UNIT 3 FRICTION
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Introduction
Laws of Friction Problems Involving Dry Friction Inclined Plane Wedge Friction and Screw Friction
3.5.1 Wedge Friction 3.5.2 Screw Friction
3.6.1 Some Basic Terms 3.6.2 Some Basic Machines 3.6.3 Law of Lifting Machine
Summary Answers to SAQs
In the preceding units, it is assumed that the surfaces in contact are smooth and the forces between the bodies act normally to the surface of contact. However, in practice, it is impossible to have perfectly smooth surface. There always exists microscopic roughness which tends to prevent any possible sliding motion between the two bodies. In this unit, you are going to learn the laws governing dry friction formulated by Coulomb and their applications in different situations. You will study the relation between the normal and frictional forces at a point of contact between two non-lubricated rigid bodies. You will also study the frictional forces in various devices such as inclined plane, wedges, screws, belts and rope drives. The study of frictional forces is essential to solve the practical problems in Engineering Mechanics.
After studying this unit, you should be able to • • • • understand the laws of dry friction, determine the magnitudes of frictional forces in different situations, work out friction-related quantities such as coefficient of angle of friction, angle of repose to solve problems involving dry friction, and apply laws of friction to various devices like inclined plane, wedges, screws, belts and rope drives.
3.2 LAWS OF FRICTION
As a result of studies carried out by Coulomb in 1781, one can work out friction-related quantities such as coefficient of friction, angle of friction, angle of repose to solve problems involving dry friction, and he noted that : 69
The total amount of friction that can be developed is independent of the magnitude of the area of contact. The total frictional force that can be developed is proportional to the normal force transmitted across the surface of contact.
(iii) For low velocities, the total amount of friction that can be developed is practically independent of velocity. However, it is less than the frictional force corresponding to impending motion Consider a body of weight W resting on a floor. Let P be the force applied to it as shown in Figure 3.1. As forces P and W are concurrent, there must be a third force (provided by the floor) equal in magnitude and opposite in nature to the resultant of P and W to keep the body in equilibrium. Let it be denoted by R. The normal and frictional (i.e., parallel to the floor) components of R are represented by N and F, respectively. As P increases, F will also increase corresponding to the limiting condition of impending motion. The maximum value of F that can be developed is called limiting static friction and is proportional to the normal reaction N.
F ∝N F = μ N.
where, μ is a constant and is called the coefficient of static friction. The angle between the normal reaction N and the resultant reaction R is called the angle of friction. If it is denoted by φ, then we get
tan φ = F =μ N
Therefore, the tangent of angle of friction is equal to the coefficient of friction. It is our common experience that when the body begins to move, there is a decrease in frictional effect from the limiting static friction. An idealized plot of this action as a function of time is shown in Figure 3.2. This shows that there is a drop from the limiting frictional effect to a frictional effect that is constant with time. It is independent of the velocity of the object. Generally, the coefficient of friction for dynamic condition are about 25 percent less. 70
Table 3.1 gives the values of static coefficients of friction for various material-on-material combination. Table 3.1
Surface of Contact Steel on cast iron Copper on steel Hard steel on hard steel Mild steel on mild steel Rope on wood Wood on wood μ 0.40 0.36 0.42 0.57 0.70 0.20-0.75
(Source : F. P. Bowden and D. Tabor (1950), The Friction and Lubrication of Solids, Oxford University Press, New York.)
3.3 PROBLEMS INVOLVING DRY FRICTION
Just before the conditions of impending motion, the bodies are in equilibrium. Using the equations of equilibrium, you can work out the unknown frictional forces and hence determine the various friction-related quantities. The most important thing is to ascertain the direction of frictional forces which always oppose possible, impending or actual relative motion at the contact surfaces. Example 3.1 Find the force P needed to start block B as shown in Figure 3.3 moving to the right if the coefficient of friction is 0.3 for all surfaces of contact. Block A weighs 80N and Block B weighs 160 N.
(a) Figure 3.3
19 N For Block B
Σ Fy = 0
N B = N A + WB
NB = 68.62 N 1.19
FB = 0. . FA = 20.5 × 23.3(a) shows the free-body diagrams for block A and block B.3 and NB = 228. .19
= 68.5).866 × 23. .Applied Mechanics
Solution Figure 3.866 T = 0.46 N
Σ Fx = 0
. When block B moves towards right the relative motion of block A will be towards left and hence the frictional force. FA and FB. are shown acting towards left. for block A is acting towards right as shown in figure. (3. As the possible motion of the block B is towards right.5 T
FA = μ N A
. (3.45 N and FB = 68. . .2)
μ = 0.62 = 20.62
.3 × 228. .19 + 160 = 228.19 N FB = μ NB
μ = 0. (3.46 = 88. .3
0.3 (80 − 0.3) and (3.5 T )
T = 24 = 23.
Now the conditions of equilibrium can be applied to determine the force P. (3. .19 N and WB = 160 N
P = FA + FB
from Eqs. (3. . for block B. . . the direction of frictional forces. (3.45 N N A = 80 − 0.6)
. For Block A
Σ Fx = 0
Σ Fy = 0
FA = T cos 30o = 0.016
FA = 0.45 + 68.1)
∴ Also ∴
N A = W A − T sin 30o
= 80 − 0. .48 N P = 20.91 N 72 . FA.
if the limiting static friction is less than the horizontal component of P then the block A will move.795
. a force of 88. NA = W — P sin 60o where. But. Therefore. ∴ W = 400 N and P = 200 N NA = 400 — 200 sin 60o = 226.5 ∴ and NA = 226. Determine whether block A moves if the coefficient of friction is 0. For this case.795 N FA (max) = 0. As the horizontal component of P (i. Example 3. will be towards left. the block A will not move if the coefficient of friction is 0. then find the maximum value of the coefficient of friction when it is just on the point of moving (Figure 3.398 N. Solution There is a possibility of movement of block A towards right.4).2 A force of 200 N inclined at 60o to the horizontal is applied to the block A weighing 400 N. If not. ∴ ∴ ∴ ∴
FA ≤ 100 N FA(max) = 100 μ N A = 100 μ (max) = 100 100 = N A 226.4
This is the limiting static friction that is developed between the surfaces of contact.795 N FA(max) = μ NA μ = 0. FA.398 N
Figure 3.91 N.5.91 N is needed to move the block B to the right.Therefore. the direction of frictional force.5 × 226.795 =113.e 200 cos 60o = 100 N) is less than 113.5. The required magnitude of the force to move the block B towards right is 88.
Figure 3. if the coefficient of friction is 0. If the coefficient of friction between block A and the ground is 0. The coefficient of friction between the blocks and the ground is 0. What will be the value of limiting frictional force if the coefficient of friction is 0.28 and that between block B and the ground is 0.25.22.3.3?
Figure 3. Determine the developed frictional force. find the tension in the string.8.7. What is the minimum angle (with the horizontal) possible before the slip occurs? The coefficient of static friction at A is 0.4409 or less.7
For the system shown in Figure 3.6. then the block A will move under the given conditions.
Figure 3.Applied Mechanics
= 0. The weight of the blocks are 800 N each.6
Two blocks – A weighing 30 N and B weighing 50 N – are on a rough horizontal surface as shown in Figure 3.5.2 and at B is 0.4409 Therefore.
(a) Mark the directions of frictional force and normal reaction at the surface of contact for block A shown in Figure 3. Find the minimum value of P just sufficient to move the system.5
A ladder weighing 80 N rests at a corner as shown in Figure 3. find the value of load W so that the blocks A and B are just on the point of sliding.
10(a)). The maximum angle of inclination at which this happens is called the angle of repose. determine the largest allowable value of the angle α and the corresponding value of P if it moves to the left without tipping.8 m as shown in Figure 3. Resolving the forces along and the normal to the inclined plane and applying the conditions of static equilibrium (Figure 3.9. If the coefficient of friction is 0.Friction
Figure 3.3.4 INCLINED PLANE
One of the simplest engineering devices of lifting loads to higher altitudes is the inclined plane.10
Σ Fx = 0
FA = W sin α
. The component of the weight of body along the inclined plane opposes the movement if the body has to move up or helps the action if it has to move down.9
A force P is applied at an angle α to the packing crate measuring 0. Consider a body resting on an inclined plane which is just on the point of moving down. we get
Figure 3. As the body is just on the point of moving down. the direction of frictional force will be acting up the inclined plane.5 m × 0.
3) = 16. the body will be at rest and an external force will be required to move it. we know. Also.7)
. and Case II : moving up. the angle of friction φ = tan−1 (0.Applied Mechanics
Σ Fy = 0
N A = W cos α μ= FA W sin α = = tan α N A W cos α
This shows that the tangent of the angle of repose is equal to the coefficient of friction. If the angle of inclination α of the plane is less than the angle of repose φ. A force P is applied parallel to and up the inclined plane.
Figure 3. If α > φ then the body will run down the plane and an external force will be required to prevent the body from running down. the frictional force will be acting upwards along the plane. . (3. μ = tan φ where. angle of repose is equal to the angle of friction. we get
P1 + F1 − W sin 30 o = 0
o P 1 = 500 sin 30 − F1
= 250 − F1
.699o = 16o 41′ 57″ ∴ Case I When the body is just on the point of moving down. φ = angle of friction Therefore. Example 3.11(a)
Resolving all forces parallel to the inclined plane. Determine the least value of P when the body is just on the point of movement.3. The coefficient of friction is 0. .3 A body weighing 500 N is resting on an inclined plane making an angle of 30o with the horizontal. (i) (ii) Solution Here. α > φ Case I : moving down.
It is to be remembered that only in case of impending or actual sliding motion of bodies with respect to one another the frictional force will be maximum. .9 N Thus.9 = 379.9 N acting upwards decreasing to zero and then increasing up to 129. we get. we get
N1 − W cos 30 o = 0
N1 = 500 cos 30 o = 433 N F1 = μ N1 = 0.9 = 120. In all other cases. N2 − W cos 30o = 0 ∴ ∴
N 2 = 500 cos 30° = 433 N
. (3. (3. .
. . (3.9 N acting downwards.Resolving all the forces normal to the inclined plane.3 × 433 = 129.1 N Case II When the body is just on the point of moving up. (3.9 N
Putting the value of F2 in Eq.1 N or less it will move down. the frictional force will be acting downwards.e.9 N
F2 = μ N 2 = 0. (3. we get P2 = 250 + 129. experiencing variable friction varying from 129. i. .9).3 × 433 = 129.1 N and 379. . .9 N or more the body will move up and when it is 120. we get .7). P1 = 250 − 129.9)
Resolving all the forces normal to the inclined plane. The mistake most frequently made in the solution of a problem involving friction is to write the friction force in the form F = μ N. the frictional force acting on a body is found by solving the equations of static equilibrium of the body. it is seen that when the applied force is 379. When the force applied is between 120. F max = μ N.8)
Putting this in Eq. the body will neither move upwards nor downwards. we get P2 − F2 − W sin 30o = 0 ∴ P2 = 500 sin 30° + F2 = 250 + F2.9 N.11(b)
Resolving all the forces parallel to the inclined plane.
(a) A crate weighing 5 kN is kept on an inclined plane making an angle of 30o with the horizontal.13. What is the minimum value of P required to keep the crate from sliding down the plane?
(iii) For what range of value of P will the crate remain in equilibrium position shown in Figure 3. for what value of θ.14.12
(iv) If P = 5. the motion of one or both of the blocks is impending? If θ =15o.
Figure 3.12.2 kN.4 and that between block N and the plane is 0.2 kN. find frictional forces between M and N and between N and the plane.5.13
Blocks M and N rest on an inclined plane as shown in Figure 3. The coefficient of friction between block M and block N is 0. (i) (ii) Determine the value of P (the horizontal force) required to move the crate up the plane. (b) If the weight of block Q is 1. find the magnitude and direction of the frictional force acting on the crate. find the minimum value of weight of block P to maintain the equilibrium as shown in Figure 3.
Figure 3. If the weight of block M is 600 N and that of N is 800 N.
there are only two unknowns : N1 and N2 and two equations of equilibrium being available.
Σ Fx = 0
Σ Fy = 0
N1 − F2 = 0 N1 = F2 = 0. the wedge remains in place after being forced under the load.5 WEDGE FRICTION AND SCREW FRICTION
3.25 N 2
. the direction of frictional force will be vertically downwards as friction opposes the motion. the motion of block A with respect to wedge B being towards right. for small adjustments in the position of heavy pieces of machinery wedges are extensively used. (3. . Similarly. The problems involving wedges can be solved by applying the friction laws to the various parts of the device.
Figure 3. Therefore.16. Example 3. In the limiting condition. Owing to the friction existing between the surfaces in contact. If the coefficient of static friction is 0. the normal reactions N1 and N2 will be perpendicular to the respective surfaces of contact as shown in Figure 3.25 for all surfaces of contact. the direction of frictional force at the surface of contact of block A and the wedge will be towards left as shown in the free body diagram of block A. Block A is in contact with the vertical wall and the horizontal surface of block B.15
Solution Let us first draw the free-body diagrams for block A and wedges B and C.1 Wedge Friction
Wedges are generally used to move heavy loads by applying a force which is considerably smaller than the weight of the load. Therefore. The example given below will illustrate the procedure to solve problems involving wedges.3.4 A block weighing 800 N is raised up with the help of two wedges – 6o wedge B and C of negligible weights as shown in Figure 3. we know F1 = μ N1 and F2 = μ N2. we can find the values of N1 and N2.11)
N 2 − W − F1 = 0
.15. The direction of movement of block A with respect to the wall being vertically upwards.5. determine the smallest force P to be applied to raise the block A. Therefore. .
F2 + F3 cos 6o + N 3 sin 6o − P = 0 P = F2 + F3 cos 6o + N 3 sin 6 o F2 = 0. . . . . the various forces acting on wedge B will be as indicated in the free-body diagram of wedge B shown in Figure 3.25 N 2 . (3.0261 N 3 = 0
N3 = 853.9684
. (3. and F3 = 0.25 N 3 cos 6o + N 3 sin 6 o
.25 (0.33 N 0.9375
. are perpendicular to the surfaces of contact.25 N 3 sin 6o = 0 (as F3 = 0.25 N 2 ) = 0
N 2 (1 − 0.17.33 = 881.17 : Free-body Diagram of Wedge B
Applying the equations of equilibrium.16 : Free-body Diagram of Block A
Figure 3. we get
Σ Fy = 0
∴ ∴ ∴ ∴
Σ Fx = 0
N 3 cos 6 o − N 2 − F3 sin 6 o = 0 N 3 cos 6 o − N 2 − 0.25 N 2 + 0. let us draw the free-body diagram of wedge B.9945 N 3 − 853.
Figure 3.18 N 0.Applied Mechanics
∴ ∴ ∴ ∴
N 2 − 800 − 0.0625) = 800 N2 = 800 = 853. Keeping in mind that the frictional forces oppose the motion and the normal reactions.25 N 3
P = 0.25 N1 = 0 N 2 − 800 − 0. as the name suggests.25 N 3 )
0.33 − 0.
61 N 0. This can be solved graphically or by using Lami’s theorem for three concurrent forces (Figure 3. (3. we get
W sin (90 + 2 φ)
R1 sin (180 − φ)
R2 sin (90o − φ)
where.18). By applying Lami’s Theorem. we get
0 = 0.61 sin 34. As the three forces keep the block in equilibrium.036 o = 524.036 o
W cos φ W cos 14.18 sin 6o
= 213.09 + 92.18
By applying Lami’s Theorem.Putting the values of N2 and N3.9701 = 879. R3 and P where
R2 = resultant reaction of N2 and F2 R3 = resultant reaction of N3 and F3
The three forces acting are as shown in Figure 3.18 cos 6o + 881. the forces must the concurrent.14)
Figure 3.11 = 524.072 o cos 20. we get
R2 sin (90 + φ + 6 )
P sin (180 − 2 φ − 6
R3 sin (90o + φ)
R2 sin (2 φ + 6o ) cos (φ + 6 o ) 879.33 + 219. . where R1 is the resultant reaction of N1 and F1 and R2 is the resultant reaction of N2 and F2 respectively. there are three forces acting : R2.33 + 0.8823
Similarly. .19.25 × 853. .25 × 881.53 N is required to raise the block A. for wedge B.53 N
.036 o = cos 2 φ cos 28.53 N Therefore. R2 and W for block A.25)
= 14. a force of 524. You can solve the problem by constructing the triangle of forces R1. φ = angle of friction = tan −1 μ = tan −1 (0.072 o
800 × 0.
If the load remains in position even after removal of the effort P1 the screwjack is said to be self-locking. we get
P1 × l = P × r
. μ > tan α
. This can be found out by taking moments of the forces about the center line of the cylinder.2 Screw Friction
A screwjack is a device used for lifting or lowering heavy loads by applying comparatively smaller efforts at the end of the lever. (3. The thread of a screw jack may be considered as inclined plane wound round a cylinder and the principles used in solving problems on inclined plane can be applied to solve problems involving screw friction. i. It does not work in reverse direction because the angle of inclination. the load is raised through one pitch.Applied Mechanics
Figure 3. will be less than the angle of friction
α < φ ∴ tan α < tan φ
tan α < μ i. .16)
P 1 =
r p l
P1 = =
r W tan (α + φ) l (tan α + tan φ) r W (1 − tan α tan φ) l
when there is one complete revolution. centre to centre distance between two consecutive threads. If L is the length of the lever and r is the mean radius of the screw. If α is the angle of the inclined plane and φ is the angle of friction. we know that the horizontal force required to pull the load up is given by
P = W tan (α + φ)
This force P which drags the load along the inclined plane is related to the force P1 applied at the end of the lever of the screwjack.19
tan α =
p 2π r
tan φ = μ
Using these relations we can work out the horizontal effort P1 required to raise the load up. in such cases.e.5. .e.
Figure 3. direction. the effort P at the thread required will be W tan (φ − α) hence the effort at the end of the lever will be given by
P2 = r × W × tan (φ − α) t
(a) Two 8o wedges are used to push a block horizontally as shown in Figure 3. If a load of 2 kN is to be lifted.21
The pitch of the thread of a screwjack is 5 mm and its mean diameter is 60 mm.21.Therefore. 83
. If the angle of wedges is 10o and the coefficient of friction is 0. In lifting machines. which are used to lift heavy weights.
3. State with reasons whether the screw is selflocking or not. if the coefficient of friction is greater than
P .3 for all surfaces of contact.6 SIMPLE MACHINES
A machine is a tool by means of which. a given force can be tackled by applying another force of suitable magnitude. find the value of P required to drive the wedges under the load.20. what force at the end of the lever will be required? Take μ = 0.20
Two wedges lift a heavy block of 8 kN as shown in Figure 3. The coefficient of friction is 0. the screwjack will be 2πr
self-locking.08. The length of the lever is 400 mm. The pitch of a square threaded screwjack is 8 mm and the mean diameter is 50 mm. Find the force that should be applied at the end of the lever 200 mm long measured from the axis of the screw (i) to raise a load of 20 kN. and (ii) to lower the same load.2. sense or line of action or a combination of these.25 for all surfaces of contact. To lower the load. If coefficient of friction is 0.
Figure 3. determine the minimum load P required to push the block weighing 6 kN.
) of the machine. . there is no loss of energy. The work done (W × x).e. W = M is respectively as measured in their respective directions.) is called its ‘velocity ratio’.e. is called the output of the machine while the work put in by the effort which is = P × y in achieving the same. This applies much more to an actual machine because howsoever high the standard of its workmanship and lubrication may be. the smaller the effort.Applied Mechanics
the former (i. For an ideal or frictionless machine (by virtue of the principle of conservation of energy). M=V
W y < P x
. i.e. P x i. we shall have WI = P ⋅ y = PV x . the force to be overcome) is called the ‘load’ and has a large magnitude while the latter (i. the Mechanical Advantage = Velocity Ratio for an ideal machine.
3. If the ideal load is W1 and the actually applied effort = P. . the force to be applied) is called ‘effort’ and must be smaller so that hoisting.18(a))
In other words.17(b))
Ideal Effort =Actual load ÷ Velocity Ratio. . and similarly. . hence we have :
Output from the machine = Input into it i.
It is clear that for lifting a given load W through a given height. R. The ratio P y called the ‘mechanical advantage’ (M.17(a))
or Ideal Load = Actual Effort × Velocity Ratio. Mechanical Advantage is always less than Velocity Ratio in an actual machine. a certain amount of friction is always present in it. which is necessary to lift the load ‘W’. Now the efficiency (η) of a machine is defined as
. .e. if we call ideal effort P to lift a given load W (actual load). (3.6. y in an actual machine.
Wx < Py. we shall have
PI = or W W = y/x V . the greater will be the displacement. x is always < P. or
Wx=Py W y = . (3. (3. a portion is used up against friction and hence not available for raising the load. is called the input to the machine. while the ratio = V x or (V. A. with the result that out of the work put into it. holding or lowering of heavy weights is facilitated.e. Let ' x' and ‘y’ be the displacements of the points of application of W and P.1 Some Basic Terms
Let ‘W’ denotes the load and ‘P’ the effort. .e.
. unity. also varies with the load since friction is dependent on load. (3. Efficiency =
Actual load . Now since We have. For any machine. its velocity ratio is solely dependent on the geometry of its components and has nothing to do with the condition of its lubrication or maintenance. 85
. . Also since We have or In words. It is of course true that the better the workmanship. (3. .19(b)) where P and W are values of actual effort and load respectively. which means that the given drawing or details of a machine. is dependent in addition on the workmanship that went into the fabrication of the machine. which naturally is always less than 100%.18(b))
in words. which is obviously due to the friction in the machine. at the time of the test.
and is generally expressed as a percentage. . The mechanical advantage. conditions regarding lubrication etc. 1) = ⎜ P − V ⎠ ⎝
or effort lost in friction = ⎜ P −
W⎞ ⎟ V ⎠
. (3. however. From In words. . The M.η=
Output Wx M = = . Hence we may say that additional effort due to friction
W⎞ ⎛ = (P − P ⎟. . . we can determine its velocity ratio and its value remains the same for any load. additional load created by friction = ( W1 − W) = (PV − W) .18(d))
Ideal Effort Actual Effort
And ideal effort is always less than the actual effort. (3. (3. maintenance and lubrication of a machine the closer its mechanical advantage approaches the velocity ratio and its efficiency. Py V Input Mechanical Advantage Velocity Ratio
Wx = P1 y η= P P 1y = 1 Py P
. . Py = W1 x . A. its standard of maintenance.
P 1= W W = y V x
and similarly. ( 3. Ideal load
η= Wx W = W1 x W1
W1 = PV = Py x
and the ideal load will always be greater than the actual load. .
(b) Simple Pulley
V= V= dy bd θ b = = . Length of load arm
. dx ad θ a
Length of effort arm .22
For a small rotational displacement of the lever ‘dθ’ when the load is lifted through a height d x we have d x = a d θ and dy = b dθ ∴ i. considering the rope to be inextensible. 86 If the block is moved a distance AA′ (‘s’) along the plane. It is moved by effort P applied in the horizontal direction (Figure 3.
Consider the lever shown in Figure 3. and arms ‘a’ and ‘b’ at the tips of which the load and the effort are applied respectively.22 with its fulcrum at O.23 : A Simple Pulley
Consider an inclined plane whose inclination to the horizontal is θ.21)
Figure 3. (3.24). we have x = s sin θ which is the component of the displacement of W in its direction
. (3.Applied Mechanics
Figure 3. on which a block (weight W) is placed. . Evidently in this case.6.23 in which A and B denote the initial positions of the load and effort respectively and AA′ and BB′ the corresponding final ones. y = x from which we have V = y =1 x .2 Some Basic Machines
Now we will work out the velocity ratios for few basic machines. .20)
Consider the pulley shown in Figure 3. .
it will push B anticlockwise so that Bs slot 1′ will occupy the position occupied by 87
. . It is obvious that for the smooth meshing of the wheels. This is called the pitch of the teeth. 2 (Figure 3. 1 moves exactly into the position occupied by tooth No.and y = s cos θ.25). ‘p’.
Figure 3. . which is the component of the displacement of P in its direction.22)
Consider a pair of meshing gear-wheels A and B with number of teeth NA and NB.24 : Inclined Plane
y s cos θ = = cot θ x s sin θ
. as in Figure 3. (3. respectively.25.25 : A Pair of Gear Wheels
It is easy to see that if A is rotated clockwise so that its tooth No. the centre-to-centre distance between any two adjacent teeth (measured along their pitch-circles — this term is explained later) must be the same for both the wheels.
the pitch which is the distance between the centre-lines of two adjacent teeth. it moves axially and the load W is raised or lowered depending on the direction of P (Figure 3. The wheel B will N then rotate A revolutions and hence x . for applying the effort P. Clearly p A =
2 π rA 2 π rB . =
2πL y L ⎛ NB ⎞ ⎟. If this is repeated NA times. pA and pB are the pitches of A NA NB
and B. Circles with the above radii NB
are called the pitch circles of two wheels. respectively. . Its nut carries a load platform on which a load W is placed. ⎝ B⎠
V . i. A rigid lever (length L) is welded to the nut. Suppose we apply P continuously as above and rotate the nut so as to raise the load W. If A makes one revolution. It is measured along the pitch-circle circumference of either wheel.Applied Mechanics
slot 2′. at the end of which the effort P may be applied in horizontal plane at right angles to the lever to rotate the nut so that as it rotates. = = ⎜ x ⎡NA ⎤ R⎜ NA ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎢ ⎥ 2πR N ⎣ B⎦
. the velocity ratio will depend on the other details of the same.25 we have a concentric load-drum of radius R rigidly fixed to the toothed wheel B. which is done always at right angles to it (lever). Suppose as in Figure 3. the distance moved by W. R. NB
⎛ NA ⎞ =⎜ ⎜N ⎟ ⎟ 2π R . y = 2 π L and the nut will move axially by a distance = l . the lead of the screw.16). and p B = where. Further. If we make one complete revolution of the nut.
NA ). . (3. they would have had the same rotation-ratio as written above (i.e. ⎣ NB ⎦ Let us replace the two toothed wheels by circular discs of radii ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ NB NA × C1 C2 ⎥ and rB = ⎢ rA = ⎢ × C1C2 ⎥ respectively. pA = pB if the wheels have to mesh. it is clear that A will have made exactly one revolution clockwise while NA slots of B will have crossed the line of ⎡N ⎤ centres C1 C2. over which the rope carrying the load W is wrapped and a lever (length L) rigidly fixed to the toothed wheel A. ⎣ (N A + N B ) ⎦ ⎣(N A + NB ) ⎦ If A was made to drive B by friction without slip.23)
Consider a screw-jack held with the axis of its screw vertical and with the bottom of the screw fixed to a base plate. To obtain ‘p’. the distance moved by the effort = 2π L. B will have rotated ⎢ A ⎥ revolutions anticlockwise. as stated earlier. where l = 88
. y.e. When a system of meshing toothed wheels is used to lift a machine. This r N relation shows that A = A or the pitch circle radii of two meshing wheels rB N B are proportional to their number of teeth.
the tooth of the worm-wheel which is next to the engaging thread of the worm.27 shows the outline of a worm and worm-wheel. .26 : Screw Jack
Obviously x is now = 1.np where p is the pitch of the screw-threads and n = 1. Then
Figure 3. etc. will be pushed in the direction of the apparent advance of the worm by a distance equal to its pitch (which is equal to the pitch of the wheel). R. (3.
. = y 2ππ 2πL = = x l np
. The worm rotates in bearings B1 and B2 which are so positioned that the imaginary cylindrical surface midway between the roots and tips of its threads is tangential to the pitch-circle of the wheel.27 : Worm and Worm-wheel
This machine consists of a toothed wheel (the worm-wheel) rotating in a pair of bearing shown at B (Figure 3.24)
Worm and Worm-wheel
Figure 3.27). Also the pitch of the worm-screw threads and the circular pitch of the teeth of the worm-wheel is same. so that the former mesh properly with the slots in the wheel-teeth (Figure 3. The previous tooth of the wheel is engaged in the worm-screw-threads and will be ready in its turn for onward displacement. . 2. depending on whether the screw is single. 3 etc.
It is evident from the arrangement that with one complete rotation (shown by arrow ‘a’) of the worm.27) and a screw (called the worm) with its axis arranged in the middle plane of the wheel. double or triple-threaded.
Figure 3. we have the effort-pulley E (the ‘wheel’) rigidly fixed to the axle over which another rope is wound clockwise at the end of which effort P is applied.28). we shall have. hung by rope wound round a drum (radius R) rigidly fixed to the worm-wheel. then taken downwards and around a floating pulley X. one complete rotation of the worm corresponds to the rotation of the wheel by an angle θ given by
θ= 1 2π × 2 π radians = radians. corresponding to one full rotation of the worm.
It is now easy to see that if one complete clockwise rotation is given to the axle. N N
where N = the number of teeth of the worm-wheel. For applying the effort. R
.28 : Differential Axle and Wheel
As shown in the figure.Applied Mechanics
In short. The diameter of E is D. R. The rope supporting the load has its one end tied to the smaller stepped part at K. The direction of winding of the load and effort-ropes should be carefully noted. E will rotate through 360o and the displacement ‘y’ of the point of
. If effort P is applied at the end of a lever (length = L) attached to the worm at right angles to its length and the load W. =
x =θ× R =
2π ×R N
L ⋅ N. . then up again to be wound clockwise round the bigger stepped part and finally fixed to it at L. wound clockwise (as seen in the direction of the arrow ‘a’) several times round it. (3. The floating pulley X carries the load W. .25)
Differential Axle and Wheel
In this machine a stepped axle is used in an ingenious manner to obtain a large mechanical advantage which is necessary when hoisting a very heavy loads (Figure 3. y = 2π L V. a stepped axle (called the differential axle) with diameters d1 and d2 is provided with bearings B1 and B2 in which it can rotate about its own axis.
3.e. If the velocity-ratio of the machine is V. of the machine. The graph of this effort P1 is also V plotted in Figure 3.application of the effort P will be equal to πD. Naturally the law will depend entirely on its velocity-ratio. P1. (3.27)
where. the ideal effort would be = .e. .6. W. for a given machine. it has seen that the actual effort P required to lift the load W is given by LN = m W + C. Or ‘C’ is the effort required to move only the components of the machine.29. is called the law of that machine. observing the values of the effort actually required to lift specific loads. an effort = C is required to move the load-hook alone with no load there.3 Law of Lifting Machine
For any lifting machine. m and C are constant for all loads.
x= π (d1 − d 2 ) 2 πD y 2D = = π − d d ( ) x (d1 − d 2 ) 1 2 2
The V. . then it is obvious that in ideal case (i. the law can be established only after experimentation on it. Since the ideal effort for 91
.29 : Law of Lifting Machine
It is seen from the actual P − W graph that with W = 0. W frictionless).26)
This shows that by either increasing D or more effectively by reducing the difference between d1 and d2. At the same time. the velocity ratio can be increased by any desired extent. It has been experimentally found that the law is of the form
P = mW + C
. i. Hence. . will be
. the friction in its various moving parts which will in turn depend on their weights. the relation between the values of the effort P required to lift gives load W. The net result will be that the load W will be raised by a distance. therefore.
Figure 3. Drawing the ordinate LMN at abscissa. the length of the load-rope which will be wound round the bigger stepped part will be ‘πd1’ while that unwound and hence paid out from the smaller stepped part will be πd2. against friction therein. its state of lubrication and maintenance. R. etc. . the relation is a linear one (Figure 3.
Now as W → ∞. .
1 C⎤ ⎡ m+ ⎥V ⎢ W⎦ ⎣
Figure 3. and as W increases. . PF.30 : Typical Efficiency Curve of a Lifting Machine
Example 3. efforts of magnitudes 50 N and 120 N respectively are required. the effort required to V
overcome the friction in the machine at the load W = P – P1 = LN – MN = LM. If velocity ratio is 20.29(b))
A typical graph of η vs. (3. we can see that
η→ 1 1 . R. η = 0. A. (3. since P = mW + C. . the slope of the ideal P/W graph.
Efficiency of a Lifting Machine − Its Maximum Limit
Since the efficiency
η= M. it is observed that for loads of 500 N and 1500 N.e. or ηmax = mV mV
. P V
and. .Applied Mechanics
lifting the load is given by P1 =
W = MN (see the figure). W is given in Figure 3. (a) (b) 92 Determine the law of the machine. the slope of the actual P/W graph = α = (tan –1 m) is greater than
β = tan −1
Normally.. . calculate the efficiency for a load of 3 kN. (3. η also increases. and hence PF value increases with V
For a lifting machine. which is the intercept between the two lines.
. we have
1 W × (mW + C ) V
i. . W 1 = × V.29(a))
This shows that when W = 0. It is given by
PF = (mW + C) − W V
We have from Eq. (iii)
(and. obviously. (i) . . (d) Max. Calculate the maximum possible efficiency.6
In a differential pulley block two pulleys have diameters of 20 cm and 16 cm. respectively. .07 W + 15
.4 %. we get
C = 50 – 35 = 15 ∴ The law of the machine is P = 0. (a) (b)
Calculate the velocity ratio. (iii) above
P3 = 0. A. A. (d1 − d 2 ) (20 − 16)
V . . R. R × η
.07 Substituting this in Eq. P and W to be in N units). ⎛ 3000 ⎞ 1 2 =⎜ = = 66.R =
M. (ii) — (i) gives : 70 = 1000 m. (i).. ⎝ 225 ⎠ 20 3
3000 = 150 N .
Example 3.e. Assuming the law to be P = mW + C We have and 50 = m × 500 + C 120 = m × 1500 + C .
η3 = M.(c) (d)
Has the machine been ideal. 20 1 1 = × 100. Possible efficiency =
= 71. Given that the efficiency at 30kN load being 60%. calculate the effort lost in friction at that load.07 × 20
Effort lost in Friction = 225 – 150 = 75 N.
d1 = 20 cm d2 = 16 cm
2d 1 2 × 20 = = 10. . = V. calculate the effort required. W = 3000 N). (b)
P for 3 kN load (i. .67 % ⎟× V. mV 0.07× 3000 + 15 = 210 + 15 = 225 N. . ∴ m = 0. what effort would have been required for the load in (b)? Hence.
e. R P tan θ tan (θ + φ)
. Putting value of θ in (I).e. R.
1 . φ⎤ ⎡ 1 + tan ⎥ ⎢ 2⎦ ⎣
This gives the required pitch.
First alternative is not acceptable because it gives φ = 0. where p = the pitch of the screw πd
φ⎞ ⎛ p = πd tan θ = πd tan ⎜ 45o − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝
φ⎤ ⎡ π ⋅ ⎢1 − tan ⎥ 2⎦ ⎣ = . = the angle of the equivalent inclined plane. .e. (I)
dη = 0 (treating θ as a variable). d. = 10 × 0. 6
For a given value of the coefficient of friction μ (or angle of friction φ ). A W 1 tan θ = ÷ = V. Effort to lift 30 kN load = 30 = 5 kN. . or i.7
M. A. 94
. calculate the pitch of the threads of a single-threaded screw jack (screw-diameter = d) which will have the maximum efficiency and calculate the value of this efficiency.
sin (θ + φ) × cos (θ + φ) = sin θ cos θ
1 1 sin 2 (θ + φ) = sin 2 θ 2 2
Either θ + φ = θ or 2 (θ + φ) = 180 − 2θ. where θ = tan θ
We have for a screw-jack. dθ
tan (θ + φ) sec 2 θ − tan θ sec 2 (θ + φ) = 0 sin (θ + φ) 1 sin θ 1 × = 2 2 cos (θ + φ) cos θ cos θ cos (θ + φ) sin (θ + φ) sin θ = cos θ cos (θ + φ)
We have θ + φ = 90o − θ
θ = 45o −
Since tan θ =
p . at 30 kN load. M.
η= η max .6 = 6. P = W tan (θ + φ) and V .Applied Mechanics
3. you have studied laws of friction and problems involving dry friction..8 ANSWERS TO SAQs
The direction of frictional force. The angle between the normal reaction. N. μK is the coefficient of kinetic friction. N. R. the frictional forces can be found by using the equations of static equilibrium. The limiting static friction is reached when relative sliding motion of the surfaces is impending and is given by :
F(max) = μ N
where.g. and the resultant reaction. you can analyse such engineering problems. μ is the coefficient of static friction and N is the normal reaction on the surface concerned. e. The angle of repose is equal to the angle of friction. When there is no impending motion. The relative sliding motion of one body on another body is resisted by forces called frictional forces. the retarding friction force has the magnitude μKN where. are marked in Figure for Answer to SAQ 1(a). the engineering applications where dry friction plays an important role. The sense of these frictional forces is such as to oppose the impending or actual sliding motion. You have also studied in this unit. is called the angle of repose. φ⎤ 2⎥ ⎦
φ⎤ ⎡ φ⎤ ⎡ 1 − tan ⎥ ⎢1 − tan ⎥ ⎢ 2⎦ ⎣ 2⎦ = ⎣ × φ⎤ ⎡ φ⎤ ⎡ 1 + tan ⎥ ⎢1 + tan ⎥ ⎢ 2⎦ ⎣ 2⎦ ⎣
⎡⎡ φ⎤ ⎤ ⎢ ⎢1 − tan 2 ⎥ ⎥ ⎦⎥ = ⎢⎣ φ⎤ ⎥ ⎢⎡ 1 + tan ⎥ ⎥ ⎢⎢ 2⎦ ⎦ ⎣⎣
3. and normal reaction.ηmax
⎡ tan ⎢45 − ⎣ = ⎡ tan ⎢45 + ⎣
φ⎤ 2⎥ ⎦. When sliding motion occurs. in wedges used to lift heavy loads and screw jacks frequently used in presses and other mechanisms. N is acting vertically 95
. By drawing free-body diagrams indicating correct sense of friction forces and applying equations of equilibrium. is called the angle of friction when sliding motion of the surfaces is impending. This angle φ is related to the coefficient of friction by :
tan φ = μ
The maximum angle of inclination of the inclined plane when the body kept on it is just on the point of moving down the plane. F.7 SUMMARY
In this unit.
∴ N A = FB
.e. the limiting frictional force will be 0.426 N
∴ The frictional force developed will also be 42. we get (with AB = l)
NA l l l l sin α + F A cos α + FB sin α − N B cos α = 0 2 2 2 2
. Σ Fx = 0 Also.3.272 N. the motion is impending. i.
Figure for Answer to SAQ 1(b)
Taking moments of all the forces about C. opposite to the direction of tending motion. . the various forces and reactions will be acting in the directions as shown in Figure for Answers to SAQ 1(b).3 (150 – 60 sin 45o) = 32. . As the actual frictional force is greater than limiting frictional force. if the motion is not impending.
Figure for Answer to SAQ 1(a)
The horizontal force which tends to move the block A is 60 cos 45o acting towards right : 60 cos 45o = 42. (b) If the slip is impending.426 N but acting towards left.Applied Mechanics
upwards and F is horizontally acting towards left.3 × normal reaction = 0.
If the coefficient of friction is 0.
we get :
N B + P sin 30 o − W B = 0
N B = WB − 0.5666
α = 57 o 26′ 56′′
Applying equations of equilibrium to block A.3
∴ ∴ ∴
2 sin α = (3.4 N
Tension in the string = 8. we get
N A sin α + 0.4 N Now applying the equation of equilibrium to block B also.2 NA Putting these values in Eq.22 (50 − 0.3 NB
FA = limiting frictional force at A
T = FA = 0. (I). Applying equations of equilibrium to the whole set-up.333 − 0.866 P − 0.4
P= 19. we get NA = WA = 30 N and.866 P − 11 + 0.877 N.5 P
= 50 − 0.
The free-body diagram for the hinge.22 NB)
FB = limiting frictional force at B
= 0.976 P = 11 + 8.4 = 0 0.4 = 19.5 P
Figure for Answer to SAQ 1(c)
∴ ∴ ∴ ∴
P cos 30o – FB – T = 0
(FB = 0.11 P − 8.2 N A cos α + N A sin α − NA cos α = 0 0.976
∴ The minimum value of P just to move the system is 19.5 P ) − 8. rigid rods and blocks A and B are shown in Figure for Answers to SAQ 1(d).877 N 0.4 = 0 0.and. we get
C A cos 60o − C B cos 60o = 0
.2) cos α tan α = 1.28 × 30 = 8.4 = 19.28 N A = 0.
F A = 0.
CA = 0. W.75 N. we get
N A − W A − C A sin 60o = 0
but. considering block B also.4 W.4
W ≥ (1. .75 N 0.5774 W cos 60o = 0
200 + 0.8) and the stabilising moment due to weight.) Therefore. we will again get W = 1221.8 sin α ) 0. (e) The overturning moment due to force P about the left corner is P cos α (0. about the left corner is 0.25 cos α + 2 sin α) P
Figure for Answer to SAQ 1(d)
Applying equations of equilibrium to block A.5774 W sin 60o
= 800 + 0.5 W and
∴ ∴ ∴
F A − C A cos 60 o = 0.25 N A
0.5W ) − 0. we have : or
W≥ P (0.125W − 0. W.5) + P sin α (0.5774 W
N A = W A + 0.2887 W = 0
W= 200 = 1221. when the block are just on the point of sliding is 1221.25 (800 + 0. . and. (II)
C A = C B = C (say)
C A sin 60o + C B sin 60o − W = 0 C= W
2 sin 60 o
= 0.5 cos α + 0.75 N. the value of load. As the block does not overturn.
P = 0.
0. we get 1.
When the crate is about to move up. . .25 cos α + 2 sin α = 3. (V)
Putting this value in Eq. where W = 5 kN
∴ N = 0.5 + 0. we get
P cos 30o − W sin 30o − F = 0 ∴ 0.3 W = P (cos α + 0. we get 99
. .Applying the equations of equilibrium when the block is just on the point of sliding.333 cos α + sin α) P
(N = normal reaction)
. .3 sin α)
W = (3. (II) and (III). (IV)
Figure for Answer to SAQ 2(a)
and N − P sin 30o − W cos 30o = 0. we get
N + P sin α − W = 0 ∴ N = W − P sin α
∴ ∴ ∴
F − P cos α = 0 F = 0.9014) P
or. applying equations of equilibrium after resolving the forces along the normal to the inclined plane. (III)
Figure for Answer to SAQ 1(e)
Comparing Eqs.3 (W − P sin α) = P cos α 0.3 N.083 cos α tan α = 2.5 P + 4. (IV).442 + 0.25 N .333 cos α + sin α
sin α = 2.33
. .4266 W
α = 64o 21′ 20 ″ and correspondingly W = (1.866 P = 5 × 0.5 + F = 2.
we get.Applied Mechanics
This is the minimum value of P to keep the crate sliding down the plane.5 P + 4. F = 0.741P = 3.5 P + 4.e.5 + 0.819 = 0. will be acting upwards. we get
NQ — W cos 35o = 0 ∴ NQ =1. (iii) Considering the above two results. (iv) If P = 5.00 kN
The negative sign indicates downward direction of the frictional force (i.25 (0. 0.835 kN
This is the minimum value of P to move the crate in upward direction.983 kN
Figure for Answer to SAQ 2(b)
T − W sin 35o + FQ = 0
. the direction of friction force. our assumption was wrong).33)
P = 1.991 P = 1.430 N and 4. it can be concluded that the crate will be in equilibrium for the range of values of P between 1.866 P = 2. (ii) When the crate is just on the point of moving down. (b) Consider forces acting on block Q.835 N. Applying equations of equilibrium after resolving the forces normal and parallel to the inclined plane.2 kN (assuming F acting upwards)
P cos 30o − W sin 30o + F = 0
F = W sin 30 o − P cos 30 o
= 5 × 0.866 P = 2.2 × 0.25 (0.33)
0. Working on similar lines.25 kN.5 − 5.5825
P = 4.2 × 0.5 − 0.866 = − 2.
968 kN.2 × 0. If θ = 15o.25 N P = 0. then working on similar lines and noting μ = 0.
If only block M is on the point of moving down then applying the equations of equilibrium. the minimum value of weight of block P is 1. 101
.983 = 0 T = 0. we get
N M = WM cos θ = 600 cos θ
FM = WM sin θ = 600 sin θ
∴ ∴ ∴
FM = 0.∴ ∴
T − 1. we get
1400 sin θ = 0.82 N).4 × 600 cos 15o = 231.4 NM
600 sin θ = 0. the block M will slide first. Frictional forces can be worked out from equilibrium equations
FM = 600 sin 15o
= 155. Here
∴ ∴ ∴ ∴ T − FP = 0
FP = 0.5 × 1400 cos θ
tan θ = 0.968 kN
∴ To maintain the equilibrium.5
θ = 26 o 33′ 54′′
As this angle is greater than 21o 48′ 5″.29 N
Figure for Answer to SAQ 2(c)
This is the frictional force between block M and block N.492 kN
θ = 21o 48′ 5′′
If both blocks together are on the point of sliding down the inclined plane. the motion is not impending.5.492
N P = 1. consider forces acting on block P. (Note : This is less than limiting frictional force which is 0.2 sin 35o + 0.492 kN 0.968 kN WP = N P = 1.4 × 600 cos θ tan θ = 0.
sin (90 + 14. (W = 6 kN)
= 1. (∵ W = WM + W N = 600 + 800 = 1400 N )
= 362.35 N
∴ The frictional force between the block N and the inclined plane is 362.8824
.072 o 6 × 0. B. RD and W.036° for all surfaces.036
W sin 165.25) =14. the coefficient of friction is 0.964 o
sin (180 − 14. are acting on block C (Refer to Figure for Answer to SAQ 3(a)) and apply the Lami’s theorem. RB. the reaction offered by B is equal to reaction offered by C 102
. wedge B.25
∴ The angle of friction φ = tan– 1 (0. RC and RD are making an angle of 14.2425 0. The suffixes A. . respectively when motion is impending. C and D refer to wedge A. .
Figure for Answer to SAQ 3(a)
Three forces.036o to NA.35 N. As wedge B is moving down. NB.Applied Mechanics
FN = 1400 sin 15 o . RB.649 kN At the contact surface of wedge B and block C. . NC and ND. . block C and ground D.036o )
sin 118.036 + 14. ∴ RA.
SAQ 3 (a)
Here. . respectively. the frictional forces FA and FC will act upwards.
16o 41′ 57′′ for all surfaces. we get
sin (180 − 14. Three forces RA.) Applying Lami’s theorem.3o sin 53.036 o )
RC sin 143.036 o 1. Note that contact surface between wedge A and B is inclined at 8o to the vertical.398o
= 4.3. we get
Figure for Answer to SAQ 3(b)
sin (180 − 2 φ − 10 )
sin (90o + φ)
. RC and P are acting as shown in figure. Applying Lami’s theorem.649 kN
= 1.649 × 0.∴
RB = RC = 1.
The coefficient of friction of all surfaces of contact is 0.3). Three forces RA. RD and P. RC and W act on the heavy block as shown in Figure for Answer to SAQ 3(b). RA. (Note : A and C denote wedges and D ground. we get
R A (or RC ) W = o o o sin (180 − 16 41′ 57′′ − 10 ) sin 2 (16 41′ 57′′ + 10o )
R A = RC =
8 sin 153.036 )
sin (90 + 22.9269
and RC = 1. consider wedge B. required to push the block horizontally is 1.5888 0. act on it as shown in Figure for Answers to SAQ 3(b). Therefore. Three forces.478 kN
Consider left hand side wedge. the angle of friction will be tan −1 (0.e. i.649 kN
∴ The minimum load.036 − 22.0475 kN. P.928o
The force P1 to be applied at the end of the lever to raise the load up is given by
P 1= r W tan (α + φ) l
where and Here
⎛ p ⎞ α = tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2π r ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ φ = tan −1 μ
P = pitch of the thread = 5 mm d = mean diameter
⎛ 5 ⎞ o α = tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ = 1 31′ 10′′ ⎝ 60π ⎠
φ = tan −1 0.Applied Mechanics
R A sin (2 φ + 10 o ) cos φ
4.32 kN = 320 N (ii) To lower the load.398o cos 16.699 o
= 3.054 o ) = 0.478 sin 43.212 kN
∴ The value of P to drive the wedges under the load is 3.08 = 4o 34′ 26′′
r = mean radius = 30 mm l = Length of lever = 200 mm W = 20 kN ∴
30 20 × × tan (1o 31′ 10′′ + 4o 34′ 26′′) 200 1
= 3 tan (6.212 kN.160 kN = 160 N
To lift a load. P2 required is given by
P2 = r W tan (φ − α) t
30 × 20 tan (4o 34′ 26′′ − 1o 31′ 10′′) 200
= 3 tan (3.093o) = 0. the force required at the end of the lever is given by
P 1 =
r W tan (α + φ) l
25 2 × × tan (α + φ) 400 1
. It cannot work πD
in reverse direction as the angle of inclination is less than the angle of friction.125 tan (α + φ) α = tan −1 8 = 2o 54′ 56′′ 50π
φ = tan −1 0. we get
o P 1 = 0.051 < 0.69 N As
P < μ (0.225
= 0.= 0.2).03169 kN =31. the screw jack is self locking.2 = 11o 18′ 35′′
Putting the values of α and φ.125 tan 14.