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Dayalbagh Elementary School Math Teachers guided by Nam P. Bhatia Department of Mathematics University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC) Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. Visiting Teacher, Day Boarding School Dayalbagh, Agra, India March 1, 2013

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Acknowledgment

The author is most grateful and most humbly acknowledges the motivation, encouragement and advice provided by Professor Prem Saran Satsangi Sahab, the chairman of the Education Advisory Committee, Dayalbagh. It was at his urging during my visit to Dayalbagh in the summer of the year 2004 that I got associated with the Day Boarding School in Dayalbagh. His remark that our students lack proper understanding of the fundamentals (or foundations) of mathematics has since motivated my association and work at the Day Boarding School. The Day Boarding School in Dayalbagh caters to students in grades VIXII. My initial work, naturally therefore, concentrated on the development of foundational materials and workshops on the foundations of school mathematics suitable for these levels. The notes prepared by me for the ongoing summer mathematics workshops at the Day Boarding School were published by the Dayalbagh Educational Institute (deemed university) in 2010 in book form with the title ”Foundations of School Mathematics”. This book has three chapters, namely, 1. Sets and Counting, 2. Geometry and Measurement, and 3. The Real Numbers and the Number Line. This book provides the basis for the ongoing mathematics workshops for grades VI-XII. Further ongoing work for Grades VIXII is motivated by the exhortation of Professor Prem Saran Satsangi Sahab made on the report of the workshops submitted on July 3, 2007: “I hope the participating math-teachers would produce small text books that focus on the most powerful and generative ideas with emphasis on concepts and fundamentals presented in a careful sequence, as opposed to bulky text books cramped with forgettable details”. During these summer workshops, it became clear that the incoming students in grade VI were not ready for the foundational material as exposed in the above noted book and summer workshops. Moreover, the medium of instruction in our schools being Hindi made it diﬃcult for the students to comprehend the material, particularly at grade levels VI-IX. Though progress has been and is being made with the help of some Hindi translations, but it is slow. Furthermore, we realize that most current text books cater to the syllabi but do not provide the insights and understanding of the foundations which the great teachers, mathematicians, and successful practitioners of mathematics use to do their i

Attempts were made to develop material for the grade VI students attending the summer workshops to cover the elementary school mathematics material with insights in the foundations. 2012. The notes prepared for grade VI with the title ”Number Systems and Arithmetic” provided the material for these workshops.ii ACKNOWLEDGMENT work. Most of the existing textbooks commonly used in our schools and colleges are of little or no help in this. This is acquired through contact with teachers and through self eﬀort and reﬂection on the subject.August 2. Bhatia February 15. This workshop focused on teacher presentations of the methodology and content of mathematics. We only know that successful practice of any art or science requires and is based on a deep intuitive understanding of the foundations. Such an understanding of the fundamentals of mathematics is crucial in applications and for problem solving skills. 2012. Follow up primary school math teachers meetings brought about the proposal that WORKSHEETS for each of the grades I-V be prepared in Hindi for use in elementary school math teaching. It soon became apparent that curriculum changes at the elementary school level will be more eﬀective. Encouragement and support of the REI Managing Committee in the above eﬀorts is gratefully acknowledged. the books being used at present were critically examined on methodology and content. N. .P. These workshops were carried out at the Distance Education Center during February 6-11. So a proposal was made to conduct workshops for elementary school teachers where the elementary school math material is covered with foundations. 2013. Finally. Another Dayalbagh Primary School Mathematics Teachers Workshop was arranged in the period July 25. Notes prepared for this purpose titled ”Number Systems and Arithmetic” were ﬁrst used in summer workshops in 2011. Teacher meetings were arranged(this included the Day Boarding School Math teachers and the elementary school math teachers) to exchange ideas as to how the content of these notes may be used in classroom activity.

2013. The current texts use visualization for this purpose but they do not bring out even the meaning of the notation in use. seven. This issue of the worksheets is for grade I. two. and ends with the learning of the ﬁrst ten counting numbers ‘one. six. before joining an elementary school. The number ‘ten’ is the count of the ﬁngers on both hands. four. N.P. The worksheets are not a replacement of prescribed texts and do not change the syllabi for these grades. Measuring involves geometric shapes and their size. These worksheets are designed to help students in elementary schools not only to acquire the necessary skills in carrying out eﬃciently the operations of addition.Preface Mathematics education in Elementary Schools mainly deals with counting and measuring. subtraction. Most children. multiplication and division on them through their use in counting and measuring. subtraction. or any other single object or item imaginable. Visualizations is recognized as the most eﬀective means to develop and teach the number systems and the arithmetic operations on them. The main goal of Primary School Mathematics education is to bring home to the students effectively the meaning of these numbers and the basic operations of addition. It will be followed by worksheets for grades II . This lesson essentially begins when the mother makes the child learn the number ‘one’ associated with a single object. get their ﬁrst lesson in counting from the mother. the basic activity by which we keep track of our possessions and advance our perception of the universe we all live in or are conscious of during our wakeful condition. multiplication. The activity of counting and measuring is carried out primarily through the use of numbers called ’the natural numbers’ and ’the fractions’. nine. iii . Here the number ‘one’ is the count of any collection of objects that contains a single object. an apple. and ten’. We use visualization extensively to bring out the key properties of arithmetic operations which are usually neglected in current texts. or a tree. ﬁve. be it a ball. division but to develop an intuitive understanding of the number systems and the operations within those number systems that provide the language for expressing the results of counting and measuring.V. Bhatia February 15. eight. three.

iv PREFACE .

. . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . .1 Forming and counting pairs . .5. .2 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . .2 Exercises . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Examples of Straight Counting . . . .2 Worksheet 2: Line displays and position number . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . .4. . . .1 Exercises . . . . . .4 The succession of numbers . . . . . . . . .3. . . . .1 Examples and Exercises: . . . . .5. . .1. . . . . . .1 Exercises . . .1. .1. . . . . . . . . .3 Worksheet 3: Straight Counting. . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . .2 Exercises . . .1. . . . .5. . . . . . . . v . 1. . . . . . 1. . . . . . . 2. . . . .1 Worksheet 1: The succession of counting numbers . 1. . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. .3. .1. . . . . . . . 1. . . . 1 1 2 3 3 3 4 5 6 8 8 9 10 10 13 13 15 15 16 17 17 18 19 20 21 22 24 2 Class 2 Worksheets 2. . . . . . . . 1.4 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Worksheet 3: Counting pairs and triples. . . . . . . . . . . . . counting . . . . . . . . . . .4 Worksheet 4: The ﬁrst twenty ﬁve numbers and 1.2 Line displays for counting . 1. . . . . . . . .2. . . .2 Worksheet 2: Counting . . . . . . etc . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . .1 Finding the count of a given collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . .5 Addition and Subtraction . . .2. . .3 Subtraction . . . . . 1. . . . The count of a collection. . i iii 1 twelve counting . . . . . .Contents Acknowledgment Preface 1 Class 1 Worksheets 1. . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . 2. . . . . 1. . . . . .3 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The ﬁrst numbers . .1 Addition . . . .1 Worksheet 1: Getting ready to count. . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . .2 Forming and counting triples . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Exercises . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. 1.1 Exercises . . . . .

. . The Number Line: . . . . .10. . .6 2. . . . . . .10. . . . . .12 2. . . . . . . . . 2. . .5 Products and Factors . . .7 2. . . . . . . . 2.5. . .2 Place value for two digit numbers . . . . . .7. . . . 2. .10. 2. . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . .1 Examples and Exercises . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . .5.1 POINTS: . .1 How are fractions used to represent parts of a whole . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. .5. .7. . . . . . . .8 2. . Worksheet 5: Using Straight Counting to Add or Subtract . . .1 Adding or Subtracting 1 . . . Worksheet 11. . . . 2. . . . . . . 2.1 Visualizing Multiplication and its Properties: . . . . . . . . . . . .3 CONTENTS A Most Important Observation about counting and the Count of a Collection . . . .7. . . . . .6 Exercises . . . .3 Adding two digit numbers using place value . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Exercises . .6. . . . . . . . . .2 The order among Whole Numbers . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Adding more than two numbers . . . . . . . . . . . .13 24 25 25 28 29 30 30 31 32 33 33 34 34 34 35 35 36 37 37 38 38 39 39 40 40 42 42 45 46 47 48 50 50 50 51 51 52 53 53 53 55 57 57 57 58 . . . . . . . . . . . . Area Measure . . . . . . . . . . . . . Worksheet 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Subtraction Exercises. . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . .9 2. 2. .4 Addition Exercises . . . . . . .11.5 Subtraction using place value . .1 Using the symbols ’=’.5 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . .4 Exercises . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . .4 2. .4. . . .8 Exercises . . . . . . ’>’.1 Exercises: . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. Measurements . . . . . . . . . >. = . . . . . . . 2.4 Subtracting any number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . Worksheet 5: The Order among numbers: Meaning of <. .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Exercises . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . Worksheet 4: Addition and Subtraction . . . . . 2. . .11 2. . . . 2. .2 Exercises . . . . . . . . 2. . 2. 2. 2. . .13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . .13. . .4 Exercises . 2. .3 Addition Exercises: . . . . . . . . . . Worksheet 7: Selling Almonds . . . . . . .7. . .9. . . . . 2. . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Place values in three digit numbers . . . .7. . . . . . . . . 2.6. . . . . . . . . .2 Adding any number . . . . . . . . Geometry . . . . . . Worksheet 8: Multiplication and Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . .vi 2. . . . . . . Fractions and fractional measures . . . Worksheet 10. . .9. . . . 2. . and ’<’ . 2. . . .12. . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . .1 The measuring scale or Ruler. . . . . . . .5. . .3. . .2 PLANES: . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . .3 Exercises . . 2. . . 2.6 exercises . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . .2 Principles of measurements of lengths . . .1 The concept of an empty collection and its count .5. . Worksheet 6: Counting in Groups and The Place Value Notation 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Visualizing Division and its Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . .3 Exercises: . . . . 2. . .10 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 2. . . . .4 Curves and Paths . . 2. . . . . .3 SPACE: . . .13. . . . . vii 58 58 59 60 60 63 65 . . .6 A characteristic property of lines and segments 2.13. . . . .1 Equality of Curves in a Plane: . . . . . . .15 Shapes of some surfaces and solids . . . . .5 Simple open and Simple closed Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13. . .14. . 2. 2. . . . . .CONTENTS 2. . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Plane Curves .

viii CONTENTS .

i. 3. Complete the succession of the ﬁrst ten counting numbers in the following table by providing the missing word and or the missing number form. written in words.e. The count of the English alphabet is twenty six or the number 26. whereas the number ten. The numbers 11 and 12 are also two digit numbers. 6. 8. . The ﬁrst twelve counting numbers One 1 two 2 three 3 four 4 ﬁve 5 B. 7. while there are ten numerals which have the same count ten as the number of ﬁngers on both hands of a person. Thus ’BOOT’ is an English word.1 Worksheet 1: Getting ready to count. .. The ﬁrst ﬁve counting numbers in words and numerals are Just as English words are written using the English alphabet A. 10 is a two digit number as it uses the numerals 1 and 0. 1 . 5.. Using numerals the number ten is written as 10.1 Exercises 1.Chapter 1 Class 1 Worksheets 1. C. and their corresponding number forms are: one 1 two 2 three 3 four 4 ﬁve 5 six 6 seven 7 eight 8 nine 9 ten 10 eleven 11 twelve 12 Note that the ﬁrst nine numbers are single digit numbers. 2. The ﬁrst twelve counting numbers. 9. numbers are written using the numerals 0.. 1. 1..1. and ’123’ is a number. 4.

9 ten 10 eleven ......... .. . 2 three . For example DADA is a word.. 6 .. eight 8 . Thus N A A M and M A A N are correct line displays of the collection containing the English letters A. Complete the succession of the ﬁrst twelve counting numbers in the following table one .. A.. 6 .. four 4 ﬁve ... whereas 1212 is a number. CHAPTER 1...1. P A Q S B C R It is sometimes convenient to display the objects (here some English alphabets) in a given collection along a line. 9 ten 10 2. numbers are line displays of numerals.2 Line displays for counting The exhibit below is a collection of some of the English alphabets. ... M . Can you see why? English words are formed using line displays of some of the English alphabet.. ... N.. 2 three . 12 1. eight 8 . . . Another line display of the objects in the same collection is P A Q S R C B This shows that there are many many possible line displays of the objects in a given collection...... . A display of objects along a line (here English alphabets) in the above picture is: A P Q R S B C Such a display of objects in a collection is called a line display.2 one 1 .. Similarly.. CLASS 1 WORKSHEETS four 4 ﬁve ... But the line display N A M or the line display N A A A M is not a correct line display.. A correct line display contains each object in the collection exactly once.

3 Exercises 1.1.1. 1. 2. Thus 9 is the ninth. Answer: 12 and 21. and 12 the twelve th counting number. WORKSHEET 1: GETTING READY TO COUNT.4 The succession of numbers In the succession of the counting numbers 1. 5 is the ﬁrst numeral. where each numeral is used exactly once. 11 the eleventh. Identify the third and seventh alphabet in the line display below. 10. The word DDA is not a very familiar word. 7. exactly once. A P Q R S B C . but it is a word. 10 the tenth. Write all words using the letters in the word M AD. Each line display is an English word. 6.1. 6. 3. 6 the second numeral.1. 3. The number 12 is called ’twelve’. Write all the numbers where each of the numerals 1 and 2 is used exactly once. And in a number like 567. 4. THE FIRST TWELVE COUNTING NUMBERS3 1. 2. 5. A D D Answer: The various line displays are: ADD. Here ADD and DAD are familiar words. 8. The number 21 is called ’twenty one’.1. Write all numbers using each of the numerals 5. 2. 12 the number 1 is called the ﬁrst counting number. S is the ﬁfth alphabet in the display. Write all the numbers using each of the numerals 1. 2. and 7 the third numeral. 7. In a given line display of objects like that of the English alphabet below A P Q R S B C we say that A is the ﬁrst alphabet in the display. etc. 5. 9. 1. 4. 3. . 11. 2. and so on. 1. and DDA. Exhibit the alphabet in the picture below in all possible line displays. DAD.5 Exercises 1. Write all numbers that can be obtained by a line display of the numbers 1. 2 the second counting number.

The next line display of successive numbers 1. as well as that of the collection of the alphabet. The number assigned is called the count of the collection. The assigning of a unique number to a given collection is done by pairing objects in the given collection with the successive numbers 1. Question: Draw and name the fourth curve in the above line display of curves. and the ﬁfth a rhombus. Answer: It is an ellipse. is paired with 1. 4. Thus the letter A is paired with the ﬁrst number 1 and so also the ﬁrst curve (the circle) above. the third a triangle. Identify the third. 2. etc. 5. The ﬁrst curve in the display is called a circle. Identify and display the ﬁrst. 12. 2. For example the count of the collection of special curves line displayed below is 5. 10. third. 8. and 5 shows the pairing as pointed out by the in-between up-down arrows.2 Worksheet 2: Counting Counting means assigning a unique number to a given collection. 3. 6. 9. 4. The objects in the line display below are very special curves. 3. seventh. CLASS 1 WORKSHEETS 2. second. and ﬁfth curves in the display above of special curves. and eighth numeral in the number 75757575.. and 5 is also the count of the alphabet in the next line display. What are their names? 1.4 CHAPTER 1. 4. The last number 5 in the pairing gives the count of the collection of curves. the second is called a square. the fourth an ellipse. . 11. 3. 7.

2. The number 7 being the last number with which the last object is paired. the successive numbers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 have been used. alphabet) is paired (identiﬁed. and each object (here alphabet) is paired with a diﬀerent number than that of the other. The pairing could be displayed in line display format as follows P (1) A(2) Q(3) S (4) B (5) C (6) R(7) A diﬀerent pairing as given below in line display format is A(1) P (2) Q(3) R(4) S (5) B (6) C (7) It gives the same count. is the count of the collection.1 Finding the count of a given collection It is not necessary to line display the objects in a collection for pairing with successive numbers. or tagged) with the successive counting numbers shown in the bracket after the alphabet. In the example above the count is 7. for the collection.. P (1) A(2) Q(3) S (4) B (5) C (6) R((7) In this pairing. One should note that any line display of the objects gives a pairing with counting numbers as described above and any such pairing gives the same count for the given collection.e. This may be done in any suitable way. Note further that the above collection of alphabets can be line displayed and counted in ﬁve . The pairing begins with the ﬁrst counting number 1 and ends with the number 7.2. In the display below of objects (here some English alphabets) each object (i. namely 7.1. labeled. WORKSHEET 2: COUNTING 5 A P Q R S 1 2 3 4 5 1.

and the count of all possible line displays is a very large number. 1. 12.e. What is the count of the alphabets in each display? How many displays are there? Answer: The possible line displays are display 1: display 2: display 3: display 4: display 5: display 6: display 7: display 8: display 9: display 10: display 11: display 12: B B B T T T O O O O O O O O T O O B B O T T O B O T O O B O O T B O B T T O O B O O T B O B T O In each display the count of alphabets is Four. 3. i. CLASS 1 WORKSHEETS thousand eighty two diﬀerent ways and each will give the same count 7 for the collection. This count of possible line displays is a big number which is written as 5082.2 Exercises O O T.6 CHAPTER 1. The count of all possible displays is twelve. Count the alphabets in the word B 2. Exhibit all possible line displays of the alphabets in the word B O O T . However. i. but the count of the collection of all possible displays is 12. Here the count of the collection of alphabets is 4. remember that the count of the alphabets displayed above is the number seven written 7 but the line displays are many.2. Count the triangles in the line display . Count the curves in the line display 4.e. the number 4. 1. You will learn such bigger numbers later.

Count the dots in the display 8. How many A’s are in the name D A Y A L B A G H 10. Count the dots in the display 7. WORKSHEET 2: COUNTING 5. 9.1. . Count the alphabets used in the word BISCU IT . Count the numbers in the display 5 4 1 2 8 3 9 6 7 10 7 6. How many apples from the basket are not displayed? Display the remaining apples from the basket (use one A for each remaining apple) on the dotted line.2. How many letters are there in the word DISP LAY M AT H ? 11. There are ten apples in a basket. In the picture below six of the apples in the basket are line displayed where each letter A represents an apple. The display of the six apples ends with a vertical bar | followed by a dotted line.

we can say that there are four pairs of dots and one unpaired dot in a collection of nine dots. Word Answer: . For example if there were three almonds in the bag to start with. For example... How many Bananas are line displayed in the picture below: . it is convenient to line display the items as shown below for the case of the nine big dots (line displayed below): The picture below shows the grouping in pairs (two big dots in each group).. then after the ﬁrst removal of two almonds we will be left with only one almond in the bag and no other person can get two almonds from the bag. Clearly... To see the answer for a given collection..8 CHAPTER 1. the answer depends on how many almonds were in the bag to start with.. etc Forming and counting pairs Any two items in a collection form a pair.... given a bag of almonds.. .. 1... How many pairs of big dots can be formed? Is there an unpaired dot left? 2...... 1.. CLASS 1 WORKSHEETS A A A A A A |...... we may remove two almonds from the bag and give it to somebody or put them aside.1 Worksheet 3: Counting pairs and triples.3 1.. Display six big dots in a line display. 12. .. Number Answer: . where each pair picked is boxed.3. So. For example the collection of A’s and the collection of B ’s that are line displayed below have the same count. Note that there are four pairs of big dots in the collection of nine big dots and one big dots remains without pairing. A B A B A B A B A B A B A B What is the count of each collection? Write the answer as a word and as a number.. If we keep removing two almonds at a time then how many persons may get two almonds each from the bag. It is important to realize that diﬀerent collections can have the same count. Then remove another two from the bag to give them to another person.

WORKSHEET 3: COUNTING PAIRS AND TRIPLES. One may use and practice using any objects like balls. You give three pistachios each to each of your friends. How many of your friends get three pistachios each? What is left for you? If you give three pistachios each to three of your friends. There are four birds sitting on a branch of a tree. sub-collections each containing three objects) from a given collection.3. How many pairs of apples can be obtained from a collection of eleven apples? Are any apples left after all possible pairs are formed? 1. The following picture shows that one can form three triples out of a collection of eleven big dots and two remain as not part of a triple. how many will be left for you? . The following picture shows that one can form three triples out of a collection of nine big dots. In the above examples the big dots represent objects. How many pairs of coins you have? 3. etc.e. sticks. You have twelve pistachios in a bag. How many of your friends can get three almonds each? How many almonds you will have left? 5. apples. How many pairs of birds are there on the branch? Are any birds left without pairing? 2. How many pairs of apples can be obtained from a collection of twelve apples? Are any apples left after all possible pairs are formed? 4. ETC 9 How many pairs of Bananas can you form? How many are left without pairing? 3..1. You see twelve apples in a basket. You have ﬁve coins in your pocket. You have eleven pistachios in a bag. Hoe many friends get three pistachios? How many are left for you? 6.2 Forming and counting triples Just as one can form pairs of objects from a given collection. 1. birds.3. one may obtain triples of objects (i. toys.. How many pairs of apples are there? 4. You have ten almonds in a bag. You distribute three pistachios each to your friends.

eleven (11).. In the number symbol 12 for the number twelve. shows one group of ten and no (i. seventeen (17). twenty-three (23). four (4). Similarly. eighteen . 1.. two (2). the numeral 1 on the left indicates that you have 1 group of ten. fourteen (14). ﬁfteen 15 seventeen . twenty-four (24). CLASS 1 WORKSHEETS Counting in groups of ten is the basis for the number notation. nine (9) ten (10). Write the word form of each number below: . eighteen (18). besides the one group of ten. The spoken word as written is followed by its numeric version expressed in round brackets below: one (1). shows one group of ten and one single object. twenty-ﬁve (25)..10 CHAPTER 1.4. sixteen (16). ﬁfteen (15)... nineteen (19). seven (7). three (3). The symbol 10 for the number ten. ﬁve (5). Note that the singles box on the right in the last display is empty and the 0 in the singles place on the right in the notation 10 represents no singles. If you have twelve objects. 1. two single objects among the twelve objects. eight (8). So let us practice counting by tens and relating it to the numbers ten. The numeral 2 on the right indicates that you have.. eleven and twelve.. 2. twenty-one (21).4 Worksheet 4: The ﬁrst twenty ﬁve numbers and counting The succession of natural numbers that one uses for counting continues indeﬁnitely. Here we practice counting with the ﬁrst twenty ﬁve numbers.. i. twenty (20). then you may form one group of ten and will be left with two objects.e. the symbol 11 for the number eleven. each number is followed by another without there being a last number. twenty-two (22). eleven. twenty-three . zero) single objects. Write the numerical form of each given number below: thirteen .. thirteen (13.e. and ten objects below. This is depicted below in the line displays of twelve. six (6)..1 Exercises 1. twelve (12).

... Supply the missing successive numbers in the line display of the ﬁrst twenty ﬁve successive numbers: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ..... .. Leave any numbers that cannot be paired unboxed! Count the successive pairs you have boxed! What is the count of the unboxed numbers? Answer:. 15 thirteen 13 . Number: ...... 21 . Line display the numbers 1 to 24 in successive pairs by boxing successive two numbers. 6 7........ Display the numbers 1 to 21 in successive pairs by boxing successive pairs of numbers.. ten ... 22 .15 16 17 18 .. Display the numbers 1 to 20 in successive pairs by boxing successive pairs of numbers.. 8 9. Count the number of alphabet in the line display below: A B C D E H J K L M N O P Q R T U Z Answer: Word: .... 7... Write the missing word or numerical form of the numbers below: ....... 12 13............ 5.... WORKSHEET 4: THE FIRST TWENTY FIVE NUMBERS AND COUNTING11 . Count the successive pairs you have boxed! 1. Count the successive pairs you have boxed! 8..... Display the numbers 1 to 10 in successive pairs by boxing successive pairs....... 14 15 Answer: The count of boxed pairs is 7.. Leave any numbers that cannot be paired unboxed! Count the successive pairs you have boxed! What is the count of the unboxed numbers? 1.......... 12 ..... .......... .. 9... 10 Answer: The number count of successive pairs boxed is 5. 24 3....... 8 9.....1..... Display the numbers 1 to 15 in successive pairs by boxing successive pairs of numbers. 10 11... There is one number left unboxed..Count the successive pairs you have boxed! 10... 2 3.... 4 5..........4.... 20 4.24 ..... .... .......... 2 3.. 6........ 12 seven ... 6 7. 4 5.......

groups of three numbers. How many groups of four numbers are there? Are any numbers left unboxed? Answer: There are .. Two more birds ﬂy in to sit on the same wire besides the others. 13.. Line display the numbers 1 to 25.. You put another ﬁve almonds in the same bag.. 12...... How many almonds are there in the bag? Answer: .. There are ... groups of ﬁve numbers... 18. .. Box successive groups of four numbers. .. groups of four numbers..... 14.. Box successive groups of ﬁve numbers.. Box successive groups of three numbers.. 16. You see 7 birds sitting on an electric wire.. Line display the successive numbers 1 to 25..... unboxed numbers.... Line display the numbers 1 to 25. You have 17 almonds in a bag..12 CHAPTER 1...... There are . There are . How many big dots are there now? Answer: There are nine big dots now. The display below shows six big dots... . Your Mom gives you two more. Three more big dots are added after the vertical bar as shown below. .. 15. How many groups of three numbers are there? Are any numbers left unboxed? Answer: There are . The display below shows eight big dots.. unboxed numbers. CLASS 1 WORKSHEETS 11....... unboxed numbers. How many groups of ﬁve numbers are there? Are any numbers left unboxed? Answer: There are .. 17. You have thirteen rupee coins. How many rupee coins you have now? Answer: . How many birds are there now? Answer: ....

21.5. You deposit all in your Bank account.. You take out and eat ﬁve almonds from the bag.. 1. ... Number Form: . If you have thirteen chairs in a room and you bring in one more chair in the room....1... . .. The symbol ’+’ signiﬁes ’addition’ and we read the statement as ’two plus three equals ﬁve’ or as ’three plus two equals ﬁve’. ...... Answer: .. ...... The relationship between the three counts 2.. .. Three ﬂy away. The counts of the two separate collections and the count of the single collection obtained from them are related. We have learned that numbers represent counts of collections.... For example we have two apples on one tray and three apples on a second tray. We may line display them for counting as follows: .. 20..... If you have thirteen chairs in the room and you remove one chair from the room.. How many are left on the tree branch. How many rupees are left with you. You have 13 rupees. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION You box three of them as shown below 13 How many are left unboxed? Answer: Five are unboxed...5. 19. 23. For example consider a collection of two dots and another of three dots.. You see 6 birds sitting on a tree branch.1 Addition and Subtraction Addition Given two collections of objects we may put them together(combine them) and make a single collection. We therefore relate and understand the arithmetic through counting.....5 1. Number Form:. 3. and 5 in this situation is expressed in the statement 2 + 3 = 5 or also as 3 + 2 = 5.. How many almonds are left in the bag? Answer: .... Answer: . 22.. We put all these apples on a single tray to obtain ﬁve apples on a single tray.... You have 23 almonds in a bag. then how many chairs are there in the room altogether now? Answer: Word Form: . We also conclude from this that 2 + 3 = 3 + 2 as both the numbers 2 + 3 and 3 + 2 stand for the same number 5. then how many chairs are left in the room? Answer: Word Form: .

Now we straight count the combined collection in the last display and see that it has a count of ﬁve. etc. And then to its right we display the collection of three dots. Thus the following two pictures using the letter O instead of a dot represent the process of adding the number 3 to the number 2 to obtain the sum 2 + 3 = 5. O and O O O O O O O O O When the counts are small numbers. The second display indicates the process of adding the two dot collection to the three dot collection. CLASS 1 WORKSHEETS or as The next picture shows that the two collections have been combined to obtain a single collection of ﬁve dots The ﬁrst line display contains two dots. In general this property is described symbolically by m + n = n + m. we can mentally picture the process and come up with the count of the combined collection. Since both counts when added result in the same number 5. The last statement expresses a property of addition. This property is named as ’the commutative property’ as it is true for the counts of any two collections. For example if we are counting almonds or apples we may use the letter A to identify each object. We read the ﬁrst statement as ’two plus three equals ﬁve’ and the second as ’three plus two equals ﬁve’. we learn that 2+3 = 3+2. That is why the two dot collection is displayed to the right of the three dot collection. 3 + 7 = 7 + 3. This kind of line display identiﬁes the process of adding the three dot collection to the two dot collection. The letter ’O’ may be used for any object. We emphasize that counts are numbers and the counts do not depend on the nature of objects in a collection. The last display shows the collection obtained by adding the second collection to the ﬁrst. Symbolically it is written as 2 + 3. Thus for display and understanding we may identify the objects in a collection in any suitable convenient way. We may use our ﬁngers . Thus. It produces the same display in either case.. irrespective of their individual counts.14 CHAPTER 1. where m and n identify the counts of the two collections and m + n as well as n + m the count of the combined collection depending on how the two collections are line displayed for counting. This is then written as 2 + 3 = 5 for the ﬁrst display and as 3 + 2 = 5 for the second display. 13 + 12 = 12 + 13.

4. that means that the remaining collection has no objects in it or the remaining collection is empty. Mentally ﬁnd 1 + 15 = . 2.. Mentally calculate 21 + 1 = .. 21 + 3 = .. The second display has the two dots replaced by circles showing the two apples that were eaten and the ﬁve dots that are left. We may picture this as follows: Here the ﬁrst line display has seven dots showing the seven apples we had originally. 3 + 15 = ...3 Subtraction Given a collection of objects we may remove some objects from the collection... The subtraction in this case takes the form..5.. Calculate 15 + 6 = ..... Find 13 + 12 = . 5...2 on counting..... The count of the apples that were eaten is 2 and the count of the remaining apples is 5. for example 3 − 3 = 0 for the case of a collection having count 3.... Pictorially show that 3 + 1 = 1 + 3 = 4..1... 15 + 9 = .... The basic underlying process is straight counting as described in section 1. 13 + 10 = .. The line display for a collection of seven objects will appear as . The symbol ’−’ identiﬁes subtraction (or removal). We read the statement 7 − 2 = 5 as ’Seven minus two is ﬁve’ or as ’seven take away two is ﬁve’. 6. 21 + 2 = .. 21 + 4 = .... But the underlying process remains straight counting.... the process becomes cumbersome and we use the place value system. Note that the count of the apples in the beginning was 7. The numeral 0 is used to express the count of an empty collection..5. 2 + 15 = .....2 Exercises 1. For example we have seven apples and we eat two of them so that we are left with only ﬁve apples. 1. 3. For large numbers. Line displays help in understanding the process and in counting.5. 4 + 15 = ....... Pictorially show that 12 + 1 = 13. It should be kept in mind that when we remove all objects from a given collection we will be left with no remaining objects... Addition and subtraction are done using straight counting. 15 + 7 = ...... the line displays are no more resorted in counting... When the counting process is clear. 1.. The relationship between these three numbers is expressed in the form 7 − 2 = 5. however. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION 15 or parts of ﬁngers to aid in the addition process.

.... 1...... Find the answer using line displays as above: (a) 3 − 1 = ..... 24 − 24 = .. 4 − 2 = . (c) 21 − 1 = .. 10 − 6 = ..16 CHAPTER 1........ CLASS 1 WORKSHEETS Here the empty box on the left shows that no dots are left and the box on the right shows the seven dots that have been removed by picturing them as circles. 22 − 3 = .... 3 − 3 = .. 10 − 3 = ........ 12 − 12 = .4 Exercises 1.5..... 17 − 10 = ...... 3. 16 − 6 = . (b) 12 − 2 = ................. .. 15 − 3 = . 2........ (b) 13 − 5 = ... (a) 5 − 2 = . (c) 20 − 13 = .... 7 − 3 = ............ Find the answer by mentally picturing line display of objects or using your ﬁngers. 9 − 5 = ......

c. 7(seven). 3(three). are the alphabet used for English words. without end. 17 . It is not possible to write all the numbers. 4 (four). 2(two). 5(f ive). 6(six).1 Worksheet 1: The succession of counting numbers The succession of counting numbers begins with the number 1 (one) and is followed by the successive numbers 2 (two). You have learned the numbers up to the number 100 (one hundred). 1(one). 8(eight). b. each number followed by another. The succession of the ﬁrst hundred counting numbers is given below: 1 11 21 31 41 51 61 71 81 91 2 12 22 32 42 52 62 72 82 92 3 13 23 33 43 53 63 73 83 93 4 14 24 34 44 54 64 74 84 94 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 95 6 16 26 36 46 56 66 76 86 96 7 17 27 37 47 57 67 77 87 97 8 18 28 38 48 58 68 78 88 98 9 19 29 39 49 59 69 79 89 99 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Note that numbers are written using the ten numerals 0(zero). . It continues without a break.Chapter 2 Class 2 Worksheets 2. but we will learn to write the number that follows any given number. etc. . . 9(nine) These numerals are the alphabet of the numbers just as the English letters a. 4(f our).. 3 (three. 5 (ﬁve..

They begin with 1 and end with 9. They begin with the number 10 (ten) and end with the number 99 (ninety nine). .1 Exercises 1. and 99 is the predecessor of 100. and 0. The number that comes just after a number is called its successor. The succession of numbers written with three numerals begins with the number 100 and ends with 999 (nine hundred ninety nine). the number that follows is 101 (one hundred one).1. 1 has no predecessor as there is no counting number that comes before 1. . Thereafter comes the successive numbers that use four numerals. Note that the ﬁrst line in the table above contains all the counting numbers written using a single numeral. 1 is the predecessor of 2. Although not exhibited in the table. 2. The number that follows the number 99 is 100 (one hundred) and it uses the three numerals 1. These begin with 1000 (one thousand) and end with 9999 (nine thousant ninety nine).18 CHAPTER 2. The ending number is 9. It is followed by numbers that are written with two numerals. . Also observe that 1 comes just before 2. and every number except 1 has a predessor. Write the beginning and ending numbers in the succession of numbers that use ﬁve numerals. . . 100 is the ﬁrst number that uses three numerals. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS It is important to keep in mind the order in which the succession of numbers is written. 8 is the successor of 7. Note for example that 78 comes just after 77 and so 78 is the successor of 77. Observe that for each number there is a number that comes just after it. and 76 is just before 77. So. and 100 is the successor of 99. Answer: The beginning number is 1 . Similarly. and 76 is the predecessor of 77. . Complete the succession of counting numbers in the last two line of the table 1 11 21 31 41 51 61 71 81 2 12 22 32 42 52 62 72 82 3 13 23 33 43 53 63 73 83 4 14 24 34 44 54 64 74 84 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 95 6 16 26 36 46 56 66 76 86 7 17 27 37 47 57 67 77 87 8 18 28 38 48 58 68 78 88 9 19 29 39 49 59 69 79 89 99 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 2. . We see that every number has a successor. A number that comes just before a number is called its predecessor. 0. . in that order.

WORKSHEET 2: LINE DISPLAYS AND POSITION NUMBER 19 3. .... Arranging or placing objects or persons along a line is called a line-display of the objects or persons.. MILAN is in ﬁrst position. .e.2. . Consider the ﬁve children standing in line below: MILAN ﬁrst 1 CYRUS second 2 MAULI third 3 NRYN fourth 4 AGAM ﬁfth 5 Moving from left to right.. 2. What number identiﬁes the position of MUALI? Answer:.. .. . .. Write the successor and predecessor of each given number in the table that follows.. ..... 3. CYRUS in second... 2. . .. predecessor . ....... . . Some more examples are: .... 4.. ... and 5 as is shown in the line up....2 Worksheet 2: Line displays and position number When children are made to stand in line (i... and AGAM in ﬁfth position. are made to line-up) they are said to be standing in a position that is identiﬁed by a number which identiﬁes the position of the child in the line.. ..2. In the above line-up the number 5 identiﬁes the position of AGAM in the line-up. Write the successor and predecessor of each given number in the following table predecessor . 4.. given number 99 100 999 1000 10000 9999 successor .. . . given number 31 20 55 7 successor ...... . The line-up of children above is a typical example. NRYN in fourth. We may also identify these positions by the numbers 1.. MAULI in third..

CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS 2. Below is a line display of a few dots. NRYN: .. The word ’D U M’ is a line display of the letters D.. What number identiﬁes the position of the letter U.. .2.... M. Below is another line-up of the same children AGAM ﬁrst 1 NRYN second 2 MAULI third 3 CYRUS fourth 4 MILAN ﬁfth 5 Write down the position of each child in word and number: Answer: AGAM: ﬁrst . 4.. Which numeral is in the third position? Answer: The numeral 2. 2. . 3. Below is a line display of the numerals used to write numbers. English words are line displays of some English letters. What number identiﬁes the position of the letter M in the word D U M? Answer: the number 3... . We can also say that the ﬁrst A is in second position....1 Examples and Exercises: 1... What number identiﬁes the position of the numeral 7? Answer: . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Question: Which numeral is in the ﬁrst position? Answer: The numeral 0.. ... In what position is the letter M in the word D U M? Answer: M is in the third position..... What number speciﬁes the position of the third A? Answer: . Look at the word D A Y A L B A G H What number speciﬁes the position of the ﬁrst A? Answer: 2. Answer:. 2. MILAN: . .. 5. Cyrus: fourth . The numbers below each dot identify the position of each dot in the display. Mauli: .20 CHAPTER 2... 5. and U.. . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 The following is a line display of some big dots: . .. ...

planets of the sun. Simply stated. the count of a collection is a number that is assigned to it. The position numbers of each numeral used in the number 4107303271 are noted below 4 1 1 2 0 3 7 4 3 5 0 6 3 7 2 8 7 9 1 10 In what position is the ﬁrst 0 (zero)? Answer: 3. we say that the count of the ﬁngers on one hand is 5 (ﬁve). Whenever a collection contains many objects. Every collection has a unique number assigned to it as the count of the collection. A typical example is counting apples in a basket. For practice you may arrange any items in a line display and assign position numbers to each object. or that the number of ﬁngers on both hands is 10 (ten). like apples in a basket. For example. or rupee coins in ones pocket. the count of each of these collections is the number 1 (one).21 4 Write the numerical position of each dot below the dot! 6.3...3 Worksheet 3: Straight Counting. THE COUNT OF A COLLECTION. We put the ﬁrst picked apple aside (outside the basket) and pick another apple from the basket and mentally pair it with the number 2 (the successor of 1). For any collection of objects. we start by picking an apple from the basket and mentally pairing it with the number 1.2. an almond.. This is the ﬁrst picked apple.. or a rupee coin in one’s pocket.... The process ends with the assignment of a number. WORKSHEET 3: STRAIGHT COUNTING. . a chair. called the count of the collection.. or also third position. We .. a child. Counting numbers are line displays of numerals. In what position is the second 0 (zero)? Answer: 6 or in sixth position. 2. think of any single object. The count of a collection. The number 5 (ﬁve) or 10 (ten) is the count we have assigned to the ﬁngers of one hand. or almonds in a bag.. the hair on one’s head. the count of a collection containing a single object is 1 (one). respectively two hands. or balls in a box. Be it an apple. It is like giving a special name to a child by which the child is known. To count the apples in a basket. In what position is the ﬁrst 3 (three)? Write the Answer: . the method of pairing or labeling the objects with successive numbers starting with the number 1 is used to assign a number as the count of the collection. The count does not depend on the nature of the objects. In what position is the second 3 (three)? Write the answer: .. stars in the Milky Way.. persons in a family. almonds in a bag. . To start with. The process of pairing or labeling is typically called as counting.

Several examples of pairing and assigning the count follow 2. It is not necessary to line display the objects in a collection as long as the pairing of objects in the collection with successive numbers beginning with 1 is clearly shown. then the count is 35. To answer the question ’How many letters are used in the word ’Dayalbagh’ ?. If the last number used for pairing is 7 then the count of apples is 7. Line displays of objects in a collection are helpful in counting. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 See that the numbers used in pairing are the successive counting numbers beginning with 1 and ending with 8. An example of pairing which does not use a line display is . This was the case in picking apples from a basket and pairing each pick with a successive number starting with 1.22 CHAPTER 2. The process of pairing starts by pairing the ﬁrst dot on the left with the number 1. so the basket of apples is now empty.3. i. The numbers below each dot is the number with which that dot is paired.e. It is customary to start be pairing the object on the left on the line with the number 1. The process of picking and pairing with successive numbers continues until the last apple has been picked and paired with a number that is the successor of the previously used number for pairing. If it is 35. Consider counting the number of letters used in an English word. has no more apples left. 2. we write the successive numbers beginning with 1 below each letter as shown below: D 1 A 2 Y 3 A 4 L 5 B 6 A 7 G 8 The last counting number used in this pairing is 8. 3. each adjacent dot is paired with the successor of the last number with which the previous dot was paired. The number 8 is the assigned count of the collection of dots.1 Examples of Straight Counting 1. This number 8 is the count of the collection of letters in the word ’DAYALBAGH”. The picture below shows certain big dots arranged on a line (you may think of the dots as apples or almonds or any other objects in a collection whose count is to be found out). CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS then put this second picked apple aside and pick another from the basket and mentally pair it with the number 3 (again the successor of 2). The last number used in this pairing is 8 and this number is the count of the collection of dots in the display. Thereafter. As an example consider the word ’Dayalbagh’.

WORKSHEET 3: STRAIGHT COUNTING. It is important to note that the count of a collection of successive numbers that begin with 1 and ends with a speciﬁed number is that speciﬁed number. The last number used in the pairing is the count of the collection. This is shown in the table below for ending numbers up to 12 (twelve): collection 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 count 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 12 4. Starting with any one of the letters which is paired with the number 1 shown in a bracket after the chosen letter. until all the letters have been paired with a number. The ending number in this situation is the assigned count of the collection of successive numbers that begins with 1. For ﬁnding a count of a collection. we pair each object in the collection with successive numbers starting with 1.2. If a collection of successive numbers starts with any other number diﬀerent from 1 its count has to be found in the manner above indicated. For example the count of successive numbers beginning with 7 and ending with 16 is seen to be 10 as seen from the pairing 7 1 8 2 9 3 10 4 11 5 12 6 13 7 14 8 15 9 16 10 .3.23 P (1) A(2) Q(3) S (4) B (5) C (6) R((7) Here we ﬁnd the count of the letters on a Board or in a picture. 3. etc.. THE COUNT OF A COLLECTION. The last number used in the pairing is the number 7 and it is the (assigned) count of the collection of letters. we continue picking letters and pairing them with successive numbers 2.

How many legs does a Donkey have? 11.. B .. And the count of the collection whose objects are paired with these one to one is the count of those successive numbers. The ﬁrst object picked in the process is paired with the number 1. How many pages are there in your Math Book? 10...24 CHAPTER 2. How many successive numbers are there that begin with 35 and end with 50? 4. Take a bag full of marbles and count them.. 2. How many letters are there in the word M AT HEM AT ICS ? number. . How many houses are there on the street or lane where you live? Answer: .. 3.2 Exercises 1. ..3 A Most Important Observation about counting and the Count of a Collection Note that counting is done by picking objects in a collection and pairing each successive picked object with a successive number. 2. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS The important thing to remember is that the count of a collection of numbers that contains all the successive numbers beginning with 1 and ending with a speciﬁc number. .. Count the number of chairs in the class room! Give your answer in the word form and also as a number.. How many walls are there in the class room? Answer:.. 7. 9. we note all the possible line displays of these letters given below: . is that speciﬁc number..3. For example for counting the objects in the collection that contains the letters A. 6.. How many words are there on page 20 of your Book? Answer: .3.. What is the count of the successive numbers beginning with 1 and ending with 100.. That the process assigns a unique number as the count of a collection becomes evident when line displays are used for counting. Line displays are helpful in counting but are not necessary to carry out the pairing process. and C . 2.. The count is the number with which the last picked object is paired. What is their count? Write your answer as a word and as a number! 5. 8. Find the count of successive numbers beginning with 90 and ending with 99..

2. subtracting) some objects from a collection. Addition conceptualizes the process of putting or placing (i. The Process of Subtraction: There is a basket containing some apples and we remove some apples from that basket. Subtraction conceptualizes the process of removing or taking out (i. 2. and a banana. 4. a pair. and 0. Straight counting is used to ﬁnd the answer.. WORKSHEET 4: ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION A A B B C C 1 B C A C A B 2 C B C A B A 3 25 Here the last line that contains the successive numbers 1.2. and two bananas. The collection containing the numbers: 21 and 12. 5. most importantly. and C ? Your Answer: . Display all possible line displays in each of the above exercises! What is the count of the line displays in each exercise? 2. Question: ”What is the count of . adding) more objects in a collection.e.4 Exercises Find the count of each collection below by using a line display of items in the collection. 1.4 Worksheet 4: Addition and Subtraction Common everyday problems point to the underlying concepts of Addition and of Subtraction of numbers. It shows that diﬀerent line displays give the same count. each line display gives the same count for the collection. and 3.e.3. the number 3 for the count of the collection.. Question: ”What is the count of apples in the basket after we have placed in some more apples in the basket?” Addition answers this question. 2. The collection containing: an apple. The collection containing: three apples. The collection containing the symbols: ∅. . 0. we need use only one of several possible line displays.. shows the pairing and the fact that the count of the collection is 3 for each line display.4. 3. namely. Thus to ﬁnd the count of a collection using a line display. B . Consider the two processes on examples: The Process of Addition: There is a basket containing some apples and we place some more apples into that basket. Question: How many line displays are there for the collection of letters A. But.

The symbol is simply read as ”ﬁve plus three” or as ”3 added to 5”. we may start with the display of objects in a collection whose count is expressed as a sum of two numbers: Consider the objects of a collection whose count is 2 + 3 and it indicates that the collection is obtained by adding a collection of 3 objects to a collection of 2 objects. Note that the left basket is now empty. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS apples in the basket after we have removed some apples from that basket?” Subtraction answers this question. The count of the apples in the left basket (after the move) is 5. This shows that the sum ’2 + 3’ number is the same as the number 5 and we write ’2 + 3 = 5’. . This says that the result of adding 3 to 2 is 5. add) the apples from the basket on the right to the basket on the left. Notation for Addition: A basket has 5 apples. Straight counting is used to ﬁnd the answer. The examples that follow explain the underlying notation for addition and subtraction. We may line display the objects in the following form (without showing the boxes).e. For the visualization of the number ’2 + 3’. The symbol ’5 + 3’ is used and it identiﬁes the count of apples in the basket after we have added the 3 apples in the basket. In this case we will use the symbol ’3 + 2’ to represent the count of apples after the move. since we now are adding two apples to the basket that already has three apples. The basket on the right has three apples in it. We put (place or add) 3 more apples in this basket. We may indeed want to move the apples in the left basket (that has two apples) to the basket on the right (that has three apples). The resulting picture will be The result of moving (adding) two apples in the left basket to the three apples in the right basket is now represented by the symbol ’3 + 2’. and the result of addition along with the resulting notation.26 CHAPTER 2. Now note that both symbols ’2 + 3’ and 5 represent the count of the apples in the left basket after completing the process of moving apples from the right basket to the left basket. The basket on the left has two apples (represented by two dots). This results in the right basket having ﬁve apples and so we write ’3 + 2 = 5’. The problem of ﬁnding the number represented by the symbol ’5 + 3’ is solved by straight counting to get the answer 8. We move (i. The result is represented by the picture Note that the left basket has ﬁve apples (Why?) and the right basket is empty (Why?). A pictorial illustration of the process of addition using dots (think of each dot as representing an apple) is as follows: The picture represents two baskets of apples. This means that 5 + 3 = 8.

2.4. WORKSHEET 4: ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION

27

or they may be displayed in two rows in the form

The ﬁrst display suggests visualizing addition in the form + which suggests writing addition in the form 2+3=5 The second display suggests visualizing addition in the form =

+ = which suggests writing addition in the form 2 3 5 2 3 5

+ =

or

+

Combining collections of objects and the resulting relationship between the counts has motivated the concept of addition of numbers. The result of adding the two numbers 2 and 3 can be expressed in the form ”2 + 3 = 5” or ”3 + 2 = 5”. Since both sums equal the same number 5, we conclude that the sums are equal, i.e., 3 + 2 = 2 + 3. This conclusion is a property of the operation of addition. It is called the commutative property as it holds for all numbers. It is expressed symbolically by writing m + n = n + m, where m and n stand for any given numbers. Thus without ﬁnding the actual count of the combined collection we can say that 5 + 6 = 6 + 5, 123 + 7 = 7 + 123, etc., N otationf orSubtraction: A basket has 5 apples. We remove (subtract) 2 apples from this basket. The symbol 5 − 2 is used and it identiﬁes the count of apples in the basket after removing 2 apples from the basket. The symbol is simply read as ”ﬁve minus two” or as ”2 subtracted from 5”. The problem of ﬁnding the number represented by the symbol ’5 − 2’ is solved by straight counting to get the answer 3. This means that 5 − 2 = 3.

28

CHAPTER 2. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS

2.4.1

The concept of an empty collection and its count

When we think of a collection we think of certain objects. Thus ’Almonds in a bag’, ’Chairs in a room’, ’children in a class’, ’Bananas in a bunch’, are all examples of collections. The count of a collection refers to the objects only. The bag, the room, the class, and the bunch in the above examples were containers of those objects that were counted. Indeed, if the same objects were placed in a diﬀerent container, the count will be the same. Now consider the concept of subtraction and the notation used for it. Subtraction identiﬁes the count of a collection after removal of some objects from a given collection. Thus ’3 − 1’ identiﬁes the count of a collection after one object has been removed from the collection that had three objects before removal. If we had removed all three objects, we clearly can identify the result by the symbol ’3 − 3’. However, now we have an empty container and no number (count) to identify the symbol ’3 − 3’ as a number. To rectify this situation, one introduces the notion of an empty collection: ’An empty collection is a container with no objects in it’. Now note that we have used the numeral ’0’ like an alphabet to write numbers. The un-ending succession of numbers used for counting starts with the number ’1’ but does not contain 0 as a number for counting. We have conceptualized an empty collection as a container without any objects in it. We now assign the numeral ’0’ as a count of an empty collection and from now on we call ’0’ as a number just like the numerals 1, 2, 3, etc are numbers. It allows us to answer questions like ’3 − 3 =?’, ’234 − 234 =?’, etc., by writing ’3 − 3 = 0’, ’234 − 234 = 0’, etc. We will see later the numeral 0 has a deep meaning in the notation that we use for numbers. Each of the ten numerals in a number has a place in that number that will identify a value called the place value. Since the system uses ten numerals we call it as ’Base ten number system’. By conceiving 0 as a number we have extended the succession of the counting numbers to the un-ending succession of numbers displayed below

The extended succession of numbers 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1 11 21 31 41 51 61 71 81 91 . 2 12 22 32 42 52 62 72 82 92 . 3 13 23 33 43 53 63 73 83 93 . 4 14 24 34 44 54 64 74 84 94 . 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 95 . 6 16 26 36 46 56 66 76 86 96 . 7 17 27 37 47 57 67 77 87 97 . 8 18 28 38 48 58 68 78 88 98 . 9 19 29 39 49 59 69 79 89 99 .

2.4. WORKSHEET 4: ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION

29

We call this as the succession of whole numbers. Here the successor of the number 0 is the number 1 and 0 + 1 = 1 and 1 + 0 = 1. The table that follows is called the addition table. It identiﬁes all the sums like 3 + 5, 7 + 5, 0 + 0, etc,. To see that ’2 + 5 = 7’, we look at the underlined ’2’ in the left most column, and the underlined ’5’ in the top row. The answer ’7’ appears at the junction of the row containing the underlined ’2’ and the column containing the underlined ’5’. ADDITION TABLE + 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 3 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 4 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 5 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 6 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 7 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 8 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 9 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

The table contains answers to one hundred sums. Students should establish all these sums by the method of straight counting. They should clearly conceptualize the correctness of sums like ’0 + 0 = 0’, ’2 + 0 = 0 + 2 = 2’ using the concept of an empty collection and its count.

2.4.2

Exercises

Use the method of straight counting to establish the sums using pictorial illustrations. 1. 5 + 7 = ...?, 2 + 2 = ...?, 1 + 0 = ...? 2. Verify the correctness of your answer from the addition table. 3. 5 − 2 = ...?, 9 − 5 = ...?, 7 − 7 = ...?. 4. 67 + 1 = ...?, 100 + 1 = ...?, 769 + 1 = ...?. 5. 786 + 2 = ...?, 788 + 2 = ...?, 788 + 4 = ...?. 6. 2 + 786 = ...?, 2 + 788 = ...?, 4 + 788 = ...?.

How many coins does the child possess? If the question is put to the child.5.30 CHAPTER 2. and 23 is the successor of 22. and continue to straight count by recalling the next two successive numbers four and ﬁve that come after three. For example. The process of adding a single item to a collection (this means adding 1 to a number) whose count is given may be displayed as shown in the two examples below: + 4 ∗ 5 and + 234 * 235 Similarly. namely. Straight counting gives the predecessor in this case. The process of of subtracting a single item from a collection (this means subtracting 1 from a number) whose count is given may be displayed as shown in the two examples below: − 4 ∗ 3 and 4 − 234 ∗ 233 Note that 3 is the predecessor of 4. Straight counting tells us that 4 + 1 = 5. This points to a universal rule. The child has indeed mastered the art of straight counting and the process of addition of two numbers using straight counting. and ﬁve to triumphantly say that he has ﬁve coins. the child starts with the count two of the coins in one pocket and continue to straight count by recalling the next three successive numbers three. 234 + 1 = 235. The count of the collection after adding a single item is obtained by adding 1 to the count of the collection before the addition. and pronounce that he has ﬁve coins. consider removing a single item from a non empty collection. .1 Adding or Subtracting 1 Adding 1 to a number is motivated by adding a single item to a given collection. Adding 1 to a number gives its successor.. four. if the count of a collection is 4 and we add a single item to it. Thus 4 + 1 = 5. And if we start with a count of 22 and add one item then the count after addition is 22 + 1. etc.5 Worksheet 5: Using Straight Counting to Add or Subtract A child has two coins in one pocket and three in the other pocket. he may start with the count of the coins in one pocket. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS 2. then the count after addition is 4 + 1. This points to the universal rule for subtracting 1 from a non zero number (remember that we can not remeove any item from an empty collection). and 233 is the predecessor of 234. say the count three. Or alternately. 2. namely Subtracting 1 from a non zero number gives its predecessor. We recognize now that 5 is the successor of 4. and 22 + 1 = 23. Subtracting 1 from a number is motivated by removing a single item from a nonempty collection.

He thus pronounces the three successive numbers that come after two to get the answer ’5’.5.2 Adding any number In the example of the child at the beginning. He has thus pronounced the two successive numbers that come after ’3’ to answer the question. . Such illustrations can be used to see the truth of many statements. Some examples are 1.. Since 2 = 1 + 1. ﬁve’ to conclude 2 + 3 = 5. This means that to add 2 we actually add 1 twice. Under the ﬁrst star is the number 3 showing that when we add one object to the given two the count becomes 3. ’2 + 2 = 4’. Similarly. The second row continues after the seperating vertical line with the successive numbers 3. meaning 2 + 2 = 4. Finally adding the third star we get ’2 + 3 = 5’. 2 + 2 = 4. the child loudly says ’three.5. The two steps can be combined to write 3 + 2 = (3 + 1) + 1 = 4 + 1 = 5. The steps also indicate that the child adds ’1’ three times to the number ’2’ to get the result 2 + 3 = 5. Which allows us to conclude that (3 + 1) + 1 = 3 + (1 + 1).i. + 2 ∗ 3 ∗ 3 ∗ 4 ∗ 3 ∗ 4 ∗ 5 . Then adding the second star (that means adding teo stars) the count becomes 4. and 5 that come after 2. 2 + 1 = 3. in answering 2 + 3 =?. and 2 + 3 = 5’ to conclude 2 + 3 = 5.2. Illustration + 2 3. we can write 3 + 2 = 3 + (1 + 1). 4. We may illustrate this as + 3 ∗ 4 ∗ 5 The illustration in fact answers the two questions ’3 + 1 =?’ and ’3 + 2 =?’. ﬁve’ and states the answer as ’5’. the child loudly says ’four. This illustration answers the three questions ’2 + 1 = 3’. Illustration + 2 2. 2 + 3 = 5. WORKSHEET 5: USING STRAIGHT COUNTING TO ADD OR SUBTRACT31 2. This is illestrated below + 2 ∗ 3 ∗ 4 ∗ 5 In this illustration we are adding three objects represented by three stars in the ﬁrst row to the two objects whose count 2 is noted as the ﬁrst number in the second row. four.e. we notice that for answering ’3 + 2 =?’. 2 + 1 = 3. It says that 3 + 1 = 4. and 3 + 2 = 5.

.... ? 75 + 6 = .. Thus to ﬁnd the sum 5 + 3 we write 5 + 3 = ((5 + 1) + 1) + 1 = (6 + 1) + 1 = 7 + 1 = 8.... This allows us to conclude 5 + 2 = (5 + 1) + 1 = 6 + 1 = 7... ? 95 + 6 = ....5...32 4.. 230 + 2 = (230 + 1) + 1 = 231 + 1 = 232. 2 + 3 = 3 + 2.. ? 95 + 4 = ... one item at a time... Since 4 + 75 = 75 + 4 by the commutative property.. Similarly... Extending the above idea. Thus to ﬁnd 5 + 2 we write 5 + 2 = (5 + 1) + 1.. This is correct as both sums equal the samr number 5 as seen from the two illustrations + 2 ∗ 3 ∗ 4 ∗ 5 and + 3 ∗ 4 ∗ 5 As another example consider ﬁnding the sum 4 + 3 =?. one item at a time..... They represent adding four object to three.. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS ∗ 238 ∗ 239 ∗ 240 5........... ? 5 + 6 = .... 2.. we illustrate 75 + 4 = 79. Illustration + 237 CHAPTER 2. 237 + 3 = 240..... ? 5 + 4 = . ? 95 + 5 = .. we may illustrate as below to conclude ’4 + 3 = 7’..... ? 15 + 5 = . ? 15 + 6 = . ? (d) 95 + 3 = . ? (b) 15 + 3 = . Adding singles .... ? 5 + 5 = .. adding 3 to a number is obtained by adding three items to a collection... The knowledge that adding 1 to any number gives its successor..... For addition we write the succession of Successors of the given number. ? 75 + 5 = . ? (c) 75 + 3 = ..... Note the four stars in the ﬁrst row. + 4 To ﬁnd the sum 3 + 4 we may display + 3 ∗ 4 ∗ 5 ∗ 6 ∗ 7 ∗ 5 ∗ 6 ∗ 7 and conclude that 3 + 4 = 7. + 75 ∗ 76 ∗ 77 ∗ 78 ∗ 79 6. 4 + 75 = 79..... Thus to add 2 to any number.. we think of adding two items to a collection. ? 15 + 4 = .. can be used to ﬁnd the sum of any two numbers... ? 75 + 4 = . ? 1....3 Addition Exercises: (a) 5 + 3 = ...

..?? (b) 6 − 0 = .. ? 14 + 20 = . ? 3 + 30 = .. and 34....5. We must always keep in mind that just as we cannot remove any items from an empty container. respectively. we simply write the predecessor of 3. The resulting count after removal is the answer. the second example shows 37 − 1 = 36 and 37 − 2 = 35....5 Subtraction Exercises... WORKSHEET 5: USING STRAIGHT COUNTING TO ADD OR SUBTRACT33 2. ? 14 + 30 = ..? .. to answer ’3 − 1 =?’...... Substacting single numbers (a) 3 − 1 = ..? 7 − 3 = ..........5.. For subtraction we write the succession of predescessors of the given number. Similarly. We will learn later that by extending the number system we can subtract any number from a given number. ? (b) 75 + 39 = ..... 37.. ? 3 + 20 = ...... Subtraction conceptualizes the removal of objects from a given collection. just as we can add any number to a given number.?.... The illustration below displays the subtraction in the two cases − 3 ∗ 2 ∗ 1 and 37 ∗ 36 ∗ 35 Note that in the ﬁrst example we have 3 − 1 = 2 .? 15−5 = ... ? 14 + 17 = ... 121 − 124 are meaningless.. ? 14 + 80 = .... ?19 + 15 = .. 1..? 0 − 0 = ...? 8 − 4 = .... we cannot subtract any number from 0... ? (b) 14 + 10 = .. 2.? 2 − 3 = ......... respectively......4 Subtracting any number We have already noted that subtracting the number 1 gives the predecessor.. Moreover we cannot subtract a number that follows the given number in the succession of numbers...... This gives the answer 3 − 1 = 2.. This may be displayed in a similar way to that adopted for addition. and 34 − 1 = 33...? 13−7 = .. ? 3 + 70 = ...5... For example........... ? 2...? 15−6 = .. More Adding (a) 14 + 15 = ... Adding tens (a) 3 + 10 = ..... The answer can be obtained by removing one object at a time until two objects are removed. answering the question ’3−2 =?] or ’37−2 =?’ is conceived as removing two objects from a collection whose count is 3.. for example.2. This means that expressions like 3 − 5.? 17−8 = . (c) 15−4 = ..... and ’34 − 1 =?’.... and 3 − 2 = 1 as the result of removing two objects... which is the result of removing one object from a collection of count 3.. ? 3. ? 14 + 16 = .

. Given two numbers m and n..? 2. .. ’greater than’.. And this is just the right answer. So far we have used numbers to express counts. 2. In particular. The expression m > n means the same as the expression n < m. We read the statement ’m > n’ as ’m is greater than ’n’.34 CHAPTER 2. and ’=’ are used in a manner to give meaning to the expressions like ’less than’. You could also say that Ram has more than Shyam or that Shyam has less than Ram. Ram has 10 rupees and Shyam has 8... Thus ’2 = 3’ simply asserts that the numbers 2 and 3 are not the same or are diﬀerent. (a) 16 − 11 = . < m < .. < 9 < 10 < .. It is read as ’n is less than m’. ’>’. ’smaller than’... ’equal to’ that we use in our every day language to express a form of comparison of two objects.6.. The order among successive whole numbers is expressed as follows 2.? 81 − 7 = . CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS (d) 25 − 4 = . All these statements mean only that a count of 10 is greater than a count of 8...2 The order among Whole Numbers 0 < 1 < 2 < 3 < .? 2...... . This means that the number m comes after the number n in the succession of whole numbers. and ’<’ ’a = b’ simply means that the letters ’a’ and ’b are used for or represent the same object. .. ’>’. (b) 17 − 18 = ..6..? 16 − 10 = ... we write ’m > n’ whenever the number m comes after the number n in the succession of numbers. .. and 75 > 69. Subtracting any number... < n < .?.. bigger than’.? 25 − 6 = . We simply say that 10 is greater than 8 or that 8 is less than 10. . Thus ’a = 3’ simply says that the letter ’a’ stands for the number ’3’... . = The symbols ’<’.. The intuitive idea of a collection having more objects than another collection is made precise by using these symbols.6 Worksheet 5: The Order among numbers: Meaning of <. When there is a need to emphasize that letters ’a’ and ’b’ represent diﬀerent objects we express it by writing ’a = b’.. Thus 5 > 3. Who has more money? Many of you will answer that Ram has more money. since the numbers 2 and 3 are not the same we cannot write 2 = 3.1 Using the symbols ’=’. Thus 3 < 5 and 69 < 75. >. . The same is conveyed in symbols by writing ’10 > 8’ or by writing ’8 < 10’. In such a write-up the three dots between numbers represent the successive numbers between the number on the left of the dots and the number on the .

2 in ascending order! Answer: 2. .. the number 1 in the left box indicates that the left box contains one bag of almonds (remember that each bag has ten almonds in it).... 1 in ascending order! Answer: .. The box on the left contain the bags containing ten almonds each that you have made and the one on the right contains any left over unbaged loose almonds.23 3.6.. 25. Note that 2 < 7 < 9. In the picture below........ 5. 9..2.... Note that 9 > 8 > 3. 7.3 2.. So you start making bags of almonds. . Indicate the order among the pairs of numbers 0.7 Worksheet 6: Counting in Groups and The Place Value Notation Imagine that you have a box full of almonds and you want to sell them. 1. Arrange the numbers 12.. 3... After bagging you may be left with some loose almonds.. 5. and the number 3 in the box on the right indicates that the right box contains three loose unbaged almonds. 3..... 6..5. 4.. 3 in descending order! Answer: 9.. Arrange the numbers 7.. 45.... Thus the ﬁrst occuring three dots stand for ˙ < 7 <8 4 < 5 <6 The next occurring three dots stand for all the successive numbers that come after 10 but that are before the number m....... 9.. . Arrange the numbers 35. Answer: 2... but their number will not be more than nine (Why?). 2 in ascending order! Answer: . You will make a proﬁt if you make bags where each bag contains ten almonds and you sell each bag of almonds for rupees ﬁve. Arrange the numbers 0. each containing tem almonds. each bag containing ten almonds. 8.. . 10.. 15. 25.. . Question: What do the three dots between the number m and the number n signify? Question: What do the three dots after the number n signify? 2.303 303.7.. WORKSHEET 6: COUNTING IN GROUPS AND THE PLACE VALUE NOTATION35 right of the dots. .7 23......... Arrange the numbers 8. 3..... 4. For selling the almonds you display them in two boxes.. 55 in descending order. 9...3 Exercises 1.... You have made as many bags as possible.32 32..

. Question: How many bags of almonds are in the left box? Answer: .... bags = .. How many almonds in the right box? Answer: . almonds.. almonds..... How many in both boxes? Answer: .. bag... Question: How many bags of almonds are in the left box? Answer: ...... = . almonds.. How many almonds in the left box? Answer: 1 bag = 10 almonds... bags = .. How many almonds in the right box? Answer: .. = . 2. + .... 2 7 .... bags = ... .... ..... = . How many almonds in the left box? Answer: .7. How many in both boxes? Answer: .. How many almonds in both boxes? Answer: ..... 1 4 3.. Question: How many bags of almonds are in the left box? Answer: ..1 Exercises: Answer the following questions by looking at the displaysthat follow the question: 1.. How many almonds in the left box? Answer: ... almonds.. + ...... How many in both boxes? Answer: ...... How many almonds in the left box? Answer: .. bag........ How many almonds in the right box? Answer: ....36 CHAPTER 2. How many almonds in the right box? Answer: .. ..... How many almonds in the left box? Answer: .... bags = ... CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS 1 3 Question: How many bags of almonds are in the left box? Answer: 1 bag. bag... 1 0 2.. Question: How many bags of almonds are in the left box? Answer: ... almonds. + .... 2 0 4... How many almonds in the right box? Answer: 3 almonds. . + . almonds.. bag.. almonds.. almonds......... = . How many almonds in both boxes? Answer: 10 + 3 = 13 almonds..

almonds.. 3 2 2..2 Place value for two digit numbers We saw in the examples and exercises that a two digit number like 32 expresses the count of almonds in 3 bags of almonds together with 2 loose unbaged almonds which was expressed in the form 3 2 This shows that the number 32 is the sum 30 + 2.. How many in both boxes? Answer: ... Another common form to express addition is ..... Keeping in mind the place values we write this in the form 32 + 25 = 57. Question: How many bags of almonds are in the left box? Answer: .. While doing addition and subtraction we can add singles to singles and tens to tens to get the result. This is done on examples below: 2.. the value or number it stands for. + . and the result of adding singles is the number 7... = . This means that the ﬁrst numeral 2 on the right of 32 stands for the number 2 or two singles. Consider adding the two collection 3 2 and 2 5 We may exhibit the addition and the answer in the form 3 2 + 2 5 = 5 7 Where the result of adding tens is the number 5..... and the next numeral 3 stands for the number 30 or three tens. .3 Adding two digit numbers using place value Adding means combining two collections to get a single collection. bag. since each bag contains 10 almonds.. almonds..7. In this way each numeral in a number has a place value. WORKSHEET 6: COUNTING IN GROUPS AND THE PLACE VALUE NOTATION37 5. Thus in working with numbers.7. since 3 + 2 = 5.. we must keep this property of numbers in mind.. since 2 + 5 = 7..2... How many almonds in the right box? Answer: . bags = ... How many almonds in the left box? Answer: .7.

... 54 + 45 = .. namely 2+5 = 7. . 52 07 . 12 + 17 = ... And we only need to add one digit numbers no matter how large the numbers may be... 6 7 − 2 5 = 4 2 This result is written as 67 − 25 = 42.... and the numbers in the tens place are added to get the number of tens...5 Subtraction using place value Subtraction means removing objects from a collection.. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS 3 2 5 2 5 7 + Here the numbers in the singles place are added to get the sum of singles.. Observe that in adding we use place values until the operation is complete. This is an advantage over straight counting (Why is it an advantage?).7..7..38 CHAPTER 2. The process of removing can be depicted in the form where we remove 2 bags from the tens box and 5 singles from the singles box to get the result.. + + + + 2.4 Addition Exercises Use place values of numerals in a number to ﬁnd the following sums: A. So consider removing 25 objects from a collection that has 67 objects.. ?. ? 79 + 20 = . namely 3 + 2 = 5.... 13 23 . The result is exhibited in the bottom line... Or one may use the form 67 25 42 - The result is obtained by subtracting the numeral in singles place from the numeral in singles place and subtracting the numeral in tens place from the numeral in tens place.. 89 10 . ? B. 2.. 17 31 .. Remember that the count 25 consists of 2 tens and 5 singles..

The next box contains 4 bags of almonds each containing 10 almonds.. 59 07 . and the next box to its left contains 3 bigbags of almonds each containing ten bags each containing 10 almonds or 100 almonds altogether... B.. the number of tens may be ten or more.... exercises 25 − 12 = .7. We may depict the result in three boxes as follows: Display of 345 almonds 3 4 5 Here the box on the right contains 5 loose unbaged almonds.. 79 − 22 = ....... the next numeral 4 represents four tens or a count of 40... and 5 loose almonds. In this case we again bag ten bags of almonds in a bigbag... 2. WORKSHEET 6: COUNTING IN GROUPS AND THE PLACE VALUE NOTATION39 2. 47 31 ..... 23 23 .7. 345 + 431 = 776 B.7 Place values in three digit numbers While counting a large collection in groups of tens. 12 − 2 = . 89 10 .. The following example illustrates this 3 4 5 + 4 3 1 = 7 7 6 The addition and result is exhibited in one of the following two forms: A.....2. and hundreds to hundreds to get the count of the combined collection. the numeral 5 on the right represents the number 5 (5 singles). and the next numeral 3 to its left represents three hundreds or a count of 300. Each bigbag will contain ten small bags... so that a bigbag will contain 100 almonds.. For example in counting almonds it will mean that we have ten or more bags each containing ten almonds. tens to tens. Let us say the counting stops with 3 bigbags.. 53 − 31 = .. See that We have indeed 300 + 40 + 5 = 345. Thus we see that in the number 345... Combining two collections into a single collection can be done by adding singles to single. ... 55 − 15 = . 4 small bags.. So the total count of almonds is 300 + 40 + 5 = 345 almonds.7..6 A.

. 9 0 ... As an example consider 7 4 5 − 4 3 1 = 3 1 4 The subtraction and result is exhibited in one of the following two forms: A. 745 − 431 = 314 B.....7... + 3 5 .... 8 0 ... 708 + 191 = ... 8 0 .... 567 − 2 = . 7 0 . say.. 5 + ...?. + C. 5 .. 320 − 120 = ....... 0 9 .... 2 2 .8 A... If the counts of apples in the three baskets are. B.. 4.. 567 + 2 = .. 4 + 6 + 5.. 3 2 ...9 Adding more than two numbers Consider that you have three baskets of apples and you transfer the the apples in the baskets in to a box...40 CHAPTER 2... 5 + 4 + 6. 7 1 .?..... 5 + 6 + 4.... 5 4 ..?.. Question: How do we exhibit the process and ﬁnd the count of apples in the box... 6 + 5 + 4. subtraction can be carried out by subtracting singles from singles.. 323 − 122 = .. 320 + 129 = .. 6 5 .... . CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS 3 4 7 4 3 7 5 1 6 + Similarly. 2.?. 5 5 .. 7 4 3 4 3 1 5 1 4 2.?. then we may express the count of apples in the box by any of the six symbols 4 + 5 + 6.. 2 0 ..7.... 758 − 425 = . D.. 1 0 .. 2 7 . 5. 7 1 . tens from tens and hundreds from hundreds. and 6......?... ! 3 .. + 2 3 . 3 2 .....?.?. 6 + 4 + 5.. 9 3 . 5 4 .. 1 5 ...... Exercises 123 + 321 = .

The brackets in form (4 + 5) + 6 tell us to add ﬁrst the ﬁrst two numbers 4 and 5. Both calculations tell us that the count of apples in the box is the number 15. So we write. we would like to use this knowledge to carry out the addition of three numbers. + . Indeed as we expect. n. however. For any three numbers m. Note that this gives meaning to the symbol ’4 + 5 + 6’. So we calculate 4 + 5 + 6 = 4 + (5 + 6) = 4 + 11 = 15. namely. The method also tells us how to calculate sums containing more than three numbers. The calculation can be made by any of the two ways of calculation that were used above to calculate the sum ’4+5+6’.7. First. For example to calculate the number expressed by the symbol ’4 + 5 + 6 + 7’ we do the calculation as follows 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 = ((4 + 5) + 6) + 7 = (9 + 6) + 7 = 15 + 7 = 22. This is as expected. The method certainly works because we add only two numbers at a time throughout the process. We could also carry out the calculation by ﬁrst adding the last two numbers. we must carry out the addition. WORKSHEET 6: COUNTING IN GROUPS AND THE PLACE VALUE NOTATION41 We expect each of these symbols to represent the same count. and then to add the third number 6 to the sum of the ﬁrst two. But we want to be sure of that. say the sum 4 + 5 + 6 in the form (4 + 5) + 6. The ﬁrst was the Commutative Property of addition of any two numbers m and n. . In this fashion we calculate 4 + 5 + 6 = (4 + 5) + 6 = 9 + 6 = 15. m+n=n+m The commutative together with the associative property of addition ensure that all the six symbolic expressions at the beginning of this section represent the same number.2. This is an important property of addition and we call it the Associative Property of Addition. The important observation is that each of two expressions ’(4 + 5) + 6’ and ’4 + (5 + 6)’ allows us to calculate the required count and they both give us the same number. p it is stated in the form (m + n) + p = m + (n + p) The associative ptroperty of addition is the second important property of addition. Since we only have learned to add two numbers at a time.

+ 5 = .) + (..8 Worksheet 7: Selling Almonds In this section we learned to count in groups of ten. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS 2.... You will sell each bigbag of almonds for rupees ﬁfty. + ....... Since thre are ten bags of almonds in each bigbag and each bag sells for ﬁve rupees. = .. = .. Find the indicated sums (a) 5 + 6 + 7 = (5 + 6) + 7 = .... + 4 = ....... + ...... + 7 = .... and you decide to sell each loose almond for rupee one....... + 3) + 4 = ........... So let us start selling.+3 = ...+.......) = ..42 CHAPTER 2.... and bgbags each containing one hundred almonds.....)+3 = ... the price of the bigbag will be 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5............. We wanted to make a proﬁt by selling each bag of ten almonds for rupees ﬁve... You now display them to sell and your display is Display of almonds 3 4 5 Money in box 0 rupees Think that after you sell some almonds to a customer. 2. (e) 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = ((1 + 2) + 3) + 4 = (.... Let us ﬁx the price for each bigbag containing one hundred almonds. An easier way is to group the sum (since we only add two numbers at a time) and see that the sum is (5 + 5) + (5 + 5) + (5 + 5) + (5 + 5) + (5 + 5) = 10 + 10 + 10 + 10 + 10 = 50 This calculation says that we must sell each bigbag for rupees ﬁfty..... (c) 7 + 6 + 5 = (7 + 6) + 5 = ........... = .10 Exercises 1..... 10 + 11 + 12 + 13 = (. + .... (b) 5 + 6 + 7 = 5 + (6 + 7) = 5 + .... 12 + 21 + 33 = (. So with each customer we shall see how much money we get and the display for the next customer... (g) 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 = ((4 + 4) + (4 + 4)) + (4 + 4) = (8 + . + ..... Now you have baged the almonds you had in bags containung ten almonds and bigbags contain one hundred almonds and you also have some loose unbaged almods...... (d) 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = (1 + 2) + (3 + 4) = . = .. the display of almonds will change.. = . 3.......) + .... + .. = ............ + . (f) 3+3+3+3+3 = ((3+3)+(3+3))+3 = (. = .. ...... We made bags each containing ten almonds.....) + .......... You can certainly ﬁnd the answer be straight counting.7. 2.. each bag of almonds for rupees ﬁve. + ....

The customer pays you ﬁfteen rupees. The customer pays you three rupees. 4. Now you ask the customer for ﬁfteen rupees (the price of three bags).2. If you sold all your almonds to the ﬁrst customer that comes. 20 for the bags. WORKSHEET 7: SELLING ALMONDS 43 1. You think since you do not have three bags in the bags box. You put the money in your money box. 2. The customer pays you ten rupees. The display of almonds and the money in your money box after the ﬁrst customer is Display of almonds 3 4 2 Money in box 3 rupees Justify The change in the display after the ﬁrst customer! Now you attend the next customer. The ﬁrst customer: Can I have three almonds please? You: Certainly. and 5 for loose almonds for a total of 150 + 20 + 5 = 175 rupees. The display of almonds and the money in your money box after the second customer is Display of almonds 3 2 2 Money in box 13 rupees Justify The change in the display after the second customer! Now you attend the next customer. 3. You put the money in your money box. then you will get 150 for the bigbig bags. The actual process of sales goes as follows. The display of almonds and the money in your money box after the third customer is Display of almonds 2 9 2 Money in box 28 rupees . You put the money in your money box. The second customer: Can I have two bags of almonds please? You: Certainly.8. The third customer: Can I have three bags of almonds please? You: Certainly. This is your expected sale proceeds. You pick three almonds from the loose almonds box and you hand them to the customer and ask for rupees three (each loose almond sells for rupee one). You pick two bags of almonds from the box containing bags and you hand them to the customer and ask for rupees ten (each bag of almond sells for ﬁve rupee ). So you actually take one bigbig bag from the bigbig bags box (it contains ten bags) and you give the customer three bags out of it and put the remaining seven bags in the bags box.

The customer gives you the money and you put it in the money box to be ready for the next customer. 5. You give the customer three loose almonds for the kids ﬁrst and then a bigbig bag and ask for ﬁfty three rupees. The customer gives you the money and you put it in the money box to be ready for the next customer. 7. The display of almonds and the money in your money box after the sixth customer is Display of almonds 0 7 3 Money in box 142 rupees . The display of almonds and the money in your money box after the ﬁfth customer is Display of almonds 1 7 6 Money in box 89 rupees Justify The change in the display after the ﬁfth customer! Now you attend the next customer. So you take one bag from the bags box (it contains ten almonds) and you give the customer three almonds for the kids and put the remaining loose almonds in the loose almonds box. Then you take another bag from the bags box to give the customer a bag that he asked. The sixth customer: Can I have one bigbag bag of almonds and three almonds for my three kids please? You: Certainly. You think since you do not have three loose almonds in the loose almonds box. The fourth customer: Can I have one bag of almonds and three almonds for my three kids lease? You: Certainly. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS Justify The change in the display after the third customer! Now you attend the next customer. You give the customer three loose almonds for the kids ﬁrst and then a bigbig bag and ask for ﬁfty three rupees. The display of almonds and the money in your money box after the fourth customer is Display of almonds 2 7 9 Money in box 36 rupees Justify The change in the display after the fourth customer! Now you attend the next customer. Now you ask the customer for eight rupees (the price of one bag and three loose almonds). The ﬁfth customer: Can I have one bigbag bag of almonds and three almonds for my three kids lease? You: Certainly. You thank the customer and put the money in your money box. 6.44 CHAPTER 2. The customer pays you eight rupees.

but can I have some almonds? You: Certainly.. .. A fruit seller buys 3 boxes of apples from the wholesale market.. say 75 apples. WORKSHEET 8: MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION 45 Justify The change in the display after the sixth customer! Now you attend the next customer. Fill in the The display of almonds and the money in your money box after the seventh customer! Justify the numbers you ﬁll! Display of almonds ...... The seventh customer: Can I have one bigbag bag of almonds please? You: Sorry...9 Worksheet 8: Multiplication and Division Addition and subtraction provide the basis for the two operations that are called multiplication and division.. where the three dots are used to indicate that the number 75 is erpeated 237 times in the eum 75 + 75 + · · · + 75 We have learned to add more than two numbers.. but the calculation takes time when the sum contains many many numbers to add. Let us say that each box of apples contains... 237 boxes of apples . Money in box 180 rupees How much money you have in your money box? Answer:. . I do not have them anymore.. 8... say.. The warehouse has.. Customer: Well that will be O. The customer gives you the price and you put it in the money box. 75 + 75 + 75. rupees.. How many apples are there in all the boxes in the warehouse? Answer:75+75+· · ·+75.. for now.. but I will get more tomorrow.. Customer: O... How much money would you have if you had sold all your almonds to the ﬁrst customer? Answer:. So you hand himm the seven bags and three loose almonds and ask for . Examples of repeated addition are 3 + 3 + 3.. .. I can sell you all that I have...K... Justify the diﬀerence! 2. Question: How many apples did the fruit seller buy? Answer: 75+75+75.9. Multiplication: It conceptualizes the process of repeated addition... ..2.. Consider the two processes on examples: The Process of Multiplication and its notation: Boxes of apples are stored in warehouses before they are brought to the market for sale to the fruit sellers. Try ﬁnding the above . Division: It conceptualizes the process of repeated subtraction.. 5 + 5 + 5 + 5.K.... Why is your actual money more than your expected money.. A warehouse may have up to a thousand boxes of apples..

until the basket is left with less than 6 apples. + . 3. We note that 35 − 5 × 6 = 3. The next section introduces rectangular displays of objects in a collections which are helpful in understanding the notation and properties of multiplication. Find the product 6 × 11.9. We repeatedly remove (take out) 6 apples from the basket. apples.46 CHAPTER 2. Answer: 3 × 9 = (9 + 9) + 9 = 18 + 9 = 27. + . + . For example.. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS noted sum. So we need to ﬁnd quicker ways to ﬁnd the number represented by the sum. Since 5 × 6 = 6 + 6 + 6 + 6 + 6. 6 × 11 = − − − − + − − − − + − − − − + − − − − + .. at which time we cannot remove 6 apples and the process stops. The two symbolic expressions stand for the same number. i.. 2... The answer is written in the form 35 = 5 × 6 + 3 or in the 3 form 35 6 = 5 + 6.. Question: ”How many times the process was repeated and what is the count of apples left after the process stops? Division answers this question. 3 × 9 = .. Repeated sums when written in multiplication notation are called products. 75 + 75 + · · · + 75 = 237 × 75. 2. visualizing the operation of addition using collections allowed us to see the two fundamental properties of addition. Calculate 3 × 9.. Exercises: Write the numbers expressed in the multiplication notation as sums: 1..... namely. to calculate such sums. Simply stated ’3 × 75 = 75 + 75 + 75’. The expression is read ’237 times 75’ and means that the number 75 is to be added 237 times. The objects in a collection whose count is 3 × 4 may be displayed as below * * * * * * * * * * * * . Using multiplication notation the sum 75 + 75 + 75 is written as 3 × 75 which reads ’three times seventy ﬁve’.. the commutative property and the associative property of addition. The visualization with line displays were helpful in straight counting (for ﬁnding the count of a collection) and for comprehending the process and the fundamental properties of addition and subtraction. 4. The notion of multiplication helps here.. we note that we must take out 6 apples from the basket ﬁve times when the process stops to leave three apples.e. say 35.1 Visualizing Multiplication and its Properties: We start with the display of objects in a collection whose count is expressed in the form of a product: For example the number 3 × 4 stands for the repeated sum 4 + 4 + 4 . Similarly. Then we learned that group counting in groups of 10 is helpful in understanding the notation used for numbers and provides a diﬀerent method for addition and subtraction (that uses place value) than straight counting. The Process of Division and its Notation: A basket contains..

2 × 9. We conclude form this that 3 × 4 = 4 × 3 a property of multiplication called the commutative property. Use any means to calculate: 9 × 9. where the objects in each of the three rows are displayed in three columns * * * * * * * * * * * * This tells us that the count of objects is the same in each display.2.2 Exercises 1.Thus actual counting conﬁrms the same. 8 × 9. This provides a good visual means for ﬁnding the number 3 × 4 or 4 × 3. Actual counting of objects in any of the displays shows that the count of objects in each display is 12. WORKSHEET 8: MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION 47 The same objects can also be displayed in the another form as below. 1 × 9. we may rearrange the objects in any of these displays in the form * * or the form * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * The ﬁrst display has one row of 10 objects and a row of 2 objects to give a count of 12.9. Visual means can also be used to ﬁnd the counts. The second display has one column of 10 objects and a column of 2 objects for a count of 12.9. 7 × 9. 4 × 9. For example. 5 × 9. Such rearrangement of objects in a display can be used to calculate the number represented by a product of two numbers. 6 × 9. 2. 0×9 . 3 × 9.

You repeatedly take out two almonds at a time (perhaps to distribute to people working in the ﬁelds). If the count of almonds in the bag is known you may repeatedly subtract the number 2 from the count of almonds in the bag until the result of repeated subtraction is 0 oe 1(the two numbers less than 2). CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS 2. That is when the process stops. The process of taking out and giving two almonds will stop when you are left with less than two almonds in the bag.48 CHAPTER 2. 7 × 5. Somebody may ask: ’How many times you took out two almonds from the bag. The answer ’10’ appears at the junction of the row containing the underlined ’2’ and the column containing the underlined ’5’. Imagine that you have a bag of almonds. To see that ’2 × 5 = 12’. as for example * * * * * * * * * . and how many almonds were left in the bag?’ You can answer this question if you were counting the number of ﬁeld workers who got two almonds each. we look at the underlined ’2’ in the left most column. The table that follows is called the multiplication table. You can continue to take out and give two almonds to a ﬁeld worker as long as there are two or more almonds left in the bag. say 9 by 2.. and the underlined ’5’ in the top row. Question: Why will the process stop? Answer: Becuse you can not take out two almonds now(the bag is left with less than two almonds).3 Visualizing Division and its Notation Division is repeated subtraction. This may be visualized as follows: Start with a line display of 9 objects. 2. MULTIPLICATION TABLE × 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 3 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 4 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 6 0 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 7 0 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 8 0 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 9 0 9 18 27 36 45 54 63 72 81 Use any means to verify entries in the multiplication table given above. It identiﬁes all the products like 3 × 5. etc. 0 × 0. Dividing.9. means ﬁnding the maximum number of times you can subtract 2 from 9 and to know what number is lefyt after subtraction process is complete.

The result may be written in one of two forms A. For example. Each entry showing the number of times 2 was subtracted. This can help reduce the number of steps in which the ﬁnal result is obtained.2. WORKSHEET 8: MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION 49 Now form groups of 2 objects each. The 4 at the bottom of the third column is the sum of the entries in the third column.9. This can be done by putting a vertical bar after every two successir eobjrcts. The repeated subtraction can be shown as 2 9 2 7 2 5 2 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 4 Step 1 2 3 4 The right column shows the number of times the number 2 has been subtracted in the marked step. 2 =4+ 1 2 C. The 1 at the bottom of the second column is the remainder after the fourth step. the result may be obtained in two steps as shown below 2 9 4 5 4 1 2 2 4 Step 1 2 or even in one step as shown below 2 9 8 1 4 4 Step 1 . 9 − 4 × 2 = 1 D. At each step we may subtract 2 any number of times as long as subtracation can be carried over. starting from the right or left as shown below * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Each display shows that you can subtract 2 from 9 four times and will be left with one object. 9 ÷ 2 = 4 with remainder 1 9 B. 9 = 4 × 2 + 1.

. 12 = 3 × 4. 15 3 = . or equivalently. Is 51 ÷ 1 = 51 true? Explain your answer.. 21 ÷ 3 10 ÷ 3.. What is 12 ÷ 3 = . 2. the divisor is a factor of the given number... Note that the remainder is 0 in 12 ÷ 3.50 CHAPTER 2. 19 ÷ 3. 7 25 21 4 3 3 Step 1 The calculation shows that 25 ÷ 7 = 3 with remainder 4.. repeated subtraction shows that for any division problem the remainder is always less than the number with which we divide. Thus we write 12 ÷ 3 = 4. 2.4 Exercises 1. Thus since... 10 ÷ 5 3.. In such cases we symply express the result of division without specifying the remainder. 5..5 Products and Factors The process of division. Then answer the questions . 1. 3.9. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS The next example shows the division of 25 by 7. One can easily see from the deﬁnition of a product that division by a factor has remainder 0.. and 12 ÷ 4 = 3. 36 ÷ 18 = .. 12 = 3 × 4... Verify that 36 = 6×6 = 4×9 = 2×18 = 1×36. What is 12 ÷ 4 = .9. for example.?. Verify that 17 × 3 = 51. In fact.. 10 ÷ 4.e. Calculate 10 ÷ 2..?.e. the numbers 3 and 4 are factors of the number 12. It calculates 25 ÷ 7. i. 36 9 = .9. 51 ÷ 17 = 3. Explain why? 2.. 2.? 4... 15 are factors of the number 15. We also write 12 3 = 4 and 12 = 3. Find 17 ÷ 3. 4.. 3 or 4.. the numbers in the product are called factors of the given number. where 12 is divided by one of its factors. as well as in 12 ÷ 4... 20 ÷ 3.?.? . Explain why the expression 3 ÷ 0 has no meaning. Then answer: 36÷6 = ..?... In fact this is always the case in any division by a factor. It is therefore customary to say that a number is divisible by another number.. 18 ÷ 3... Which numbers among 2... i. Whenever a number can be written as a product of two numbers. It is sometimes 0. whenever the remainder in division is the number 0.6 Exercises 1. 4 2...?.

. etc. 4. milk.10. One may indeed designate any length as a unit length and make a scale or ruler that uses the chosen length as a unit of measure.2. 4. Similarly. 3.10. etc. . Then there are liquid measures. A 6 inch ruler 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 A 10 centimeter ruler 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Note that the ﬁrst one inch segment in the inch ruler is between the points marked with the numbers 0 and 1. Then one choses other points on the line and marks them with the successive numbers 2. For this one starts with a line and choses two points marked with the numbers 0 and 1. Measuring is done using a scale. The scheme of chosing a point and marking (or labeling) it with a number yields a unique point for each number and is described later.10 Worksheet 10. The Number Line: Shown below are a six inch ruler and a ten centimeter ruler. . 1.. appears as follows and we call it a number line: The Number Line 0 1 2 3 . Measurements Besides counting. 2. . MEASUREMENTS 51 2. In the centemeter ruler the ﬁrst one centemeter segment is shown divided unto ten equal parts and the remaining one centemeter segments are shown divided into two equal parts. The length of this ﬁrst one inch segment is one inch. 5. 2. 3. which tell us how much space is taken by a liquid like water. the ﬁrst one centemeter segment in the centemeter ruler is between the points marked 0 and 1. We measure lengths or distances using a measuring tape. In the inch ruler the ﬁrst one inch segment is shown divided into eight equal parts. There are measures of areas and volumes. Inches and centimeters are only two of the commonly used units of measure. To measure heaviness of an object we use weights. . The segment between 0 and 1 is assigned the measure 1 unit and is called the chosen unit segment. the other major activity that helps explore the world around us is that of measuring. WORKSHEET 10. Its length is one centemeter. .1 The measuring scale or Ruler. The common feature of all types of measures is that they are stated by assigning a number and a unit of measure. The line marked with the successive numbers 0.

that is has length one unit. Thus the length of the segment P Q. . the symbol |AB | is used to express the length of the segment AB and we also write |AB | = |AC | + |CB |. To measure a segment P Q as shown below P Q one alligns the end point P with 0 on the ruler and reads the mark on the ruler with which Q gets alligned. 5.. and the segment between 1 and 2 equals (has legth equal to) the segment between 0 and 1. . the segment AB is called the sum of the segments AC and BC . After this choice the point marked 2 is chosen so that 1 is between 2 and 0. are chosen. SUBTRACTION: In the same picture as above. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS The choice of points marked 0 and 1 is arbitrary.52 CHAPTER 2. 4.2 Principles of measurements of lengths 1. as measured earlier is written |P Q| = 3 cm. the segment AC is seen as being obtained by removing (subtracting) the segment CB from the segment |AB . Thus the segment has length of 3 centimeters as seen from the picture below: Measuring with a 10 centimeter ruler P 0 1 2 Q 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2. The segment between the points 0 and 1 is called the chosen unit segment.10. . to ensure that each is brtween its successor and predecessor. Moreover. thereafter. 2. ADDITION: Consider the picture of a segment AB and a point C between A and B as shown below: A C B Here. This reading gives length of the segment as a number of the units (inches or centimeters). The remaining points 3. Addition and Subtraction of segments. We also write |AC | = |AB | − |CB |. This segment is the chosen unit of maeasure (like the inch or the centemeter). and the seqment between the point and its predesessor equals the segment between 0 and 1. . and we write AB = AC + BC . and we write AC = AB − CB .

... RQ in the picture below in centimeters. cms....... How many one inch segments are there in a six inch ruler? Answer:....1 Examples and Exercises First consider the example of a rectangle with adjecent sides of length 2 cm and 3 cm as shown below: . Area Measure To measure an area we ﬁrst establish a unit area. P R... − .. Answer:...10.... Measure the lengths of the segments P Q.... (c) |P Q| − |RQ| = . + .. + . ..... 2..... For this the accepted unit area is the area of a square whose sides are all of one unit length like the one below with side length equal to 1 cm: 1 cm2 area 2. = .. |P R| = .10. . − . Now measure it in inches. = .. WORKSHEET 11....... ..11.. (b) |P R| + |RQ| = . Answer: ... |RQ| = . (d) |RQ| + |P R| = .. cms.... AREA MEASURE 53 2.. Measeure (ﬁnd length of) the segment AB below in centimeters..cms.11.cms. What is the length of the segment P Q in the picture in section 2.cms..2. ....... = .. P R Q Answer the following questions. 2... How many one centemeter segments are there in a ten centemeter ruler? Answer:.. = .cms...3 Exercises: 1.. .. 4. (a) |P Q| = . 3..2... . A B 5.. (e) |P Q| − |RQ| = ...11 Worksheet 11..

cm2 .54 CHAPTER 2. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS Rectangle with sides 2 cm and 3 cm This rectangle can be divided into 6 unit squares (the unit being the centimeter square). . 1. A B C Answer: Area of square A = 4 cm2 . divide into unit squares and ﬁnd their areas.. .. Area of square C = . This is shown below: Rectangle divided into six unit squares 2 1 0 1 2 3 By counting the number of unit squares into which the rectangle is divided we see that the area of this rextangle is 6 square centimeters which is written as 6 cm2 . 2. divide into unit squares and ﬁnd their areas.... Measure the sides of the three rectangles.. Measure the sides of the three squares below in centimeters. Area of square B = 9 ..

... . Area of rectangle B = .. WORKSHEET 12. ...... .. This is the case with all types of measures. Area within curve C = . . Area of rectangle C = .12 Worksheet 12.. . What is the length of each of the pieces? You can see intuitively that none of the numbers 1.. . Measure the sides of each of the simple closed curves. FRACTIONS AND FRACTIONAL MEASURES 55 A B C Answer: Area of rectangle A = .. and numbers that are called fractions.2.. Fractions and fractional measures In measuring parts of a whole we frequently use numbers that are called FRACTIONS...12... or energy.. 1. 3. Cut a one meter length of string in two pieces..... or area. 2. A B C Answer: Area enclosed by curve A = 6 cm2 . .. Consider some examples... . 2. We consider some cases to learn how fractional measures. More generally. .. whether of length. .. 3.. Area enclosed by curve B = . divide into unit squares and ﬁnd the enclosed areas. or power. or volume.. ... or weight. .. in fact anything measurable... .. arise in practice. can be used to represent the length of each piece.

. In other words we need new numbers to represent such lengths. . 2. we have |AB | = |AC | + |CB | and |AC | = |AB | − |CB | (see 2. So that if for example. . . . where m and n represent counting numbers of our choice is called a fraction. This is done in the three pictures below: 1 6 1 5 2 6 1 4 2 5 3 6 1 3 2 4 3 5 4 6 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 1 1 1 1 1 OBSERVE: The black area in each square is 1 4 unit squares. . four. three. Consider any segment and label its end points as A and B . . and six equal parts. 0 0 0 0 0 Here the numbers 1 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 . . We may indeed divide a given segment into any number of equal parts. . 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 are fractions which identify the dividing points on each segment. . . . In general any number written in the form m n . 3. . ﬁve. The next ﬁve pictures below show a unit segment (end points 0 and 1) divided into two. respectively.2).10. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS 2.56 CHAPTER 2. To see how fractions are used to indicate parts of areas. can be used to represent the lengths |AC | and |CB |. . . . 3. consider dividing a unit square into four equal parts. Any point C on this segment divides the segment AB in to two segments AC and CB as shown below: A C B Here indeed by the accepted rules for addition of lengths. 4. . |AB | = 1 unit. then none of the numbers 1.

a volume into two equal volumes. The unit square on the right these four squares has area 4 is divided into four equal triangles. surfaces. an area into two equal areas. Each of these four equal triangles has area 1 4 unit squares. D next to the dots: C D A B . lines. and space. The idea of a point is represented by a dot. GEOMETRY 57 Here the unit square on the left is divided into four equal squares.1 How are fractions used to represent parts of a whole Whenever we divide something into two equal parts.12. on a given curve or line or surface. They are thus abstractions of the perception left in our brain from certain physical examples or observations. Each of 1 unit squares. 2. For example we have named below four points represented by four dots using letters A. In the map of a country the location of cities is indicated by dots on the map. Thus curves. These are intuitively understood from physical obsvations. planes.13 Geometry The basic items in geometry are points. Points are represented by dots and named using capital letters. lines. Some observations that help in the intuitive understanding are given below. 2 2 2.1 POINTS: On a clear night the stars on the background of the sky are perceived as so many shiny dots. B . These are not deﬁned (in spite of many books containing their so called deﬁnitions). 2..13. we simply say that each part is 2 original. Indeed points cannot be seen (though we tend to forget this).2. curves. and space are collections of points. surfaces. a legth into two equal lengths.13. planes.e. When the unit segment between 0 and 1 is divided into two equal parts. the dividing point marked by the fraction 1 2 is such that the segment between 0 and 1 1 equals the segment between and 1. Points represent location in space.. etc. i. a weight 1 (one half) of the into two equal weights. C .

or any smooth ﬂat surface like the ﬂoor or the wall of a room. No physical representation gives any reasonable idea of space. a path around a lake. The use of the word ‘most’ suggests that there may be exceptional points on a curve.13. the chalk board. because planes extend indeﬁnitely. the top of a table. though we think of space as the interior of the room we may be in. Each particle of air in the room representing a point in space. One must keep in mind that any physical object can only represent a part of a geometric plane. The following are examples of curves: Curves have the inportant property that while moving along the curve one can move through most points on the curve in one direction or its opposite direction.2 PLANES: The idea of a plane is obtained by observing the surface of a calm lake. Thus the drawing or sketch obtained by moving a pen (or pencil) on a piece of paper provides a representation of a physical curve.4 Curves and Paths A piece of string.3 SPACE: We think of space as a collection of all points. Table top and geometric plane 2. a river as seen from the window of a high ﬂying airplane. running track in a school playground. 2.58 CHAPTER 2. a rubber band. An end point of a curve is a point such that one can only move to the point or from the . The room is indeed limited by ﬂoor. all suggest the idea of a curve. ceiling and walls. whereas space has no such limitation. An air plane moving through space moves on a curve in space.13. A simple type of exceptional point is an end point. a path in a jungle.13. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS 2.

GEOMETRY 59 point but not through the point. 2. if the only exceptional points (if any) are end points.13. On a curve or path we shall indicate the direction of movement (when necessary) by means of an arrow. Thus the following ﬁgures show a curve with a direction of motion indicated by an arrow. Thus paths are simple open curves. Some more examples of simple open curves are A Line A B Segment with end points A and B A Ray with end point A A Angle with vertex A Angle with vertex A A . Here are some examples of curves with two end points (dots represent end points).2. there is only one way or path to move from A to B without retracing any part of the path or moving through any point of the path more than once. namely the crossings of streets.5 Simple open and Simple closed Curves An open curve is distinguished by the property that for any two points A and B on the curve.13. It is called simple. Thus a child going to school from home covers the path (home to school) in one direction and covers (or retraces) the same path (school to home) in the opposite direction. Here the path (home to school) is part of the curve that represents all roads in the neighborhood in which the home and school are located. We shall use the word ’path’ for a curve or part of a curve along which one may move from one point to another without reversing direction and passing each point of the path exactly once. A Path or a track is part of a curve with the property that one may move along the path from one point to another in one direction or in the opposite direction. A street map of a town or city showing all the streets is a general example of a curve that has many exceptional points. The totality of all streets being the curve.

60 CHAPTER 2.These properties may be thought of as intuitively clear.6 A characteristic property of lines and segments It is important to observe that for any two points A and B .13. Observe also that a line has no end points. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS A line. a ray. a segment. The following are some general examples of curves (exceptional points that are not end points are marked by a dot): A path is said to represent a simple closed curve if one can ‘travel’ (or walk) along the path and get back to the starting point without retracing any part of the path or going through any point on the path more than once. The most common examples of such paths are a path around a lake or the oval shaped running track in a school playground. They are accepted as true in School Geometry (also called Euclidean Geometry). In other words two given points determine a unique segment with the two given points as end points and also a unique line that contains the two points. Two other examples of simple open curves with end points A and B are: B B A A 2. All curves that are drawn on a chalk board or piece of paper are plane curves in the plane of the chalk board or the paper. The following are examples of simple closed corves: 2. there is exactly one segment with end points A and B .14 Plane Curves In School Geometry one mainly studies curves that lie in a plane. Moreover. although there may be many many si mple open curves (with or without end points) that contain the two points. and are part of a collection of accepted rules (also called axioms) of Euclidean Geometry. or an angle are basic common examples of simple open curves. but many many simple open curves with end points A and B . there is only one line that contains the two points. . This means that all points on the curve are in a ﬁxed plane.

PLANE CURVES 61 Most common examples that are studied are of simple closed curves in a plane.. Many are made of segments like the following 1. Each side of a triangle is a segment with two of the vertices as end points. This means that only one plane can contain a line and a point that is not on that line. A SQUARE: . Other noteworthy simple closed curves in a plane that are of great interest and importance are. a circle. identify all three sides and angles of this triangle. It has three sides and three angles. each of which is called a vertex of the triangle. This is so. as three points which are not on the same line determine a plane. Their shapes are shown below 2. and an ellipse. The triangle below has vertices A. As an exercise.e. Any two sides with a common vertex represent an angle of the triangle.2. a rectangle. and C as marked C Side with end points A and C A B The angle at vertex B is marked. i. Some other examples of triangles are Every triangle is necessarily a plane curve. TRIANGLES:Triangles are the most common and also perhaps most important examples of simple closed curves.14. The side marked is the segment with end points A and C . B . A triangle is formed by three points. A line and a point that is not on the line also determine a unique plane. only one plane can contain three points that are not on a line. a square.

A RECTANGLE: A Rectangle 5. A CIRCLE: A Circle 7. MORE CIRCLES: . MORE RECTANGLES: 6.62 CHAPTER 2. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS A Square 3. MORE SQUARES: 4.

14.1 Equality of Curves in a Plane: We call two planer curves as being the same or equal if the trace of one ﬁts exactly the other. MORE ELLIPSES: A deeper study of these forms and disinguishing them from other forms and shapes the concept of equality of segments and angles as well as the notion of a right angle is used (this does not require measurements of segments and angles). As examples consider a segment and an angle and their . AN ELLIPSE: An Ellipse 9. PLANE CURVES 63 8.14.2. if 2.

Three possible situations arise when we try to place and ﬁt the trace with three segments shown below with end points C and D.64 CHAPTER 2. If it does. . Trace of Angle Angle To assertain if two curves are equal (this means that one is an exact copy of the other). The traces are shown as a dashed segment and dashed angle. otherwise they are un-equal. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS traces shown below. In Case 1 and Case 3 the trace does not ﬁt the segment with end points C and D. A Segment Trace of segment A B B The picture below shows an angle and the trace of the same angle. In these two case. one makes a trace of one of the curves and then sees if the trace ﬁts the other curve exactly. then the two curves are equal (or same). The curve is visible through the thin paper placed over it and one draws an exact copy of the curve on the thin paper with a pen or pencil. As examples consider the segment with end points A and B shown above and its trace. Case 1 C Segment Trace of segment A Case 2 C Segment Trace of segment A Case 3 C Segment Trace of segment A D B D B D B Only in Case 2 the trace of segment with end points A and B ﬁts exactly the segment with end points C and D. the two segments are not equal. In this case the two segments are equal. The traces are drawn on a thin (or tracing) paper placed over the curve.

A BRICK or Rectangular Parallelopiped A Brick 4.2. A Cube A Cube 3.15 Shapes of some surfaces and solids 1.15. A RIGHT CIRCULAR CYLINDER A Cylinder 5. A Sphere: A Ball or Sphere 2. A RIGHT CIRCULAR CONE . SHAPES OF SOME SURFACES AND SOLIDS 65 2.

A PYRAMID A Pyramid 7. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS A Cone 6. A PRISM A PRISM .66 CHAPTER 2.

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