# Inference Formulas & Procedures

Situation/Tes
t
Conditions Null Hypothesis Test Statistic Confidence Interval
1 sample z
test
1. SRS
And either:
2. Pop is normal, or
large sample size ( n ≥ 30 ),
or if n<30, the sample dist
is not
severely skewed and does
not
have extreme outliers.
H
0
:µ = µ
0
z =
c − µ
0
σ
v
x ± C-
σ
v

2 sample z
test
Same as above for BOTH
samples
H
0

1
= µ
2
or
H
0

1
− µ
2
= 0
z =
(c
1
− c
2
) − (µ
1
− µ
2
)
σ
1
2
v
1
+
σ
2
2
v
2
(x
1
− c
2
) ± C-
σ
1
2
v
1
+
σ
2
2
v
2

1 sample t
test
1. SRS
and either:
2. Pop is normal, or n>40
(even if skewed & outliers),
or 15<n<40 with npp
showing little skewness,
or n<15 with npp showing
no outliers and no
skewness
H
0
:µ = µ
0
t =
c − µ
0
o
v
; df = n-1
x ± t-
o
v

; df = n-1
2 sample t
test
1. Populations are
independent
2. Same as above, replace
n with n
1
+ v
2
H
0
:µ = µ
0
t =
(c
1
− c
2
) − (µ
1
− µ
2
)
o
1
2
v
1
+
o
2
2
v
2
(x
1
− c
2
) ± t-
o
1
2
v
1
+
o
2
2
v
2

; df = n-1
Matched
pairs
t test
Same as 1 sample t test H
0

ô
= 0
where µ
d
is the
difference of
dependent
t =
c − µ
ô
o
v
; df = n-1
x ± t-
o
v

; df = n-1
sample means
1 proportion
z test
1. SRS
2. Population≥10n
3. CI: nö p ≥10, n(1− ` r) ≥10
HT: np
0
≥10 , n(1− r
0
) ≥10
(Verify use of normal
approx)
H
0
: p = r
0
z =
` r− r
0
r
0
(1− r
0
)
v
ö p ± C-
` r(1− ` r)
v
2 proportion
z test
1. Populations are
independent
2. SRS (both samples)
3. Populations≥10n
4. CI: n
1
ö p
1
≥ 5 , n
1
(1− ` r
1
) ≥ 5
n
2
ö p
2
≥ 5 , n
2
(1− ` r
2
) ≥ 5
HT: n
1
ö p ≥ 5 , n
1
(1− ` r) ≥ 5
n
2
ö p ≥ 5 , n
2
(1− ` r) ≥ 5
(Verify use of normal
approx)
H
0
: p
1
= r
2
or
H
0
: p
1
− r
0
= 0
z =
( ` r
1
− ` r
2
) − ( r
1
− r
2
)
` r(1− ` r)
1
v
1
+
1
v
2

where
ö p =
2
1
+ 2
2
v
1
+ v
2
( ö p
1
− ` r
2
) ± C-
` r
1
(1− ` r
1
)
v
1
+
` r
2
(1− ` r
2
)
v
2
Chi Square
Goodness of
Fit
1. All expected counts ≥ 1
2. 80% of expected counts
≥ 5
H
0
: Actual
proportions are
equal to
hypothesized
proportions
χ
2
=
(O - E)
2
E
å
df = k-1
k = # of categories
One-way table
Single SRS, one categorical
variable
Chi Square
Homogeneit
y
Same as above. H
0
: Proportions
are all equal or a
fixed value
χ
2
=
(O - E)
2
E
å
df = (r-1)(c-1)
Two-way table
Two SRS, two categorical
variables
Chi Square
Independenc
e
Same as above. H
0
: No associations
between variables
or the variables are
independent of
each other
χ
2
=
(O - E)
2
E
å
df = (r-1)(c-1)
Two way table
Single SRS, two categorical
variables
Linear
Regression;
regression
slope
1. Independent ordered
pairs
2. Roughly linear
scatterplot
H
0
:β = 0 no linear
relationship
between the two
variables
t =
þ
LE
þ
, df = n-2
b ± t-LE
þ
; df = n-2
3. Standard deviation of
response is constant
(scatter around LSRL is
consistent)
4. Response variable
varies normally (residuals
are approx normal)