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Dayalbagh Elementary School Math Teachers guided by Nam P. Bhatia Department of Mathematics University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC) Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. Visiting Teacher, Day Boarding School Dayalbagh, Agra, India March 1, 2013

2

Acknowledgment

The author is most grateful and most humbly acknowledges the motivation, encouragement and advice provided by Professor Prem Saran Satsangi Sahab, the chairman of the Education Advisory Committee, Dayalbagh. It was at his urging during my visit to Dayalbagh in the summer of the year 2004 that I got associated with the Day Boarding School in Dayalbagh. His remark that our students lack proper understanding of the fundamentals (or foundations) of mathematics has since motivated my association and work at the Day Boarding School. The Day Boarding School in Dayalbagh caters to students in grades VIXII. My initial work, naturally therefore, concentrated on the development of foundational materials and workshops on the foundations of school mathematics suitable for these levels. The notes prepared by me for the ongoing summer mathematics workshops at the Day Boarding School were published by the Dayalbagh Educational Institute (deemed university) in 2010 in book form with the title ”Foundations of School Mathematics”. This book has three chapters, namely, 1. Sets and Counting, 2. Geometry and Measurement, and 3. The Real Numbers and the Number Line. This book provides the basis for the ongoing mathematics workshops for grades VI-XII. Further ongoing work for Grades VIXII is motivated by the exhortation of Professor Prem Saran Satsangi Sahab made on the report of the workshops submitted on July 3, 2007: “I hope the participating math-teachers would produce small text books that focus on the most powerful and generative ideas with emphasis on concepts and fundamentals presented in a careful sequence, as opposed to bulky text books cramped with forgettable details”. During these summer workshops, it became clear that the incoming students in grade VI were not ready for the foundational material as exposed in the above noted book and summer workshops. Moreover, the medium of instruction in our schools being Hindi made it diﬃcult for the students to comprehend the material, particularly at grade levels VI-IX. Though progress has been and is being made with the help of some Hindi translations, but it is slow. Furthermore, we realize that most current text books cater to the syllabi but do not provide the insights and understanding of the foundations which the great teachers, mathematicians, and successful practitioners of mathematics use to do their i

. Another Dayalbagh Primary School Mathematics Teachers Workshop was arranged in the period July 25. Follow up primary school math teachers meetings brought about the proposal that WORKSHEETS for each of the grades I-V be prepared in Hindi for use in elementary school math teaching. These workshops were carried out at the Distance Education Center during February 6-11.P. It soon became apparent that curriculum changes at the elementary school level will be more eﬀective.ii ACKNOWLEDGMENT work. We only know that successful practice of any art or science requires and is based on a deep intuitive understanding of the foundations. The notes prepared for grade VI with the title ”Number Systems and Arithmetic” provided the material for these workshops. Such an understanding of the fundamentals of mathematics is crucial in applications and for problem solving skills. Encouragement and support of the REI Managing Committee in the above eﬀorts is gratefully acknowledged.August 2. Attempts were made to develop material for the grade VI students attending the summer workshops to cover the elementary school mathematics material with insights in the foundations. So a proposal was made to conduct workshops for elementary school teachers where the elementary school math material is covered with foundations. Finally. the books being used at present were critically examined on methodology and content. 2013. N. 2012. Most of the existing textbooks commonly used in our schools and colleges are of little or no help in this. 2012. This workshop focused on teacher presentations of the methodology and content of mathematics. This is acquired through contact with teachers and through self eﬀort and reﬂection on the subject. Notes prepared for this purpose titled ”Number Systems and Arithmetic” were ﬁrst used in summer workshops in 2011. Bhatia February 15. Teacher meetings were arranged(this included the Day Boarding School Math teachers and the elementary school math teachers) to exchange ideas as to how the content of these notes may be used in classroom activity.

N. multiplication and division on them through their use in counting and measuring. three. This issue of the worksheets is for grade I. ﬁve. Measuring involves geometric shapes and their size. division but to develop an intuitive understanding of the number systems and the operations within those number systems that provide the language for expressing the results of counting and measuring. seven. two. Visualizations is recognized as the most eﬀective means to develop and teach the number systems and the arithmetic operations on them. The current texts use visualization for this purpose but they do not bring out even the meaning of the notation in use.V. an apple. This lesson essentially begins when the mother makes the child learn the number ‘one’ associated with a single object.P. nine. The main goal of Primary School Mathematics education is to bring home to the students effectively the meaning of these numbers and the basic operations of addition. The number ‘ten’ is the count of the ﬁngers on both hands. subtraction. The activity of counting and measuring is carried out primarily through the use of numbers called ’the natural numbers’ and ’the fractions’. be it a ball. iii . and ten’. Most children. four. and ends with the learning of the ﬁrst ten counting numbers ‘one. before joining an elementary school.Preface Mathematics education in Elementary Schools mainly deals with counting and measuring. subtraction. We use visualization extensively to bring out the key properties of arithmetic operations which are usually neglected in current texts. It will be followed by worksheets for grades II . or any other single object or item imaginable. Here the number ‘one’ is the count of any collection of objects that contains a single object. The worksheets are not a replacement of prescribed texts and do not change the syllabi for these grades. multiplication. These worksheets are designed to help students in elementary schools not only to acquire the necessary skills in carrying out eﬃciently the operations of addition. the basic activity by which we keep track of our possessions and advance our perception of the universe we all live in or are conscious of during our wakeful condition. 2013. or a tree. get their ﬁrst lesson in counting from the mother. Bhatia February 15. eight. six.

iv PREFACE .

2 Exercises . . 2. . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . counting . . . .3. .1. .3 Subtraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Forming and counting pairs . . . . . .1 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . .1 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . .2 Worksheet 2: Line displays and position number . . . . 1. .1.5. . The ﬁrst numbers . . . . . . . . 1. .5. . . . . . . . . .1 Addition . . . . . .1 Worksheet 1: The succession of counting numbers . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i iii 1 twelve counting . . . . . . .2. 1. . . . . . . . .4 The succession of numbers . . . . . . . . .3. . . 1. . . . . . . 2. . . .1. . . . .2 Forming and counting triples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Worksheet 3: Straight Counting. 1. . . . 1. .2 Line displays for counting . . . . . . . . .3 Worksheet 3: Counting pairs and triples. . .5. . . . . 1. v . . . . .2 Worksheet 2: Counting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . 1 1 2 3 3 3 4 5 6 8 8 9 10 10 13 13 15 15 16 17 17 18 19 20 21 22 24 2 Class 2 Worksheets 2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Addition and Subtraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The count of a collection. . . . .3 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1 Exercises . 1. . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . .1 Examples and Exercises: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Worksheet 4: The ﬁrst twenty ﬁve numbers and 1. . . .2 Exercises . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . .2. 1. . . . . 2. . . . . .2 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1 Examples of Straight Counting . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . 1. .4 Exercises . . . . . . . . 1. . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . .1 Worksheet 1: Getting ready to count. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . .5 Exercises . . .Contents Acknowledgment Preface 1 Class 1 Worksheets 1.1. . . . . . . . . . .1 Finding the count of a given collection . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . etc . . . . . .

. .1 Examples and Exercises . . . .4 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 POINTS: . . . . . . . . .6 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11. . . . . . . . . .3 Exercises . . . . . . = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . Worksheet 5: Using Straight Counting to Add or Subtract . . .7 Place values in three digit numbers . .1 Visualizing Multiplication and its Properties: . . . . . 2. . . . . . 2. . . . .10. . . . . 2.10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Addition Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.9. >. . . . Worksheet 12. 2. . . . . . . . 2. .6.6.5. . .2 Principles of measurements of lengths . . 2. .13. . . . . . .6 exercises . . . . . . . .1 How are fractions used to represent parts of a whole . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . .9 Adding more than two numbers . . . . . . and ’<’ .1 Exercises: . . . . . . 2. . . . . 2. . . .5 Subtraction Exercises. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Exercises . . . . 2. . . . .11 2. .2 PLANES: . . . . .12 2. . . . 2. . . . . . . . . .3 Visualizing Division and its Notation . . .1 The measuring scale or Ruler. . . . . . . . .4 Subtracting any number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . .5 2. .2 Adding any number . . .13 24 25 25 28 29 30 30 31 32 33 33 34 34 34 35 35 36 37 37 38 38 39 39 40 40 42 42 45 46 47 48 50 50 50 51 51 52 53 53 53 55 57 57 57 58 . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . .6. . . . . . .9. . . . . .2 Exercises . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . Worksheet 7: Selling Almonds . . . . . . .3 Adding two digit numbers using place value . .7. . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Place value for two digit numbers . . . .9 2. .6 Exercises . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . Geometry . . .5 Subtraction using place value . . 2.9. . . . . . . .2 Exercises . . . . .8 2. . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . .1 Adding or Subtracting 1 . . .10. . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . .7 2. . . 2. . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Number Line: . . . . . . . . .5. .13. . . .4. . . . . . . . . .1 Using the symbols ’=’. . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . Worksheet 11. . .4 Exercises . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Worksheet 6: Counting in Groups and The Place Value Notation 2. . .9. . . . . . . Area Measure . . . . . . . Worksheet 10. . . . . .2 The order among Whole Numbers . . . .3 Addition Exercises: .12. . . Measurements . . . ’>’. . . . . . . 2. . . . . 2. .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Exercises: .10 2. .7. . . . . . . . .4 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . 2. . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Worksheet 4: Addition and Subtraction . . . . . . . . . . . . Fractions and fractional measures . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . .3 CONTENTS A Most Important Observation about counting and the Count of a Collection . .5. . .1 The concept of an empty collection and its count . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . 2. Worksheet 8: Multiplication and Division . . 2. . . . . . . Worksheet 5: The Order among numbers: Meaning of <. . . . . . . .3. . . . . . .vi 2.5 Products and Factors .10 Exercises . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . .7. . .

. .6 A characteristic property of lines and segments 2. . . . . . . . . . . .5 Simple open and Simple closed Curves . . . . . . . . . . .13. . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . .14. . . .15 Shapes of some surfaces and solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Equality of Curves in a Plane: . . . . . . 2. . . . . . 2. . . . . .13. .13. . . . . vii 58 58 59 60 60 63 65 . 2. . . . . . .CONTENTS 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.13. . .4 Curves and Paths .3 SPACE: . . . . . . . .14 Plane Curves . . . . . . . . . . .

viii CONTENTS .

e. The ﬁrst twelve counting numbers. 2. .1. 9.Chapter 1 Class 1 Worksheets 1. numbers are written using the numerals 0. The ﬁrst ﬁve counting numbers in words and numerals are Just as English words are written using the English alphabet A.1 Worksheet 1: Getting ready to count. . 1 . 6. while there are ten numerals which have the same count ten as the number of ﬁngers on both hands of a person. 10 is a two digit number as it uses the numerals 1 and 0. The numbers 11 and 12 are also two digit numbers. 4... The count of the English alphabet is twenty six or the number 26.1 Exercises 1. and their corresponding number forms are: one 1 two 2 three 3 four 4 ﬁve 5 six 6 seven 7 eight 8 nine 9 ten 10 eleven 11 twelve 12 Note that the ﬁrst nine numbers are single digit numbers. 1. Thus ’BOOT’ is an English word. 1. C.. Complete the succession of the ﬁrst ten counting numbers in the following table by providing the missing word and or the missing number form. whereas the number ten.. Using numerals the number ten is written as 10. 7. The ﬁrst twelve counting numbers One 1 two 2 three 3 four 4 ﬁve 5 B. 8. written in words. 5. 3. i. and ’123’ is a number.

.. P A Q S B C R It is sometimes convenient to display the objects (here some English alphabets) in a given collection along a line. Thus N A A M and M A A N are correct line displays of the collection containing the English letters A.. 9 ten 10 2.. Another line display of the objects in the same collection is P A Q S R C B This shows that there are many many possible line displays of the objects in a given collection. N... 6 . .. 6 ...2 Line displays for counting The exhibit below is a collection of some of the English alphabets. .. M . 12 1..... 2 three ... Complete the succession of the ﬁrst twelve counting numbers in the following table one .. CLASS 1 WORKSHEETS four 4 ﬁve . .. ... whereas 1212 is a number... But the line display N A M or the line display N A A A M is not a correct line display.... eight 8 . ..1. A display of objects along a line (here English alphabets) in the above picture is: A P Q R S B C Such a display of objects in a collection is called a line display.. Similarly. 9 ten 10 eleven . . For example DADA is a word.. A correct line display contains each object in the collection exactly once. eight 8 . numbers are line displays of numerals. . four 4 ﬁve . CHAPTER 1. A. Can you see why? English words are formed using line displays of some of the English alphabet....2 one 1 .. 2 three ...

Write all numbers using each of the numerals 5. . The number 21 is called ’twenty one’. Exhibit the alphabet in the picture below in all possible line displays. 10 the tenth. 5 is the ﬁrst numeral. 5.1. 3. A D D Answer: The various line displays are: ADD. 11. 3. 2. exactly once. 4. Here ADD and DAD are familiar words.1. DAD. Write all numbers that can be obtained by a line display of the numbers 1. 12 the number 1 is called the ﬁrst counting number. but it is a word. 3. 6. Write all the numbers where each of the numerals 1 and 2 is used exactly once. 2. 1. WORKSHEET 1: GETTING READY TO COUNT. 2. 6. Write all the numbers using each of the numerals 1. 2.3 Exercises 1. 4. Each line display is an English word. 7. and 12 the twelve th counting number. 11 the eleventh. And in a number like 567. In a given line display of objects like that of the English alphabet below A P Q R S B C we say that A is the ﬁrst alphabet in the display. THE FIRST TWELVE COUNTING NUMBERS3 1. The word DDA is not a very familiar word. S is the ﬁfth alphabet in the display. 2. 6 the second numeral.4 The succession of numbers In the succession of the counting numbers 1. 1.5 Exercises 1. 5. Write all words using the letters in the word M AD. 1. Answer: 12 and 21. etc.1.1. 9. 8. 2 the second counting number. and 7 the third numeral. 10. Identify the third and seventh alphabet in the line display below. and DDA. and so on. The number 12 is called ’twelve’. 7. Thus 9 is the ninth.1. where each numeral is used exactly once. A P Q R S B C .

Identify the third. The next line display of successive numbers 1. second. and eighth numeral in the number 75757575. Identify and display the ﬁrst. and 5 shows the pairing as pointed out by the in-between up-down arrows. 5. 12. 2. 6. . Thus the letter A is paired with the ﬁrst number 1 and so also the ﬁrst curve (the circle) above. What are their names? 1. Question: Draw and name the fourth curve in the above line display of curves. 8. and the ﬁfth a rhombus. CLASS 1 WORKSHEETS 2. seventh. For example the count of the collection of special curves line displayed below is 5. etc. 11. 3. is paired with 1. 3. 2. The assigning of a unique number to a given collection is done by pairing objects in the given collection with the successive numbers 1. 4. Answer: It is an ellipse. as well as that of the collection of the alphabet.4 CHAPTER 1. the second is called a square. the fourth an ellipse. and 5 is also the count of the alphabet in the next line display. 7. 3. third. and ﬁfth curves in the display above of special curves. 4. 10. The objects in the line display below are very special curves. The number assigned is called the count of the collection.2 Worksheet 2: Counting Counting means assigning a unique number to a given collection. 4. The last number 5 in the pairing gives the count of the collection of curves. the third a triangle. 9. The ﬁrst curve in the display is called a circle..

This may be done in any suitable way. for the collection.1 Finding the count of a given collection It is not necessary to line display the objects in a collection for pairing with successive numbers. WORKSHEET 2: COUNTING 5 A P Q R S 1 2 3 4 5 1. Note further that the above collection of alphabets can be line displayed and counted in ﬁve . One should note that any line display of the objects gives a pairing with counting numbers as described above and any such pairing gives the same count for the given collection. In the display below of objects (here some English alphabets) each object (i.2.1. namely 7.e. In the example above the count is 7. The number 7 being the last number with which the last object is paired. or tagged) with the successive counting numbers shown in the bracket after the alphabet. alphabet) is paired (identiﬁed. and each object (here alphabet) is paired with a diﬀerent number than that of the other.. the successive numbers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 have been used. is the count of the collection.2. labeled. P (1) A(2) Q(3) S (4) B (5) C (6) R((7) In this pairing. The pairing begins with the ﬁrst counting number 1 and ends with the number 7. The pairing could be displayed in line display format as follows P (1) A(2) Q(3) S (4) B (5) C (6) R(7) A diﬀerent pairing as given below in line display format is A(1) P (2) Q(3) R(4) S (5) B (6) C (7) It gives the same count.

Count the alphabets in the word B 2.6 CHAPTER 1. Here the count of the collection of alphabets is 4.e. but the count of the collection of all possible displays is 12. Exhibit all possible line displays of the alphabets in the word B O O T . 1. the number 4. remember that the count of the alphabets displayed above is the number seven written 7 but the line displays are many.2. 12. and the count of all possible line displays is a very large number. i. 3. The count of all possible displays is twelve. 1. You will learn such bigger numbers later. Count the triangles in the line display . However. i.e. What is the count of the alphabets in each display? How many displays are there? Answer: The possible line displays are display 1: display 2: display 3: display 4: display 5: display 6: display 7: display 8: display 9: display 10: display 11: display 12: B B B T T T O O O O O O O O T O O B B O T T O B O T O O B O O T B O B T T O O B O O T B O B T O In each display the count of alphabets is Four. CLASS 1 WORKSHEETS thousand eighty two diﬀerent ways and each will give the same count 7 for the collection. This count of possible line displays is a big number which is written as 5082. Count the curves in the line display 4.2 Exercises O O T.

How many apples from the basket are not displayed? Display the remaining apples from the basket (use one A for each remaining apple) on the dotted line. How many A’s are in the name D A Y A L B A G H 10. WORKSHEET 2: COUNTING 5.2. Count the numbers in the display 5 4 1 2 8 3 9 6 7 10 7 6. . The display of the six apples ends with a vertical bar | followed by a dotted line. Count the dots in the display 7.1. How many letters are there in the word DISP LAY M AT H ? 11. In the picture below six of the apples in the basket are line displayed where each letter A represents an apple. There are ten apples in a basket. Count the dots in the display 8. 9. Count the alphabets used in the word BISCU IT .

.... given a bag of almonds. For example if there were three almonds in the bag to start with. 1.. Number Answer: .. For example.. we can say that there are four pairs of dots and one unpaired dot in a collection of nine dots. A B A B A B A B A B A B A B What is the count of each collection? Write the answer as a word and as a number..3 1..... CLASS 1 WORKSHEETS A A A A A A |. Word Answer: .. Then remove another two from the bag to give them to another person.. we may remove two almonds from the bag and give it to somebody or put them aside.1 Worksheet 3: Counting pairs and triples. then after the ﬁrst removal of two almonds we will be left with only one almond in the bag and no other person can get two almonds from the bag. the answer depends on how many almonds were in the bag to start with.... Clearly. Note that there are four pairs of big dots in the collection of nine big dots and one big dots remains without pairing... . It is important to realize that diﬀerent collections can have the same count. So. etc Forming and counting pairs Any two items in a collection form a pair.8 CHAPTER 1.. For example the collection of A’s and the collection of B ’s that are line displayed below have the same count. If we keep removing two almonds at a time then how many persons may get two almonds each from the bag.. it is convenient to line display the items as shown below for the case of the nine big dots (line displayed below): The picture below shows the grouping in pairs (two big dots in each group). How many pairs of big dots can be formed? Is there an unpaired dot left? 2... . Display six big dots in a line display. To see the answer for a given collection..3.. How many Bananas are line displayed in the picture below: . where each pair picked is boxed. 1.. 12...

In the above examples the big dots represent objects.3.2 Forming and counting triples Just as one can form pairs of objects from a given collection. ETC 9 How many pairs of Bananas can you form? How many are left without pairing? 3. apples. how many will be left for you? . One may use and practice using any objects like balls. How many pairs of coins you have? 3.. There are four birds sitting on a branch of a tree. You have ﬁve coins in your pocket. You distribute three pistachios each to your friends. How many pairs of apples can be obtained from a collection of eleven apples? Are any apples left after all possible pairs are formed? 1. one may obtain triples of objects (i. How many of your friends can get three almonds each? How many almonds you will have left? 5. You have eleven pistachios in a bag. How many of your friends get three pistachios each? What is left for you? If you give three pistachios each to three of your friends.. sticks. How many pairs of birds are there on the branch? Are any birds left without pairing? 2. You see twelve apples in a basket. WORKSHEET 3: COUNTING PAIRS AND TRIPLES. How many pairs of apples are there? 4. You give three pistachios each to each of your friends. You have ten almonds in a bag. sub-collections each containing three objects) from a given collection. The following picture shows that one can form three triples out of a collection of eleven big dots and two remain as not part of a triple. etc. birds.e. Hoe many friends get three pistachios? How many are left for you? 6.3. 1. How many pairs of apples can be obtained from a collection of twelve apples? Are any apples left after all possible pairs are formed? 4.1. You have twelve pistachios in a bag. The following picture shows that one can form three triples out of a collection of nine big dots. toys.

fourteen (14).4. nine (9) ten (10). then you may form one group of ten and will be left with two objects. each number is followed by another without there being a last number.. Here we practice counting with the ﬁrst twenty ﬁve numbers. six (6).e.10 CHAPTER 1. Note that the singles box on the right in the last display is empty and the 0 in the singles place on the right in the notation 10 represents no singles. twenty-three (23).1 Exercises 1. eight (8). two single objects among the twelve objects. The spoken word as written is followed by its numeric version expressed in round brackets below: one (1). twenty-two (22). ﬁfteen 15 seventeen . In the number symbol 12 for the number twelve. four (4). thirteen (13. ﬁve (5).4 Worksheet 4: The ﬁrst twenty ﬁve numbers and counting The succession of natural numbers that one uses for counting continues indeﬁnitely. The symbol 10 for the number ten. If you have twelve objects. eleven and twelve. Similarly.. twenty-ﬁve (25). nineteen (19). three (3). eleven (11). i. twenty-three . seventeen (17). 1.e. eleven. twenty-four (24). So let us practice counting by tens and relating it to the numbers ten.. and ten objects below.. ﬁfteen (15). besides the one group of ten. twenty (20). two (2).. 2... twelve (12). shows one group of ten and one single object. eighteen (18).. zero) single objects.. Write the word form of each number below: . This is depicted below in the line displays of twelve. seven (7). eighteen .. twenty-one (21). sixteen (16). CLASS 1 WORKSHEETS Counting in groups of ten is the basis for the number notation. the numeral 1 on the left indicates that you have 1 group of ten. Write the numerical form of each given number below: thirteen . The numeral 2 on the right indicates that you have. the symbol 11 for the number eleven. shows one group of ten and no (i. 1.

... 6 7.... 6........Count the successive pairs you have boxed! 10... 22 . 4 5. 2 3........... Count the successive pairs you have boxed! 1...... ....... 12 13.... 12 seven .... ten .1.............. .. 2 3. 21 ............ . Write the missing word or numerical form of the numbers below: . 15 thirteen 13 . Count the successive pairs you have boxed! 8... Display the numbers 1 to 10 in successive pairs by boxing successive pairs... There is one number left unboxed... Display the numbers 1 to 21 in successive pairs by boxing successive pairs of numbers............ Display the numbers 1 to 20 in successive pairs by boxing successive pairs of numbers. 24 3... 7. Count the number of alphabet in the line display below: A B C D E H J K L M N O P Q R T U Z Answer: Word: ... Leave any numbers that cannot be paired unboxed! Count the successive pairs you have boxed! What is the count of the unboxed numbers? 1... 10 Answer: The number count of successive pairs boxed is 5. 10 11.. Number: . 9.. 4 5.........15 16 17 18 ............4. 12 .... 14 15 Answer: The count of boxed pairs is 7. 5....... .. .... 8 9.... Display the numbers 1 to 15 in successive pairs by boxing successive pairs of numbers.. WORKSHEET 4: THE FIRST TWENTY FIVE NUMBERS AND COUNTING11 . 8 9... 20 4. Supply the missing successive numbers in the line display of the ﬁrst twenty ﬁve successive numbers: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ........... Line display the numbers 1 to 24 in successive pairs by boxing successive two numbers.... 6 7....24 ....... Leave any numbers that cannot be paired unboxed! Count the successive pairs you have boxed! What is the count of the unboxed numbers? Answer:.

Line display the numbers 1 to 25.... How many birds are there now? Answer: . Line display the successive numbers 1 to 25. Box successive groups of three numbers......... Your Mom gives you two more. 16. Three more big dots are added after the vertical bar as shown below. You have 17 almonds in a bag.. 15. Box successive groups of ﬁve numbers. How many almonds are there in the bag? Answer: .. Two more birds ﬂy in to sit on the same wire besides the others..... There are . How many groups of ﬁve numbers are there? Are any numbers left unboxed? Answer: There are . You put another ﬁve almonds in the same bag. The display below shows six big dots. . You see 7 birds sitting on an electric wire. 12.... . groups of four numbers. 17.. CLASS 1 WORKSHEETS 11...... How many rupee coins you have now? Answer: .. Line display the numbers 1 to 25. unboxed numbers... .. How many big dots are there now? Answer: There are nine big dots now. . unboxed numbers.... 14. There are . You have thirteen rupee coins. unboxed numbers........ 18..12 CHAPTER 1. How many groups of three numbers are there? Are any numbers left unboxed? Answer: There are . There are .. Box successive groups of four numbers. groups of three numbers. 13.... How many groups of four numbers are there? Are any numbers left unboxed? Answer: There are . The display below shows eight big dots.... groups of ﬁve numbers....

The counts of the two separate collections and the count of the single collection obtained from them are related. ... We therefore relate and understand the arithmetic through counting.. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION You box three of them as shown below 13 How many are left unboxed? Answer: Five are unboxed. ... The relationship between the three counts 2. then how many chairs are there in the room altogether now? Answer: Word Form: .5 1. 23.. How many rupees are left with you. How many are left on the tree branch... .. Answer: . 19.1 Addition and Subtraction Addition Given two collections of objects we may put them together(combine them) and make a single collection.. 22. We also conclude from this that 2 + 3 = 3 + 2 as both the numbers 2 + 3 and 3 + 2 stand for the same number 5... Number Form:. 20..... The symbol ’+’ signiﬁes ’addition’ and we read the statement as ’two plus three equals ﬁve’ or as ’three plus two equals ﬁve’. For example consider a collection of two dots and another of three dots.. Answer: ... You take out and eat ﬁve almonds from the bag. You see 6 birds sitting on a tree branch. We put all these apples on a single tray to obtain ﬁve apples on a single tray.. We have learned that numbers represent counts of collections..... 1.... If you have thirteen chairs in the room and you remove one chair from the room. then how many chairs are left in the room? Answer: Word Form: . . Number Form: ... Three ﬂy away.. You deposit all in your Bank account.. 3.. 21.. ......5. If you have thirteen chairs in a room and you bring in one more chair in the room. How many almonds are left in the bag? Answer: .. You have 13 rupees....5. ....1.. You have 23 almonds in a bag. For example we have two apples on one tray and three apples on a second tray. We may line display them for counting as follows: .. and 5 in this situation is expressed in the statement 2 + 3 = 5 or also as 3 + 2 = 5.

CLASS 1 WORKSHEETS or as The next picture shows that the two collections have been combined to obtain a single collection of ﬁve dots The ﬁrst line display contains two dots.14 CHAPTER 1. Thus the following two pictures using the letter O instead of a dot represent the process of adding the number 3 to the number 2 to obtain the sum 2 + 3 = 5. In general this property is described symbolically by m + n = n + m. The last statement expresses a property of addition. It produces the same display in either case. The last display shows the collection obtained by adding the second collection to the ﬁrst. O and O O O O O O O O O When the counts are small numbers. Thus for display and understanding we may identify the objects in a collection in any suitable convenient way. That is why the two dot collection is displayed to the right of the three dot collection. we can mentally picture the process and come up with the count of the combined collection.. etc. Symbolically it is written as 2 + 3. The second display indicates the process of adding the two dot collection to the three dot collection. irrespective of their individual counts. We emphasize that counts are numbers and the counts do not depend on the nature of objects in a collection. The letter ’O’ may be used for any object. And then to its right we display the collection of three dots. Since both counts when added result in the same number 5. We read the ﬁrst statement as ’two plus three equals ﬁve’ and the second as ’three plus two equals ﬁve’. 13 + 12 = 12 + 13. This is then written as 2 + 3 = 5 for the ﬁrst display and as 3 + 2 = 5 for the second display. we learn that 2+3 = 3+2. where m and n identify the counts of the two collections and m + n as well as n + m the count of the combined collection depending on how the two collections are line displayed for counting. We may use our ﬁngers . This kind of line display identiﬁes the process of adding the three dot collection to the two dot collection. For example if we are counting almonds or apples we may use the letter A to identify each object. Thus. Now we straight count the combined collection in the last display and see that it has a count of ﬁve. This property is named as ’the commutative property’ as it is true for the counts of any two collections. 3 + 7 = 7 + 3.

. Pictorially show that 12 + 1 = 13.2 Exercises 1. For example we have seven apples and we eat two of them so that we are left with only ﬁve apples. The relationship between these three numbers is expressed in the form 7 − 2 = 5... When the counting process is clear. 3.....5. Mentally calculate 21 + 1 = .... the line displays are no more resorted in counting........ for example 3 − 3 = 0 for the case of a collection having count 3.1. Pictorially show that 3 + 1 = 1 + 3 = 4..... For large numbers.5. 2 + 15 = .. 21 + 2 = . The basic underlying process is straight counting as described in section 1. We may picture this as follows: Here the ﬁrst line display has seven dots showing the seven apples we had originally..5.... 5. 13 + 10 = ... the process becomes cumbersome and we use the place value system. 15 + 9 = . But the underlying process remains straight counting.. Calculate 15 + 6 = . Find 13 + 12 = .. 1.. 15 + 7 = . however.... We read the statement 7 − 2 = 5 as ’Seven minus two is ﬁve’ or as ’seven take away two is ﬁve’... The subtraction in this case takes the form. The symbol ’−’ identiﬁes subtraction (or removal).. Line displays help in understanding the process and in counting. The count of the apples that were eaten is 2 and the count of the remaining apples is 5.. Note that the count of the apples in the beginning was 7. 4 + 15 = ... Mentally ﬁnd 1 + 15 = . 1. Addition and subtraction are done using straight counting.... 4.. It should be kept in mind that when we remove all objects from a given collection we will be left with no remaining objects.. The line display for a collection of seven objects will appear as .3 Subtraction Given a collection of objects we may remove some objects from the collection.... 6.. 21 + 4 = ..... 2.2 on counting.. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION 15 or parts of ﬁngers to aid in the addition process. 21 + 3 = . The numeral 0 is used to express the count of an empty collection.. that means that the remaining collection has no objects in it or the remaining collection is empty. 3 + 15 = ... The second display has the two dots replaced by circles showing the two apples that were eaten and the ﬁve dots that are left.

3... 17 − 10 = .... Find the answer using line displays as above: (a) 3 − 1 = .. 3 − 3 = ...4 Exercises 1....... ..... (c) 20 − 13 = ..... 16 − 6 = ....... (c) 21 − 1 = .5.........16 CHAPTER 1..... 24 − 24 = ... 12 − 12 = .............. Find the answer by mentally picturing line display of objects or using your ﬁngers. 2.... 10 − 6 = ....... 1..... 7 − 3 = ... 9 − 5 = .. (b) 13 − 5 = ....... CLASS 1 WORKSHEETS Here the empty box on the left shows that no dots are left and the box on the right shows the seven dots that have been removed by picturing them as circles.. 15 − 3 = .... 10 − 3 = .... (b) 12 − 2 = ... (a) 5 − 2 = .. 4 − 2 = . 22 − 3 = ..

7(seven). 6(six). . 17 . 4 (four).. It is not possible to write all the numbers. 9(nine) These numerals are the alphabet of the numbers just as the English letters a. each number followed by another. 8(eight). 3 (three. It continues without a break. etc.1 Worksheet 1: The succession of counting numbers The succession of counting numbers begins with the number 1 (one) and is followed by the successive numbers 2 (two). 2(two). .Chapter 2 Class 2 Worksheets 2. 1(one). 5 (ﬁve. without end. 5(f ive). b. but we will learn to write the number that follows any given number. are the alphabet used for English words. You have learned the numbers up to the number 100 (one hundred). The succession of the ﬁrst hundred counting numbers is given below: 1 11 21 31 41 51 61 71 81 91 2 12 22 32 42 52 62 72 82 92 3 13 23 33 43 53 63 73 83 93 4 14 24 34 44 54 64 74 84 94 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 95 6 16 26 36 46 56 66 76 86 96 7 17 27 37 47 57 67 77 87 97 8 18 28 38 48 58 68 78 88 98 9 19 29 39 49 59 69 79 89 99 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Note that numbers are written using the ten numerals 0(zero).. c. 4(f our). 3(three). .

. Note that the ﬁrst line in the table above contains all the counting numbers written using a single numeral. It is followed by numbers that are written with two numerals. The ending number is 9. and 76 is the predecessor of 77. They begin with 1 and end with 9.1. and 76 is just before 77. and 100 is the successor of 99. The number that follows the number 99 is 100 (one hundred) and it uses the three numerals 1. . the number that follows is 101 (one hundred one). Also observe that 1 comes just before 2.1 Exercises 1. . . A number that comes just before a number is called its predecessor.18 CHAPTER 2. 100 is the ﬁrst number that uses three numerals. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS It is important to keep in mind the order in which the succession of numbers is written. 2. . 8 is the successor of 7. 1 is the predecessor of 2. in that order. Answer: The beginning number is 1 . So. Similarly. and 0. Observe that for each number there is a number that comes just after it. . and 99 is the predecessor of 100. and every number except 1 has a predessor. Thereafter comes the successive numbers that use four numerals. Write the beginning and ending numbers in the succession of numbers that use ﬁve numerals. . Note for example that 78 comes just after 77 and so 78 is the successor of 77. Although not exhibited in the table. . These begin with 1000 (one thousand) and end with 9999 (nine thousant ninety nine). Complete the succession of counting numbers in the last two line of the table 1 11 21 31 41 51 61 71 81 2 12 22 32 42 52 62 72 82 3 13 23 33 43 53 63 73 83 4 14 24 34 44 54 64 74 84 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 95 6 16 26 36 46 56 66 76 86 7 17 27 37 47 57 67 77 87 8 18 28 38 48 58 68 78 88 9 19 29 39 49 59 69 79 89 99 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 2. We see that every number has a successor. The number that comes just after a number is called its successor. 0. They begin with the number 10 (ten) and end with the number 99 (ninety nine). The succession of numbers written with three numerals begins with the number 100 and ends with 999 (nine hundred ninety nine). 1 has no predecessor as there is no counting number that comes before 1.

2.2 Worksheet 2: Line displays and position number When children are made to stand in line (i... ... 4. . 2.. Consider the ﬁve children standing in line below: MILAN ﬁrst 1 CYRUS second 2 MAULI third 3 NRYN fourth 4 AGAM ﬁfth 5 Moving from left to right.. 3. ... .. MAULI in third.. are made to line-up) they are said to be standing in a position that is identiﬁed by a number which identiﬁes the position of the child in the line.e.. Some more examples are: . given number 31 20 55 7 successor . and AGAM in ﬁfth position. WORKSHEET 2: LINE DISPLAYS AND POSITION NUMBER 19 3. . 4. ... NRYN in fourth. . . predecessor ..... .. CYRUS in second.. .2. . ..2. We may also identify these positions by the numbers 1... ... and 5 as is shown in the line up. Arranging or placing objects or persons along a line is called a line-display of the objects or persons. . .... The line-up of children above is a typical example... given number 99 100 999 1000 10000 9999 successor .. . What number identiﬁes the position of MUALI? Answer:.. .. Write the successor and predecessor of each given number in the table that follows.. Write the successor and predecessor of each given number in the following table predecessor ........ In the above line-up the number 5 identiﬁes the position of AGAM in the line-up... MILAN is in ﬁrst position...

What number identiﬁes the position of the letter M in the word D U M? Answer: the number 3. and U.. . Below is a line display of a few dots. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 The following is a line display of some big dots: . What number identiﬁes the position of the letter U. NRYN: ...20 CHAPTER 2.. . The numbers below each dot identify the position of each dot in the display. Look at the word D A Y A L B A G H What number speciﬁes the position of the ﬁrst A? Answer: 2.. The word ’D U M’ is a line display of the letters D.. Mauli: ...2.... . We can also say that the ﬁrst A is in second position..... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Question: Which numeral is in the ﬁrst position? Answer: The numeral 0. In what position is the letter M in the word D U M? Answer: M is in the third position.. 3. . 5. Which numeral is in the third position? Answer: The numeral 2..1 Examples and Exercises: 1.. MILAN: .. 2. 5. . Answer:. What number speciﬁes the position of the third A? Answer: . What number identiﬁes the position of the numeral 7? Answer: . . Below is another line-up of the same children AGAM ﬁrst 1 NRYN second 2 MAULI third 3 CYRUS fourth 4 MILAN ﬁfth 5 Write down the position of each child in word and number: Answer: AGAM: ﬁrst . M. Below is a line display of the numerals used to write numbers.... Cyrus: fourth ... CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS 2... 4.. .. . 2. English words are line displays of some English letters.

a chair.. To start with.... The count does not depend on the nature of the objects. the count of each of these collections is the number 1 (one). To count the apples in a basket. In what position is the ﬁrst 3 (three)? Write the Answer: . respectively two hands. the method of pairing or labeling the objects with successive numbers starting with the number 1 is used to assign a number as the count of the collection. or almonds in a bag. The process ends with the assignment of a number. We . For any collection of objects. It is like giving a special name to a child by which the child is known. This is the ﬁrst picked apple. A typical example is counting apples in a basket. the hair on one’s head. For example. In what position is the second 3 (three)? Write the answer: . or rupee coins in ones pocket.. or balls in a box. called the count of the collection. an almond. In what position is the second 0 (zero)? Answer: 6 or in sixth position. or that the number of ﬁngers on both hands is 10 (ten). . We put the ﬁrst picked apple aside (outside the basket) and pick another apple from the basket and mentally pair it with the number 2 (the successor of 1). THE COUNT OF A COLLECTION. planets of the sun.. Counting numbers are line displays of numerals.. the count of a collection is a number that is assigned to it.21 4 Write the numerical position of each dot below the dot! 6. The position numbers of each numeral used in the number 4107303271 are noted below 4 1 1 2 0 3 7 4 3 5 0 6 3 7 2 8 7 9 1 10 In what position is the ﬁrst 0 (zero)? Answer: 3. think of any single object. Simply stated. we start by picking an apple from the basket and mentally pairing it with the number 1. or also third position. The process of pairing or labeling is typically called as counting. almonds in a bag. a child. For practice you may arrange any items in a line display and assign position numbers to each object. the count of a collection containing a single object is 1 (one). stars in the Milky Way.2. persons in a family. like apples in a basket. WORKSHEET 3: STRAIGHT COUNTING. The count of a collection. The number 5 (ﬁve) or 10 (ten) is the count we have assigned to the ﬁngers of one hand.3. or a rupee coin in one’s pocket.. Be it an apple. we say that the count of the ﬁngers on one hand is 5 (ﬁve)... .3 Worksheet 3: Straight Counting. 2. Whenever a collection contains many objects... Every collection has a unique number assigned to it as the count of the collection.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 See that the numbers used in pairing are the successive counting numbers beginning with 1 and ending with 8. An example of pairing which does not use a line display is . As an example consider the word ’Dayalbagh’. then the count is 35.22 CHAPTER 2. has no more apples left. Consider counting the number of letters used in an English word. 2. Line displays of objects in a collection are helpful in counting.1 Examples of Straight Counting 1. This was the case in picking apples from a basket and pairing each pick with a successive number starting with 1.e. we write the successive numbers beginning with 1 below each letter as shown below: D 1 A 2 Y 3 A 4 L 5 B 6 A 7 G 8 The last counting number used in this pairing is 8. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS then put this second picked apple aside and pick another from the basket and mentally pair it with the number 3 (again the successor of 2). The process of pairing starts by pairing the ﬁrst dot on the left with the number 1. It is customary to start be pairing the object on the left on the line with the number 1.3. If it is 35. This number 8 is the count of the collection of letters in the word ’DAYALBAGH”. each adjacent dot is paired with the successor of the last number with which the previous dot was paired. The last number used in this pairing is 8 and this number is the count of the collection of dots in the display. Several examples of pairing and assigning the count follow 2. Thereafter. 3. It is not necessary to line display the objects in a collection as long as the pairing of objects in the collection with successive numbers beginning with 1 is clearly shown. so the basket of apples is now empty. i. The picture below shows certain big dots arranged on a line (you may think of the dots as apples or almonds or any other objects in a collection whose count is to be found out). To answer the question ’How many letters are used in the word ’Dayalbagh’ ?. The number 8 is the assigned count of the collection of dots. The numbers below each dot is the number with which that dot is paired. The process of picking and pairing with successive numbers continues until the last apple has been picked and paired with a number that is the successor of the previously used number for pairing. If the last number used for pairing is 7 then the count of apples is 7.

For ﬁnding a count of a collection. until all the letters have been paired with a number.3. For example the count of successive numbers beginning with 7 and ending with 16 is seen to be 10 as seen from the pairing 7 1 8 2 9 3 10 4 11 5 12 6 13 7 14 8 15 9 16 10 . we pair each object in the collection with successive numbers starting with 1. The ending number in this situation is the assigned count of the collection of successive numbers that begins with 1.23 P (1) A(2) Q(3) S (4) B (5) C (6) R((7) Here we ﬁnd the count of the letters on a Board or in a picture. The last number used in the pairing is the number 7 and it is the (assigned) count of the collection of letters. we continue picking letters and pairing them with successive numbers 2. It is important to note that the count of a collection of successive numbers that begin with 1 and ends with a speciﬁed number is that speciﬁed number. This is shown in the table below for ending numbers up to 12 (twelve): collection 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 count 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 12 4. THE COUNT OF A COLLECTION.. etc.2. WORKSHEET 3: STRAIGHT COUNTING. If a collection of successive numbers starts with any other number diﬀerent from 1 its count has to be found in the manner above indicated. The last number used in the pairing is the count of the collection. 3. Starting with any one of the letters which is paired with the number 1 shown in a bracket after the chosen letter.

. How many words are there on page 20 of your Book? Answer: ..3. B .... That the process assigns a unique number as the count of a collection becomes evident when line displays are used for counting. 8.24 CHAPTER 2. And the count of the collection whose objects are paired with these one to one is the count of those successive numbers...2 Exercises 1. The ﬁrst object picked in the process is paired with the number 1.. How many letters are there in the word M AT HEM AT ICS ? number. we note all the possible line displays of these letters given below: . . . What is their count? Write your answer as a word and as a number! 5. 6. .. 9.. What is the count of the successive numbers beginning with 1 and ending with 100. 2. 3.3. How many legs does a Donkey have? 11. 7. and C .3 A Most Important Observation about counting and the Count of a Collection Note that counting is done by picking objects in a collection and pairing each successive picked object with a successive number. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS The important thing to remember is that the count of a collection of numbers that contains all the successive numbers beginning with 1 and ending with a speciﬁc number.. How many walls are there in the class room? Answer:. Find the count of successive numbers beginning with 90 and ending with 99. For example for counting the objects in the collection that contains the letters A.... 2. How many houses are there on the street or lane where you live? Answer: . is that speciﬁc number. How many pages are there in your Math Book? 10. Line displays are helpful in counting but are not necessary to carry out the pairing process. 2. The count is the number with which the last picked object is paired.. Take a bag full of marbles and count them. Count the number of chairs in the class room! Give your answer in the word form and also as a number.. How many successive numbers are there that begin with 35 and end with 50? 4.

2. a pair. the number 3 for the count of the collection. each line display gives the same count for the collection.e. we need use only one of several possible line displays. and 3. Subtraction conceptualizes the process of removing or taking out (i. Consider the two processes on examples: The Process of Addition: There is a basket containing some apples and we place some more apples into that basket. 5. Question: ”What is the count of . 0. . The collection containing the numbers: 21 and 12. It shows that diﬀerent line displays give the same count. subtracting) some objects from a collection. The collection containing: an apple.e.. Addition conceptualizes the process of putting or placing (i. The collection containing: three apples.4. Straight counting is used to ﬁnd the answer. adding) more objects in a collection. The collection containing the symbols: ∅.4 Exercises Find the count of each collection below by using a line display of items in the collection. namely. 3. 1. and C ? Your Answer: . The Process of Subtraction: There is a basket containing some apples and we remove some apples from that basket.. WORKSHEET 4: ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION A A B B C C 1 B C A C A B 2 C B C A B A 3 25 Here the last line that contains the successive numbers 1.3. and a banana. 2. most importantly. and 0. Question: How many line displays are there for the collection of letters A. But. shows the pairing and the fact that the count of the collection is 3 for each line display.4 Worksheet 4: Addition and Subtraction Common everyday problems point to the underlying concepts of Addition and of Subtraction of numbers. and two bananas. Display all possible line displays in each of the above exercises! What is the count of the line displays in each exercise? 2. 2.2. 4. Question: ”What is the count of apples in the basket after we have placed in some more apples in the basket?” Addition answers this question. B .. Thus to ﬁnd the count of a collection using a line display.

e. A pictorial illustration of the process of addition using dots (think of each dot as representing an apple) is as follows: The picture represents two baskets of apples. The count of the apples in the left basket (after the move) is 5. since we now are adding two apples to the basket that already has three apples. . We put (place or add) 3 more apples in this basket. The resulting picture will be The result of moving (adding) two apples in the left basket to the three apples in the right basket is now represented by the symbol ’3 + 2’. add) the apples from the basket on the right to the basket on the left. The result is represented by the picture Note that the left basket has ﬁve apples (Why?) and the right basket is empty (Why?). The basket on the left has two apples (represented by two dots). Straight counting is used to ﬁnd the answer. This says that the result of adding 3 to 2 is 5. This shows that the sum ’2 + 3’ number is the same as the number 5 and we write ’2 + 3 = 5’. This results in the right basket having ﬁve apples and so we write ’3 + 2 = 5’. Now note that both symbols ’2 + 3’ and 5 represent the count of the apples in the left basket after completing the process of moving apples from the right basket to the left basket.26 CHAPTER 2. We may indeed want to move the apples in the left basket (that has two apples) to the basket on the right (that has three apples). We may line display the objects in the following form (without showing the boxes). Note that the left basket is now empty. The examples that follow explain the underlying notation for addition and subtraction. The problem of ﬁnding the number represented by the symbol ’5 + 3’ is solved by straight counting to get the answer 8. We move (i. Notation for Addition: A basket has 5 apples. In this case we will use the symbol ’3 + 2’ to represent the count of apples after the move. The symbol is simply read as ”ﬁve plus three” or as ”3 added to 5”. we may start with the display of objects in a collection whose count is expressed as a sum of two numbers: Consider the objects of a collection whose count is 2 + 3 and it indicates that the collection is obtained by adding a collection of 3 objects to a collection of 2 objects. For the visualization of the number ’2 + 3’. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS apples in the basket after we have removed some apples from that basket?” Subtraction answers this question. This means that 5 + 3 = 8. The basket on the right has three apples in it. The symbol ’5 + 3’ is used and it identiﬁes the count of apples in the basket after we have added the 3 apples in the basket. and the result of addition along with the resulting notation.

2.4. WORKSHEET 4: ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION

27

or they may be displayed in two rows in the form

The ﬁrst display suggests visualizing addition in the form + which suggests writing addition in the form 2+3=5 The second display suggests visualizing addition in the form =

+ = which suggests writing addition in the form 2 3 5 2 3 5

+ =

or

+

Combining collections of objects and the resulting relationship between the counts has motivated the concept of addition of numbers. The result of adding the two numbers 2 and 3 can be expressed in the form ”2 + 3 = 5” or ”3 + 2 = 5”. Since both sums equal the same number 5, we conclude that the sums are equal, i.e., 3 + 2 = 2 + 3. This conclusion is a property of the operation of addition. It is called the commutative property as it holds for all numbers. It is expressed symbolically by writing m + n = n + m, where m and n stand for any given numbers. Thus without ﬁnding the actual count of the combined collection we can say that 5 + 6 = 6 + 5, 123 + 7 = 7 + 123, etc., N otationf orSubtraction: A basket has 5 apples. We remove (subtract) 2 apples from this basket. The symbol 5 − 2 is used and it identiﬁes the count of apples in the basket after removing 2 apples from the basket. The symbol is simply read as ”ﬁve minus two” or as ”2 subtracted from 5”. The problem of ﬁnding the number represented by the symbol ’5 − 2’ is solved by straight counting to get the answer 3. This means that 5 − 2 = 3.

28

CHAPTER 2. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS

2.4.1

The concept of an empty collection and its count

When we think of a collection we think of certain objects. Thus ’Almonds in a bag’, ’Chairs in a room’, ’children in a class’, ’Bananas in a bunch’, are all examples of collections. The count of a collection refers to the objects only. The bag, the room, the class, and the bunch in the above examples were containers of those objects that were counted. Indeed, if the same objects were placed in a diﬀerent container, the count will be the same. Now consider the concept of subtraction and the notation used for it. Subtraction identiﬁes the count of a collection after removal of some objects from a given collection. Thus ’3 − 1’ identiﬁes the count of a collection after one object has been removed from the collection that had three objects before removal. If we had removed all three objects, we clearly can identify the result by the symbol ’3 − 3’. However, now we have an empty container and no number (count) to identify the symbol ’3 − 3’ as a number. To rectify this situation, one introduces the notion of an empty collection: ’An empty collection is a container with no objects in it’. Now note that we have used the numeral ’0’ like an alphabet to write numbers. The un-ending succession of numbers used for counting starts with the number ’1’ but does not contain 0 as a number for counting. We have conceptualized an empty collection as a container without any objects in it. We now assign the numeral ’0’ as a count of an empty collection and from now on we call ’0’ as a number just like the numerals 1, 2, 3, etc are numbers. It allows us to answer questions like ’3 − 3 =?’, ’234 − 234 =?’, etc., by writing ’3 − 3 = 0’, ’234 − 234 = 0’, etc. We will see later the numeral 0 has a deep meaning in the notation that we use for numbers. Each of the ten numerals in a number has a place in that number that will identify a value called the place value. Since the system uses ten numerals we call it as ’Base ten number system’. By conceiving 0 as a number we have extended the succession of the counting numbers to the un-ending succession of numbers displayed below

The extended succession of numbers 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1 11 21 31 41 51 61 71 81 91 . 2 12 22 32 42 52 62 72 82 92 . 3 13 23 33 43 53 63 73 83 93 . 4 14 24 34 44 54 64 74 84 94 . 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 95 . 6 16 26 36 46 56 66 76 86 96 . 7 17 27 37 47 57 67 77 87 97 . 8 18 28 38 48 58 68 78 88 98 . 9 19 29 39 49 59 69 79 89 99 .

2.4. WORKSHEET 4: ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION

29

We call this as the succession of whole numbers. Here the successor of the number 0 is the number 1 and 0 + 1 = 1 and 1 + 0 = 1. The table that follows is called the addition table. It identiﬁes all the sums like 3 + 5, 7 + 5, 0 + 0, etc,. To see that ’2 + 5 = 7’, we look at the underlined ’2’ in the left most column, and the underlined ’5’ in the top row. The answer ’7’ appears at the junction of the row containing the underlined ’2’ and the column containing the underlined ’5’. ADDITION TABLE + 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 3 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 4 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 5 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 6 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 7 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 8 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 9 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

The table contains answers to one hundred sums. Students should establish all these sums by the method of straight counting. They should clearly conceptualize the correctness of sums like ’0 + 0 = 0’, ’2 + 0 = 0 + 2 = 2’ using the concept of an empty collection and its count.

2.4.2

Exercises

Use the method of straight counting to establish the sums using pictorial illustrations. 1. 5 + 7 = ...?, 2 + 2 = ...?, 1 + 0 = ...? 2. Verify the correctness of your answer from the addition table. 3. 5 − 2 = ...?, 9 − 5 = ...?, 7 − 7 = ...?. 4. 67 + 1 = ...?, 100 + 1 = ...?, 769 + 1 = ...?. 5. 786 + 2 = ...?, 788 + 2 = ...?, 788 + 4 = ...?. 6. 2 + 786 = ...?, 2 + 788 = ...?, 4 + 788 = ...?.

The child has indeed mastered the art of straight counting and the process of addition of two numbers using straight counting. The process of of subtracting a single item from a collection (this means subtracting 1 from a number) whose count is given may be displayed as shown in the two examples below: − 4 ∗ 3 and 4 − 234 ∗ 233 Note that 3 is the predecessor of 4. How many coins does the child possess? If the question is put to the child. Subtracting 1 from a number is motivated by removing a single item from a nonempty collection. Adding 1 to a number gives its successor. Straight counting tells us that 4 + 1 = 5. and 23 is the successor of 22. Or alternately. Thus 4 + 1 = 5. . and 22 + 1 = 23. We recognize now that 5 is the successor of 4. say the count three.5. and 233 is the predecessor of 234. namely.1 Adding or Subtracting 1 Adding 1 to a number is motivated by adding a single item to a given collection. the child starts with the count two of the coins in one pocket and continue to straight count by recalling the next three successive numbers three. 234 + 1 = 235. namely Subtracting 1 from a non zero number gives its predecessor. then the count after addition is 4 + 1. etc. The count of the collection after adding a single item is obtained by adding 1 to the count of the collection before the addition. This points to a universal rule.30 CHAPTER 2. and pronounce that he has ﬁve coins. he may start with the count of the coins in one pocket. The process of adding a single item to a collection (this means adding 1 to a number) whose count is given may be displayed as shown in the two examples below: + 4 ∗ 5 and + 234 * 235 Similarly. and ﬁve to triumphantly say that he has ﬁve coins. Straight counting gives the predecessor in this case. This points to the universal rule for subtracting 1 from a non zero number (remember that we can not remeove any item from an empty collection).. And if we start with a count of 22 and add one item then the count after addition is 22 + 1. For example.5 Worksheet 5: Using Straight Counting to Add or Subtract A child has two coins in one pocket and three in the other pocket. 2. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS 2. and continue to straight count by recalling the next two successive numbers four and ﬁve that come after three. consider removing a single item from a non empty collection. if the count of a collection is 4 and we add a single item to it. four.

we notice that for answering ’3 + 2 =?’. It says that 3 + 1 = 4. in answering 2 + 3 =?. He has thus pronounced the two successive numbers that come after ’3’ to answer the question. 2 + 1 = 3. Which allows us to conclude that (3 + 1) + 1 = 3 + (1 + 1). and 5 that come after 2. meaning 2 + 2 = 4. Such illustrations can be used to see the truth of many statements. the child loudly says ’four. We may illustrate this as + 3 ∗ 4 ∗ 5 The illustration in fact answers the two questions ’3 + 1 =?’ and ’3 + 2 =?’.5. The two steps can be combined to write 3 + 2 = (3 + 1) + 1 = 4 + 1 = 5. + 2 ∗ 3 ∗ 3 ∗ 4 ∗ 3 ∗ 4 ∗ 5 .i. This is illestrated below + 2 ∗ 3 ∗ 4 ∗ 5 In this illustration we are adding three objects represented by three stars in the ﬁrst row to the two objects whose count 2 is noted as the ﬁrst number in the second row. Illustration + 2 2. Illustration + 2 3. He thus pronounces the three successive numbers that come after two to get the answer ’5’. and 3 + 2 = 5.. we can write 3 + 2 = 3 + (1 + 1). . WORKSHEET 5: USING STRAIGHT COUNTING TO ADD OR SUBTRACT31 2. Since 2 = 1 + 1. ﬁve’ and states the answer as ’5’.e.2. Finally adding the third star we get ’2 + 3 = 5’. four.5. Similarly. Some examples are 1. Under the ﬁrst star is the number 3 showing that when we add one object to the given two the count becomes 3. the child loudly says ’three. This illustration answers the three questions ’2 + 1 = 3’. The second row continues after the seperating vertical line with the successive numbers 3. Then adding the second star (that means adding teo stars) the count becomes 4. and 2 + 3 = 5’ to conclude 2 + 3 = 5. 2 + 3 = 5. ’2 + 2 = 4’. 4. 2 + 1 = 3. The steps also indicate that the child adds ’1’ three times to the number ’2’ to get the result 2 + 3 = 5. 2 + 2 = 4. ﬁve’ to conclude 2 + 3 = 5. This means that to add 2 we actually add 1 twice.2 Adding any number In the example of the child at the beginning.

... ? 95 + 5 = . + 75 ∗ 76 ∗ 77 ∗ 78 ∗ 79 6... 237 + 3 = 240.. They represent adding four object to three. Illustration + 237 CHAPTER 2...3 Addition Exercises: (a) 5 + 3 = .. Thus to add 2 to any number... This allows us to conclude 5 + 2 = (5 + 1) + 1 = 6 + 1 = 7. 2 + 3 = 3 + 2.... ? (c) 75 + 3 = .. ? 15 + 6 = ... we think of adding two items to a collection.. Thus to ﬁnd the sum 5 + 3 we write 5 + 3 = ((5 + 1) + 1) + 1 = (6 + 1) + 1 = 7 + 1 = 8. one item at a time.. 2... 4 + 75 = 79... ? (b) 15 + 3 = . can be used to ﬁnd the sum of any two numbers. Extending the above idea... ? 75 + 5 = .. ? 95 + 6 = . Adding singles . This is correct as both sums equal the samr number 5 as seen from the two illustrations + 2 ∗ 3 ∗ 4 ∗ 5 and + 3 ∗ 4 ∗ 5 As another example consider ﬁnding the sum 4 + 3 =?.. Since 4 + 75 = 75 + 4 by the commutative property... + 4 To ﬁnd the sum 3 + 4 we may display + 3 ∗ 4 ∗ 5 ∗ 6 ∗ 7 ∗ 5 ∗ 6 ∗ 7 and conclude that 3 + 4 = 7..... ? 5 + 5 = ... The knowledge that adding 1 to any number gives its successor.. we illustrate 75 + 4 = 79............. Thus to ﬁnd 5 + 2 we write 5 + 2 = (5 + 1) + 1.. ? 75 + 6 = . ? 95 + 4 = .. 230 + 2 = (230 + 1) + 1 = 231 + 1 = 232.... For addition we write the succession of Successors of the given number.. ? 1. ? 5 + 4 = . Similarly.. Note the four stars in the ﬁrst row.. adding 3 to a number is obtained by adding three items to a collection.... CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS ∗ 238 ∗ 239 ∗ 240 5...32 4.5.... one item at a time.. ? 5 + 6 = .. ? 15 + 4 = . ? (d) 95 + 3 = ....... ? 15 + 5 = ..... ? 75 + 4 = . we may illustrate as below to conclude ’4 + 3 = 7’.....

. More Adding (a) 14 + 15 = ...? 0 − 0 = . 37... Adding tens (a) 3 + 10 = .? 2 − 3 = .. The illustration below displays the subtraction in the two cases − 3 ∗ 2 ∗ 1 and 37 ∗ 36 ∗ 35 Note that in the ﬁrst example we have 3 − 1 = 2 . ? 14 + 20 = . The resulting count after removal is the answer.. ? 14 + 17 = ...2... For example. and 3 − 2 = 1 as the result of removing two objects..... The answer can be obtained by removing one object at a time until two objects are removed. the second example shows 37 − 1 = 36 and 37 − 2 = 35... WORKSHEET 5: USING STRAIGHT COUNTING TO ADD OR SUBTRACT33 2.. ? 3 + 70 = . ?19 + 15 = . ? (b) 14 + 10 = .......5 Subtraction Exercises.?? (b) 6 − 0 = ... and 34. ? 14 + 16 = ....5. just as we can add any number to a given number. respectively........ 1.. ? 14 + 30 = ............. ? 2...... (c) 15−4 = . Similarly....... We must always keep in mind that just as we cannot remove any items from an empty container.? .4 Subtracting any number We have already noted that subtracting the number 1 gives the predecessor. Subtraction conceptualizes the removal of objects from a given collection..? 7 − 3 = ..... 2. Moreover we cannot subtract a number that follows the given number in the succession of numbers..... Substacting single numbers (a) 3 − 1 = .? 13−7 = .... This may be displayed in a similar way to that adopted for addition.. answering the question ’3−2 =?] or ’37−2 =?’ is conceived as removing two objects from a collection whose count is 3... ? (b) 75 + 39 = . which is the result of removing one object from a collection of count 3... to answer ’3 − 1 =?’... and ’34 − 1 =?’.? 15−5 = . ? 14 + 80 = . we cannot subtract any number from 0...... for example... We will learn later that by extending the number system we can subtract any number from a given number.?..... 121 − 124 are meaningless....... This means that expressions like 3 − 5.? 15−6 = ..5...... respectively... This gives the answer 3 − 1 = 2.... we simply write the predecessor of 3. For subtraction we write the succession of predescessors of the given number....? 8 − 4 = .5.. ? 3.. ? 3 + 30 = .... ? 3 + 20 = .. and 34 − 1 = 33.? 17−8 = ...

It is read as ’n is less than m’.. The order among successive whole numbers is expressed as follows 2. Thus ’a = 3’ simply says that the letter ’a’ stands for the number ’3’.? 2. So far we have used numbers to express counts.2 The order among Whole Numbers 0 < 1 < 2 < 3 < . 2.. ’>’. < 9 < 10 < . And this is just the right answer.. = The symbols ’<’. Who has more money? Many of you will answer that Ram has more money. In particular. ’smaller than’. since the numbers 2 and 3 are not the same we cannot write 2 = 3.... .. In such a write-up the three dots between numbers represent the successive numbers between the number on the left of the dots and the number on the . we write ’m > n’ whenever the number m comes after the number n in the succession of numbers. >. You could also say that Ram has more than Shyam or that Shyam has less than Ram. Thus ’2 = 3’ simply asserts that the numbers 2 and 3 are not the same or are diﬀerent. . We simply say that 10 is greater than 8 or that 8 is less than 10.1 Using the symbols ’=’. This means that the number m comes after the number n in the succession of whole numbers. ’greater than’. ’equal to’ that we use in our every day language to express a form of comparison of two objects. . CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS (d) 25 − 4 = .. When there is a need to emphasize that letters ’a’ and ’b’ represent diﬀerent objects we express it by writing ’a = b’. The intuitive idea of a collection having more objects than another collection is made precise by using these symbols. .... . (a) 16 − 11 = ...34 CHAPTER 2. and ’<’ ’a = b’ simply means that the letters ’a’ and ’b are used for or represent the same object.. . (b) 17 − 18 = ..?...? 81 − 7 = . < m < .. ’>’.. The same is conveyed in symbols by writing ’10 > 8’ or by writing ’8 < 10’.. All these statements mean only that a count of 10 is greater than a count of 8. Given two numbers m and n. and 75 > 69. < n < ..? 25 − 6 = . Ram has 10 rupees and Shyam has 8..? 2.. . We read the statement ’m > n’ as ’m is greater than ’n’.6...? 16 − 10 = .6 Worksheet 5: The Order among numbers: Meaning of <. Thus 3 < 5 and 69 < 75... Thus 5 > 3.. The expression m > n means the same as the expression n < m.. bigger than’. Subtracting any number.. and ’=’ are used in a manner to give meaning to the expressions like ’less than’.6. .

2 in ascending order! Answer: 2... .... Arrange the numbers 8. Arrange the numbers 0.. 15. each bag containing ten almonds....6. Thus the ﬁrst occuring three dots stand for ˙ < 7 <8 4 < 5 <6 The next occurring three dots stand for all the successive numbers that come after 10 but that are before the number m. Note that 9 > 8 > 3.. 25.... 9.. 25. 1. Arrange the numbers 35. 45... 2 in ascending order! Answer: . each containing tem almonds. 3...23 3. You have made as many bags as possible. 3 in descending order! Answer: 9..7........ but their number will not be more than nine (Why?)..2. 3. WORKSHEET 6: COUNTING IN GROUPS AND THE PLACE VALUE NOTATION35 right of the dots.... . Arrange the numbers 7.. .. 9... the number 1 in the left box indicates that the left box contains one bag of almonds (remember that each bag has ten almonds in it).. For selling the almonds you display them in two boxes.32 32. 4..7 23.. 5.3 Exercises 1.. Indicate the order among the pairs of numbers 0. ....... 4. Question: What do the three dots between the number m and the number n signify? Question: What do the three dots after the number n signify? 2. You will make a proﬁt if you make bags where each bag contains ten almonds and you sell each bag of almonds for rupees ﬁve. 9.. 1 in ascending order! Answer: . 7.. 8. 6..3 2.. . and the number 3 in the box on the right indicates that the right box contains three loose unbaged almonds. After bagging you may be left with some loose almonds. 55 in descending order.... Answer: 2... Note that 2 < 7 < 9.. In the picture below.7 Worksheet 6: Counting in Groups and The Place Value Notation Imagine that you have a box full of almonds and you want to sell them. Arrange the numbers 12..... 10.303 303.. 5.5. So you start making bags of almonds.... The box on the left contain the bags containing ten almonds each that you have made and the one on the right contains any left over unbaged loose almonds. .. 3...

How many almonds in both boxes? Answer: 10 + 3 = 13 almonds. 2 7 . How many in both boxes? Answer: ........ How many almonds in both boxes? Answer: ..... almonds... = . Question: How many bags of almonds are in the left box? Answer: . . Question: How many bags of almonds are in the left box? Answer: ......... almonds. How many almonds in the right box? Answer: 3 almonds. almonds. How many almonds in the left box? Answer: . How many almonds in the left box? Answer: .. How many in both boxes? Answer: . How many almonds in the right box? Answer: .....1 Exercises: Answer the following questions by looking at the displaysthat follow the question: 1..... bags = . almonds... How many almonds in the right box? Answer: ... bag.. How many almonds in the right box? Answer: .. + .... bag. Question: How many bags of almonds are in the left box? Answer: .. bags = . bag... + .. 1 0 2... 2 0 4... almonds. + .... CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS 1 3 Question: How many bags of almonds are in the left box? Answer: 1 bag. How many almonds in the left box? Answer: 1 bag = 10 almonds..... How many in both boxes? Answer: . almonds.. bags = ....36 CHAPTER 2.... How many almonds in the left box? Answer: . = . bags = ........... bag.. 2... + ........... How many almonds in the left box? Answer: . . 1 4 3........... How many almonds in the right box? Answer: .. . .... almonds. = ..... Question: How many bags of almonds are in the left box? Answer: .7. almonds. = .

almonds. Question: How many bags of almonds are in the left box? Answer: . In this way each numeral in a number has a place value. How many almonds in the left box? Answer: . How many almonds in the right box? Answer: ... bag. 3 2 2. and the next numeral 3 stands for the number 30 or three tens. Another common form to express addition is . Keeping in mind the place values we write this in the form 32 + 25 = 57...7. bags = .. Thus in working with numbers. since 3 + 2 = 5...7.... How many in both boxes? Answer: ... Consider adding the two collection 3 2 and 2 5 We may exhibit the addition and the answer in the form 3 2 + 2 5 = 5 7 Where the result of adding tens is the number 5.. This means that the ﬁrst numeral 2 on the right of 32 stands for the number 2 or two singles... since 2 + 5 = 7. WORKSHEET 6: COUNTING IN GROUPS AND THE PLACE VALUE NOTATION37 5. we must keep this property of numbers in mind. since each bag contains 10 almonds...2 Place value for two digit numbers We saw in the examples and exercises that a two digit number like 32 expresses the count of almonds in 3 bags of almonds together with 2 loose unbaged almonds which was expressed in the form 3 2 This shows that the number 32 is the sum 30 + 2.. + ... and the result of adding singles is the number 7. This is done on examples below: 2....2.. almonds.. While doing addition and subtraction we can add singles to singles and tens to tens to get the result.3 Adding two digit numbers using place value Adding means combining two collections to get a single collection..7. the value or number it stands for. . = .

. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS 3 2 5 2 5 7 + Here the numbers in the singles place are added to get the sum of singles.. + + + + 2.7. and the numbers in the tens place are added to get the number of tens... The process of removing can be depicted in the form where we remove 2 bags from the tens box and 5 singles from the singles box to get the result... ? 79 + 20 = . .. namely 2+5 = 7.. This is an advantage over straight counting (Why is it an advantage?).7... 6 7 − 2 5 = 4 2 This result is written as 67 − 25 = 42.. Remember that the count 25 consists of 2 tens and 5 singles....... 12 + 17 = ...... 54 + 45 = . namely 3 + 2 = 5. So consider removing 25 objects from a collection that has 67 objects. 13 23 . 17 31 ..38 CHAPTER 2... 52 07 .5 Subtraction using place value Subtraction means removing objects from a collection. Or one may use the form 67 25 42 - The result is obtained by subtracting the numeral in singles place from the numeral in singles place and subtracting the numeral in tens place from the numeral in tens place. 89 10 . ? B. 2.. Observe that in adding we use place values until the operation is complete. The result is exhibited in the bottom line.4 Addition Exercises Use place values of numerals in a number to ﬁnd the following sums: A. ?.. And we only need to add one digit numbers no matter how large the numbers may be..

. . 53 − 31 = .....2. The next box contains 4 bags of almonds each containing 10 almonds.... For example in counting almonds it will mean that we have ten or more bags each containing ten almonds..... In this case we again bag ten bags of almonds in a bigbag. the numeral 5 on the right represents the number 5 (5 singles). 4 small bags. Thus we see that in the number 345... the number of tens may be ten or more.. 345 + 431 = 776 B. B..7 Place values in three digit numbers While counting a large collection in groups of tens. 89 10 ... See that We have indeed 300 + 40 + 5 = 345... so that a bigbag will contain 100 almonds... WORKSHEET 6: COUNTING IN GROUPS AND THE PLACE VALUE NOTATION39 2....7.. Combining two collections into a single collection can be done by adding singles to single. exercises 25 − 12 = . tens to tens. 79 − 22 = . and the next numeral 3 to its left represents three hundreds or a count of 300. 12 − 2 = . 23 23 .7. So the total count of almonds is 300 + 40 + 5 = 345 almonds. 2.. Each bigbag will contain ten small bags.7. Let us say the counting stops with 3 bigbags..... and the next box to its left contains 3 bigbags of almonds each containing ten bags each containing 10 almonds or 100 almonds altogether. We may depict the result in three boxes as follows: Display of 345 almonds 3 4 5 Here the box on the right contains 5 loose unbaged almonds.6 A... 55 − 15 = ... the next numeral 4 represents four tens or a count of 40. and 5 loose almonds. The following example illustrates this 3 4 5 + 4 3 1 = 7 7 6 The addition and result is exhibited in one of the following two forms: A... 59 07 .. and hundreds to hundreds to get the count of the combined collection. 47 31 .

. 3 2 . 9 3 . Question: How do we exhibit the process and ﬁnd the count of apples in the box.. say. Exercises 123 + 321 = .8 A..40 CHAPTER 2.. 1 5 .... 567 + 2 = . 2 0 ....7...?. 745 − 431 = 314 B... 5 + 4 + 6... 2 7 ..... 5 4 .. 758 − 425 = . 7 1 .. D. 8 0 .. 320 + 129 = . tens from tens and hundreds from hundreds...9 Adding more than two numbers Consider that you have three baskets of apples and you transfer the the apples in the baskets in to a box. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS 3 4 7 4 3 7 5 1 6 + Similarly.. 6 + 5 + 4. 320 − 120 = .. ! 3 .. 5 4 . 8 0 .. 5 5 .. 5 + .... 708 + 191 = ......?.... 5 . . 6 5 .?... 9 0 .. 323 − 122 = ...?. B. 7 1 .. subtraction can be carried out by subtracting singles from singles.?... + 3 5 ... 4.. As an example consider 7 4 5 − 4 3 1 = 3 1 4 The subtraction and result is exhibited in one of the following two forms: A. 0 9 . + 2 3 ... 4 + 6 + 5.... 2. 5. 1 0 ..... then we may express the count of apples in the box by any of the six symbols 4 + 5 + 6. 2 2 . 3 2 . 5 + 6 + 4.. If the counts of apples in the three baskets are.. and 6..?..... + C.....7. 7 0 .... 567 − 2 = ........ 7 4 3 4 3 1 5 1 4 2.?. 6 + 4 + 5.....?...

The ﬁrst was the Commutative Property of addition of any two numbers m and n. p it is stated in the form (m + n) + p = m + (n + p) The associative ptroperty of addition is the second important property of addition. This is an important property of addition and we call it the Associative Property of Addition. The calculation can be made by any of the two ways of calculation that were used above to calculate the sum ’4+5+6’. WORKSHEET 6: COUNTING IN GROUPS AND THE PLACE VALUE NOTATION41 We expect each of these symbols to represent the same count. Note that this gives meaning to the symbol ’4 + 5 + 6’. For example to calculate the number expressed by the symbol ’4 + 5 + 6 + 7’ we do the calculation as follows 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 = ((4 + 5) + 6) + 7 = (9 + 6) + 7 = 15 + 7 = 22. So we write. say the sum 4 + 5 + 6 in the form (4 + 5) + 6. Indeed as we expect. we would like to use this knowledge to carry out the addition of three numbers. Both calculations tell us that the count of apples in the box is the number 15. But we want to be sure of that. The method certainly works because we add only two numbers at a time throughout the process. + . We could also carry out the calculation by ﬁrst adding the last two numbers. For any three numbers m. and then to add the third number 6 to the sum of the ﬁrst two. First. In this fashion we calculate 4 + 5 + 6 = (4 + 5) + 6 = 9 + 6 = 15. Since we only have learned to add two numbers at a time. we must carry out the addition. n.7. This is as expected. The important observation is that each of two expressions ’(4 + 5) + 6’ and ’4 + (5 + 6)’ allows us to calculate the required count and they both give us the same number. The method also tells us how to calculate sums containing more than three numbers. however. The brackets in form (4 + 5) + 6 tell us to add ﬁrst the ﬁrst two numbers 4 and 5.2. namely. m+n=n+m The commutative together with the associative property of addition ensure that all the six symbolic expressions at the beginning of this section represent the same number. So we calculate 4 + 5 + 6 = 4 + (5 + 6) = 4 + 11 = 15. .

So with each customer we shall see how much money we get and the display for the next customer. + . CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS 2... = . You will sell each bigbag of almonds for rupees ﬁfty.. + 7 = ..7...)+3 = .. = .............. + . 2........42 CHAPTER 2.. and bgbags each containing one hundred almonds. You now display them to sell and your display is Display of almonds 3 4 5 Money in box 0 rupees Think that after you sell some almonds to a customer.... 12 + 21 + 33 = (.. = .. = . So let us start selling.... An easier way is to group the sum (since we only add two numbers at a time) and see that the sum is (5 + 5) + (5 + 5) + (5 + 5) + (5 + 5) + (5 + 5) = 10 + 10 + 10 + 10 + 10 = 50 This calculation says that we must sell each bigbag for rupees ﬁfty........... (c) 7 + 6 + 5 = (7 + 6) + 5 = .. Since thre are ten bags of almonds in each bigbag and each bag sells for ﬁve rupees. = . You can certainly ﬁnd the answer be straight counting........ the display of almonds will change.... = .. 2.... each bag of almonds for rupees ﬁve. (d) 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = (1 + 2) + (3 + 4) = ......+. and you decide to sell each loose almond for rupee one... (e) 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = ((1 + 2) + 3) + 4 = (. (g) 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 = ((4 + 4) + (4 + 4)) + (4 + 4) = (8 + .. We wanted to make a proﬁt by selling each bag of ten almonds for rupees ﬁve..... + ... the price of the bigbag will be 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5....... + . + ........10 Exercises 1.... .... (b) 5 + 6 + 7 = 5 + (6 + 7) = 5 + .... + 5 = ...) = ....) + (.... + 3) + 4 = .. Find the indicated sums (a) 5 + 6 + 7 = (5 + 6) + 7 = ..) + .+3 = ... = ... + . + .....8 Worksheet 7: Selling Almonds In this section we learned to count in groups of ten..... Let us ﬁx the price for each bigbag containing one hundred almonds. We made bags each containing ten almonds....... Now you have baged the almonds you had in bags containung ten almonds and bigbags contain one hundred almonds and you also have some loose unbaged almods..) + .. 3..... 10 + 11 + 12 + 13 = (.... (f) 3+3+3+3+3 = ((3+3)+(3+3))+3 = (................. + 4 = ............

This is your expected sale proceeds. 4. The display of almonds and the money in your money box after the ﬁrst customer is Display of almonds 3 4 2 Money in box 3 rupees Justify The change in the display after the ﬁrst customer! Now you attend the next customer. The second customer: Can I have two bags of almonds please? You: Certainly. You think since you do not have three bags in the bags box. Now you ask the customer for ﬁfteen rupees (the price of three bags). The third customer: Can I have three bags of almonds please? You: Certainly. 2. You pick three almonds from the loose almonds box and you hand them to the customer and ask for rupees three (each loose almond sells for rupee one). and 5 for loose almonds for a total of 150 + 20 + 5 = 175 rupees. So you actually take one bigbig bag from the bigbig bags box (it contains ten bags) and you give the customer three bags out of it and put the remaining seven bags in the bags box. If you sold all your almonds to the ﬁrst customer that comes. WORKSHEET 7: SELLING ALMONDS 43 1. The display of almonds and the money in your money box after the third customer is Display of almonds 2 9 2 Money in box 28 rupees . The display of almonds and the money in your money box after the second customer is Display of almonds 3 2 2 Money in box 13 rupees Justify The change in the display after the second customer! Now you attend the next customer.8. The customer pays you ten rupees.2. You put the money in your money box. then you will get 150 for the bigbig bags. 20 for the bags. The actual process of sales goes as follows. The customer pays you ﬁfteen rupees. The customer pays you three rupees. You pick two bags of almonds from the box containing bags and you hand them to the customer and ask for rupees ten (each bag of almond sells for ﬁve rupee ). The ﬁrst customer: Can I have three almonds please? You: Certainly. 3. You put the money in your money box. You put the money in your money box.

6. 5. The display of almonds and the money in your money box after the sixth customer is Display of almonds 0 7 3 Money in box 142 rupees . CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS Justify The change in the display after the third customer! Now you attend the next customer. You give the customer three loose almonds for the kids ﬁrst and then a bigbig bag and ask for ﬁfty three rupees. Then you take another bag from the bags box to give the customer a bag that he asked. The customer gives you the money and you put it in the money box to be ready for the next customer. The customer gives you the money and you put it in the money box to be ready for the next customer. The sixth customer: Can I have one bigbag bag of almonds and three almonds for my three kids please? You: Certainly.44 CHAPTER 2. You thank the customer and put the money in your money box. The fourth customer: Can I have one bag of almonds and three almonds for my three kids lease? You: Certainly. You give the customer three loose almonds for the kids ﬁrst and then a bigbig bag and ask for ﬁfty three rupees. The display of almonds and the money in your money box after the ﬁfth customer is Display of almonds 1 7 6 Money in box 89 rupees Justify The change in the display after the ﬁfth customer! Now you attend the next customer. The ﬁfth customer: Can I have one bigbag bag of almonds and three almonds for my three kids lease? You: Certainly. You think since you do not have three loose almonds in the loose almonds box. Now you ask the customer for eight rupees (the price of one bag and three loose almonds). The customer pays you eight rupees. So you take one bag from the bags box (it contains ten almonds) and you give the customer three almonds for the kids and put the remaining loose almonds in the loose almonds box. 7. The display of almonds and the money in your money box after the fourth customer is Display of almonds 2 7 9 Money in box 36 rupees Justify The change in the display after the fourth customer! Now you attend the next customer.

Customer: Well that will be O.. Customer: O.... 237 boxes of apples ... Multiplication: It conceptualizes the process of repeated addition. A fruit seller buys 3 boxes of apples from the wholesale market. Why is your actual money more than your expected money. Justify the diﬀerence! 2. A warehouse may have up to a thousand boxes of apples.. I can sell you all that I have. How many apples are there in all the boxes in the warehouse? Answer:75+75+· · ·+75..9... Let us say that each box of apples contains.9 Worksheet 8: Multiplication and Division Addition and subtraction provide the basis for the two operations that are called multiplication and division. So you hand himm the seven bags and three loose almonds and ask for ...... Try ﬁnding the above .. where the three dots are used to indicate that the number 75 is erpeated 237 times in the eum 75 + 75 + · · · + 75 We have learned to add more than two numbers.. . 75 + 75 + 75. 8. The seventh customer: Can I have one bigbag bag of almonds please? You: Sorry.....K. The customer gives you the price and you put it in the money box. rupees. say 75 apples. I do not have them anymore.. Division: It conceptualizes the process of repeated subtraction... ...... say.. . WORKSHEET 8: MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION 45 Justify The change in the display after the sixth customer! Now you attend the next customer. but the calculation takes time when the sum contains many many numbers to add.. Consider the two processes on examples: The Process of Multiplication and its notation: Boxes of apples are stored in warehouses before they are brought to the market for sale to the fruit sellers. for now. Fill in the The display of almonds and the money in your money box after the seventh customer! Justify the numbers you ﬁll! Display of almonds ... 5 + 5 + 5 + 5... but can I have some almonds? You: Certainly..2.. The warehouse has. How much money would you have if you had sold all your almonds to the ﬁrst customer? Answer:..K.. Question: How many apples did the fruit seller buy? Answer: 75+75+75. Examples of repeated addition are 3 + 3 + 3.. . but I will get more tomorrow.. Money in box 180 rupees How much money you have in your money box? Answer:.

.. Calculate 3 × 9. Answer: 3 × 9 = (9 + 9) + 9 = 18 + 9 = 27. 2.... Similarly. apples. Using multiplication notation the sum 75 + 75 + 75 is written as 3 × 75 which reads ’three times seventy ﬁve’.. until the basket is left with less than 6 apples..9. The visualization with line displays were helpful in straight counting (for ﬁnding the count of a collection) and for comprehending the process and the fundamental properties of addition and subtraction.1 Visualizing Multiplication and its Properties: We start with the display of objects in a collection whose count is expressed in the form of a product: For example the number 3 × 4 stands for the repeated sum 4 + 4 + 4 . Since 5 × 6 = 6 + 6 + 6 + 6 + 6. namely. The notion of multiplication helps here. We note that 35 − 5 × 6 = 3..46 CHAPTER 2.. 4. at which time we cannot remove 6 apples and the process stops. to calculate such sums. The expression is read ’237 times 75’ and means that the number 75 is to be added 237 times. 3.. we note that we must take out 6 apples from the basket ﬁve times when the process stops to leave three apples. 3 × 9 = . Simply stated ’3 × 75 = 75 + 75 + 75’. + . Exercises: Write the numbers expressed in the multiplication notation as sums: 1. Then we learned that group counting in groups of 10 is helpful in understanding the notation used for numbers and provides a diﬀerent method for addition and subtraction (that uses place value) than straight counting.e. visualizing the operation of addition using collections allowed us to see the two fundamental properties of addition. + . i. The next section introduces rectangular displays of objects in a collections which are helpful in understanding the notation and properties of multiplication. 6 × 11 = − − − − + − − − − + − − − − + − − − − + . + . We repeatedly remove (take out) 6 apples from the basket... Question: ”How many times the process was repeated and what is the count of apples left after the process stops? Division answers this question. the commutative property and the associative property of addition.. 2.. For example. 75 + 75 + · · · + 75 = 237 × 75. Repeated sums when written in multiplication notation are called products. The objects in a collection whose count is 3 × 4 may be displayed as below * * * * * * * * * * * * . So we need to ﬁnd quicker ways to ﬁnd the number represented by the sum.. The two symbolic expressions stand for the same number. The answer is written in the form 35 = 5 × 6 + 3 or in the 3 form 35 6 = 5 + 6. say 35. Find the product 6 × 11. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS noted sum. The Process of Division and its Notation: A basket contains.

4 × 9. Actual counting of objects in any of the displays shows that the count of objects in each display is 12. 1 × 9. WORKSHEET 8: MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION 47 The same objects can also be displayed in the another form as below. Such rearrangement of objects in a display can be used to calculate the number represented by a product of two numbers. 7 × 9. 5 × 9. where the objects in each of the three rows are displayed in three columns * * * * * * * * * * * * This tells us that the count of objects is the same in each display.2 Exercises 1. 3 × 9.2. Visual means can also be used to ﬁnd the counts.Thus actual counting conﬁrms the same.9. 6 × 9. we may rearrange the objects in any of these displays in the form * * or the form * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * The ﬁrst display has one row of 10 objects and a row of 2 objects to give a count of 12. 2 × 9. Use any means to calculate: 9 × 9. For example. The second display has one column of 10 objects and a column of 2 objects for a count of 12. 0×9 . 2. We conclude form this that 3 × 4 = 4 × 3 a property of multiplication called the commutative property.9. 8 × 9. This provides a good visual means for ﬁnding the number 3 × 4 or 4 × 3.

48 CHAPTER 2.. You can continue to take out and give two almonds to a ﬁeld worker as long as there are two or more almonds left in the bag. etc.9. That is when the process stops. If the count of almonds in the bag is known you may repeatedly subtract the number 2 from the count of almonds in the bag until the result of repeated subtraction is 0 oe 1(the two numbers less than 2). It identiﬁes all the products like 3 × 5. and how many almonds were left in the bag?’ You can answer this question if you were counting the number of ﬁeld workers who got two almonds each. You repeatedly take out two almonds at a time (perhaps to distribute to people working in the ﬁelds). as for example * * * * * * * * * . This may be visualized as follows: Start with a line display of 9 objects. 2. and the underlined ’5’ in the top row. The process of taking out and giving two almonds will stop when you are left with less than two almonds in the bag. Imagine that you have a bag of almonds. The answer ’10’ appears at the junction of the row containing the underlined ’2’ and the column containing the underlined ’5’. Question: Why will the process stop? Answer: Becuse you can not take out two almonds now(the bag is left with less than two almonds). To see that ’2 × 5 = 12’. we look at the underlined ’2’ in the left most column. Dividing. The table that follows is called the multiplication table. Somebody may ask: ’How many times you took out two almonds from the bag. 7 × 5. means ﬁnding the maximum number of times you can subtract 2 from 9 and to know what number is lefyt after subtraction process is complete. say 9 by 2. MULTIPLICATION TABLE × 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 3 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 4 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 6 0 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 7 0 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 8 0 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 9 0 9 18 27 36 45 54 63 72 81 Use any means to verify entries in the multiplication table given above.3 Visualizing Division and its Notation Division is repeated subtraction. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS 2. 0 × 0.

The result may be written in one of two forms A. 2 =4+ 1 2 C. the result may be obtained in two steps as shown below 2 9 4 5 4 1 2 2 4 Step 1 2 or even in one step as shown below 2 9 8 1 4 4 Step 1 . The repeated subtraction can be shown as 2 9 2 7 2 5 2 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 4 Step 1 2 3 4 The right column shows the number of times the number 2 has been subtracted in the marked step.2. The 4 at the bottom of the third column is the sum of the entries in the third column. The 1 at the bottom of the second column is the remainder after the fourth step. starting from the right or left as shown below * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Each display shows that you can subtract 2 from 9 four times and will be left with one object. For example. WORKSHEET 8: MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION 49 Now form groups of 2 objects each. 9 ÷ 2 = 4 with remainder 1 9 B.9. 9 = 4 × 2 + 1. This can help reduce the number of steps in which the ﬁnal result is obtained. Each entry showing the number of times 2 was subtracted. 9 − 4 × 2 = 1 D. This can be done by putting a vertical bar after every two successir eobjrcts. At each step we may subtract 2 any number of times as long as subtracation can be carried over.

Note that the remainder is 0 in 12 ÷ 3.9. We also write 12 3 = 4 and 12 = 3. Then answer the questions . 1.4 Exercises 1.? . i. 3.?... In fact. 21 ÷ 3 10 ÷ 3... What is 12 ÷ 4 = ..e. or equivalently. In such cases we symply express the result of division without specifying the remainder... CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS The next example shows the division of 25 by 7.9. 18 ÷ 3. 4. 10 ÷ 4.?... Is 51 ÷ 1 = 51 true? Explain your answer. repeated subtraction shows that for any division problem the remainder is always less than the number with which we divide.. 2.6 Exercises 1.5 Products and Factors The process of division. Thus we write 12 ÷ 3 = 4. 10 ÷ 5 3. Find 17 ÷ 3.. 15 are factors of the number 15..?. In fact this is always the case in any division by a factor. What is 12 ÷ 3 = . Explain why? 2. 15 3 = ..? 4. 12 = 3 × 4...?. 2.... as well as in 12 ÷ 4.. 3 or 4. 19 ÷ 3. Explain why the expression 3 ÷ 0 has no meaning.50 CHAPTER 2. Then answer: 36÷6 = . Calculate 10 ÷ 2.?. where 12 is divided by one of its factors. Verify that 17 × 3 = 51. 20 ÷ 3. 36 9 = .. 5.e. It is sometimes 0.. i.. the numbers in the product are called factors of the given number. 7 25 21 4 3 3 Step 1 The calculation shows that 25 ÷ 7 = 3 with remainder 4. 51 ÷ 17 = 3. the numbers 3 and 4 are factors of the number 12. for example. It is therefore customary to say that a number is divisible by another number...... Which numbers among 2. and 12 ÷ 4 = 3. 4 2. It calculates 25 ÷ 7. 36 ÷ 18 = .... One can easily see from the deﬁnition of a product that division by a factor has remainder 0.9. 12 = 3 × 4.. 2. Thus since. Whenever a number can be written as a product of two numbers.. whenever the remainder in division is the number 0.. Verify that 36 = 6×6 = 4×9 = 2×18 = 1×36. the divisor is a factor of the given number.

etc. MEASUREMENTS 51 2. To measure heaviness of an object we use weights. The Number Line: Shown below are a six inch ruler and a ten centimeter ruler. In the inch ruler the ﬁrst one inch segment is shown divided into eight equal parts. Its length is one centemeter. appears as follows and we call it a number line: The Number Line 0 1 2 3 .10. the ﬁrst one centemeter segment in the centemeter ruler is between the points marked 0 and 1. . which tell us how much space is taken by a liquid like water. In the centemeter ruler the ﬁrst one centemeter segment is shown divided unto ten equal parts and the remaining one centemeter segments are shown divided into two equal parts. . The segment between 0 and 1 is assigned the measure 1 unit and is called the chosen unit segment. Measuring is done using a scale. A 6 inch ruler 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 A 10 centimeter ruler 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Note that the ﬁrst one inch segment in the inch ruler is between the points marked with the numbers 0 and 1. 5. Inches and centimeters are only two of the commonly used units of measure.2.1 The measuring scale or Ruler. the other major activity that helps explore the world around us is that of measuring. . The scheme of chosing a point and marking (or labeling) it with a number yields a unique point for each number and is described later. The common feature of all types of measures is that they are stated by assigning a number and a unit of measure. 4. 2..10. For this one starts with a line and choses two points marked with the numbers 0 and 1. 2. The length of this ﬁrst one inch segment is one inch. . One may indeed designate any length as a unit length and make a scale or ruler that uses the chosen length as a unit of measure. 4. We measure lengths or distances using a measuring tape. WORKSHEET 10. There are measures of areas and volumes. Then one choses other points on the line and marks them with the successive numbers 2. Measurements Besides counting. The line marked with the successive numbers 0. milk. 1.10 Worksheet 10. 3. 3. etc. Similarly. Then there are liquid measures. . .

We also write |AC | = |AB | − |CB |.52 CHAPTER 2. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS The choice of points marked 0 and 1 is arbitrary. and we write AB = AC + BC . and the seqment between the point and its predesessor equals the segment between 0 and 1. that is has length one unit. to ensure that each is brtween its successor and predecessor.. and the segment between 1 and 2 equals (has legth equal to) the segment between 0 and 1. The remaining points 3. and we write AC = AB − CB . are chosen. the symbol |AB | is used to express the length of the segment AB and we also write |AB | = |AC | + |CB |. . This segment is the chosen unit of maeasure (like the inch or the centemeter). 4. The segment between the points 0 and 1 is called the chosen unit segment. the segment AB is called the sum of the segments AC and BC .2 Principles of measurements of lengths 1. thereafter. 5. the segment AC is seen as being obtained by removing (subtracting) the segment CB from the segment |AB .10. Thus the segment has length of 3 centimeters as seen from the picture below: Measuring with a 10 centimeter ruler P 0 1 2 Q 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2. 2. This reading gives length of the segment as a number of the units (inches or centimeters). as measured earlier is written |P Q| = 3 cm. To measure a segment P Q as shown below P Q one alligns the end point P with 0 on the ruler and reads the mark on the ruler with which Q gets alligned. Thus the length of the segment P Q. ADDITION: Consider the picture of a segment AB and a point C between A and B as shown below: A C B Here. Addition and Subtraction of segments. Moreover. SUBTRACTION: In the same picture as above. . . . After this choice the point marked 2 is chosen so that 1 is between 2 and 0.

. + ..... Answer:. ..11... (a) |P Q| = .1 Examples and Exercises First consider the example of a rectangle with adjecent sides of length 2 cm and 3 cm as shown below: .... Measure the lengths of the segments P Q....... .10..10.. cms. = . cms. Measeure (ﬁnd length of) the segment AB below in centimeters.cms. Now measure it in inches. Area Measure To measure an area we ﬁrst establish a unit area. − . (b) |P R| + |RQ| = .. What is the length of the segment P Q in the picture in section 2. Answer: .2....cms........ P R. 4....... = .cms.. (c) |P Q| − |RQ| = . = . + . AREA MEASURE 53 2. 2. |P R| = . How many one centemeter segments are there in a ten centemeter ruler? Answer:. P R Q Answer the following questions..... ....... = . |RQ| = ..11 Worksheet 11.. − ...cms. ... . 2..... 3..2... How many one inch segments are there in a six inch ruler? Answer:.... .. For this the accepted unit area is the area of a square whose sides are all of one unit length like the one below with side length equal to 1 cm: 1 cm2 area 2..3 Exercises: 1.. (e) |P Q| − |RQ| = . (d) |RQ| + |P R| = .. A B 5. WORKSHEET 11... RQ in the picture below in centimeters...11..

. Area of square B = 9 . A B C Answer: Area of square A = 4 cm2 .. 1. Measure the sides of the three rectangles. cm2 . This is shown below: Rectangle divided into six unit squares 2 1 0 1 2 3 By counting the number of unit squares into which the rectangle is divided we see that the area of this rextangle is 6 square centimeters which is written as 6 cm2 ..54 CHAPTER 2. . divide into unit squares and ﬁnd their areas... 2.. Area of square C = .. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS Rectangle with sides 2 cm and 3 cm This rectangle can be divided into 6 unit squares (the unit being the centimeter square).. Measure the sides of the three squares below in centimeters. divide into unit squares and ﬁnd their areas.

.. .. .. Fractions and fractional measures In measuring parts of a whole we frequently use numbers that are called FRACTIONS. Cut a one meter length of string in two pieces.. What is the length of each of the pieces? You can see intuitively that none of the numbers 1.. We consider some cases to learn how fractional measures. or energy. and numbers that are called fractions. or power. or weight.2..12. .. .. 2.. whether of length... A B C Answer: Area enclosed by curve A = 6 cm2 .. WORKSHEET 12. FRACTIONS AND FRACTIONAL MEASURES 55 A B C Answer: Area of rectangle A = . Area enclosed by curve B = . arise in practice. 3.. This is the case with all types of measures. Consider some examples.. . .. can be used to represent the length of each piece. .... Area within curve C = . . in fact anything measurable.12 Worksheet 12. . 2. More generally. Area of rectangle B = . Measure the sides of each of the simple closed curves..... or volume.. divide into unit squares and ﬁnd the enclosed areas. 1...... . Area of rectangle C = .. or area.. ... 3. . ... .

The next ﬁve pictures below show a unit segment (end points 0 and 1) divided into two.2). This is done in the three pictures below: 1 6 1 5 2 6 1 4 2 5 3 6 1 3 2 4 3 5 4 6 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 1 1 1 1 1 OBSERVE: The black area in each square is 1 4 unit squares. |AB | = 1 unit. 3. respectively. To see how fractions are used to indicate parts of areas. . consider dividing a unit square into four equal parts. four. and six equal parts. then none of the numbers 1. . three. . 3. 0 0 0 0 0 Here the numbers 1 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 . Any point C on this segment divides the segment AB in to two segments AC and CB as shown below: A C B Here indeed by the accepted rules for addition of lengths. . ﬁve. .10. So that if for example. where m and n represent counting numbers of our choice is called a fraction. . We may indeed divide a given segment into any number of equal parts. . . In other words we need new numbers to represent such lengths. . 4. . In general any number written in the form m n . . can be used to represent the lengths |AC | and |CB |. . 2. . . . Consider any segment and label its end points as A and B . . . CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS 2. 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 are fractions which identify the dividing points on each segment. we have |AB | = |AC | + |CB | and |AC | = |AB | − |CB | (see 2.56 CHAPTER 2.

and space are collections of points. a legth into two equal lengths. In the map of a country the location of cities is indicated by dots on the map. The idea of a point is represented by a dot. etc.13.e.12. D next to the dots: C D A B . the dividing point marked by the fraction 1 2 is such that the segment between 0 and 1 1 equals the segment between and 1. planes. i. Indeed points cannot be seen (though we tend to forget this). 2. Each of 1 unit squares. GEOMETRY 57 Here the unit square on the left is divided into four equal squares. an area into two equal areas.. lines. Thus curves. When the unit segment between 0 and 1 is divided into two equal parts. a weight 1 (one half) of the into two equal weights. 2 2 2. 2.13. and space.. a volume into two equal volumes. lines. surfaces.1 How are fractions used to represent parts of a whole Whenever we divide something into two equal parts.1 POINTS: On a clear night the stars on the background of the sky are perceived as so many shiny dots. These are intuitively understood from physical obsvations. Points represent location in space. Some observations that help in the intuitive understanding are given below. B . These are not deﬁned (in spite of many books containing their so called deﬁnitions). For example we have named below four points represented by four dots using letters A. They are thus abstractions of the perception left in our brain from certain physical examples or observations. on a given curve or line or surface. The unit square on the right these four squares has area 4 is divided into four equal triangles. Each of these four equal triangles has area 1 4 unit squares. surfaces. planes. C . curves. Points are represented by dots and named using capital letters.13 Geometry The basic items in geometry are points.2. we simply say that each part is 2 original.

2 PLANES: The idea of a plane is obtained by observing the surface of a calm lake. No physical representation gives any reasonable idea of space. Table top and geometric plane 2. the chalk board. The room is indeed limited by ﬂoor. Thus the drawing or sketch obtained by moving a pen (or pencil) on a piece of paper provides a representation of a physical curve. running track in a school playground.58 CHAPTER 2. all suggest the idea of a curve. a path around a lake. or any smooth ﬂat surface like the ﬂoor or the wall of a room. whereas space has no such limitation.4 Curves and Paths A piece of string.13. Each particle of air in the room representing a point in space. An air plane moving through space moves on a curve in space. One must keep in mind that any physical object can only represent a part of a geometric plane.13. a river as seen from the window of a high ﬂying airplane. The following are examples of curves: Curves have the inportant property that while moving along the curve one can move through most points on the curve in one direction or its opposite direction. 2. a path in a jungle. though we think of space as the interior of the room we may be in.3 SPACE: We think of space as a collection of all points. An end point of a curve is a point such that one can only move to the point or from the . A simple type of exceptional point is an end point. ceiling and walls. the top of a table. because planes extend indeﬁnitely.13. a rubber band. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS 2. The use of the word ‘most’ suggests that there may be exceptional points on a curve.

Thus a child going to school from home covers the path (home to school) in one direction and covers (or retraces) the same path (school to home) in the opposite direction.13. namely the crossings of streets. there is only one way or path to move from A to B without retracing any part of the path or moving through any point of the path more than once. A street map of a town or city showing all the streets is a general example of a curve that has many exceptional points. The totality of all streets being the curve. Thus paths are simple open curves.13. Some more examples of simple open curves are A Line A B Segment with end points A and B A Ray with end point A A Angle with vertex A Angle with vertex A A . A Path or a track is part of a curve with the property that one may move along the path from one point to another in one direction or in the opposite direction. Here are some examples of curves with two end points (dots represent end points). It is called simple. Thus the following ﬁgures show a curve with a direction of motion indicated by an arrow.5 Simple open and Simple closed Curves An open curve is distinguished by the property that for any two points A and B on the curve.2. GEOMETRY 59 point but not through the point. We shall use the word ’path’ for a curve or part of a curve along which one may move from one point to another without reversing direction and passing each point of the path exactly once. if the only exceptional points (if any) are end points. On a curve or path we shall indicate the direction of movement (when necessary) by means of an arrow. 2. Here the path (home to school) is part of the curve that represents all roads in the neighborhood in which the home and school are located.

The following are examples of simple closed corves: 2. This means that all points on the curve are in a ﬁxed plane. In other words two given points determine a unique segment with the two given points as end points and also a unique line that contains the two points. or an angle are basic common examples of simple open curves.13.14 Plane Curves In School Geometry one mainly studies curves that lie in a plane. a segment. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS A line.These properties may be thought of as intuitively clear.6 A characteristic property of lines and segments It is important to observe that for any two points A and B . a ray. . there is exactly one segment with end points A and B . Two other examples of simple open curves with end points A and B are: B B A A 2. and are part of a collection of accepted rules (also called axioms) of Euclidean Geometry.60 CHAPTER 2. Observe also that a line has no end points. All curves that are drawn on a chalk board or piece of paper are plane curves in the plane of the chalk board or the paper. They are accepted as true in School Geometry (also called Euclidean Geometry). although there may be many many si mple open curves (with or without end points) that contain the two points. there is only one line that contains the two points. Moreover. but many many simple open curves with end points A and B . The following are some general examples of curves (exceptional points that are not end points are marked by a dot): A path is said to represent a simple closed curve if one can ‘travel’ (or walk) along the path and get back to the starting point without retracing any part of the path or going through any point on the path more than once. The most common examples of such paths are a path around a lake or the oval shaped running track in a school playground.

identify all three sides and angles of this triangle. as three points which are not on the same line determine a plane. Many are made of segments like the following 1. a rectangle. Each side of a triangle is a segment with two of the vertices as end points. Their shapes are shown below 2. only one plane can contain three points that are not on a line. This is so. A triangle is formed by three points. A SQUARE: . Some other examples of triangles are Every triangle is necessarily a plane curve. and C as marked C Side with end points A and C A B The angle at vertex B is marked.14. The triangle below has vertices A. It has three sides and three angles. a circle. Any two sides with a common vertex represent an angle of the triangle. each of which is called a vertex of the triangle.e.2. and an ellipse.. B . This means that only one plane can contain a line and a point that is not on that line. TRIANGLES:Triangles are the most common and also perhaps most important examples of simple closed curves. PLANE CURVES 61 Most common examples that are studied are of simple closed curves in a plane. A line and a point that is not on the line also determine a unique plane. i. Other noteworthy simple closed curves in a plane that are of great interest and importance are. a square. The side marked is the segment with end points A and C . As an exercise.

MORE CIRCLES: . MORE SQUARES: 4.62 CHAPTER 2. A CIRCLE: A Circle 7. A RECTANGLE: A Rectangle 5. MORE RECTANGLES: 6. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS A Square 3.

AN ELLIPSE: An Ellipse 9.14. if 2.2. As examples consider a segment and an angle and their . PLANE CURVES 63 8.14. MORE ELLIPSES: A deeper study of these forms and disinguishing them from other forms and shapes the concept of equality of segments and angles as well as the notion of a right angle is used (this does not require measurements of segments and angles).1 Equality of Curves in a Plane: We call two planer curves as being the same or equal if the trace of one ﬁts exactly the other.

64 CHAPTER 2. The traces are shown as a dashed segment and dashed angle. one makes a trace of one of the curves and then sees if the trace ﬁts the other curve exactly. In these two case. If it does. Trace of Angle Angle To assertain if two curves are equal (this means that one is an exact copy of the other). then the two curves are equal (or same). As examples consider the segment with end points A and B shown above and its trace. A Segment Trace of segment A B B The picture below shows an angle and the trace of the same angle. the two segments are not equal. In this case the two segments are equal. Three possible situations arise when we try to place and ﬁt the trace with three segments shown below with end points C and D. In Case 1 and Case 3 the trace does not ﬁt the segment with end points C and D. otherwise they are un-equal. The curve is visible through the thin paper placed over it and one draws an exact copy of the curve on the thin paper with a pen or pencil. Case 1 C Segment Trace of segment A Case 2 C Segment Trace of segment A Case 3 C Segment Trace of segment A D B D B D B Only in Case 2 the trace of segment with end points A and B ﬁts exactly the segment with end points C and D. . CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS traces shown below. The traces are drawn on a thin (or tracing) paper placed over the curve.

A Sphere: A Ball or Sphere 2. A RIGHT CIRCULAR CONE .15 Shapes of some surfaces and solids 1. A BRICK or Rectangular Parallelopiped A Brick 4. A Cube A Cube 3. A RIGHT CIRCULAR CYLINDER A Cylinder 5.2. SHAPES OF SOME SURFACES AND SOLIDS 65 2.15.

A PYRAMID A Pyramid 7. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS A Cone 6.66 CHAPTER 2. A PRISM A PRISM .

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