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Fungi and fungicides.
3 1924 000 641 633
SHANNON. STATE PRINTING
STATE HORTICULTURAL COMMISSUMALD RKDDlCK
ELLWOOD COOPER. W.'—.
0. E..CALIFORNIA 5TATL COMMISSION OF HORTICULTURE.
Santa Rosa. Sacramento.._.-
State Capitol. San Peanoisco.
. K. M.
are easily controlled
by the use
group belong the powdery mildews
etc.. called spores. mushroom. such as peach-leaf curl.
Growing plants are liable to the attacks not only of insfects.
A fungus may attack
the case with
only dead tissue or decaying matter. They are produced in numbers which appear almost incredible to those not versed on the subject. shothole fungus. and the branching threads (mycelium) develop entirely within the tissue of the host plants This group includes some of our worst species. etc.
to the so-called lower plants. or
branch. of the latter. branch.
Fungi are plants.
the toadstool. grape. smuts. fruit. but also of parasitic fungi. molds.
may be. the only difference being that they do not have the green coloring matter. anthracnose. rusts. and all the grain smuts. or root. leaf. The seeds. or chlorophyll.
etc. brown rot. mildews. The peculiar maladies known as fungous diseases are produced by the rapid development of the
parasitic fungi. much the same as trees. The internal fungi send their germ tuljes into the skin of the leaf. But the most important class of parasitic fungi with which the fruit-grower has to deal are those which attack the live tissue of plant life those which check the growth of trees. Fungi are divided into two groups: the internal and the external. attack and spot fruit.FUNGI AND FUNGICIDL5. grass. or it may attack only
life. as is seen in the fungus which destroys the house and the chinch bug. The external fungi are surface feeders. as the case
mushrooms or toadstools.
It is estimated that in the
United States alone
the annual loss from these minute vegetable organisms runs
into millions of dollars.
of the apple. their mycelium spreading over the surface of the
fruit. and even cause an
early decay or a total loss before the crop
harvested. are more simple and are exceedingly minute (microscopic). blights. rose. and
APPLE OR PEAR SCAB.FUNG: AND FUKGICIDES.
pomaceous fruits it seem to
affect the vitality of the
quality of the fruit. but the healthy side continues
. and grower are necessary to
must be attacked before the germ-tube
PEACH-LEAF CURL. therefore.orky blotches. the utmost vigilance and
exercised in the application of remedies to check
Fig. in fact
hog feed. and on some peach more than on others.
internal fungi. c. and sometimes resembles a seed-pod more than a leaf. and'
scabby. It can be easily recognized by the abnormal growth of the leaf.
not soon checked the velvety spots on the fruit continue to spread until they have the appearance of black.find two-year-old pear branches and leaves. which becomes leathery.
It will be readily seen that
good judgment on the part
obtain satisfactory results.
does not reduce the crop.
disease. perseverance. nor does
tree. the development
of the affected side
As the pears grow. Just as the buds are swelling use the Bordeaux mixture (formula B).
knows too well that a scabby or a degrower
formed pear has no sale
effect qt the
appearance of the scab is seen upon the new growth
fruit as a velvety spot. which
enters the tissue. highly colored.
In some seasons this fungus is very severe. In winter use the lime-sulphur-salt wash or the Bordeaux mixture (formula A).
This is one of the most
the world over.
fungus on one.
rendering the fruit unsalable.
Spray with the Bordeaux mixture (formula A) while the buds are unfolding. attacking
the stone fruits. and has been especially destructive to the
become very prevalent. Spray with the lime-sulphur-salt solution in winter.
SHOTHOLE FUNGUS. when mature.
lungus on an apple. which.
late in winter as
Spray with the lime-sulphur-salt wash as
spores escaping and spreading the disease. leaving the leaf perforated. and use the Bordeaux mixture (formula B) just when the buds are If the lime-sulphur-salt remedy is not used. will prove beneficial. and soon the surface becomes very rough. ten days apart.
diseatse has. which spreads and joins others.FUNGI AND FUNGICIDES.
a very ugly looking. of late. the Bordeaux mixture (formula A) should be applied as early
in the season as possible. it first appears
as minute red pimples. When the fungus attacks the fruit.
. then swelling. It makes its appearance upon the leaves.
apricot. using formula B. which are very often mistaken for scale
to develop very fast
to twist or double over the
forms a scab. shrink from the surrounding tissue and are blow^n away.
These soon develop and burst open at the top. misshaped fruit. a second and third
spraying. forming reddish-brown spots. If the season permits.
soft. The same remedies as are used for pear scab will check this
this disease occurs.
•Wherever the disease
exists. rotten appearance
cut open. care
should be taken to gather
all diseased fruit. where several fruits are clustered together. as the spores
thereon will infect the next year's crop.
fruit. its pres-
shown by the ashy gray spores on the
surface of the
which do not indicate much outward attack will show
6. The interior
cling to the fruit spurs or fall to the ground.
Fig.FUNGI AND FUNGICIDES.
or fruit rot of stone fruits
in but few
localities in the State. and discolored. a small brown spot appears and rapidly spreads until the whole becomes shrunken.
In very bad cases the first spraying should be followed by a second and third spraying at intervals of two weeks.
BITTER ROT OF THE APPLE. using the ammoniacal copper carbonate solution. the mycelium of which live on the outside of the plant and do not enter the tissue of the leaf.
This disease. which remain on the fallen leaves or twigs during the winter and from which start the next season's brood.
the prune and other stone fruits are often
attacked by reddish spots on the surface and yellowish-brown Sometimes this attack is so severe spots on the under side.
Spraying with the Bordeaux mixture (diluted formula) just buds start. The mycelium enter the pulpy tissue of the fruit and cause the rot to appear in little brown specks underneath the skin. will do much toward checking the fungus.
PEAR BLIGHT. PEACH.
These are the fruiting spots of the fungus. black masses.FUNGI AND FDNGICIDES. This fungus belongs to the external group. and in very bad cases repeat three or four
times at intervals of fourteen days. round.
This disease can be easily recognized by the presence of small
blackish pustules scattered over the surface of the
apple. During the summer months one may notice the leaves and
of fruit trees covered with a thick. Use the ammoniacal solution of copper carbonate when the leaves first open.
POWDERY MILDEW OF APPLE. Early in the fall of the year the winter spores are developed and consist of very minute. white.
as to cause the dropping of the foliage. felt-like These are the mycelium of the powdery mildew fungus. and continued at intervals of ten or fourteen days during the growing season. while not belonging to the group of fungous we are treating. has become so important in this State and is doing such destructive work that allusion to
diseases on which
. AND OTHER TREES.
This fungus has appeared in various apple districts. The time to spray for it is when it first makes its appearance.
and under his
direction a series of experiments has been made.
Spray with a solution of potassium sulphide when the leaves unfolding. C. although in some cases it may find entry through wounds or abrasions in other portions. Waite has made an especial study of it for many years past. This fungus appears in the spring upon the newly developed leaves and buds.
The pear blight is caused ^ it in this connection is imperative. there
be apprehended from this disease.
GOOSEBERRY MILDEW. is to cut out the affected portions of the tree well below the point of infection. by a bacterium discovered by Prof. or in very bad cases
the entire crop drops prematurely. During the winter remove all old canes and spray with the Bordeaux mixture (formula B). caused by the numerous
berries. most of all. J. D. Burrill. and repeat in from two to three weeks. including apples. and later appears as a white powdery mass. medlars. T. on account of mildew. is subject to attack. and by him named Bacillus amylovorus. M.FUNGI AND FUNGICIDES.
positive in his assertion
the work of cutting out the infected portions
and generally performed.
Later in the season
which are rendered unmarketable. An important feature of this work is the disinfection of the tools used in the cutting-out process. hawthorns. and Prof.
spores. and the tenderer varieties.
. tion from the Department of Agriculture at Washington. So far the only method of fighting this disease.
In some sections of the State it is almost impossible to raise good gooseberries. the tools themselves may become the medium of distribu-
tion of the disease. on account of the serious inroads it has made in the pear sections of the East. The whole of the pomaceous family. Unless this is properly done. Its point of entry into the tree is usually through the blossoms. but the pear especially so. Professor Waite was detailed to study the disease in California. In response to an invitation from the Commission of Horticulture last fall. as the This disease has received marked attenBartlett. B. and quinces. of Illinois. and the one which has been in vogue for many years in the East.
division between the healthy
size. Use the Bordeaux mixture (diluted formula) before the leaves open. and Rose.FUNGI AND FUNGICIDES.
Affecting the Raspberry.
strawberry leaf blight.
. and repeat at intervals of two weeks. longitudinal blotches.
and. These spotsare scattered over the surface of the new growth near the ground.
tissue. which in very bad cases girdle the cane. Blackberry.
Rose leaf black
This fungus appears as small reddish-purple spots upon the canes and leaves in the spring and early summer. Removing the old canes and burning them will greatly
reduce the disease.
season advances these spots increase in
others. representing the
8. and have a distinct purplish margin. spraying the canes which are starting out of the ground.
can be readily recognized by slightly depressed.
and burned whenever disSpraying with the ammoniacal copper carbonate solution will prove helpful.
planting. The disease is easily recognized by the grayish.
solution before planting
Burning the old plants
'ture in general have
and making a clean
do with a successful checking
the fungus. connecting with others.
remain there until spring.
to again infest the plant.
ammoniacal copper carbonate
solution can be used to good advantage. Soon small orange-colored spores appear on the surface of the leaves. The seed onions carry the hibernating spores. From these spores develop the winter spores.
and The disease becomes noticeable soon after the leaves expand in the spring. which soon attack the new growth in spring.
covered. with her large seed gardens. form long discolored blotches. If the land is to be used again for onions.
the safer preventive.
and should never be plowed under.
California. has suffered very
onion mildew in abnormal seasons.
All diseased canes should be cut
ONION MILDEW. if applied on the winter spores. on the surface
will first infest the
growing plants and from them spread
young newly developed
Soaking the seed in a diluted ammoniacal copper carbonate is a sure preventive. Young bean pods
are often attacked by this disease.
generally practiced. These spots increase in size rather' rapidly and.. the
. The pod becomes stunted and the young beans are generally shrivSeed from diseased plants should never be used for eled. turning them a golden color.
others. velvety coating on the new tops and blossom stalks.
small reddish-brown spots. which spread to the growing shoots just starting from the ground and
familiar to most growers of blackberries
of the pods. as the spores
pods. all tops remaining
in the field after the seed has been collected should be burned. Spraying with the Bordeaux mixture (diluted formula) has given good results.10
FUNGI AND FUNGICIDES.
by the dark. The presence of a few successive hot. as there is sufficient poison on them to make them dangerous to
seed potatoes in a solution of corrosive sublimate.
about half grown it is subappearance of this disease is a small blackish-brown spot.
This disease attacks the leaves. must be destroyed. is very important. which soon become soft and foul-smelling. and tubers. Spraying with the' Bordeaux mixture (formula B) when the fruit is first forming will often check the fungus. dry days in these districts checks its rapid development.
use as food or to feed to stock.
TOMATO ROT.FUNGI AND FUNGICIDES.
tubers. Wherever this disease appears it can be checked to a certain degree by thinning out the plants and allowing more sunshine to reach the fruit. especially in sections where this fungus is known to exist. All potatoes thus treated. stems. which rapidly increases in size.
a very widespread disease. Affected potatoes should never be used for seed. and the side of the fruit affected becomes flattened. if not planted.
the fruit of the tomato
ject to the attack of rot. rough
surface which occurs in spots all over the
This disease can be successfully controlled by treating the
Immerse them for a couple of hours in the liquid. and after their removal allow them to dry before cutting them for planting. Spraying with the Bordeaux mixture (formula B) when the growth just appears above ground. This disease generally occurs in our coast counties and other sections where plenty of moisture exists. The underlying tissues of the fruit are destroyed by the fungous threads. and all vines remaining after harvest should be burned.
It is first
noticed upon the leaves by the sudden appearance of brownish
or blackish areas.
POTATO BtlGHT OR ROT.
below ground. which will permeate the tissues of the knot and cause it to drop off after
to dry. Never apply it to the tree when the sap is flowing.
a few months. The Bordeaux mixture (formula A).
disease. through different stages. After the knots have been treated the soil is thrown back again.
The diseased parts of affected trees should be carefully removed and immediately burned. applied in a similar way. which.
FUNGI AND FUNGICIDES. as it is
the olive knot. This spot. is found to consist of many bacteria. covering the exposed roots.
the disease should be dressed with an antiseptic
Cuttings from diseased trees should never be used for prop-
which give this disease its name.
ROOT KNOT. The bacteria which cause the disease form a colony in the tissue of the sap-wood.* This may be repeated two or more times as long as the trees remain dormant. when seen under a high-power microscope. as this will indicate that the water has taken up all the bluestone it can. But it advisable to leave some undissolved bluestone in the bottom of the vessel.
most serious diseases
the olive tree. or knots.
wart-like excrescences upon the
of all stone-fruit trees. All wounds made by the
paint. transparent spot. or tuberculosis of the
sometimes called. in a few
counties of California. has also given good results. From this spot soon develop. Instead of removing very large knots it is better to bore an inch hole to the center of the knot and fill this with either of the above solutions. which appears like a small.
prominent black or brown trunk and roots. readily
Cut away the knot in the fall or winter and allow the wound then with a swab apply a saturated solution of bluestone to the affected part. are found singly and in rows on branches of all ages. the tubercle knots.
and not a fungous
reveal its presence. On the trunks and larger branches the knots
generally attain a large
*A saturated solution of bluestone is all that water will dissolve.
Spraying with the Bordeaux mixture (diluted formula). If the fungus was very severe during the season. 10.
This disease confines
to the hybrid perpetual roses. they should be thoroughly sprayed with the Bordeaux mixture (formula B). dusting with sublimed sulphur will check
FUNGI AND FUNGICIDES. It is the white powdery fungus which
often seen on the
rose bush. This disease is too well known to the lovers of tea roses to need much description.
After pruning rose bushes in the fall. with the ammoniacal copper carbonate solution or the
Celeste solution. leaves. as these contain the winter spores.
. All leaves should be gathered and burned. marring the beauty
rust. will greatly aid in checking the trouble. spraying again in the spring. just when the growth starts. and buds of the and blasting the buds of many
our choicest varieties. just before the new growth starts.
POWDERY MILDEW OF THE ROSE. which in very bad cases become
entirely covered. will prevent its appearance.
by the orange-colored spots on the the leaves.
taken in hand when it
makes its appearance on the new
place the unslaked lime in a tight barrel and add the sulphur
paste and from 10 to 15 gallons of boiling water.
Place 10 pounds of lime and 20 pounds of sulphur in a boiler with 20 gallon. pouring over it enough hot water to thoroughly slake it. when the necessary amount of water
the 60 gallons should be added.
Formula Copper sulphate (bluestone) Quicklime Water Formula
Copper sulphate (bluestone) Quicklime
A. 30 gallons.
2 pounds. add the 15 pounds of salt. pounds. After the violent boiling has subsided.
Slake the quicklime and thin
. and boil over a brisk fire for not less than one hour and a half. 8 10
this takes place.
preparing the above wash
the sulphur into a thin paste with hot water.
6 pounds. and cook for half an hour longer. the mixture will be of an Next place in a cask 30 pounds of unslaked lime.
40 20 15 60
pounds. the mixture must be stirred thoroughly until all indications of boiling stop.
Cover the with sacks and a wooden cover and let it stand. pounds.
Unslaked lime Sulphur
SULPHUR AND SALT. and add the required quantity of boiling
BORDEAUX MIXTURE. add to the lime and sulphur in the boiler. and while it is boiling.
B.? of water.
FORMULAS.FUNGI AND FUXGICIDES.
50 gallons. Then add the salt and enough hot water to be able to strain the mixture into the spray tanks.
Copper sulphate (bluestone) Quicklime Water
. "When this is dissolved.
Dissolve the copper sulphate in a barrel containing 10 to 12
gallons of water. or until the sulphur is thoroughlydissolved.
gallons. 2 pounds. 50 gallons.
for about 10 hours. 50 gallons.
Dissolve the copper sulphate in 6 gallons of water.
and then add
it stand water to make 15
gallons of spray. If an iron one is used the copper will go to the iron and the effect
of the spray be largely neutralized.
variable in strength.
Apply the wash cold and
Dissolve the copper carbonate in the
POTASSIUM SULPHIDE SOLUTION.
as soon as possible after
stand over night.16
FUNGI AND FUNGICIDES.
AMMONIACAL COPPER CARBONATE SOLUTION. 3 pints.
then add one quart of ammonia and suflBcient gallons of wash.-
screen into the copper solution.
amount required must be
tested in practice.
Dissolve the corrosive sublimate in the water.
EAU CELESTE SOLUTION.
CORROSIVE SUBLIMATE SOLUTION. Stir occaIn the preparation of the Bordeaux mixture
sionally while applying as a spray to the trees.
that the ingredients should be mixed in a wooden vessel. using a
vessel. and add enough water to make 50 gallons in all.
ammonia and add
Use no more ammonia than
required to dis-
solve the copper carbonate.
Pour the whitewash very slowly through a wire Stir the mixture thoroughly. and use as a spray
Dissolve the potassium in hot water.