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Locke Quotes Locke - Second Treatise of Government Political power I take to be a right of making laws with penalties of death,

and consequently all less penalties, for the regulating and preserving of property And in defence of the commonwealth from foreign injury; and all this only for the public good (8) (on government) Creatures of the same species Should also be equal one amongst another without subordination or subjection (8) (on liberty) A state of liberty Is not a state of licence: though man in that state have an uncontroulable liberty to dispose of his person or possessions, yet he has not liberty to destroy himself (9) (on liberty and its limitations) Being all equal and independent, no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty, or possessions (9) (on duty) Each one When his own preservation comes not in competition, ought he, as much as he can, to preserve the rest of mankind (9) (on duty) In the state of nature, one man comes by a power over another; but yet [has] no absolute or arbitrary power (10) (on the state of nature) The natural liberty of man is to be free of any superior power on Earth (17) (on government) Whatsoever then he removes out of the state that nature hath provided, and left it in, he hath mixed his labour with And thereby a makes it his property (19) (on property) God gave the world to men in common; but since he gave it them for their benefit, and the greatest conveniences of life they were capable to draw from it, it cannot be supposed he meant it should always remain common and uncultivated. He gave it to the use of the industrious and rational (21) (on property) Absolute monarchy Is indeed inconsistent with civil society, and so can be no form of civil government (48) When men quitting the state of nature entered into society, they agreed that all of them but one, should be under the restraint of laws, but that he should still retain all the liberty of the state of nature (50) (on Hobbes social contract)

Government has no other end but the preservation of property (51) (on property and government) Men being By nature, all free, equal, and independent, no one can be put out of this estate, and subjected to the political power of another, without his own consent (52) (on consensual government) The act of the majority passes for the act of the whole By the law of nature and reason (52) (on government) Every man, by consenting with others to make one body politic under one government, puts himself under an obligation, to every one of that society, to summit to the determination of the majority (52) (on the duty of the individual) All men being born under government, they are to submit to that, and are not at liberty to begin a new one (54) (on the duty of the individual) The beginning of politic society depends upon the consent of the individuals, to join in to, and make one society (56) (on consent) [those who live under the protection of, and enjoying the benefits of, the government of the country are bound to] submit to its administration (65) (on the duty of the individual) The first and fundamental natural law, which is to govern even the legislative itself, is the preservation of the society, and Of every person in it (69) (on the duty of government) No body has an absolute arbitrary power Over any other (70) (on the duty of government) A man Cannot subject himself to the arbitrary power of another (70) (on the duty of the individual) [he can] only [do] so much as the law of nature gave him for the preservation of himself (70) (on the duty of the individual) *the power of the legislative+ easily meant it to the public good of society That hath no other end but preservation, and therefore can never have a right to destroy, enslave, or designedly to impoverish the subjects (71) (on the duty of government) The law of nature stands as an eternal rule to all men To the will of god... and the fundamental law of nature being the preservation of mankind, no human sanction can be good, or valid against it (71) (on the hegemony of the law of nature)

The legislative Is bound to dispense justice (71) (on the duty of government) The supreme power cannot take from any man any part of his property without his own consent; for the preservation of property being the end of government (73) (on property) The legislative cannot transfer the power of making laws to any other hands: for its being better delegated power from the people... That people alone can appoint the form of the common-wealth (75) (on limitations of government) They are to govern by promulgated established laws, not to be varied in particular cases, but to have one rule for rich and poor These laws also thought to be designed for no other end ultimately, but the good of the people (75) (on the role of government) There remains in the people the supreme power to remove or alter the legislative, when they find the legislative act contrary to the trust reposed in them (78) (on the duty of revolution) The aggressor, who puts himself into the state of war with another, and unjustly invades another mans right, can, by such an unjust war, never come to have a right over the conquered (91) (on unjust war) [if the conqueror has right on his side] he has no rights to seize more than the vanquished could forfeit (95) (on the duties of the conquering) The people generally ill treated, and contrary to right, will be ready upon any occasion to ease themselves of a burden that sits upon them (113) (on duty of revolution) He therefore who may resist, must be allowed to strike (119) (on the duty of revolution) [The people have a right to act as supreme if the legislature acts beyond its limitations but] the power that every individual gave the society, when he entered into it, can never revert to the individuals again, as long as the society lasts (123-124) (social contract summarised)

Macpherson Introduction to Second Treatise of Government Lockes case for the limited constitutional state is largely designed to support his argument for an individual natural right to unlimited private property (vii) Hobbes... Had pictured men as so contentious that they could not survive without handing over their natural rights to all-powerful and self perpetuating sovereign state (x)

*Locke used the state of nature+ to assert mens natural rights (X) (on natural rights) Moral laws are set as a curb and restraint to these exorbitant desires, which they cannot be but by rewards and punishments that will over-balance the satisfaction any one shall propose himself in the breach of the law (Locke cited xi) (on the law) From the presumed intention of the creator it followed that men were naturally equal (on religion) Free to order their actions, and dispose of their possessions and persons, as they think fit, within the bounds of the law of nature which forbids any one harming another or destroying himself (Locke cited xiii) (on duty) God has given the earth to men for their subsistence: there was a natural right to life; and therefore each had a natural right to take to himself what was needed for sustaining his life (xvi) (on property) Anyone may appropriate only as much as leaves enough and as good or others, since everyone has a right to his own preservation (xvi) (on property) One could appropriate only as much as one had mixed ones labour with (xvii) (on property) [Locke] removed all the initial natural law limits on individual appropriation, and has established a natural right to unlimited amounts of private property (xvii) (on property) Lockes theory of property *is+ central to his theory of government (xix) The agreement must protect the propertied against the non-propertied as well as against each other and against a possibly of arbitrary government. This requires the framework of government which shall be under the ultimate control of the propertied (xx) The authority of any government is conditional on its performing the functions for which it was entrusted with power (xx) [the social contract is] an invaluable ideological support for the liberal constitutional state and the market society (xxi) In acknowledges that these individuals are self interested and contentious enough to need a powerful state to keep them in order, but it avoids the Hobbesian conclusion that the state must have absolute and irrevocable power (xxi)

Yolton - Locke: An introduction Individualism in civil society is absorbed and transformed into the judgment of the majority... [this is] the mechanism for achieving that goal of protection of life, liberty, and possessions (67) (liberty) It is a power of Only the majority (67) (on the powers of the people) This supreme power [of the people] can have little effect, even when the executive or the legislative authority makes an improper use of its power In such circumstances, the people can appeal to heaven (67) (on the right to rebellion) whenever the legislators endeavour to take away, and destroy the property of the people, or reduce them to slavery and under arbitrary power a state of war is in effect. The power which the people gave to the legislators has then been forfeited (68) (on the right to rebellion) Locke does not concern himself with the details of how the judgment of the people is to be viewed and acted upon He was most concerned to establish the rights of such action He was not, by this doctrine, laying a ferment for frequent rebellion (68) (on the right to rebellion) It is property and its protection which is the most fundamental reason for leaving the community of mankind for the greater security of civil society (68) (on property) God has given the earth to the children of men (69) (on property and God) *Locke+ offers an ingenious explanation, showing not only how a man can acquire property Thats showing how that is possible without an express agreement for compact (69) (on property) If a man acquired more goods than he could use before the perished, that man offended against the common law of nature (71) (on the duty of property) We are always under the jurisdiction of the law of nature Even when we belong to a civil polity, the laws of that community must not clash with the law of nature (72) (on the laws of nature)

Ashcraft (Cambridge Companion) - Lockes Political Philosophy It is lawful for the people To resist their King (Locke cited 226) (on resistance) [Locke was attempting] to conceptualise property, or offering the justification for the act of tyrannicide in the specific concepts of the resistance by Lockes countrymen (227) (property) The common good always take precedence over self interest... government will have to be constituted in a manner is to rule out a Hobbesian sovereign (228) (government) It does not presuppose that the rulers exercise of power necessarily contravenes the substantive common good of society, but only that the action exceeds the limitations imposed upon the rulers power (229) (criticism of limitations of government) Political authority derives from the consent of the people collectively constituted If he acts contrary to the publick will The members of society no longer owe their obedience (229) (limitations of government) Lockes argument is premised upon the assumption that popularly enacted laws establish limits to a rulers exercise of power (230) (criticism of government limitations) They are themselves subject to the laws they have made (Locke cited 232) (government limitations) Lock relies primarily upon the definition of tyranny as an action contravening the common good (233) (criticism of tyranny) [Lock relies] upon an appeal to natural law and an argument based upon natural rights (235) (criticism of the basis of natural law) It [is not] clear what limits Locke wishes to place upon a government that does have the consent of the people, expressed through their elected representatives, with respect to individuals property (237) (contradiction of common good and property rights) Having supposed that god created all men free and equal and that they are under an obligation to Obey his well Places us under a positive obligation to promote the preservation of all mankind (239) (common duties) Locke concedes human fallibility (239) (weakness of the individual over collective good) There is a moral autonomy to the realm of politics (242) (on morality of government)

Ambition and luxury Taught princes to have distinct and separate interests from their people (Locke cited 249) (corruption of property) Shapiro - Lockes Democratic Theory The deep structure of Lockes account of politics is profoundly democratic (310) (civic duty) Two dubious empirical claims to his theory of inclusive use rights to the common (315) (property) Locke was convinced that the productivity effects of enclosing common land would be so great that the enough, and as good proviso could in practice also be dispensed with, thereby legitimising private ownership (316) (a critique of property) What happens when people disagree about their obligations to one another... what respecting one anothers autonomy as gods creatures requires (318) (obligations?) Actions should not be tolerated if they are prejudicial to the existence of the political order atheists ought to be suppressed Because those because those beliefs threaten the commonwealth (319) (criticism of civic duty) Promises, covenants, and oaths, which are the bonds of human society, can have no hold upon an atheist (Locke cited 319) For Locke, it is majoritarian rather than individual consent that authorises institutional arrangements (327) (criticism of government) Unless a substantial majority comes to agree that the abuse has occurred, the opposition of the individual will have no practical effect (327) (tyranny of the majority) Natural law constrains the actions of governments only to the extent that it majority discerns it and acts on it (328) (criticisms of natural law) All governments live in the shadow of possible revolution. The way for them to avoid it is to be responsive to the interests of the majority (332) (tyranny of the majority)

Ashcroft Revolutionary Politics Lock identifies himself as a radical political theorist through his affirmation of a constituent power resident in the people (309) (rights of people) Vox populi, vox dei (316) (the peoples voice) The second treatise sets out to provide a justification for the political authority of those who had decided to resist, on the grounds of self defence (319) (right of resistance) Hampsher-Monk A Modern History of Political Thought The law of nature Is a set of God owed to launch by men (82) (on religion) Mens selfishness will render the application of the law of nature very uncertain, resulting in confusion, partiality and occasional violence (83) (confusing law of nature) It is precisely because the absolutist claims more rights over individuals then individuals themselves possess under the law of nature that their regimes cannot be legitimate (87) (on tyranny) (Property definition) the possibility of its subsequent exploitation (90) (property abuse) [the toiling of land] would not seem to be strictly entailed by the law of nature (91) (criticism of property) Locke tells us that express consent is necessary to establish government, and yet, in the discussion of patriarchal origins of magistracy, twice talks of their emerging tacitly (99) (contradiction of consenting government) Inheritance is to be taken as constitutive of express consent (100) (consent based on property) Dunn The Political thought of John Locke The only effective sanction offered by Locke against the systematic abuse of executive power by the crown is the residual threat of revolution (52) (Revolution) The right of taxation vested in a legislative that has a separate interest from the people Is not logically compatible with the right of private property (54)

Waldron John Locke (Political Thinkers) [Hobbes argued] it is impossible to hold the supreme power of any political society to obedience to its laws, because ex hypothesi there is no greater power in society to adjudicate disputes (221) (on Hobbes) The basic premises of Lockes account of organise around the village is the defenders conception of natural law of human equality means that atheism cannot be tolerated Religious practice maybe come legitimate targets for state action There is no choice but passive submission or an appeal to heaven (222) (religion) A profound and convincing political philosophy (223)