1. What aspects of job-shop layouts and flow line layouts does cellular manufacturing combine?

Reduced WIP, on time delivery, improved quality, easy to control, more customer oriented 2. What are the objectives of product group formation and machine group formation? What are the general procedures to form these groups? Product group formation -to easily adjust products to customer demands, use the same machines to create similar products in order to maximize utilization, achieve higher level of integration of design and manufacturing functions Machines group formation – to simplify material flow system, each part processed in one group of machines, acceptable workloads on machines in group, easily managed by one or few operators, to avoid unnecessary duplication of equipment, General procedure 1.Collect data (samples, drawings, routings, etc.). 2.Identify characteristics. 3.Classify characteristics. 4.Group parts with similar characteristics: • by eye -largely subjective • by “rule of thumb”: rotational parts up to 50mm • by classification and coding • by operations sequence analysis We can group products by: Product Design families – parts or products are grouped by design features and should have similar processing requirements Production families – parts or products are grouped by processing requirements regardless design Pyt 3. ROC Procedure ignores machine loading. Procedure ignores operations sequence. Accuracy of results depends on accuracy of routing data. Procedure is backward looking: it ignores changes planned as a result of new designs. Exceptions prevent a perfect machine-part matrix: typical for real production systems. Need to use judgment, i.e.: • To ignore certain operations / machines • To split work centres, therefore machines • To visually force solutions Pyt 4. When cells are created ? WTF we should take into consideration • Size of machine group – (less than 15 machines, less than 10 operators) • Number of cells – between 2 to 20 • Exceptions of production process – some processes cannot be integrated in cells – heat treatment • Clear “product identity” May be parts or sub-assemblies rather than end product • Clear physical boundaries around cells • Cells are designed around “key” machines • Balanced material flow achieved through flexible operators • Promotion of teamwork and ownership of the cell

Variability impact on performance of manu system Variability Law: Increasing variability always degrades the performance of a production system. For example it can have influence on: • higher demand variability requires more safety stock for same level of customer service • higher cycle time variability requires longer lead time quotes to attain same level of ontime delivery • higher supplier variability requires more stocked inventory in order to sustain manufacturing process • higher variability of machines requires more maintenance time and causes lower utilization • higher variability of raw materials requires more quality controls • high variability of production process causes high risk failure in meet throughput demands Pyt. Ways of tame negative effects of variability on manu systems? Use on of the buffers: time capacity inventory Increase amount of controls during manufacturing process in order to decrease effect of variability on process time. and reduces CT variability. In push systems Reducing process variability reduces WIP for same TH. Set up an adequate size and amount of batches if it is batch production. Make more market research to find out more about demand on parts that our company produces. Identify and analyze current manufacturing process in order to find its bottlenecks. . Make more inspection to decrease amount of downtimes.• • • Decentralised planning and management Operators have a lot more responsibility for production management play an important role One-piece flow It is necessary to look at the flow rates and directions between resources in order to establish the best relative positioning of the machines. Check quality more frequently of bought raw materials and tools used in manufacturing. Make proper agreements with more responsible and accountable suppliers. 2. manufacturing process times or customer demand.when some variabilities occur workers need to stay for over time and spend more time at work station Utilization – when there is lag in manufacturing a batch Pyt. Variability can affect supplier deliveries. material shortages due to high yield loss Operator availability.2 Pyt 1 Variability a system behavior Process time – when variabilities occur sometimes process time is longer because of downtime or longer setup time and queues are created Material management – amount of WIP. reduces CT for same TH.

• Buffering less helpful at non-bottlenecks.In pull systems • Capping WIP without reducing variability reduces TH. • Magnitude of impact of adding buffers depends on variability. given same buffers. • WIP cap limits effect of process variability on WIP/CT. • Reducing process variability reduces CT variability. . • Adding buffer space at bottleneck increases TH. • Reducing process variability increases TH.

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