# Design of Core

The core section for core type of transformers may be rectangular, square of stepped. Shell type transformer use cores with rectangular cross-section.

Rectangular core: For core type distribution transformers and small power transformers for
moderate and low voltage, the rectangular shaped core section may be used. The ratio of depth to width of core varies between 1.4 to 2. Rectangular shaped coils are used for rectangular cores. For a shell type transformer width of central limb is 2 to 3 times the depth of core.

Square and Stepped core: When circular coils are required for high voltage distribution and
power transformers, square and stepped cores are used. Circular coils are preferred because of their superior mechanical characteristics. A transformer coil, under mechanical stresses produced by excessive leakage flux due to short circuits, tends to assume a circular form. On circular coils, these these forces are radial and there is no tendency for the coil to change its shape, on rectangular coils the forces are perpendicular to the conductors and tend to give the coils a circular form, thus deforming it. In the figure circle represents the inner surface of the tubular form carrying the windings. This circle is known as circumscribing circle. The length of circumference of circumscribing circle being large in comparison with its cross-section means that the length of mean turn of winding is increased giving rise to higher I2R losses and conductor costs. With large transformers, further steps are introduced to utilize the core space which reduces the length of mean turn with consequent reduction in both cost of copper and copper loss. However, with larger number of steps a large number of sizes of laminations have to be used. This results in higher labour charges for shearing and assembling different types of laminations. Thus the reduction in winding costs with a certain number of steps has to be balanced with the extra labour costs.usually optimum number of steps is 6 for smaller transformer and 15 for large transformer. Square Core: gross area of core Agi = a2=0.5d2 where a = side of the square and d= diameter of circumscribing circle. Net iron area Ai= stacking factor X gross iron area = 0.9 X0.5 d2

⁄ Stepped core: Gross core area Agi = ab +b(a-b) = 2ab-b2 Now a = d. cosΦ and b= d sinΦ Hence Agi = 2d2 sinΦ cosΦ- d2 sin2Φ Differentiating the expression with respect to Φ a

b

25 to 1. the value of Φ which gives the maximum area is found out tan2 Φ = 2 Φ = 310’45’ a= 0.53d Gross core area Agi = 0. The area of the core is founc out by assuming a suitable value of maximum flux density Bm Net core area required And gross core area Choice of flux density: The usual values of maximum flux density Bm for transformers using hot rolled silicon steel are: Distribution transformer : 1. Selection of core area and type of core: selection of type of core depends upon the rating.56d2 ⁄ ⁄ By increasing the number of steps.35 Wb/m2 Power transformer : 1. flux Φm = . Calculation of core area: The voltage per turn is calculated from equation √ A suitable value of K can be chosen and value of Et determined. For single phase transformers.55 Wb/m2 . In case of very large transformers cores have two wound limbs with two return limbs.1 to 1. For large three phase transformers. five limbed core is recommended to overcome the problem of higher height of the core.85d and b = 0. the value of flux in the core can be calculated. Now. the area of circumscribing circle is more effectively utilised. one centre-wound limb with two return limbs is a common configuration.d Agi /dΦ = d2(2cos2Φ – 2sin Φ cos Φ) Equating d Agi /d Φ = 0. operation duty and transport limitations.618d2 Net core area Ai = 0.45 Wb/m2 Lower values should be used for small rating transformer For transformers using cold rolled grain oriented steel the following values may be used For transformers up to 132 kV : 1.

For 275 kV transformers For 400 kV and generator transformers : : 1.75 Wb/m2 .7 to 1.6 Wb/m2 1.