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Name: ________________________________ Roll No: _____________________ Score: _________________ Signature of Tutor: ______________ Date: _______
POWER SUPPLY UNITS & MEASURING INSTRUEMENTS
Object: To become familiar with various Power Sources and Electrical Measuring Instruments. Apparatus: All Power Supply Units and Measuring Instruments in the workshop Theory: The Electrical quantities are either Varying or non-varying i.e AC or DC. AC stands for ALTERNATING CURRENT, whereas DC stands for DIRECT CURRENT. Alternating currents are those, which vary in some periodic fashion. The voltage which causes Alternating Current, is called AC voltage and the one, which causes Direct Current, is called DC voltage. For example, figure 1.1 shows waveforms of alternating currents.
Figure 1.1: Various ac waveforms
Figure 1.2: Power supply Response
Sinusoidal waveform is the most popular among all. The mains supply in our houses is an example of ac voltage source, which provides 220 volts ac with sinusoidal waveform. The mains supply voltage has a frequency of 60 Hz, i.e a time period of 16.667 ms. Figure 1.2 shows response of an IDEAL DC POWER SUPPLY, which provides either CONSTANT CURRENT or CONSTANT VOLTAGE irrespective of the load resistance. But the real power sources are not as accurate as ideal ones. A real power source has a finite internal-
resistance, which consumes part of the power from the source. Figure 1.3 shows the symbols of Constant Current and Constant Voltage Sources.
Figure 1.3: The Symbols of power sources
The measuring instruments used to measure POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE (Voltage) are called VOLTMETER, the ones used to measure CURRENT are called AMPERE-METER (in short AMMETER), and the ones used to measure RESISTANCE are called the OHMMETER. The current measurements in the electronic circuits are usually in the range of milli-amperes. Hence in electronic lab, mostly ammeters are with the range of milli-amperes. Hence in electronics lab, mostly ammeters with the range of milli-amperes are used, which are called MILI-AMMETERS. Then, there are instruments called MULTIMETER, which can measure Current, Voltage, Resistance and some other electrical characteristics. These are sometimes called (Ampere-VoltsOhm) AVO meters. The measuring instruments are generally classified as ANALOG or DIGITAL. The analog meters have a deflection pointer with a scaled dial, which needs to be calibrated. The CALIBERATION is the process of correcting any error in the reading of a measuring instrument. These meters have a CALIBERATION SCREW associated with their deflection system, which is to be set before use to make the deflection pointer show "ZERO". In contrast to this, the digital meters have an LCD display like the one in a calculator, and do not need calibration. Clear advantage of the digital meter is that it shows the exact reading on the display, and one does not need to read the right scale, which sometimes is non-linear and very difficult to read. The analog meters with multiple ranges usually have two scales. One must take care to read the right scale for the selected range. The analog multimeter has a separate scale for each quantity to be measured. Hence, its scales are very confusing and difficult to read. 1) Take any voltage source, connect a Voltmeter to its output terminal, and turn it ON. Select any voltage from the voltage source, note down the selected value from its scale or display, against the value shown by the voltmeter connected by you, in the Table 1.1. Is the value same as required? Repeat the same by selecting another magnitude of voltage. 2) Finally try measuring the mains supply ac voltage. Take a digital Multimeter (DMM), and set it to measure ac voltage. Select the measurement range higher than 220 Volts and insert the DMM probe in any one of the HALF POINTS in the workshop.
Observation: S. NO. Selected Voltage (SV) Observed Voltage (OV) Percent Error= (OV – SV)*100/OV
Conclusion: Have you become familiar with all Power Supply Units and Measuring Instruments? What theoretical and practical concepts did you gain from this experiment? Comment.
Function or wave shape Time period or Frequency Amplitude DC level To learn the operation of Function Generator and Oscilloscope.Experiment # 2 Name: ________________________________ Roll No: _____________________ Score: _________________ Signature of Tutor: ______________ Date: _______ FUNCTION GENERATOR AND OSCILLOSCOPE Object: Apparatus: 1) CRT Oscilloscope 2) Function Generator Theory: The easiest and normal way to check if an Electronic Circuit is working properly or not is to apply proper input signal to the circuit under test and observe its output. Many function generators available have other advanced features besides generating the three fundamental waves and their four composite waves. 3.This function generator can generate these wave . 2. The three waves are shown in figure 2. A periodic electrical signal is characterized by its following four parameters: 1. OSCILLOSCPE The FUNCTION GENERATOR.e. as the name suggests.1 Basic Wave shapes . which are FUNCTIONS OF TIME.e they vary with time.1. The Function Generator also helps change DC level of the signal. Peak to Peak Ampli-tude of 22volts.e Rectangular. For the purpose two appliances are used: 1. FUNCTION GENERTOR 2. The dc Figure 2. Triangular and Sinusoidal. i. generates periodically varying electrical signals. 4. Function Generator: Most Function Generator can produce three basic wave shapes. with the maximum amplitude of 11 Volts.shapes with as high frequencies as 10 MHz. i. i.
and place its Volts/Div switch at 0. so that each half cycle of the wave covers one division on the horizontal axis.1 shows a sinusoidal wave with following characteristics: Oscilloscope: Oscilloscope is the equipment with CATHODE RAY TUBE (CRT) Display used to observe output from all kinds of Electronics Circuits with AC. select either channel 1 or channel 2. i. 5) The Oscilloscope has a knob on the front side. Figure 2. Therefore.e signal with time period of 1 ms.e Time Period of 1ms. The two channels enable the user of simultaneously observing two signals as they vary against time in NORMAL mode. Rotate the vertical Displacement Switch and move the Ground Line vertically UP/DOWN to the place you desire to represent "ZERO" Volts. DC. Mostly. These probes are detachable. which appears to be a horizontal line on the CRT. 11) Connect the probe of Function Generator to the probes of channel 1 and channel 2 of the Oscilloscope. 8) Press SIN key from the three function keys on the Function Generator. connect its probe to Calibration output. whereas Channel 1 is used to observe input applied to the same circuit.5 volts per division. For example. . The two channels can also be used to observe sum and difference of the two signals applied to them. Now set the associated Calibration Switch so that the square wave signal covers one division on the vertical axis. input and output of a circuit simultaneously to verify its proper operation. connect its probe to calibration output. Select channel 1. 3) Select Channel 1. 1) Turn the two appliances ON. There is a limit to the highest frequency that can be displayed on an oscilloscope. given that the peak value must not exceed +11 volts or -11 volts. using the X10 switch over them. or one signal against another in XY mode. 4) Repeat (3) for channel 2. usually Channel 2 is used to observe output signal of a circuit. Analog or Digital Output.5 ms/div and then set the associated calibration switch. which is SQUARE WAVE with the frequency of 1 K Hz. 10) Use attenuation switch to set the signal amplitude at 1 volt (2 V Peak to Peak). 2) Place the coupling switch of both the channels at Ground (GND). Observe its Ground Line. place Time/Div switch at 0. Both the oscilloscope channels are alike in characteristics. 7) To calibrate Time Scale. called Calibration Output. It is often necessary to observe both. Each channel has a chord called Probe.level might be kept at positive or negative voltage as desired. the oscilloscope has two inputs called CHANNAELS. The oscilloscope generates a signal called CALIBERATION SIGNAL. and can be set to measure as high voltages as 200 volts. 6) Repeat (5) for channel 2. and any error in the observation is corrected before making any other observation. Before making any observation with the oscilloscope. and can measure signals with maximum Amplitude of 20 Volts. 9) Set 1 and kHz on the Frequency Select switches to generate 1 kHz signal. Most of the oscilloscopes can display the signals with the maximum frequency of 20 MHz. This signal is observed on both channels one by one. i. This appliance is specially meant for Observing Time – Varying Signals. The power Switches are mostly on the Front Side of the appliances. one must CALIBRATE both of its channels to make sure that the observations are correct to the maximum possible accuracy.
5 ms/Div. Press all the three function keys of the Function Generator.e. Calculate frequency of the signal by multiplying number of horizontal divisions covered by the signal with 0. Select any channel to observe the composite function.e. Press CH:2 INV to observe the difference of signal at channel 1 and the signal at channel 2. Calculate Amplitude of the signal by multiplying the number of vertical divisions covered by the signal and 0. Set it to lift the signal level up by 2 division on the oscilloscope and then 2 divisions down. i. Press CH:1 and CH:2 switches together to observe addition of signals at channel 1 and channel 2. Press any two of the three function keys of the function generator. SQUARE and the TRIANGULAR function. Set Volts/Div switch of CH:1 on 0.. which is combination of SINUSOIDAL.5 Volts/Div. Repeat (12) through (16) for Channel 2.12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) Press CH:1 to observe the wave on Channel 1. Select any one channel of the oscilloscope to observe the composite wave. CH:1-CH:2. Pull out DC Offset switch of the Function Generator. .5 ms.5 Volts. i. CH:1 + CH:2. Press CHOP or ALT switch to observe Channel 1 and 2 simultaneously. Set Time/Div switch at 0.
1 2 3 4 5 Selected Frequency Observed Frequency Percent Error Conclusion: Have you become familiar with the two appliances? What theoretical and practical concepts did you gain from this experiment? Comment.No. the 2) Fill the following table to register any inaccuracy in the generation and display of the basic three signals. which you could generate from Function Generator.Observations: 1) Draw all the composite waveforms of the signals. . S.
which are mentioned below with their respective values. or to keep the Electric Current at the required value.e. The colors used in both standards are same. There are two standards of color coding.WORKSHOP # 3 Name: ________________________________ Roll No: _____________________ Score: _________________ Signature of Tutor: ______________ Date: _______ RESISTORS Object: Apparatus: 1) 2) 3) 4) Theory: The RESISTOR is a component used to limit the flow of Electric Current inside electronic circuits. The FIXED VARIABLE RESISTORS have two terminals whereas the potentiometers have three terminals. hence they are called CARBON RESISTORS.1. The property of Resistor to resist the flow of Electric Current is called RESISTANCE. 4. The Resistors are made with fixed resistance as well as with variable resistance. The Resistors called WIRE WOUND RESISTORS are also made using wire of metal alloys wound over ceramic former. Their symbols are shown in Figure 3. A Digital Multi-meter (DMM) Few Resistors Few Variable Resistors A Breadboard To become familiar with Resistors. The Fixed Resistors are available with many different values. but they have a slider inside them. The VARIABLE RESISTORS are called POTENTIOMETERS when the connection is also given to the sliding terminal. Variable Resistors and Resistor Color Coding.e. using color – codes. The Variable RESISTORS are made using same techniques as fixed resistors. The Resistors. i.band standard and 5. . which are specified by the manufacturer. R= V/I where 'R' represents Resistance in Ohms(Ω).band standard. whose resistance can be varied. are called a VARIABLE RESISTOR or POTENTIOMETER. The WIRE WOUND RESISTORS are made when very low values of resistance are required. 'V' represents the Voltage in Volts and 'I' represents Current in Amperes. The fixed resistors are usually made from Carbon. i.
Resistors with tolerance of 1% or less are also available. It is used to code power of 10. the resistors are available in three series. It is also used in TOLERANCE BAND.e. 3rd band in 4 – band standard and 4th band in 5 – band standard. called E6 (20% Tolerance). A resistor with 4 – band color code.1: Symbols of Resistor Figure 3. i. the last band from left.1000×5/100) Ω (1000 – 50) Ω 950 Ω (1000 + 1000×5/100) Ω (1000 + 50) Ω 1050 Ω × Minimum Resistance Maximum Resistance Commercially. Brown in first band. Gold represents a tolerance of 5% and the Silver represents a tolerance of 10%. 10s and units. Red in third band and a Gold in fourth band has a resistance of: Brown 1 Black 0 Red 102 Gold ±5% (1000 . E12 (10% Tolerance) and E24 (5% Tolerance). .e. i. The word Tolerance means maximum possible deviation in the resistance of a resistor from one. Such a Resistor is called PRECISION RESISTOR. which is specified by the manufacturer.Figure 3. Black in second band.2: The resistors with 4-band and 5-band Color Codes Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Gold 0 1 2 3 4 -1 Green Blue Violet Grey White Silver 5 6 7 8 9 -2 Gold and Silver are not used in the band of 100s.
12) Turn the knob of Potentiometer slowly in counter-clockwise direction while observing its Resistance on the Ohmmeter.The Resistors are available with different Power Ratings. . Select the option of Ohmmeter with appropriate range. Decode its Resistance from the Color bands (CR). Procedure: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Take any Resistor and insert it in to the Breadboard. Take a Multi-meter. 7) Repeat (1) through (6) four times. 11) Turn the knob of Potentiometer fully clockwise and note down its Resistance. 8) Take a Potentiometer and connect its two end-terminals with the Ohmmeter. 10) Connect the probe of Ohmmeter across middle terminal of the Potentiometer and any one of the end-terminals. Observation: S. Place the probes on the terminals of the Resistor to measure the Resistance (MR). 1 2 3 4 5 ecnatsiseR dedoC derusaeM Percent Error ecnareloT noitacilpmI Conclusion: Have you become familiar with Resistors and their Color coding? What theoretical and practical concepts did you gain from this experiment? Comment. the Resistor is reliable and is in accordance with the Specifications.NO. while observing its Resistance.MR│ ×100/CR. 9) Turn the knob of Potentiometer in any direction. Calculate the Percent Error as │CR . If the Percent Error is less than the Tolerance. The Resistors with 5% or 10% tolerance are usually available in power rating of ½ Watt or ¼ Watt.
The lead connected to the p-type material is called the anode and the lead connected to the n-type material is the cathode.±15 Power Supply Digital Multimeter (DMM) IN 4004 diode 1-kΩ resistor Electronics Workbench Apparatus: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Discussion: A diode is a device formed from a junction of n-type and p-type semiconductor materials.1 The symbol of a diode compared to an actual diode package.2(a) Forward Bias Figure 4.1 marks the cathode of a diode.CURRENT CHARACTERISTICS OF A JUNCTION DIODE Object: To understand the voltage – Current characteristics of a junction diode. Oscilloscope 0 . referred as Forward bias. this condition prevents the current to flow across the p-n junction. These two possible conditions are shown in figure 4.2(b) Reverse Bias . Figure 4. In general. referred as Reverse bias. Figure:4. this condition allows the current to flow across the p-n junction. When the positive terminal of diode is connected with positive terminal of battery.2.Experiment # 4 Name: ________________________________ Roll No: _____________________ Score: _________________ Signature of Tutor: ______________ Date: _______ VOLTAGE. a solid line on the diode. as shown in figure 4. but when the negative terminal of diode is connected with positive terminal of battery.
The primary function of the diode is the rectification (process of converting a.3 Characteristic curves of an ideal diode and a real diode The volt – ampere (V-I) characteristics of a diode show how current (I) in that diode varies with the voltage applies across it experimentally. the small current due to minority carriers remain relatively constant. The characteristic curves of an ideal diode and a real diode are seen in Figure 4. Make the circuit as shown in 4. for Germanium it is 0.7V. you will note that very little current follows in the diode for low level of the applied voltage. Beyond 0.5mA. The turn on forward bias voltages for silicon diode is typically 0.c into d.3V. Thus below (0. When it is reverse biased (the higher potential is connected to the cathode lead).c). When the diode is reverse biased.3. using the silicon diode (IN4004) and 10-KΩ resistor on the breadboard.7V) forward bias.7V. This can be determined by measuring the current in the diode for successive number of higher applied voltage and plotting a graph of current versus voltage. a silicon diode draws little current. the diode is turned on and permits the current to flow. that is independent of the bias voltage up to certain voltage. maximum reverse voltage (Vrm) and Peak forward current (Ifm). For forward bias voltages equal to or higher than 0. Procedure: 1. Figure 4. a phenomenon called “Avalanche Breakdown” takes place when heavy surge of current occurs which may also destroy the diode. The limit of the safe operation is specified by the manufacturer under the heading maximum forward voltage (Vfm ). the current is blocked. . Beyond this safe level of reverse bias. It will pass current. 2. Set on the DC supply kit and voltage from zero to 4V and turn the rotary voltage control fully anticlockwise (0V). Set the meter „V‟ to read up 4v. Set the meter indicated by “I” to its 7.7V very slight increases in forward biasing voltages result in the increase of current in the diode dramatically. When it is forward biased (the higher potential is connected to the anode lead).2. The diode must be operated within the safe limit.
4. repeat all previous steps and fill the observation table.6V (for silicon). 2. Also design your circuit on Electronics Workbench. but the current rises rapidly with further increases in voltages. Set Voltage Forward Bias(mA) Voltage(V) Reverse Bias(mA) Review Questions: 1. 4.No. What is the depletion region? . What is turn on voltage for silicon and germanium at room temperature? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 3. The resulting graph should show that little current passes until the voltage has risen to 0. 1. Set the values of the voltage and observe the values of current. 7. Observation Table: S. Change the resistor value. 6.3. 5. Now switch on the power supply and carefully turn the voltage control clock wise whilst watching the ammeter. Finally plot the V-I characteristics of diode on graph paper. simulate it and note down the readings to fill the table. What is barrier potential? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 4. What do you mean by term Biasing? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 2. 3. 5. Plot these values on the graph paper.
_____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 5. Whether the forward and reverse characteristics of the diode are verified? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ .
c input supply.c voltage is applied across the secondary windings. Half wave rectifier: Half wave rectification is a process. .e. Operation: The a.c) through the load after every half cycle. In this way. diode D1 is reverse bias and no current conducts as shown in Figure 5. During the positive half cycle the diode D1 is forward biased and hence it conducts the current as shown in the Figure 5. The negative half cycle of a. during the negative half cycle.Experiment # 05 Name: ________________________________ Roll No: _____________________ Score: _________________ Signature of Tutor: ______________ Date: _______ HALF WAVE RECTIFICATION Object: Apparatus: 1) Oscilloscope 2) Function Generator 3) IN 4004 diode 4) 1-kΩ resistor 5) Electronics Workbench 6) Breadboard Discussion: A rectifier is a circuit that converts pulsating ac into pulsating dc.1 for the upper half cycle. There are three basic types of rectifier circuits: the half wave. Hence d.c supply is suppressed i. Therefore the current flows through the diode during the positive half cycle. full wave (center tapped) and bridge rectifiers. The half wave rectifier is made up of a single diode and a resistor. no current is conducted and hence no voltage appears across the load.1.d. which converts an ac sinusoidal input voltage into a pulsating dc voltage with the output pulse occurring for each input cycle. The half wave rectifier conducts the current only during the positive half cycle of the a. During the negative half cycle.e. bridge rectifier is the most commonly used. Of them. Therefore current always flows in one direction (i.c output is obtained across the RL. To understand the operation of half wave rectification. the current flows through the load resistor RL always-same direction.
2) Observe the rectified output.c Or alternatively ripple factor can be calculated as r=√(( Vr. 1 2 3 4 )Vni(p-p Vtuo .s/Vd.c component of the output voltage.s = Vp/√2. while Vavg = Vp/π Procedure: 1) Make the half wave circuit diagram as shown in Figure 5-1.No. R=Vr.Figure 5. Basically the variations in the output voltage due to charging and discharging is called ripple. 3) Observe and draw the wave form of (input and output) Observation: S.m. It is formally defined as the ratio of the ripple voltage in the output voltage delivered to load and the d.m.m.c)2 – 1) Where Vr.s/Vd.1 Half wave Rectifier Ripple Factor (r) : Ripple factor is very important criteria for measuring the efficiencies of a rectifier.
What are advantages and disadvantage of half wave rectifier? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ . What is half wave Rectification? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 3. What is ripple? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 4.Review Questions: 1. What is Rectification? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 2.
EXPERIMENT # 06 Name: ________________________________ Roll No: _____________________ Score: _________________ Signature of Tutor: ______________ Date: _______ FULL WAVE RECTIFICATION Object: Apparatus: 1) Oscilloscope 2) Function Generator 3) IN 4004 diode 4) 1-kΩ resistor 5) Electronics Workbench 6) Breadboard Discussion: Full wave rectification is the process through which an ac sinusoidal input voltage is converted into a pulsating dc voltage with two output pulses occurring for each input cycle. so current will only flow across D1 through the load resistor RL in upper half cycle as shown in Figure 6-1. To understand the operation of full wave rectification. Bridge full wave rectification. Therefore D1 conducts the current and D2 does not conduct the current.c input voltage makes the diode D1 forward biased and D2 reverse biased. There are two methods to achieve the full eave rectifier. Figure 6-1. Center tapped full wave rectifier During the negative half cycle of a. Therefore . Center tapped full wave rectification: The positive half cycle of a. Center tapped full wave rectification. Therefore D2 conducts the current because D2 is in forward biased condition while D1 does not conduct the current because the D1 is in reverse biased condition.c input voltage diode D2 is forward biased while diode D1 is reverse biased.
Observation: S. Observe the wave form and draw it on the graph paper. Bridge full wave rectification A bridge rectifier makes use of four diodes in a bridge arrangement to achieve full wave rectification as shown in Figure 6-2. Bridge full wave rectifier The bridge rectifier is the most commonly used full wave rectifier circuit for several reasons. This results in a higher dc voltage from the supply. Figure 6-2. It does not require a center tapped transformer and therefore can be coupled directly to the ac power line if desired. Procedure: 1. 2.No. Make the center tapped full wave and full wave bridge circuit as shown in Figures 2-1 and 6-2 respectively and observe the rectifier output.current flows only D2 through the load resistor RL in the upper half cycle as shown in Figure 61. Using a transformer with the same secondary voltage produces a peak output voltage that is nearly double the voltage of the full wave center tapped rectifier. 1 2 3 4 )Vni(p-p Vtuo . 1. 2.
In bridge rectifier. how many diodes are forward biased during one cycle? ______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ . Which type of rectifier has high ripple factor? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 6. What is Full wave Rectification process? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 2. Compare the two full wave rectifiers? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 4.Review Questions: 1. What is full wave Bridge Rectification? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 3. Why can‟t we implement the Center tapped full wave rectifier without center-tapped transformer? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 5.
EXPERIMENT # 07 DIODE AS A SERIES CLIPPER Object: To become familiar with the diode application as series clipper (Diode Limiter).1(a) Negative Clipper Figure 6. A negative clipper is shown in Figure 6.2: Output of Negative Clipper . The diode conducts. Since the output positive peaks actually overlays the input sine wave V(1).1(b) Positive Clipper the diode is forward biased.2. Figure 6. It is as if the diode were not there. The positive half cycle is unchanged at the output V(2) in Figure 6.1(a). During the positive half cycle of the 5 V peak input. the input has been shifted upward in the plot for clarity. Apparatus: Diode (IN914) Oscilloscope Function Generator Resistor Breadboard Hardwires Theory: A circuit which removes the peak of a waveform is known as a clipper. Figure 6.
Measure and sketch the input and output waveforms. Drive the circuit with a 5Vp-p sine wave. Repeat the steps from 3-7 for Figure 6.No. construct the circuit shown in Fig. Procedure: 1.2 the input 5 Vp-p sine wave denoted by V(1) and output clipped at -0. Calibrate the Oscilloscope by setting it at 1KHz frequency and 1Vp-p voltage. Also calculate theoretical values for circuit and draw output waveform from it. During the negative half cycle diode is reverse biased.6. 4.7 denoted by V(2). Visualize the output on oscilloscope across 3. Use 3.9 k ohms resistor to limit the current.9 k ohms D1 = 1N914 2.7V while negative half cycle appears completely. Make sure you take into account the use of real diodes. The waveform is clipped at -0. that is. 3. 9. Generate the 5 Vp-p from function generator and verify it on oscilloscope.1(a). The clipping action is only effective after the input sine wave exceeds -0.7 V due to the forward voltage drop of the silicon diode. The negative half cycle of the sine wave is shorted out. 4. 5. 1. Using the solderless breadboard. 7. The negative half cycle of V(2) would be clipped at 0 V for an ideal diode.1(a) using the following components: R1 = 3.7 V.As can be observed from Figure 6. Construct the clipper designed in Figure 6. 8.9 KΏ resistor and note down the peak voltage and frequency of the signal in Table 2. 6. Selected Frequency Selected Vp-p Output Frequency Output Vp-p .1(b) in which the +ve half cycle of input sine wave is clipped at +0. 2.1(b) and note down the peak voltage and frequency of the signal. Observation: S. 3. non-conducting. Positive Series Clipper is shown in Figure 6.
1. Positive Parellel / Shunt Clipper 2. the diode does not conduct and hence the entire input voltage appears across the diode. And during negative half cycle of the input the output is a negative half sinusoidal wave. During negative half cycle of the input. the forward biased diode resistance is very small. Figure 7.1. as shown in Figure 7. since. Here the output is taken across the diode.1 Positive Parallel Clipper 2.. During positive half input cycle the output is nearly zero. Apparatus: Diode (IN914) Oscilloscope Function Generator Resistor Breadboard Hardwires Theory: Diode application as a parallel clipper is also of two types: 1. Negative Parellel / Shunt Clipper 1. Positive Parallel Clipper: The circuit for positive parallel clipper is as shown in Figure 7. Negative Parallel Clipper: The action of the negative parallel clipper is quite to that of negative series clipper as during the positive half input cycle. diode is forward biased and current .EXPERIMENT # 08 DIODE APPLICATION AS PARALLEL CLIPPER Object: To become familiar with the diode application as parallel clipper (Diode Limiter).
Repeat the steps from 3-7 for inverted diode in Figure 7. 9. Construct the clipper designed in Figure 7. Visualize the output on oscilloscope across 4. Figure 3. Figure 7. Calibrate the Oscilloscope by setting it at 1KHz frequency and 1Vp-p voltage. 4.2 Negative Parallel Clipper Procedure: 1. Drive the circuit with a 5Vp-p sine wave from Function Generator. 7.1 using the following components: R1 = 3.9 k ohms D1 = 1N914 R2 = 4. Using the solderless breadboard. for ideal case.7 KΏ resistor and note down the peak voltage and frequency of the signal.7 k ohms 2. but the voltage drop is nearly zero. Generate the 5 Vp-p from function generator and verify it on oscilloscope. Measure and sketch the input and output waveforms. hence the output voltage is zero.3 Positive Parallel Clipper . 3. 7. Also calculate theoretical values for circuit and draw output waveform from it.3. 6. Make sure you take into account the use of real diodes. 8. 5.3 and note down the peak voltage and frequency of the signal. construct the circuit shown in Fig.flows through it.
3. 2. .No. 4.Observation: S. 1. Selected Frequency Selected Vp-p Output Frequency Output Vp-p Conclusion: Have you become familiar with different types of Parallel/ shunt clipper? What other results u observed in response to the other signal wave shapes? Comment. Note: Also implement the circuit using Square wave and Rectangular wave from the function generator.
3 K ohms) Breadboard Hardwires Theory: A circuit that places either the positive or negative peak of signal at a desired d.1: General Clamper Response From Figure 8. Figure 8. Clamping circuit broadly divided into two groups namely Positive Clamper Negative Clamper Figure 8. While observing the output of the clamping circuit following points should be mentioned: .EXPERIMENT # 09 DIODE APPLICATION AS A CLAMPER Object: To become familiar with the diode application as a Clamper. component and pushes the signal upwards so that the negative peaks fall on the zero level.1 shows the key idea behind clamping.c.e. it pushes the signal downwards so that positive peaks fall on the zero level.c.c. On the other hand we can say that a clamping circuit (or a clamper) essentially adds a d. The input signal is a sine wave having a peak – to – peak value of 20 V.1 it is observed that the shape of original signal has not changed: only there is vertical shift in the signal such as a clamper is called a Positive Clamper. Apparatus: Diode (IN914) Oscilloscope Function Generator Capacitor (1 µF) Resistor (3. the clamper adds the d. level is known as a clamping circuit. The Negative Clamper does the reverse i. component to the signal.
3(a). Positive Clamper: Figure 8. Figure 8.3(a):During Negative half cycle Figure 8. The input waveform and the clamped output has the same peak – to – peak value i. During the positive half cycle. As in Figure 8. A clamping circuit changes the peak and average value of a waveform. Figure 8.. 20 V from the Figure 8. the capacitor remains almost fully charged to V volts during the off time of diode.c. the diode is forward biased and it behaves as short circuit.3(b):During Positive half cycle Operation: During the negative half cycle as in Figure 8. Therefore the discharging time is deliberately made much greater than the charging time. under this condition capacitor will charge to V volts and the output voltage is directly across the short circuit. Now by applying KVL to the input loop: . therefore the peak value of clamped output is 20V and average value (or d. The clamping circuit does not change the peak – to – peak or rms value of the waveform. This condition is based on the fact that voltage across the capacitor will not change during the diode is non – conducting.e. value = (20 + 0)/2 = 10V ) is 10V.1 it is clear that the input waveform has a peak value of 10V and average value over a cycle is zero. Since the discharging time is much greater than the time period of the input signal. the diode is reversed biased and behaves as an open circuit.2: Positive Clamper For the proper operation of circuit the charging time is ( Tc = Rf × C ) between the diode and input supply is small as compared to the discharging time ( Td = RL × C ).1.2 shows a circuit of a positive clamper. The clamped output voltage varies between 20V and 0V.
6.4 shows a circuit of a negative clamper where the terminals of diode are reversed. 3. Also check the DC level of the signal. Construct the output waveform on graph paper.2 and 8. 2. 5. Use DMM to test the diode. Figure 8. Construct the circuit shown in Figure 8.4 respectively. Generate the 10Vp-p from function generator and verify it on oscilloscope. Visualize the output on oscilloscope across the resistor and note down the peak voltage and frequency of the signal. 7. Calibrate the oscilloscope. 4. 8.2 where input has been pushed upward by V volts so that negative peaks fall on the zero level..V + V – Vout = 0 Vout = 2V The resulting waveform is shown in Figure 8. Negative Clamper: Figure 8. Also calculate theoretical values for circuit and draw output waveform from it.4: Negative Clamper Procedure: 1. .
3. 2.Observations: S. 1. 4. Selected Vp-p Selected Frequency Output Vp-p Output Frequency Note: Also implement the circuit using Sinusoidal and Rectangular wave from the function generator. .No. Conclusion: Have you become familiar with different types of clampers? What other results you have observed in response to other signal shapes?Comment.
The zener breakdown occurs in a Zener diode at low reverse voltages. A Zener regular is an electronic device that maintains a constant output voltage for a range of input voltage. the depletion region is very thin.EXPERIMENT # 10 Name: ________________________________ Roll No: _____________________ Score: _________________ Signature of Tutor: ______________ Date: _______ REVERSE CHARACTERISTICS OF ZENER DIODE Object: To familiar with reverse characteristics of zener diode and its operation as a regulator. . Zener didoes with breakdown voltages of less than approximately 5V operate predominately in Zener breakdown. As a result near the Zener breakdown voltages the field within the depletion region is intense enough to pull electrons from their valence bands and create current. The symbol for Zener diode is given in Figure 9-1. its voltage remains almost constant even though the current changers drastically. It is known that when a diode reaches reverse breakdown. As Zener diode is heavily doped.Thus. Those with breakdown voltages greater than 5V operate in avalanche breakdown. The avalanche breakdown occurs in both rectifiers and Zener diodes at a sufficiently high reverse voltage due to the multiplication of the conduction electrons. Apparatus: 1) Oscilloscope 2) IN 4004 diode 3) 1-kΩ resistor 4) Electronics Workbench 5) Breadboard 6) Digital Multimeter 7) Variable Power Supply Discussion: The Zener diode is a silicon p-n junction device that differs from rectifier diodes because it is designed for operation in the reverse breakdown region. Zener diode is extensively used as voltage regulator in power supply circuits. Figure: 9.1 Zener diode Zener Breakdown: Two types of reverse breakdown in a Zener diode are avalanche and Zener.
the device enters the region of constant voltage. 2 (b). In forward bias. Make the connections according to Figure 9. while the Zener diode works in both forward and reverse bias. Zener diode limits the current until the breakdown voltage is attained. Tabulate the different values of voltages and current. 2 (b) Reverse biased zener diode Reverse Bias Voltage (zener) tnerruC )Am( . Draw the characteristic curve of Zener diode (V-I) for both forward and reverse bias and plot them on the graph paper. 3.Characteristics: The rectifier only operates in forward bias condition. Observe the voltage drop across Zener diode at different input voltages. In reverse bias. the voltage drop across the zener diode is essentially constant but the current through the device increases drastically.No.e. 2 (a) Forward biased zener diode Observation Table: S. 2. Forward Bias Voltage (Zener) 1 2 3 Current (mA) Fig 9. Zener diode acts same as the rectifier diode. Again take different readings of current through the load at different values of voltage across Zener diode. 2 (a). In this case the Zener diode is forward biased. i. Rearrange the circuit as in Figure 9. Fig 9. Procedure: 1. After the breakdown voltage.
What are the applications of Zener diodes other than regulation? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ . What is the behavior of Zener diodes in forward bias? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 5.Review Questions: 1. Define Avalanche and Zener breakdown? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 4. What is the difference between a rectifier and Zener diode? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 3. What is Voltage regulator? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 2.
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