mandela . Replacing Mbeki as Deputy President. Mandela lambasted the criticisms as having racist undertones. Mandela however opposed the implementation of this constitution. for which he was criticised by both Israel and India. with Mbeki impeachment proceedings.[262] en. Buthelezi was appointed "Acting President". who were indicted in November 1991 and accused of sabotaging Pan Am Flight 103. Abdelbaset al-Megrahi and Lamin Khalifah Fhimah.[259] Mandela's relationship with Machel had intensified. and under pressure from his friend Desmond Tutu. and although hoping that Ramaphosa would replace him. Mbeki had become "de facto President of the country". Mandela admitted that by then. who held their annual conference in Durban.[260] The following day he held a grand party with many foreign dignitaries. the ANC elected Mbeki to the position. to widespread popular acclaim.

he visited Megrahi in Barlinnie prison."[273] "Retiring from retirement": 2004–present In June 2004. describing it as "a tragedy" and lambasting US President George W.[276][277] He also spoke with U. spoke at the XV International AIDS Conference in Bangkok. aged 85 and amid failing health. and when in Johannesburg worked with the Nelson Mandela Foundation.wikipedia. Mandela became more vocal in criticising Western powers. Mandela traveled to the United States. rural development and school construction.[265] In 2000. He strongly opposed the 1999 NATO intervention in Kosovo and called it an attempt by the world's powerful nations to police the entire world. Thailand.[266] Mandela was successfully treated for prostate cancer in July 2001.[272] Retaining an interest in Libyan-UK relations. the Nelson Mandela Invitational charity golf tournament was founded. meeting with world leaders and 21/39 . Bush and UK Prime Minister Tony Blair for undermining the UN.[269] and in 2004. hosted by Gary Player. These projects were followed by the Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory and the 46664 campaign against HIV/AIDS. he devoted much of his time to the of Economics in 2000 issue following his retirement.[275] He retained some involvement in international affairs. referring to them as "psychological persecution. the Foundation discouraged invitations for him to appear at public events and denied most interview requests. to provide postgraduate scholarships to African students.[276] While launching the foundation. and urged Mbeki's government to ensure that HIV+ South Africans had access to retrovirals.Wikipedia. Mandela announced that he was "retiring from retirement" and retreating from public life. although he would subsequently reconcile his relationship with Blair.[264] Although he had been heavily criticised for failing to do enough to fight Mandela visiting the London School the pandemic during his presidency. University of Oxford. Mandela sought a quiet family life. he reverted to a busy public life with a daily programme of tasks. asserting that it had committed more "unspeakable atrocities" across the world than any other nation.[268] He gave the closing address at the XIII International AIDS Conference in Durban in 2000. and in 2003 the Mandela Rhodes Foundation was created at Rhodes House. but it was abandoned before publication. to be divided between Johannesburg and Qunu. citing the atomic bombing of Japan. Senator Hillary Clinton and President en. describing it as "a war" that had killed more than "all previous wars".7/1/13 Nelson Mandela ."[274] Although continuing to meet with close friends and family. to be titled The Presidential Years. In 2005. Mandela inaugurated the Nelson Mandela Annual Lecture.[263] Finding such seclusion difficult. I will call you. this attracted international controversy. the free encyclopedia Retirement Continued activism: 1999–2004 Retiring in June 1999.[270] Publicly. founded in 1999 to focus on combating HIV/AIDS. where he spoke before the Brookings Institute and the NAACP on the need for economic assistance to African countries. Mandela founded the Nelson Mandela Legacy Trust. He attacked the US more generally.S.[267] In 2002. remarking "Don't call me. He set about authoring a sequel to his first autobiography. and spoke out against the conditions of his treatment.[271] In 2003 he spoke out against the plans for the US and UK to launch the War in Iraq.

[284] before being re-hospitalised for a lung infection and gallstone removal in in December 2012. in May 2005 Nelson Mandela and then-President George W. Senator Barack Obama. flew him out to the Eastern Cape to attend a pro-Zuma rally in the midst of a storm in 2009.[281] In a speech marking the event. The Elders.Wikipedia.7/1/13 Nelson Mandela ."[278] That year. Mandela. attracting international attention.S. although the Nelson Mandela Foundation were upset when his grandson. but stable condition".[283] Health In February 2011. Mandela announced the formation of this new group.[286] his lung infection reoccurred. although usually overshadowed Mbeki at any public events that the two attended. Chief Mandla Mandela. He had expert medical care. the South African government was criticized for the incident when it confirmed the report several weeks later. London.[287] On 8 June 2013. Bush. he was briefly hospitalised with a respiratory infection. in a speech delivered on his 89th birthday. Mandela continued to support the ANC. asking him to step down "with residual respect and a modicum of dignity. and Desmond Tutu convened a group of world leaders in Johannesburg to contribute their wisdom and independent leadership to some of the world's toughest problems.[289] En route to the hospital. declaring that there would be "few better gifts for us in the year" marking a decade since the fall of apartheid. also in May 2005 Mandela with wife Graça Machel and Indian guru Sri Chinmoy 22/39 en.[280] and a concert in his honour in Hyde Park. Machel. and he was rehospitalized in Pretoria in a serious condition.[288] After four days.[277] Mandela also encouraged Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe to resign over growing human rights abuses in the country. his lung infection worsened.[280] Throughout Mbeki's presidency. Mandela called for the rich to help the poor across the world. his ambulance broke down and was stranded on the roadside for 40 minutes."[290] The first meeting of Nelson Mandela and then-U. Mandela was more at ease with Mbeki's successor Jacob Zuma. where he received a "rapturous reception".[279] Mandela's 90th birthday was marked across the country on 18 July 2008. and he was briefly hospitalised in Pretoria.S. the free encyclopedia George W.[285] After a successful medical procedure in early March 2013. Senator Barack Obama. Mandela had successfully campaigned for South Africa to host the 2010 FIFA World Cup. When this proved . with the main celebrations held at Qunu. Mandela made a rare public appearance during the closing ceremony.wikipedia. Bush and had his first meeting with then-U. it was reported that he had stabilized and remained in a "serious. Despite maintaining a low-profile during the event. in the Oval Office.[282] Since 2004. but President Jacob Zuma countered that "There were seven doctors in the convoy who were in full control of the situation throughout the period. he spoke out publicly against Mugabe in 2007.

wikipedia.[299] Personal and public life Image Across the world. Very conscious of his image.[312] and was driven by a belief in natural and human rights.[314] Influenced by Marxism.[300] Considered friendly and welcoming. the free encyclopedia On 22 June 2013. accountability and freedom of speech" were the fundamentals of democracy. during the revolution Mandela advocated scientific en.[305] He also had a mischievous sense of humour. even defending political opponents to his allies. Mandela was "openly opposed to capitalism.[292] On 23 June 2013. he excelled at presenting himself well in press photographs and producing soundbites. he enjoyed talking with their staff when at official functions.[296] On 25 June Cape Town Archbishop Thabo Makgoba visited Mandela at the hospital and prayed with Graça Machel Mandela "at this hard time of watching and waiting".[311] He held a conviction that "inclusivity.[306] The 14th Dalai Lama is a long-time friend of former president Nelson A "Free Mandela" protest in Berlin.7/1/13 Nelson Mandela . CBS News stated that he had not opened his eyes in days and was unresponsive. accompanied by the Deputy President of the ANC. carrying himself in a "regal style" stemming from his childhood in the Thembu royal house. had publicly asked the family to "set him free" a week prior).[297] The next day. met Mandela's wife Graça Machel at the hospital in Pretoria and discussed his condition. including his opponents.[313] A democratic socialist. private land-ownership and the power of big money". Mandela came to be seen as "a moral authority" with a great "concern for truth".Wikipedia. he was known for looking for the best in everyone. also being "moody and dejected" away from the public eye.[291] (Former bodyguard Shaun van Heerden. throughout his life he sought fine quality clothes. an ideological position he held since joining the ANC. Cyril Ramaphosa. and the family was discussing just how much medical intervention should be given. Mandela exhibited a "relaxed charm" when talking to others.[308] Political ideology Mandela was an African nationalist. and a socialist".[302] In later life.[309] also being "a democrat. though some thought him too trusting of others.[298] A relative of Mandela told The Daily Telegraph newspaper he is on life support. Mandela was a devout believer in democracy and would abide by majority decisions even when deeply disagreeing with them.[310] Although he presented himself in an autocratic manner in several speeches.[304] and exhibited a "hot temper" which could flare up in anger in certain situations. and during his presidency was often compared to a constitutional monarch.[307] Considered a "master of imagery and performance". described by CBS News as "Mandela's constant companion for the last 12 years". 1986 23/39 .[293][294][295] Zuma. President Jacob Zuma issued a statement saying that Mandela's condition had become "critical".[303] He was renowned for his stubbornness and loyalty.[301] Although often befriending millionaires and dignitaries. Zuma visited Mandela in the hospital and canceled a visit scheduled for the next day to Mozambique.

and Zindziswa (Zindzi) Mandela-Hlongwane. has fathered six children.[331] In 1995 Mandela asked anti-apartheid and women's rights activist Amina Cachalia to marry him.[317] In the 1955 Freedom Charter. it called for the nationalisation of banks. South African authorities did not permit her to visit him. her father became the agriculture minister in the Transkei. and they named their second daughter in her honour. Mandla Mandela. although they met in Johannesburg before being married in October 1944.[315] although he denied being a communist during the Treason Trial. the free encyclopedia socialism. both named Makaziwe Mandela (known as Maki. and Mandela attended her funeral. where she was the city's first black social worker.[327] Mandela was still in prison when his daughter Zenani was married in 1973 to Prince Thumbumuzi Dlamini. gold mines. believing it necessary to ensure equal distribution of wealth. stating that Mandela "embraced communism and communists" in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Madiba "Thembi" Thembekile (1946–1969) and Makgatho Mandela (1950–2005). he could be stern and demanding of them. divorcing under the multiple strains of his adultery and constant absences. the former Mozambican president and ANC ally who was killed in an air crash 12 years earlier. to Graça Machel (née Simbine).[324] Makgatho's son. Winnie Madikizela-Mandela. As of April 2013 has 17 grandchildren. a brother of both King Mswati III of Swaziland[328] and of Queen Mantfombi of the Zulus. though was a "fellow traveller" rather than a party member. Mandela nationalised nothing during his presidency.[320] and a growing number of great-grandchildren. Mandela was often referred to by his Xhosa clan name of Madiba.[334][335] en.[330] In July 2012. although was more affectionate with his grandchildren.Wikipedia.[325] Mandela's second wife. Winnie would be deeply torn by family discord which mirrored the country's political strife.wikipedia. but she turned down his proposal because she said that "I'm my own person and that I had just recently lost my husband whom I had enormous regard for". although they. who was also from the Transkei.[322] Mandela's first marriage was to Evelyn Ntoko Mase. and two daughters. became chief of the Mvezo tribal council in 2007. Their first daughter died aged nine months.[326] The marriage ended in separation (April 1992) and divorce (March 1996).[326] Zindzi was only 18 months old when her father was sent to Robben island.[329] Although she had vivid memories of her father. fueled by political estrangement.[323] Mase died in 2004. also came from the Transkei area. while her husband was serving a life sentence in the Robben Island prison. fearing that this would scare away foreign investors.[332] Mandela remarried on his 80th birthday in 1998. met in Johannesburg.[319] Family Mandela has been married three times. This decision was in part influenced by the fall of the socialist states in the Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc during the early 1990s. too. a religion requiring political neutrality.[316] Biographer David James Smith thought this untrue.[333] Legacy Within South Africa. and land. Zenani was appointed ambassador to Argentina.[54] The couple broke up in 1957 after 13 years. becoming the first of Mandela's three remaining children to enter public life. Later. born 24/39 . from the age of four up until sixteen.[326] They had two daughters. which Mandela had helped create.[318] Despite these beliefs.[321] Considered physically undemonstrative with his children.[86] The couple had two sons. devotion to revolutionary agitation. born 1947 and 1953).7/1/13 Nelson Mandela . widow of Samora Machel. and the fact that she was a member of the Jehovah's Witnesses. Zenani (Zeni). born 4 February 1958.

[348] and in 1992 received Pakistan's Nishan-e-Pakistan. Nelson Mandela was portrayed by David Harewood. another Mandela statue was unveiled at Groot Drakenstein Correctional Centre.[356] Nickelback. marking his contribution to the anti-apartheid struggle.[349] In 1992 he was awarded the Atatürk Peace Award by Turkey. the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed Mandela's birthday. He refused the award.wikipedia.[341] Mandela Family Museum.[338] In 2004. standing on the spot where Mandela was released from the prison.[362] and Morgan en. formerly Victor Verster Prison.[359] Nelson Mandela Bridge in Johannesburg Cinema and television Mandela has been depicted in cinema and television on multiple occasions.[337] being seen as "the national liberator.[361] In the 2009 BBC television film Mrs Mandela. the saviour. decorations and monuments Main article: List of awards and honours bestowed upon Nelson Mandela Within South Africa. the free encyclopedia Orders.[346] The last reciprocent of the Soviet Union's Lenin Peace Prize from the Soviet Union.[350] but later accepted the award in 1999. Other artists who released songs or videos honouring Mandela include Johnny Clegg. citing human rights violations committed by Turkey at the time. Youssou N'Dour's album Nelson Mandela was the Senegalese artist's first US release.[360] while Dennis Haysbert played him in Goodbye Bafana (2007).[345] he was the first living person to be made an honorary Canadian 25/39 .[352] In 1985.[340] In 2008. as "Mandela Day". after a Mandela statue was installed there.[354] Brenda Fassie.[339] and the Sandton Square shopping centre was renamed Nelson Mandela Square.[336] and "the founding father of democracy".[344] and the Order of Canada.[358] and Ampie du Preez and AB de Villiers. It called on individuals to donate 67 minutes to doing something for others.[355] Beyond. Johannesburg granted Mandela the freedom of the city. Stevie Wonder dedicated his 1985 Oscar for the song "I Just Called to Say I Love You" to Mandela. its Washington and Lincoln rolled into one".[357] Raffi. commemorating the 67 years that Mandela had been a part of the movement. near Cape Town.[353] Hugh Masekela. Mandela is widely considered to be "the father of the nation". One of the most popular was from The Special AKA who recorded the song "Free Nelson Mandela" in 1983. which Elvis Costello also recorded and had a hit with. Soweto He has also received international acclaim. The 1997 film Mandela and de Klerk starred Sidney Poitier as Mandela. John and the Order of Merit. 18 July. In 1993.[342] In November 2009.7/1/13 Nelson Mandela .[351] Artistic tributes Many artists have dedicated songs to Mandela. he received the joint Nobel Peace Prize with de Klerk.[347] Elizabeth II awarded him the Bailiff Grand Cross of the Order of St. resulting in his music being banned by the South African Broadcasting Corporation.[347] in 1990 he received the Bharat Ratna Award from the government of India.Wikipedia.[343] Awarded the US Presidential Medal of Freedom.

Sampson 2011. pp. pp. ^ Mandela 1994. 17. 33–34. pp. 37. ^ Mandela 1994. p. 73–76. ^ Mandela 1994. ^ Sampson 2011. ^ Mandela 1994. pp. pp. ^ Mandela 1994. pp. 31. p. 17. Smith 2010. pp. 53–54. pp. ^ Mandela 1994. p. p. pp. 16. p. 29–31. ^ Mandela 1994. 40. 22–25. pp. Smith 2010. 32. p. 23–24. 3. ^ a b Guiloineau & Rowe 2002. Sampson 2011. ^ Sampson 2011. Smith 2010. ^ Mandela 1994. Smith 2010. ^ Mandela 1994. 41. p. 89–94. p. ^ Mandela 1994. 62–65. ^ Mandela 1994.7. pp. p. 2. 66. 12. 30–31. Smith 2010. Smith 2010. ^ Mandela 1994. ^ Mandela 1994. 25. 11. p. pp. 19. 23–24. Smith 2010. ^ a b Mandela 1994. ^ Mandela 1994. p. p. 24. p. 19.[363] References Footnotes 1. Smith 2010. 7. 27. Smith 2010. Sampson 2011. p. 23. Smith 2010. p. 18–19. 15. Sampson 2011. Sampson 2011. 25. pp. 67–69. pp. 26. pp. 44. 20. ^ Mandela 1994. Sampson 2011. ^ Mandela 1994. 17. p. 13. p. 70–71. 30. 8–9. 25. 27–29. Smith 2010. pp. pp. 3. pp. pp. ^ Mandela 1994. 14. Sampson 2011. ^ Guiloineau & Rowe 2002. Smith 2010. Smith 2010. pp. Smith 2010. 106. p. 16. Smith . 12. pp. 14. 10. 32. 7–9. p. ^ Mandela 1994. 43. p. 48. 29. ^ Mandela 1994. p. 42. Smith 2010. the free encyclopedia Freeman portrayed him in Invictus (2009). ^ Mandela 1994. 26–27. Mafela 2008. pp. ^ Mandela 1994. Smith 2010. 48. 68 ^ Mandela 1994. Smith 2010. 29–30. pp. pp. 35. pp. 27. Smith 2010. 39. p. 34. 33. 26. 5. 62–63. 20. 6. 21–22. p. 26. Sampson 2011. p. pp. 99. pp. 34. pp. Smith 2010. pp. pp. 45–47. 25. 32. 8. 36. 41. p. Smith 2010. pp. 17–18. p. 25. 4. 4. Sampson 2011. 37. pp. pp. Smith 2010. 7. Sampson 2011. 23. 108–110. 44–45. pp. pp. 26/39 en. Sampson 2011. p. ^ Mandela 1994. 34–35. ^ Mandela 1994. 22. ^ Mandela 1994. 26–27. ^ Mandela 1994. p. Smith 2010. pp. 21. pp. ^ Mandela 1994. Smith 2010. Sampson 2011. 56. 52. pp. Sampson 2011. ^ Mandela 1994. ^ Mandela 1994.7/1/13 Nelson Mandela . Smith 2010. 27–28. 4. ^ Mandela 1994. 25. p. 34. 5. Sampson 2011. pp. p. p. 31–32. Smith 2010. 68. 24. 48–50. Sampson 2011. p. 15. p. 18–21. ^ Mandela 1994. 31. 43. ^ Mandela 1994. 18. Smith 2010. 3. ^ Mandela 1994. 18. p. 36–39. 19. 96–101. 31–34. 8. Smith 2010. 100. p. pp. 33. 28. Sampson 2011. p. Mafela 2008. ^ Smith 2010.Wikipedia. pp. pp. 25. 104–105. ^ Mandela 1994. 17.wikipedia. Sampson 2011. 43. 33–34. pp. p. p. 16. pp. 24–25. 21. 35. p. p. 38. p. p. 9. pp. p. pp. 78–86. Sampson 2011. 32–33. Sampson 2011. Smith 2010. Sampson 2011. 15. 122–123. p. ^ Mandela 1994. ^ Mandela 1994. 40. 4. ^ Mandela 1994. 34. Sampson 2011. pp. 36–42. Sampson 2011. p. p. 48–49. Sampson 2011. 7–8. p. p. 20.

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