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Dayalbagh Elementary School Math Teachers guided by Nam P. Bhatia Department of Mathematics University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC) Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. Visiting Teacher, Day Boarding School Dayalbagh, Agra, India March 1, 2013

2

Acknowledgment

The author is most grateful and most humbly acknowledges the motivation, encouragement and advice provided by Professor Prem Saran Satsangi Sahab, the chairman of the Education Advisory Committee, Dayalbagh. It was at his urging during my visit to Dayalbagh in the summer of the year 2004 that I got associated with the Day Boarding School in Dayalbagh. His remark that our students lack proper understanding of the fundamentals (or foundations) of mathematics has since motivated my association and work at the Day Boarding School. The Day Boarding School in Dayalbagh caters to students in grades VIXII. My initial work, naturally therefore, concentrated on the development of foundational materials and workshops on the foundations of school mathematics suitable for these levels. The notes prepared by me for the ongoing summer mathematics workshops at the Day Boarding School were published by the Dayalbagh Educational Institute (deemed university) in 2010 in book form with the title ”Foundations of School Mathematics”. This book has three chapters, namely, 1. Sets and Counting, 2. Geometry and Measurement, and 3. The Real Numbers and the Number Line. This book provides the basis for the ongoing mathematics workshops for grades VI-XII. Further ongoing work for Grades VIXII is motivated by the exhortation of Professor Prem Saran Satsangi Sahab made on the report of the workshops submitted on July 3, 2007: “I hope the participating math-teachers would produce small text books that focus on the most powerful and generative ideas with emphasis on concepts and fundamentals presented in a careful sequence, as opposed to bulky text books cramped with forgettable details”. During these summer workshops, it became clear that the incoming students in grade VI were not ready for the foundational material as exposed in the above noted book and summer workshops. Moreover, the medium of instruction in our schools being Hindi made it diﬃcult for the students to comprehend the material, particularly at grade levels VI-IX. Though progress has been and is being made with the help of some Hindi translations, but it is slow. Furthermore, we realize that most current text books cater to the syllabi but do not provide the insights and understanding of the foundations which the great teachers, mathematicians, and successful practitioners of mathematics use to do their i

Follow up primary school math teachers meetings brought about the proposal that WORKSHEETS for each of the grades I-V be prepared in Hindi for use in elementary school math teaching. the books being used at present were critically examined on methodology and content. This workshop focused on teacher presentations of the methodology and content of mathematics. We only know that successful practice of any art or science requires and is based on a deep intuitive understanding of the foundations. 2012. N. Notes prepared for this purpose titled ”Number Systems and Arithmetic” were ﬁrst used in summer workshops in 2011. 2013. So a proposal was made to conduct workshops for elementary school teachers where the elementary school math material is covered with foundations. The notes prepared for grade VI with the title ”Number Systems and Arithmetic” provided the material for these workshops. . Encouragement and support of the REI Managing Committee in the above eﬀorts is gratefully acknowledged. It soon became apparent that curriculum changes at the elementary school level will be more eﬀective.P. Such an understanding of the fundamentals of mathematics is crucial in applications and for problem solving skills. Most of the existing textbooks commonly used in our schools and colleges are of little or no help in this. Attempts were made to develop material for the grade VI students attending the summer workshops to cover the elementary school mathematics material with insights in the foundations. Finally. 2012. Teacher meetings were arranged(this included the Day Boarding School Math teachers and the elementary school math teachers) to exchange ideas as to how the content of these notes may be used in classroom activity.ii ACKNOWLEDGMENT work. This is acquired through contact with teachers and through self eﬀort and reﬂection on the subject. These workshops were carried out at the Distance Education Center during February 6-11.August 2. Bhatia February 15. Another Dayalbagh Primary School Mathematics Teachers Workshop was arranged in the period July 25.

the basic activity by which we keep track of our possessions and advance our perception of the universe we all live in or are conscious of during our wakeful condition. division but to develop an intuitive understanding of the number systems and the operations within those number systems that provide the language for expressing the results of counting and measuring. before joining an elementary school.P. Here the number ‘one’ is the count of any collection of objects that contains a single object. subtraction. seven. We use visualization extensively to bring out the key properties of arithmetic operations which are usually neglected in current texts. 2013. multiplication and division on them through their use in counting and measuring. These worksheets are designed to help students in elementary schools not only to acquire the necessary skills in carrying out eﬃciently the operations of addition. multiplication. The main goal of Primary School Mathematics education is to bring home to the students effectively the meaning of these numbers and the basic operations of addition. get their ﬁrst lesson in counting from the mother. The worksheets are not a replacement of prescribed texts and do not change the syllabi for these grades. or a tree. Measuring involves geometric shapes and their size. and ten’. subtraction. eight. iii . four. three. Most children. The current texts use visualization for this purpose but they do not bring out even the meaning of the notation in use. nine. The number ‘ten’ is the count of the ﬁngers on both hands. The activity of counting and measuring is carried out primarily through the use of numbers called ’the natural numbers’ and ’the fractions’. N. Visualizations is recognized as the most eﬀective means to develop and teach the number systems and the arithmetic operations on them. This lesson essentially begins when the mother makes the child learn the number ‘one’ associated with a single object. or any other single object or item imaginable. an apple. and ends with the learning of the ﬁrst ten counting numbers ‘one. This issue of the worksheets is for grade I. ﬁve.Preface Mathematics education in Elementary Schools mainly deals with counting and measuring. Bhatia February 15. be it a ball.V. It will be followed by worksheets for grades II . two. six.

iv PREFACE .

. . . . .3 Worksheet 3: Straight Counting. . . i iii 1 twelve counting . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . The ﬁrst numbers . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . counting . . . . 1. 1.2 Exercises . . . . . . 2. . .5. . .1 Exercises . . . . . . . . . .2 Worksheet 2: Line displays and position number . .2. . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . .4 Exercises . . . 1. . . . . . .1 Addition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Subtraction . . . .1 Forming and counting pairs . .2 Exercises . . . . 1. . . . . . . . .1 Exercises . . . . .5. . . . . . . . v . . . . . . . .1. . .Contents Acknowledgment Preface 1 Class 1 Worksheets 1. . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Examples and Exercises: . . . . . . . .5 Addition and Subtraction . . . . . . . . . .5 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 The succession of numbers . . . . . . . . . . .5. . .4 Worksheet 4: The ﬁrst twenty ﬁve numbers and 1. . . . . etc . . .3. . 1. . . . . . . 1. . . . .1. . . 1. . . . . . . . . .1. . . . 1. . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Exercises . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . 1. .4. . . . .1. . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Worksheet 3: Counting pairs and triples. . . . . . . 1. 1. 1. . 1. . . .1 Finding the count of a given collection . . . .3. .1 Examples of Straight Counting . . . . . . .2 Worksheet 2: Counting . . .2 Forming and counting triples . . .5. 1. . . .2 Line displays for counting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The count of a collection. . . . . . 1 1 2 3 3 3 4 5 6 8 8 9 10 10 13 13 15 15 16 17 17 18 19 20 21 22 24 2 Class 2 Worksheets 2. . . . . . . . .1 Worksheet 1: The succession of counting numbers . . . . . .3. .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Worksheet 1: Getting ready to count. . . . . . .

. Worksheet 5: Using Straight Counting to Add or Subtract . . . . . . . . Worksheet 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 PLANES: . . 2. . . . . .11. . . 2. . . .6. . . . . . . = . .1 Using the symbols ’=’. . . . Measurements .7. . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Worksheet 5: The Order among numbers: Meaning of <. .1 Visualizing Multiplication and its Properties: . . .1 POINTS: . . . . . . Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . .6. .4 Addition Exercises . . . . >. . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . .1 Adding or Subtracting 1 . . The Number Line: . . .7. . . . . . . . .8 Exercises .9 2. . Fractions and fractional measures .9 Adding more than two numbers . . 2. . . . . . . .1 How are fractions used to represent parts of a whole .2 Principles of measurements of lengths . . .6. . . . . . . Worksheet 6: Counting in Groups and The Place Value Notation 2. . . . . . .10. . .6 exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . .9. . . . ’>’. . . . . . . . .5 Products and Factors . . . . . . . . . .4 2. . . . . . 2. . . .10 Exercises . . . . . .8 2. . . . . . . 2. . . 2. 2. 2. . . . . . . . . 2. .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . 2. . 2. 2. . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. and ’<’ . . . . . . . . . 2.5 Subtraction using place value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13. . . .5. . .6 Exercises . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . .2 Place value for two digit numbers . . . . . . . .vi 2. 2. . . .1 Exercises: . .13 24 25 25 28 29 30 30 31 32 33 33 34 34 34 35 35 36 37 37 38 38 39 39 40 40 42 42 45 46 47 48 50 50 50 51 51 52 53 53 53 55 57 57 57 58 . . . . 2. . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. .7. . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Examples and Exercises .4 Exercises . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Worksheet 7: Selling Almonds . 2. . . .3 Adding two digit numbers using place value . .11 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Worksheet 4: Addition and Subtraction . 2. .2 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Addition Exercises: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The order among Whole Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. 2.7 Place values in three digit numbers . . . .5 2.4. . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . .13. . .5 Subtraction Exercises. . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . Worksheet 11. . . . . . . . . . .3 Exercises: . 2. . . . . 2.10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . .7 2. . .2 Adding any number . . . .7. .9. . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 2. . .3 Visualizing Division and its Notation . . . 2. . .9. Area Measure . . . .7. . . . . .7. . . Worksheet 8: Multiplication and Division .1 The measuring scale or Ruler. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. .3 CONTENTS A Most Important Observation about counting and the Count of a Collection .3 Exercises . . . . . . . . . .12. . . . . . . .4 Subtracting any number . . Worksheet 12. . .12 2. . .1 The concept of an empty collection and its count .3. . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Exercises . . . .10 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . .5. . . . .

2. . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . .5 Simple open and Simple closed Curves . . . .15 Shapes of some surfaces and solids . . . vii 58 58 59 60 60 63 65 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 A characteristic property of lines and segments 2. . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . .13. . .13. .3 SPACE: . . . . . .13. . . . . 2. .14 Plane Curves . . . . . . .14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Curves and Paths . .CONTENTS 2. .1 Equality of Curves in a Plane: . . . 2. . . . . . . . .

viii CONTENTS .

. 3. The count of the English alphabet is twenty six or the number 26.1 Exercises 1. Using numerals the number ten is written as 10..e. written in words. The ﬁrst ﬁve counting numbers in words and numerals are Just as English words are written using the English alphabet A. 9. and ’123’ is a number. 10 is a two digit number as it uses the numerals 1 and 0. The ﬁrst twelve counting numbers One 1 two 2 three 3 four 4 ﬁve 5 B. The numbers 11 and 12 are also two digit numbers. i. 1. C. 5. 8.. 6. 4. . numbers are written using the numerals 0. whereas the number ten. The ﬁrst twelve counting numbers. Thus ’BOOT’ is an English word.1 Worksheet 1: Getting ready to count.. 1.1. and their corresponding number forms are: one 1 two 2 three 3 four 4 ﬁve 5 six 6 seven 7 eight 8 nine 9 ten 10 eleven 11 twelve 12 Note that the ﬁrst nine numbers are single digit numbers. .Chapter 1 Class 1 Worksheets 1. 1 . while there are ten numerals which have the same count ten as the number of ﬁngers on both hands of a person. Complete the succession of the ﬁrst ten counting numbers in the following table by providing the missing word and or the missing number form. 2. 7.

N. Another line display of the objects in the same collection is P A Q S R C B This shows that there are many many possible line displays of the objects in a given collection.. A correct line display contains each object in the collection exactly once. .. 6 .. Complete the succession of the ﬁrst twelve counting numbers in the following table one . numbers are line displays of numerals.....2 Line displays for counting The exhibit below is a collection of some of the English alphabets.. P A Q S B C R It is sometimes convenient to display the objects (here some English alphabets) in a given collection along a line. eight 8 ...1.. Similarly.. 12 1.. ........ A display of objects along a line (here English alphabets) in the above picture is: A P Q R S B C Such a display of objects in a collection is called a line display.. ... eight 8 . . .. 2 three . 9 ten 10 eleven . For example DADA is a word... But the line display N A M or the line display N A A A M is not a correct line display. CLASS 1 WORKSHEETS four 4 ﬁve . 9 ten 10 2. 2 three . CHAPTER 1. 6 .. A. four 4 ﬁve . whereas 1212 is a number... Can you see why? English words are formed using line displays of some of the English alphabet.2 one 1 ..... . . M . Thus N A A M and M A A N are correct line displays of the collection containing the English letters A..

WORKSHEET 1: GETTING READY TO COUNT. Answer: 12 and 21. 11. 5 is the ﬁrst numeral. 6. . The word DDA is not a very familiar word. Write all the numbers using each of the numerals 1. 4. 6 the second numeral.5 Exercises 1. 1. DAD. Write all words using the letters in the word M AD. Write all the numbers where each of the numerals 1 and 2 is used exactly once. 7. 4. 5. The number 12 is called ’twelve’. Here ADD and DAD are familiar words. 2 the second counting number.1. 1. 3.1. and DDA. A P Q R S B C . 8. and so on. 10 the tenth. exactly once. where each numeral is used exactly once.1. THE FIRST TWELVE COUNTING NUMBERS3 1. and 7 the third numeral. Each line display is an English word. but it is a word. Thus 9 is the ninth. etc.1. A D D Answer: The various line displays are: ADD. And in a number like 567. 10. 2. In a given line display of objects like that of the English alphabet below A P Q R S B C we say that A is the ﬁrst alphabet in the display.4 The succession of numbers In the succession of the counting numbers 1. Exhibit the alphabet in the picture below in all possible line displays. and 12 the twelve th counting number. 2. 1. Write all numbers using each of the numerals 5. Identify the third and seventh alphabet in the line display below. 5.1. 2. 12 the number 1 is called the ﬁrst counting number.3 Exercises 1. 6. 3. 11 the eleventh. The number 21 is called ’twenty one’. 2. 9. S is the ﬁfth alphabet in the display. Write all numbers that can be obtained by a line display of the numbers 1. 2. 7. 3.

and ﬁfth curves in the display above of special curves. 2. The ﬁrst curve in the display is called a circle. 6. is paired with 1. 3. 3. 4. and eighth numeral in the number 75757575. second. For example the count of the collection of special curves line displayed below is 5. The number assigned is called the count of the collection. CLASS 1 WORKSHEETS 2. 12.. the fourth an ellipse. 7. 11. Identify and display the ﬁrst. Question: Draw and name the fourth curve in the above line display of curves. as well as that of the collection of the alphabet. and the ﬁfth a rhombus. What are their names? 1. The assigning of a unique number to a given collection is done by pairing objects in the given collection with the successive numbers 1. the third a triangle. 9.2 Worksheet 2: Counting Counting means assigning a unique number to a given collection. and 5 shows the pairing as pointed out by the in-between up-down arrows. 2. 4. Thus the letter A is paired with the ﬁrst number 1 and so also the ﬁrst curve (the circle) above. The last number 5 in the pairing gives the count of the collection of curves. The objects in the line display below are very special curves.4 CHAPTER 1. 3. 5. Answer: It is an ellipse. The next line display of successive numbers 1. etc. third. and 5 is also the count of the alphabet in the next line display. . 4. 8. 10. the second is called a square. Identify the third. seventh.

the successive numbers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 have been used. for the collection.2. The pairing begins with the ﬁrst counting number 1 and ends with the number 7. or tagged) with the successive counting numbers shown in the bracket after the alphabet. The number 7 being the last number with which the last object is paired. is the count of the collection.2.1 Finding the count of a given collection It is not necessary to line display the objects in a collection for pairing with successive numbers. namely 7. WORKSHEET 2: COUNTING 5 A P Q R S 1 2 3 4 5 1. and each object (here alphabet) is paired with a diﬀerent number than that of the other.e.1.. This may be done in any suitable way. Note further that the above collection of alphabets can be line displayed and counted in ﬁve . One should note that any line display of the objects gives a pairing with counting numbers as described above and any such pairing gives the same count for the given collection. In the display below of objects (here some English alphabets) each object (i. The pairing could be displayed in line display format as follows P (1) A(2) Q(3) S (4) B (5) C (6) R(7) A diﬀerent pairing as given below in line display format is A(1) P (2) Q(3) R(4) S (5) B (6) C (7) It gives the same count. P (1) A(2) Q(3) S (4) B (5) C (6) R((7) In this pairing. alphabet) is paired (identiﬁed. In the example above the count is 7. labeled.

6 CHAPTER 1. However. You will learn such bigger numbers later. Count the alphabets in the word B 2.2 Exercises O O T. Here the count of the collection of alphabets is 4. The count of all possible displays is twelve. 12.2. i. 1. remember that the count of the alphabets displayed above is the number seven written 7 but the line displays are many. Count the triangles in the line display . Count the curves in the line display 4. 1. 3. i. Exhibit all possible line displays of the alphabets in the word B O O T . What is the count of the alphabets in each display? How many displays are there? Answer: The possible line displays are display 1: display 2: display 3: display 4: display 5: display 6: display 7: display 8: display 9: display 10: display 11: display 12: B B B T T T O O O O O O O O T O O B B O T T O B O T O O B O O T B O B T T O O B O O T B O B T O In each display the count of alphabets is Four.e. but the count of the collection of all possible displays is 12. CLASS 1 WORKSHEETS thousand eighty two diﬀerent ways and each will give the same count 7 for the collection. This count of possible line displays is a big number which is written as 5082. and the count of all possible line displays is a very large number.e. the number 4.

Count the alphabets used in the word BISCU IT . How many apples from the basket are not displayed? Display the remaining apples from the basket (use one A for each remaining apple) on the dotted line. There are ten apples in a basket. The display of the six apples ends with a vertical bar | followed by a dotted line. In the picture below six of the apples in the basket are line displayed where each letter A represents an apple. How many A’s are in the name D A Y A L B A G H 10. . Count the numbers in the display 5 4 1 2 8 3 9 6 7 10 7 6. 9.1. Count the dots in the display 8. WORKSHEET 2: COUNTING 5. How many letters are there in the word DISP LAY M AT H ? 11. Count the dots in the display 7.2.

. 12.. given a bag of almonds. A B A B A B A B A B A B A B What is the count of each collection? Write the answer as a word and as a number. CLASS 1 WORKSHEETS A A A A A A |... we can say that there are four pairs of dots and one unpaired dot in a collection of nine dots. Then remove another two from the bag to give them to another person. Word Answer: . then after the ﬁrst removal of two almonds we will be left with only one almond in the bag and no other person can get two almonds from the bag..1 Worksheet 3: Counting pairs and triples..3. If we keep removing two almonds at a time then how many persons may get two almonds each from the bag.. Clearly..8 CHAPTER 1..... etc Forming and counting pairs Any two items in a collection form a pair.... For example the collection of A’s and the collection of B ’s that are line displayed below have the same count. . where each pair picked is boxed.... 1.. For example if there were three almonds in the bag to start with... . 1. Note that there are four pairs of big dots in the collection of nine big dots and one big dots remains without pairing. It is important to realize that diﬀerent collections can have the same count. it is convenient to line display the items as shown below for the case of the nine big dots (line displayed below): The picture below shows the grouping in pairs (two big dots in each group). So.... To see the answer for a given collection. we may remove two almonds from the bag and give it to somebody or put them aside.. For example.3 1.. How many Bananas are line displayed in the picture below: .. Display six big dots in a line display. Number Answer: . How many pairs of big dots can be formed? Is there an unpaired dot left? 2.. the answer depends on how many almonds were in the bag to start with.

. How many pairs of coins you have? 3. 1. In the above examples the big dots represent objects. The following picture shows that one can form three triples out of a collection of nine big dots. You distribute three pistachios each to your friends. one may obtain triples of objects (i.3. You give three pistachios each to each of your friends. sticks. You have eleven pistachios in a bag. One may use and practice using any objects like balls.3. Hoe many friends get three pistachios? How many are left for you? 6.2 Forming and counting triples Just as one can form pairs of objects from a given collection. birds. You have ﬁve coins in your pocket. How many pairs of birds are there on the branch? Are any birds left without pairing? 2. You see twelve apples in a basket. toys. apples. WORKSHEET 3: COUNTING PAIRS AND TRIPLES.. There are four birds sitting on a branch of a tree. sub-collections each containing three objects) from a given collection. You have twelve pistachios in a bag. etc. ETC 9 How many pairs of Bananas can you form? How many are left without pairing? 3. how many will be left for you? . How many pairs of apples can be obtained from a collection of twelve apples? Are any apples left after all possible pairs are formed? 4. How many of your friends can get three almonds each? How many almonds you will have left? 5. You have ten almonds in a bag. How many pairs of apples can be obtained from a collection of eleven apples? Are any apples left after all possible pairs are formed? 1.1. How many pairs of apples are there? 4. How many of your friends get three pistachios each? What is left for you? If you give three pistachios each to three of your friends.e. The following picture shows that one can form three triples out of a collection of eleven big dots and two remain as not part of a triple.

twenty-two (22).e. Similarly.4. CLASS 1 WORKSHEETS Counting in groups of ten is the basis for the number notation. In the number symbol 12 for the number twelve. i. twenty-ﬁve (25). thirteen (13. This is depicted below in the line displays of twelve. Write the word form of each number below: . twenty (20)..10 CHAPTER 1. The spoken word as written is followed by its numeric version expressed in round brackets below: one (1). eleven and twelve. the symbol 11 for the number eleven. ﬁfteen (15).1 Exercises 1. besides the one group of ten. sixteen (16). nine (9) ten (10). twenty-three . The symbol 10 for the number ten. two single objects among the twelve objects. The numeral 2 on the right indicates that you have.. two (2).4 Worksheet 4: The ﬁrst twenty ﬁve numbers and counting The succession of natural numbers that one uses for counting continues indeﬁnitely. nineteen (19). six (6). zero) single objects. twenty-one (21).. fourteen (14). the numeral 1 on the left indicates that you have 1 group of ten. ﬁve (5). So let us practice counting by tens and relating it to the numbers ten. twelve (12)... If you have twelve objects. eleven. each number is followed by another without there being a last number.. twenty-three (23). seven (7). 2. eighteen (18). and ten objects below.. shows one group of ten and one single object. eighteen . ﬁfteen 15 seventeen . 1. three (3). four (4). eleven (11).e. Write the numerical form of each given number below: thirteen . eight (8).. 1. shows one group of ten and no (i. then you may form one group of ten and will be left with two objects. seventeen (17). Here we practice counting with the ﬁrst twenty ﬁve numbers. Note that the singles box on the right in the last display is empty and the 0 in the singles place on the right in the notation 10 represents no singles. twenty-four (24)...

.... 21 .. Display the numbers 1 to 10 in successive pairs by boxing successive pairs.......... WORKSHEET 4: THE FIRST TWENTY FIVE NUMBERS AND COUNTING11 .1....... 6 7...Count the successive pairs you have boxed! 10. 8 9..... 12 13. 10 Answer: The number count of successive pairs boxed is 5...... . 4 5......... Supply the missing successive numbers in the line display of the ﬁrst twenty ﬁve successive numbers: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 .. 6.. Count the number of alphabet in the line display below: A B C D E H J K L M N O P Q R T U Z Answer: Word: .. 22 ... Display the numbers 1 to 21 in successive pairs by boxing successive pairs of numbers........... Count the successive pairs you have boxed! 8.... 7.......... 2 3.. 9. ........... 8 9.... 6 7......... Leave any numbers that cannot be paired unboxed! Count the successive pairs you have boxed! What is the count of the unboxed numbers? 1........ 15 thirteen 13 .......4.... 24 3. 2 3.. Leave any numbers that cannot be paired unboxed! Count the successive pairs you have boxed! What is the count of the unboxed numbers? Answer:.. Display the numbers 1 to 20 in successive pairs by boxing successive pairs of numbers.... .... .. Number: . 20 4.....15 16 17 18 .......... 12 seven . Line display the numbers 1 to 24 in successive pairs by boxing successive two numbers.. 4 5. 12 ...... Count the successive pairs you have boxed! 1.. 10 11...24 . 14 15 Answer: The count of boxed pairs is 7......... .... Display the numbers 1 to 15 in successive pairs by boxing successive pairs of numbers.. There is one number left unboxed.. Write the missing word or numerical form of the numbers below: . ten . 5.....

The display below shows eight big dots...... There are . 13. How many big dots are there now? Answer: There are nine big dots now.... 18... .... unboxed numbers........ The display below shows six big dots........ Line display the successive numbers 1 to 25. . groups of ﬁve numbers. groups of four numbers. How many rupee coins you have now? Answer: . You have 17 almonds in a bag. Box successive groups of four numbers. Box successive groups of three numbers.. How many groups of four numbers are there? Are any numbers left unboxed? Answer: There are .... Two more birds ﬂy in to sit on the same wire besides the others.12 CHAPTER 1. How many groups of three numbers are there? Are any numbers left unboxed? Answer: There are . How many groups of ﬁve numbers are there? Are any numbers left unboxed? Answer: There are .. 15. Your Mom gives you two more. unboxed numbers. Three more big dots are added after the vertical bar as shown below. 16.. 14. There are . You have thirteen rupee coins.. Box successive groups of ﬁve numbers. How many almonds are there in the bag? Answer: ... unboxed numbers.. 12...... 17... .... groups of three numbers. How many birds are there now? Answer: .. ... There are . You put another ﬁve almonds in the same bag. Line display the numbers 1 to 25. CLASS 1 WORKSHEETS 11.. You see 7 birds sitting on an electric wire. Line display the numbers 1 to 25.

. Answer: ...... If you have thirteen chairs in the room and you remove one chair from the room. For example consider a collection of two dots and another of three dots.5. 20.. 3.... ... We also conclude from this that 2 + 3 = 3 + 2 as both the numbers 2 + 3 and 3 + 2 stand for the same number 5. You have 13 rupees. You see 6 birds sitting on a tree branch.. We put all these apples on a single tray to obtain ﬁve apples on a single tray... 23..... 21.. The symbol ’+’ signiﬁes ’addition’ and we read the statement as ’two plus three equals ﬁve’ or as ’three plus two equals ﬁve’. and 5 in this situation is expressed in the statement 2 + 3 = 5 or also as 3 + 2 = 5.. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION You box three of them as shown below 13 How many are left unboxed? Answer: Five are unboxed.... ... You have 23 almonds in a bag.. If you have thirteen chairs in a room and you bring in one more chair in the room.. . You deposit all in your Bank account....... The relationship between the three counts 2. The counts of the two separate collections and the count of the single collection obtained from them are related..1. Three ﬂy away.. 22. Answer: . . 1.. ... then how many chairs are left in the room? Answer: Word Form: . 19. Number Form:..5.1 Addition and Subtraction Addition Given two collections of objects we may put them together(combine them) and make a single collection.. We may line display them for counting as follows: . then how many chairs are there in the room altogether now? Answer: Word Form: . How many almonds are left in the bag? Answer: . How many rupees are left with you. We have learned that numbers represent counts of collections. You take out and eat ﬁve almonds from the bag.... How many are left on the tree branch.5 1. We therefore relate and understand the arithmetic through counting. For example we have two apples on one tray and three apples on a second tray. Number Form: . ....

we can mentally picture the process and come up with the count of the combined collection. etc. Thus for display and understanding we may identify the objects in a collection in any suitable convenient way. irrespective of their individual counts.. We emphasize that counts are numbers and the counts do not depend on the nature of objects in a collection. we learn that 2+3 = 3+2. This kind of line display identiﬁes the process of adding the three dot collection to the two dot collection. O and O O O O O O O O O When the counts are small numbers. This is then written as 2 + 3 = 5 for the ﬁrst display and as 3 + 2 = 5 for the second display. We read the ﬁrst statement as ’two plus three equals ﬁve’ and the second as ’three plus two equals ﬁve’. CLASS 1 WORKSHEETS or as The next picture shows that the two collections have been combined to obtain a single collection of ﬁve dots The ﬁrst line display contains two dots. The last display shows the collection obtained by adding the second collection to the ﬁrst.14 CHAPTER 1. Thus the following two pictures using the letter O instead of a dot represent the process of adding the number 3 to the number 2 to obtain the sum 2 + 3 = 5. This property is named as ’the commutative property’ as it is true for the counts of any two collections. In general this property is described symbolically by m + n = n + m. Now we straight count the combined collection in the last display and see that it has a count of ﬁve. The last statement expresses a property of addition. Since both counts when added result in the same number 5. where m and n identify the counts of the two collections and m + n as well as n + m the count of the combined collection depending on how the two collections are line displayed for counting. 3 + 7 = 7 + 3. 13 + 12 = 12 + 13. And then to its right we display the collection of three dots. That is why the two dot collection is displayed to the right of the three dot collection. It produces the same display in either case. The letter ’O’ may be used for any object. Symbolically it is written as 2 + 3. For example if we are counting almonds or apples we may use the letter A to identify each object. We may use our ﬁngers . Thus. The second display indicates the process of adding the two dot collection to the three dot collection.

. Line displays help in understanding the process and in counting. 21 + 3 = ... ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION 15 or parts of ﬁngers to aid in the addition process. Mentally calculate 21 + 1 = . 6..2 Exercises 1.. The symbol ’−’ identiﬁes subtraction (or removal)..5. for example 3 − 3 = 0 for the case of a collection having count 3. The line display for a collection of seven objects will appear as . 21 + 4 = ....1...... The relationship between these three numbers is expressed in the form 7 − 2 = 5.. 1. Pictorially show that 12 + 1 = 13. For large numbers..3 Subtraction Given a collection of objects we may remove some objects from the collection....... But the underlying process remains straight counting. It should be kept in mind that when we remove all objects from a given collection we will be left with no remaining objects. The basic underlying process is straight counting as described in section 1.... that means that the remaining collection has no objects in it or the remaining collection is empty.. the process becomes cumbersome and we use the place value system.. however. We read the statement 7 − 2 = 5 as ’Seven minus two is ﬁve’ or as ’seven take away two is ﬁve’. 4.5.. 13 + 10 = ... The count of the apples that were eaten is 2 and the count of the remaining apples is 5. The second display has the two dots replaced by circles showing the two apples that were eaten and the ﬁve dots that are left. 5..... 1. Find 13 + 12 = . 2 + 15 = . When the counting process is clear. Note that the count of the apples in the beginning was 7.....5. Mentally ﬁnd 1 + 15 = . 3.. Calculate 15 + 6 = . For example we have seven apples and we eat two of them so that we are left with only ﬁve apples... We may picture this as follows: Here the ﬁrst line display has seven dots showing the seven apples we had originally... the line displays are no more resorted in counting.. Pictorially show that 3 + 1 = 1 + 3 = 4.. 4 + 15 = . 21 + 2 = ......... The numeral 0 is used to express the count of an empty collection. 15 + 9 = . 3 + 15 = . The subtraction in this case takes the form.. Addition and subtraction are done using straight counting. 2..2 on counting... 15 + 7 = .

17 − 10 = ............ ...5.. 24 − 24 = .. 10 − 6 = ...... 1.. (c) 21 − 1 = ........ 10 − 3 = . (b) 13 − 5 = ..... 9 − 5 = ...... 4 − 2 = .... (c) 20 − 13 = .....4 Exercises 1. 15 − 3 = . Find the answer by mentally picturing line display of objects or using your ﬁngers.... CLASS 1 WORKSHEETS Here the empty box on the left shows that no dots are left and the box on the right shows the seven dots that have been removed by picturing them as circles... 7 − 3 = ........ 3 − 3 = .. 22 − 3 = . 3.................. (b) 12 − 2 = .... 12 − 12 = .. (a) 5 − 2 = . 16 − 6 = .. 2... Find the answer using line displays as above: (a) 3 − 1 = .....16 CHAPTER 1....

without end. etc. 6(six).1 Worksheet 1: The succession of counting numbers The succession of counting numbers begins with the number 1 (one) and is followed by the successive numbers 2 (two). It is not possible to write all the numbers.Chapter 2 Class 2 Worksheets 2. 17 . 5 (ﬁve. . but we will learn to write the number that follows any given number. are the alphabet used for English words. 7(seven). You have learned the numbers up to the number 100 (one hundred). 8(eight). 9(nine) These numerals are the alphabet of the numbers just as the English letters a. The succession of the ﬁrst hundred counting numbers is given below: 1 11 21 31 41 51 61 71 81 91 2 12 22 32 42 52 62 72 82 92 3 13 23 33 43 53 63 73 83 93 4 14 24 34 44 54 64 74 84 94 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 95 6 16 26 36 46 56 66 76 86 96 7 17 27 37 47 57 67 77 87 97 8 18 28 38 48 58 68 78 88 98 9 19 29 39 49 59 69 79 89 99 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Note that numbers are written using the ten numerals 0(zero). each number followed by another. . 2(two)... . 1(one). 3 (three. 5(f ive). 4 (four). c. 3(three). It continues without a break. 4(f our). b.

They begin with the number 10 (ten) and end with the number 99 (ninety nine). . The number that comes just after a number is called its successor. . and 99 is the predecessor of 100. The number that follows the number 99 is 100 (one hundred) and it uses the three numerals 1. A number that comes just before a number is called its predecessor.1 Exercises 1. These begin with 1000 (one thousand) and end with 9999 (nine thousant ninety nine). Answer: The beginning number is 1 . Write the beginning and ending numbers in the succession of numbers that use ﬁve numerals. the number that follows is 101 (one hundred one). So. 1 is the predecessor of 2. Also observe that 1 comes just before 2. and 100 is the successor of 99.1. . . . Complete the succession of counting numbers in the last two line of the table 1 11 21 31 41 51 61 71 81 2 12 22 32 42 52 62 72 82 3 13 23 33 43 53 63 73 83 4 14 24 34 44 54 64 74 84 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 95 6 16 26 36 46 56 66 76 86 7 17 27 37 47 57 67 77 87 8 18 28 38 48 58 68 78 88 9 19 29 39 49 59 69 79 89 99 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 2. It is followed by numbers that are written with two numerals.18 CHAPTER 2. 100 is the ﬁrst number that uses three numerals. The succession of numbers written with three numerals begins with the number 100 and ends with 999 (nine hundred ninety nine). CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS It is important to keep in mind the order in which the succession of numbers is written. 1 has no predecessor as there is no counting number that comes before 1. 2. 0. in that order. Although not exhibited in the table. and 76 is the predecessor of 77. . . . Thereafter comes the successive numbers that use four numerals. Note for example that 78 comes just after 77 and so 78 is the successor of 77. and every number except 1 has a predessor. and 0. and 76 is just before 77. They begin with 1 and end with 9. Similarly. The ending number is 9. Observe that for each number there is a number that comes just after it. We see that every number has a successor. Note that the ﬁrst line in the table above contains all the counting numbers written using a single numeral. 8 is the successor of 7.

. . . and AGAM in ﬁfth position.. The line-up of children above is a typical example. 4.. ... predecessor .... Arranging or placing objects or persons along a line is called a line-display of the objects or persons. ... WORKSHEET 2: LINE DISPLAYS AND POSITION NUMBER 19 3. We may also identify these positions by the numbers 1.. CYRUS in second. What number identiﬁes the position of MUALI? Answer:. MILAN is in ﬁrst position.... ..... Write the successor and predecessor of each given number in the following table predecessor . 2.. NRYN in fourth. .. . 3. and 5 as is shown in the line up..2 Worksheet 2: Line displays and position number When children are made to stand in line (i. ..2.. .. .. ....2...... . In the above line-up the number 5 identiﬁes the position of AGAM in the line-up. .... Some more examples are: . Consider the ﬁve children standing in line below: MILAN ﬁrst 1 CYRUS second 2 MAULI third 3 NRYN fourth 4 AGAM ﬁfth 5 Moving from left to right.e. are made to line-up) they are said to be standing in a position that is identiﬁed by a number which identiﬁes the position of the child in the line... 4..... given number 99 100 999 1000 10000 9999 successor . Write the successor and predecessor of each given number in the table that follows.. .. 2. MAULI in third. . .. given number 31 20 55 7 successor .

. . 5... The word ’D U M’ is a line display of the letters D. 5.. What number identiﬁes the position of the letter U... Mauli: ... 3. What number identiﬁes the position of the numeral 7? Answer: . Look at the word D A Y A L B A G H What number speciﬁes the position of the ﬁrst A? Answer: 2. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Question: Which numeral is in the ﬁrst position? Answer: The numeral 0... What number speciﬁes the position of the third A? Answer: . . The numbers below each dot identify the position of each dot in the display. . Below is another line-up of the same children AGAM ﬁrst 1 NRYN second 2 MAULI third 3 CYRUS fourth 4 MILAN ﬁfth 5 Write down the position of each child in word and number: Answer: AGAM: ﬁrst ..20 CHAPTER 2. NRYN: . 2..2...1 Examples and Exercises: 1.. English words are line displays of some English letters. What number identiﬁes the position of the letter M in the word D U M? Answer: the number 3... .. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS 2. .. . and U... We can also say that the ﬁrst A is in second position. Cyrus: fourth .. .. M. Below is a line display of the numerals used to write numbers. Answer:. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 The following is a line display of some big dots: . 4.. .. In what position is the letter M in the word D U M? Answer: M is in the third position. MILAN: .. Which numeral is in the third position? Answer: The numeral 2... Below is a line display of a few dots. 2.

or rupee coins in ones pocket.. a chair. . THE COUNT OF A COLLECTION. an almond. We .. Counting numbers are line displays of numerals. the hair on one’s head. called the count of the collection... respectively two hands.3. almonds in a bag. Simply stated.. 2.. The number 5 (ﬁve) or 10 (ten) is the count we have assigned to the ﬁngers of one hand. The count does not depend on the nature of the objects.. like apples in a basket.. In what position is the second 3 (three)? Write the answer: . In what position is the second 0 (zero)? Answer: 6 or in sixth position.. we start by picking an apple from the basket and mentally pairing it with the number 1. A typical example is counting apples in a basket. Whenever a collection contains many objects.21 4 Write the numerical position of each dot below the dot! 6. or a rupee coin in one’s pocket. It is like giving a special name to a child by which the child is known. . To start with. the count of each of these collections is the number 1 (one). To count the apples in a basket..2. or also third position. or almonds in a bag. the count of a collection is a number that is assigned to it. a child. The count of a collection. Be it an apple. think of any single object. or that the number of ﬁngers on both hands is 10 (ten). We put the ﬁrst picked apple aside (outside the basket) and pick another apple from the basket and mentally pair it with the number 2 (the successor of 1). or balls in a box.3 Worksheet 3: Straight Counting.. WORKSHEET 3: STRAIGHT COUNTING.. persons in a family. In what position is the ﬁrst 3 (three)? Write the Answer: . The position numbers of each numeral used in the number 4107303271 are noted below 4 1 1 2 0 3 7 4 3 5 0 6 3 7 2 8 7 9 1 10 In what position is the ﬁrst 0 (zero)? Answer: 3. planets of the sun. The process of pairing or labeling is typically called as counting. we say that the count of the ﬁngers on one hand is 5 (ﬁve). The process ends with the assignment of a number. For any collection of objects. This is the ﬁrst picked apple. stars in the Milky Way. the count of a collection containing a single object is 1 (one). the method of pairing or labeling the objects with successive numbers starting with the number 1 is used to assign a number as the count of the collection. Every collection has a unique number assigned to it as the count of the collection. For example. For practice you may arrange any items in a line display and assign position numbers to each object.

has no more apples left.e.22 CHAPTER 2. The process of picking and pairing with successive numbers continues until the last apple has been picked and paired with a number that is the successor of the previously used number for pairing. The picture below shows certain big dots arranged on a line (you may think of the dots as apples or almonds or any other objects in a collection whose count is to be found out). The numbers below each dot is the number with which that dot is paired. If it is 35. This was the case in picking apples from a basket and pairing each pick with a successive number starting with 1. 2. The process of pairing starts by pairing the ﬁrst dot on the left with the number 1. we write the successive numbers beginning with 1 below each letter as shown below: D 1 A 2 Y 3 A 4 L 5 B 6 A 7 G 8 The last counting number used in this pairing is 8. then the count is 35. If the last number used for pairing is 7 then the count of apples is 7. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 See that the numbers used in pairing are the successive counting numbers beginning with 1 and ending with 8.3. each adjacent dot is paired with the successor of the last number with which the previous dot was paired. The number 8 is the assigned count of the collection of dots. so the basket of apples is now empty. It is customary to start be pairing the object on the left on the line with the number 1. Consider counting the number of letters used in an English word. As an example consider the word ’Dayalbagh’. Several examples of pairing and assigning the count follow 2. To answer the question ’How many letters are used in the word ’Dayalbagh’ ?. 3. The last number used in this pairing is 8 and this number is the count of the collection of dots in the display. i. Line displays of objects in a collection are helpful in counting. An example of pairing which does not use a line display is . CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS then put this second picked apple aside and pick another from the basket and mentally pair it with the number 3 (again the successor of 2).1 Examples of Straight Counting 1. This number 8 is the count of the collection of letters in the word ’DAYALBAGH”. It is not necessary to line display the objects in a collection as long as the pairing of objects in the collection with successive numbers beginning with 1 is clearly shown. Thereafter.

This is shown in the table below for ending numbers up to 12 (twelve): collection 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 count 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 12 4. 3.3. WORKSHEET 3: STRAIGHT COUNTING. For ﬁnding a count of a collection. THE COUNT OF A COLLECTION. etc. The last number used in the pairing is the count of the collection. until all the letters have been paired with a number.2. The ending number in this situation is the assigned count of the collection of successive numbers that begins with 1.. It is important to note that the count of a collection of successive numbers that begin with 1 and ends with a speciﬁed number is that speciﬁed number. If a collection of successive numbers starts with any other number diﬀerent from 1 its count has to be found in the manner above indicated. The last number used in the pairing is the number 7 and it is the (assigned) count of the collection of letters. For example the count of successive numbers beginning with 7 and ending with 16 is seen to be 10 as seen from the pairing 7 1 8 2 9 3 10 4 11 5 12 6 13 7 14 8 15 9 16 10 . we pair each object in the collection with successive numbers starting with 1.23 P (1) A(2) Q(3) S (4) B (5) C (6) R((7) Here we ﬁnd the count of the letters on a Board or in a picture. Starting with any one of the letters which is paired with the number 1 shown in a bracket after the chosen letter. we continue picking letters and pairing them with successive numbers 2.

. 9. What is the count of the successive numbers beginning with 1 and ending with 100.3. is that speciﬁc number. we note all the possible line displays of these letters given below: . Line displays are helpful in counting but are not necessary to carry out the pairing process. Take a bag full of marbles and count them. And the count of the collection whose objects are paired with these one to one is the count of those successive numbers.. How many legs does a Donkey have? 11.2 Exercises 1. For example for counting the objects in the collection that contains the letters A. Find the count of successive numbers beginning with 90 and ending with 99. 7. 6. 3... 2. How many houses are there on the street or lane where you live? Answer: .. The ﬁrst object picked in the process is paired with the number 1. How many pages are there in your Math Book? 10..24 CHAPTER 2. How many words are there on page 20 of your Book? Answer: . B .3. . How many letters are there in the word M AT HEM AT ICS ? number. 2. ... How many successive numbers are there that begin with 35 and end with 50? 4.. .3 A Most Important Observation about counting and the Count of a Collection Note that counting is done by picking objects in a collection and pairing each successive picked object with a successive number. 2. and C ..... What is their count? Write your answer as a word and as a number! 5.. That the process assigns a unique number as the count of a collection becomes evident when line displays are used for counting.. 8.. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS The important thing to remember is that the count of a collection of numbers that contains all the successive numbers beginning with 1 and ending with a speciﬁc number. The count is the number with which the last picked object is paired. Count the number of chairs in the class room! Give your answer in the word form and also as a number. How many walls are there in the class room? Answer:.

a pair. Question: ”What is the count of apples in the basket after we have placed in some more apples in the basket?” Addition answers this question. B . most importantly. . Question: ”What is the count of . and C ? Your Answer: .. Question: How many line displays are there for the collection of letters A. and 0.. Addition conceptualizes the process of putting or placing (i. adding) more objects in a collection.4 Exercises Find the count of each collection below by using a line display of items in the collection. 1. 5.3. The collection containing the numbers: 21 and 12. Consider the two processes on examples: The Process of Addition: There is a basket containing some apples and we place some more apples into that basket. 4. subtracting) some objects from a collection. the number 3 for the count of the collection.2. Thus to ﬁnd the count of a collection using a line display. The collection containing the symbols: ∅. 2. Subtraction conceptualizes the process of removing or taking out (i. and a banana. 3. shows the pairing and the fact that the count of the collection is 3 for each line display. But. Display all possible line displays in each of the above exercises! What is the count of the line displays in each exercise? 2.4 Worksheet 4: Addition and Subtraction Common everyday problems point to the underlying concepts of Addition and of Subtraction of numbers. and 3. WORKSHEET 4: ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION A A B B C C 1 B C A C A B 2 C B C A B A 3 25 Here the last line that contains the successive numbers 1. The Process of Subtraction: There is a basket containing some apples and we remove some apples from that basket. 0. namely. 2. and two bananas.. The collection containing: an apple. It shows that diﬀerent line displays give the same count. The collection containing: three apples. each line display gives the same count for the collection. we need use only one of several possible line displays. Straight counting is used to ﬁnd the answer.e.4. 2.e.

and the result of addition along with the resulting notation. This means that 5 + 3 = 8. The symbol is simply read as ”ﬁve plus three” or as ”3 added to 5”. We may indeed want to move the apples in the left basket (that has two apples) to the basket on the right (that has three apples). The resulting picture will be The result of moving (adding) two apples in the left basket to the three apples in the right basket is now represented by the symbol ’3 + 2’. Straight counting is used to ﬁnd the answer. A pictorial illustration of the process of addition using dots (think of each dot as representing an apple) is as follows: The picture represents two baskets of apples. This shows that the sum ’2 + 3’ number is the same as the number 5 and we write ’2 + 3 = 5’. since we now are adding two apples to the basket that already has three apples. For the visualization of the number ’2 + 3’. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS apples in the basket after we have removed some apples from that basket?” Subtraction answers this question. The result is represented by the picture Note that the left basket has ﬁve apples (Why?) and the right basket is empty (Why?). We put (place or add) 3 more apples in this basket. We move (i. In this case we will use the symbol ’3 + 2’ to represent the count of apples after the move. . The basket on the left has two apples (represented by two dots). Note that the left basket is now empty. We may line display the objects in the following form (without showing the boxes). The problem of ﬁnding the number represented by the symbol ’5 + 3’ is solved by straight counting to get the answer 8. The symbol ’5 + 3’ is used and it identiﬁes the count of apples in the basket after we have added the 3 apples in the basket. The basket on the right has three apples in it. we may start with the display of objects in a collection whose count is expressed as a sum of two numbers: Consider the objects of a collection whose count is 2 + 3 and it indicates that the collection is obtained by adding a collection of 3 objects to a collection of 2 objects. The examples that follow explain the underlying notation for addition and subtraction. Now note that both symbols ’2 + 3’ and 5 represent the count of the apples in the left basket after completing the process of moving apples from the right basket to the left basket. Notation for Addition: A basket has 5 apples.e. This results in the right basket having ﬁve apples and so we write ’3 + 2 = 5’. The count of the apples in the left basket (after the move) is 5. add) the apples from the basket on the right to the basket on the left.26 CHAPTER 2. This says that the result of adding 3 to 2 is 5.

2.4. WORKSHEET 4: ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION

27

or they may be displayed in two rows in the form

The ﬁrst display suggests visualizing addition in the form + which suggests writing addition in the form 2+3=5 The second display suggests visualizing addition in the form =

+ = which suggests writing addition in the form 2 3 5 2 3 5

+ =

or

+

Combining collections of objects and the resulting relationship between the counts has motivated the concept of addition of numbers. The result of adding the two numbers 2 and 3 can be expressed in the form ”2 + 3 = 5” or ”3 + 2 = 5”. Since both sums equal the same number 5, we conclude that the sums are equal, i.e., 3 + 2 = 2 + 3. This conclusion is a property of the operation of addition. It is called the commutative property as it holds for all numbers. It is expressed symbolically by writing m + n = n + m, where m and n stand for any given numbers. Thus without ﬁnding the actual count of the combined collection we can say that 5 + 6 = 6 + 5, 123 + 7 = 7 + 123, etc., N otationf orSubtraction: A basket has 5 apples. We remove (subtract) 2 apples from this basket. The symbol 5 − 2 is used and it identiﬁes the count of apples in the basket after removing 2 apples from the basket. The symbol is simply read as ”ﬁve minus two” or as ”2 subtracted from 5”. The problem of ﬁnding the number represented by the symbol ’5 − 2’ is solved by straight counting to get the answer 3. This means that 5 − 2 = 3.

28

CHAPTER 2. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS

2.4.1

The concept of an empty collection and its count

When we think of a collection we think of certain objects. Thus ’Almonds in a bag’, ’Chairs in a room’, ’children in a class’, ’Bananas in a bunch’, are all examples of collections. The count of a collection refers to the objects only. The bag, the room, the class, and the bunch in the above examples were containers of those objects that were counted. Indeed, if the same objects were placed in a diﬀerent container, the count will be the same. Now consider the concept of subtraction and the notation used for it. Subtraction identiﬁes the count of a collection after removal of some objects from a given collection. Thus ’3 − 1’ identiﬁes the count of a collection after one object has been removed from the collection that had three objects before removal. If we had removed all three objects, we clearly can identify the result by the symbol ’3 − 3’. However, now we have an empty container and no number (count) to identify the symbol ’3 − 3’ as a number. To rectify this situation, one introduces the notion of an empty collection: ’An empty collection is a container with no objects in it’. Now note that we have used the numeral ’0’ like an alphabet to write numbers. The un-ending succession of numbers used for counting starts with the number ’1’ but does not contain 0 as a number for counting. We have conceptualized an empty collection as a container without any objects in it. We now assign the numeral ’0’ as a count of an empty collection and from now on we call ’0’ as a number just like the numerals 1, 2, 3, etc are numbers. It allows us to answer questions like ’3 − 3 =?’, ’234 − 234 =?’, etc., by writing ’3 − 3 = 0’, ’234 − 234 = 0’, etc. We will see later the numeral 0 has a deep meaning in the notation that we use for numbers. Each of the ten numerals in a number has a place in that number that will identify a value called the place value. Since the system uses ten numerals we call it as ’Base ten number system’. By conceiving 0 as a number we have extended the succession of the counting numbers to the un-ending succession of numbers displayed below

The extended succession of numbers 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1 11 21 31 41 51 61 71 81 91 . 2 12 22 32 42 52 62 72 82 92 . 3 13 23 33 43 53 63 73 83 93 . 4 14 24 34 44 54 64 74 84 94 . 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 95 . 6 16 26 36 46 56 66 76 86 96 . 7 17 27 37 47 57 67 77 87 97 . 8 18 28 38 48 58 68 78 88 98 . 9 19 29 39 49 59 69 79 89 99 .

2.4. WORKSHEET 4: ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION

29

We call this as the succession of whole numbers. Here the successor of the number 0 is the number 1 and 0 + 1 = 1 and 1 + 0 = 1. The table that follows is called the addition table. It identiﬁes all the sums like 3 + 5, 7 + 5, 0 + 0, etc,. To see that ’2 + 5 = 7’, we look at the underlined ’2’ in the left most column, and the underlined ’5’ in the top row. The answer ’7’ appears at the junction of the row containing the underlined ’2’ and the column containing the underlined ’5’. ADDITION TABLE + 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 3 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 4 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 5 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 6 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 7 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 8 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 9 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

The table contains answers to one hundred sums. Students should establish all these sums by the method of straight counting. They should clearly conceptualize the correctness of sums like ’0 + 0 = 0’, ’2 + 0 = 0 + 2 = 2’ using the concept of an empty collection and its count.

2.4.2

Exercises

Use the method of straight counting to establish the sums using pictorial illustrations. 1. 5 + 7 = ...?, 2 + 2 = ...?, 1 + 0 = ...? 2. Verify the correctness of your answer from the addition table. 3. 5 − 2 = ...?, 9 − 5 = ...?, 7 − 7 = ...?. 4. 67 + 1 = ...?, 100 + 1 = ...?, 769 + 1 = ...?. 5. 786 + 2 = ...?, 788 + 2 = ...?, 788 + 4 = ...?. 6. 2 + 786 = ...?, 2 + 788 = ...?, 4 + 788 = ...?.

and 22 + 1 = 23. This points to a universal rule. the child starts with the count two of the coins in one pocket and continue to straight count by recalling the next three successive numbers three. etc. 2.30 CHAPTER 2. he may start with the count of the coins in one pocket.. . say the count three. Subtracting 1 from a number is motivated by removing a single item from a nonempty collection. Straight counting tells us that 4 + 1 = 5. Straight counting gives the predecessor in this case. We recognize now that 5 is the successor of 4. The child has indeed mastered the art of straight counting and the process of addition of two numbers using straight counting. Or alternately. and 233 is the predecessor of 234. and 23 is the successor of 22.5 Worksheet 5: Using Straight Counting to Add or Subtract A child has two coins in one pocket and three in the other pocket. The count of the collection after adding a single item is obtained by adding 1 to the count of the collection before the addition. four. 234 + 1 = 235. How many coins does the child possess? If the question is put to the child. Adding 1 to a number gives its successor. For example. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS 2. The process of adding a single item to a collection (this means adding 1 to a number) whose count is given may be displayed as shown in the two examples below: + 4 ∗ 5 and + 234 * 235 Similarly. This points to the universal rule for subtracting 1 from a non zero number (remember that we can not remeove any item from an empty collection).1 Adding or Subtracting 1 Adding 1 to a number is motivated by adding a single item to a given collection. then the count after addition is 4 + 1. and ﬁve to triumphantly say that he has ﬁve coins. and pronounce that he has ﬁve coins. The process of of subtracting a single item from a collection (this means subtracting 1 from a number) whose count is given may be displayed as shown in the two examples below: − 4 ∗ 3 and 4 − 234 ∗ 233 Note that 3 is the predecessor of 4. namely Subtracting 1 from a non zero number gives its predecessor. if the count of a collection is 4 and we add a single item to it. namely.5. And if we start with a count of 22 and add one item then the count after addition is 22 + 1. Thus 4 + 1 = 5. and continue to straight count by recalling the next two successive numbers four and ﬁve that come after three. consider removing a single item from a non empty collection.

The steps also indicate that the child adds ’1’ three times to the number ’2’ to get the result 2 + 3 = 5. Which allows us to conclude that (3 + 1) + 1 = 3 + (1 + 1).i. He thus pronounces the three successive numbers that come after two to get the answer ’5’. Some examples are 1. We may illustrate this as + 3 ∗ 4 ∗ 5 The illustration in fact answers the two questions ’3 + 1 =?’ and ’3 + 2 =?’. Illustration + 2 2..5. Such illustrations can be used to see the truth of many statements. ﬁve’ and states the answer as ’5’. in answering 2 + 3 =?.2 Adding any number In the example of the child at the beginning. Under the ﬁrst star is the number 3 showing that when we add one object to the given two the count becomes 3. 2 + 1 = 3. Since 2 = 1 + 1. Finally adding the third star we get ’2 + 3 = 5’. and 2 + 3 = 5’ to conclude 2 + 3 = 5. ’2 + 2 = 4’.5. This means that to add 2 we actually add 1 twice.e. This is illestrated below + 2 ∗ 3 ∗ 4 ∗ 5 In this illustration we are adding three objects represented by three stars in the ﬁrst row to the two objects whose count 2 is noted as the ﬁrst number in the second row. 2 + 1 = 3. It says that 3 + 1 = 4. The two steps can be combined to write 3 + 2 = (3 + 1) + 1 = 4 + 1 = 5. and 3 + 2 = 5. 2 + 3 = 5. we can write 3 + 2 = 3 + (1 + 1). This illustration answers the three questions ’2 + 1 = 3’. we notice that for answering ’3 + 2 =?’. Then adding the second star (that means adding teo stars) the count becomes 4. + 2 ∗ 3 ∗ 3 ∗ 4 ∗ 3 ∗ 4 ∗ 5 . and 5 that come after 2. meaning 2 + 2 = 4. WORKSHEET 5: USING STRAIGHT COUNTING TO ADD OR SUBTRACT31 2. .2. 2 + 2 = 4. Similarly. the child loudly says ’four. The second row continues after the seperating vertical line with the successive numbers 3. ﬁve’ to conclude 2 + 3 = 5. He has thus pronounced the two successive numbers that come after ’3’ to answer the question. Illustration + 2 3. 4. four. the child loudly says ’three.

..... 2... Similarly.. ? 75 + 6 = .... 230 + 2 = (230 + 1) + 1 = 231 + 1 = 232. ? 75 + 5 = . Illustration + 237 CHAPTER 2. ? 15 + 5 = ...... we think of adding two items to a collection.. ? 95 + 4 = .. Note the four stars in the ﬁrst row.. This is correct as both sums equal the samr number 5 as seen from the two illustrations + 2 ∗ 3 ∗ 4 ∗ 5 and + 3 ∗ 4 ∗ 5 As another example consider ﬁnding the sum 4 + 3 =?. + 75 ∗ 76 ∗ 77 ∗ 78 ∗ 79 6....... ? (c) 75 + 3 = ... CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS ∗ 238 ∗ 239 ∗ 240 5... Thus to ﬁnd the sum 5 + 3 we write 5 + 3 = ((5 + 1) + 1) + 1 = (6 + 1) + 1 = 7 + 1 = 8.. ? 75 + 4 = . can be used to ﬁnd the sum of any two numbers. Thus to ﬁnd 5 + 2 we write 5 + 2 = (5 + 1) + 1. adding 3 to a number is obtained by adding three items to a collection.. ? 15 + 4 = .. Adding singles ... ? 5 + 6 = . They represent adding four object to three.. The knowledge that adding 1 to any number gives its successor. 2 + 3 = 3 + 2... Extending the above idea. ? 15 + 6 = ......3 Addition Exercises: (a) 5 + 3 = .... ? (b) 15 + 3 = .... one item at a time.... ? 5 + 4 = .5.. ? 1. 237 + 3 = 240. ? 95 + 5 = ..... This allows us to conclude 5 + 2 = (5 + 1) + 1 = 6 + 1 = 7....... 4 + 75 = 79....32 4. we may illustrate as below to conclude ’4 + 3 = 7’... ? 95 + 6 = .. one item at a time..... we illustrate 75 + 4 = 79. + 4 To ﬁnd the sum 3 + 4 we may display + 3 ∗ 4 ∗ 5 ∗ 6 ∗ 7 ∗ 5 ∗ 6 ∗ 7 and conclude that 3 + 4 = 7. Since 4 + 75 = 75 + 4 by the commutative property... Thus to add 2 to any number...... For addition we write the succession of Successors of the given number.. ? 5 + 5 = . ? (d) 95 + 3 = .

.2....5 Subtraction Exercises. ? 3.......? 17−8 = ..5.?....? 2 − 3 = . For subtraction we write the succession of predescessors of the given number.... and 34 − 1 = 33.. ? 14 + 20 = .. just as we can add any number to a given number.. for example.... The illustration below displays the subtraction in the two cases − 3 ∗ 2 ∗ 1 and 37 ∗ 36 ∗ 35 Note that in the ﬁrst example we have 3 − 1 = 2 .... We must always keep in mind that just as we cannot remove any items from an empty container.. For example.. More Adding (a) 14 + 15 = . we simply write the predecessor of 3.. to answer ’3 − 1 =?’.... and ’34 − 1 =?’.. we cannot subtract any number from 0....... Similarly.. and 3 − 2 = 1 as the result of removing two objects...... The resulting count after removal is the answer.. ? 2. ?19 + 15 = ....... Moreover we cannot subtract a number that follows the given number in the succession of numbers...... 2..... This gives the answer 3 − 1 = 2.? 13−7 = . This may be displayed in a similar way to that adopted for addition.. Substacting single numbers (a) 3 − 1 = .. 37...? ..... respectively....? 15−6 = .4 Subtracting any number We have already noted that subtracting the number 1 gives the predecessor. This means that expressions like 3 − 5.. ? 14 + 30 = .... WORKSHEET 5: USING STRAIGHT COUNTING TO ADD OR SUBTRACT33 2.... and 34...... ? 14 + 16 = . ? 14 + 17 = .. Adding tens (a) 3 + 10 = . ? 3 + 30 = . We will learn later that by extending the number system we can subtract any number from a given number.. 1. the second example shows 37 − 1 = 36 and 37 − 2 = 35..?? (b) 6 − 0 = .. 121 − 124 are meaningless.. The answer can be obtained by removing one object at a time until two objects are removed.........5. which is the result of removing one object from a collection of count 3.? 0 − 0 = ... respectively...... (c) 15−4 = . answering the question ’3−2 =?] or ’37−2 =?’ is conceived as removing two objects from a collection whose count is 3. Subtraction conceptualizes the removal of objects from a given collection... ? (b) 14 + 10 = .. ? 3 + 70 = ..? 15−5 = ....5.. ? (b) 75 + 39 = ... ? 14 + 80 = ..? 7 − 3 = ...? 8 − 4 = . ? 3 + 20 = ..

It is read as ’n is less than m’. We simply say that 10 is greater than 8 or that 8 is less than 10. Given two numbers m and n. . . and ’<’ ’a = b’ simply means that the letters ’a’ and ’b are used for or represent the same object. Thus ’a = 3’ simply says that the letter ’a’ stands for the number ’3’. (b) 17 − 18 = .6 Worksheet 5: The Order among numbers: Meaning of <. All these statements mean only that a count of 10 is greater than a count of 8. < m < .? 2. Who has more money? Many of you will answer that Ram has more money. And this is just the right answer.. ’>’... The expression m > n means the same as the expression n < m. You could also say that Ram has more than Shyam or that Shyam has less than Ram... .. This means that the number m comes after the number n in the succession of whole numbers. Thus ’2 = 3’ simply asserts that the numbers 2 and 3 are not the same or are diﬀerent. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS (d) 25 − 4 = ... ’>’. since the numbers 2 and 3 are not the same we cannot write 2 = 3. So far we have used numbers to express counts.. Thus 3 < 5 and 69 < 75.. In particular. The same is conveyed in symbols by writing ’10 > 8’ or by writing ’8 < 10’. and ’=’ are used in a manner to give meaning to the expressions like ’less than’. The intuitive idea of a collection having more objects than another collection is made precise by using these symbols.34 CHAPTER 2. we write ’m > n’ whenever the number m comes after the number n in the succession of numbers... Subtracting any number.. bigger than’.?.1 Using the symbols ’=’. In such a write-up the three dots between numbers represent the successive numbers between the number on the left of the dots and the number on the ... 2. When there is a need to emphasize that letters ’a’ and ’b’ represent diﬀerent objects we express it by writing ’a = b’.? 25 − 6 = . < n < . We read the statement ’m > n’ as ’m is greater than ’n’.6....? 16 − 10 = .. ’smaller than’.. .. . Ram has 10 rupees and Shyam has 8.6. Thus 5 > 3. ..? 2. = The symbols ’<’.. >. ’greater than’. . ’equal to’ that we use in our every day language to express a form of comparison of two objects. and 75 > 69...2 The order among Whole Numbers 0 < 1 < 2 < 3 < . < 9 < 10 < . (a) 16 − 11 = .? 81 − 7 = . The order among successive whole numbers is expressed as follows 2. ......

...... Note that 9 > 8 > 3..6.32 32.. 3. Arrange the numbers 35... So you start making bags of almonds.. Note that 2 < 7 < 9. In the picture below. .. Answer: 2.. The box on the left contain the bags containing ten almonds each that you have made and the one on the right contains any left over unbaged loose almonds.7 23.... 3....23 3.. but their number will not be more than nine (Why?). each bag containing ten almonds.303 303.7.... 4.3 2... . WORKSHEET 6: COUNTING IN GROUPS AND THE PLACE VALUE NOTATION35 right of the dots. 9... 3. and the number 3 in the box on the right indicates that the right box contains three loose unbaged almonds. 2 in ascending order! Answer: 2. 10. 9... 9.. 45. 3 in descending order! Answer: 9.. Arrange the numbers 12. Arrange the numbers 0.. Arrange the numbers 8.... 1.. 25.2...5. 5. .. You have made as many bags as possible.. 4... After bagging you may be left with some loose almonds.....3 Exercises 1. For selling the almonds you display them in two boxes. You will make a proﬁt if you make bags where each bag contains ten almonds and you sell each bag of almonds for rupees ﬁve.7 Worksheet 6: Counting in Groups and The Place Value Notation Imagine that you have a box full of almonds and you want to sell them. 8.... Arrange the numbers 7. 15... 2 in ascending order! Answer: . Question: What do the three dots between the number m and the number n signify? Question: What do the three dots after the number n signify? 2. each containing tem almonds... Indicate the order among the pairs of numbers 0.. ... 55 in descending order.. 7.. 25.. Thus the ﬁrst occuring three dots stand for ˙ < 7 <8 4 < 5 <6 The next occurring three dots stand for all the successive numbers that come after 10 but that are before the number m. . the number 1 in the left box indicates that the left box contains one bag of almonds (remember that each bag has ten almonds in it). . 1 in ascending order! Answer: ... 5.. 6....

.... 1 4 3.... How many in both boxes? Answer: .. Question: How many bags of almonds are in the left box? Answer: .. almonds.. bags = .36 CHAPTER 2....... bag... + . bags = . How many almonds in the left box? Answer: . How many almonds in the left box? Answer: 1 bag = 10 almonds..... = . almonds..... How many almonds in the right box? Answer: . How many almonds in the right box? Answer: .. . almonds. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS 1 3 Question: How many bags of almonds are in the left box? Answer: 1 bag. How many almonds in the right box? Answer: ... How many almonds in both boxes? Answer: 10 + 3 = 13 almonds...... 2 0 4..... . 2. almonds. almonds.... almonds... How many almonds in the right box? Answer: ... . How many almonds in the left box? Answer: .. How many in both boxes? Answer: ..... .. How many almonds in the left box? Answer: . bag. almonds. + . = .... 2 7 . bag......... bag. = .... How many almonds in the left box? Answer: .. How many almonds in the right box? Answer: 3 almonds.... Question: How many bags of almonds are in the left box? Answer: .. bags = .. + ..... How many in both boxes? Answer: . bags = ...7.. = ...... almonds......... Question: How many bags of almonds are in the left box? Answer: ... How many almonds in both boxes? Answer: . 1 0 2.... + . Question: How many bags of almonds are in the left box? Answer: .....1 Exercises: Answer the following questions by looking at the displaysthat follow the question: 1...

. Thus in working with numbers... In this way each numeral in a number has a place value. WORKSHEET 6: COUNTING IN GROUPS AND THE PLACE VALUE NOTATION37 5.... bags = . While doing addition and subtraction we can add singles to singles and tens to tens to get the result..7.. almonds...... Another common form to express addition is . Keeping in mind the place values we write this in the form 32 + 25 = 57.. 3 2 2.2.. we must keep this property of numbers in mind.. = . How many in both boxes? Answer: . This means that the ﬁrst numeral 2 on the right of 32 stands for the number 2 or two singles. almonds.3 Adding two digit numbers using place value Adding means combining two collections to get a single collection.. This is done on examples below: 2.. and the result of adding singles is the number 7. since 2 + 5 = 7. Question: How many bags of almonds are in the left box? Answer: .. + . . since each bag contains 10 almonds.. since 3 + 2 = 5.. the value or number it stands for..2 Place value for two digit numbers We saw in the examples and exercises that a two digit number like 32 expresses the count of almonds in 3 bags of almonds together with 2 loose unbaged almonds which was expressed in the form 3 2 This shows that the number 32 is the sum 30 + 2. Consider adding the two collection 3 2 and 2 5 We may exhibit the addition and the answer in the form 3 2 + 2 5 = 5 7 Where the result of adding tens is the number 5.7.. How many almonds in the right box? Answer: . How many almonds in the left box? Answer: . and the next numeral 3 stands for the number 30 or three tens...7. bag..

. 54 + 45 = .. So consider removing 25 objects from a collection that has 67 objects. This is an advantage over straight counting (Why is it an advantage?)...... 12 + 17 = ..7.. ?.. and the numbers in the tens place are added to get the number of tens.4 Addition Exercises Use place values of numerals in a number to ﬁnd the following sums: A... .7.. Or one may use the form 67 25 42 - The result is obtained by subtracting the numeral in singles place from the numeral in singles place and subtracting the numeral in tens place from the numeral in tens place. The result is exhibited in the bottom line. + + + + 2. 13 23 . ? 79 + 20 = . 52 07 . CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS 3 2 5 2 5 7 + Here the numbers in the singles place are added to get the sum of singles.. Remember that the count 25 consists of 2 tens and 5 singles.. The process of removing can be depicted in the form where we remove 2 bags from the tens box and 5 singles from the singles box to get the result.38 CHAPTER 2.... 89 10 ....5 Subtraction using place value Subtraction means removing objects from a collection. ? B. 2.. 6 7 − 2 5 = 4 2 This result is written as 67 − 25 = 42... namely 3 + 2 = 5. Observe that in adding we use place values until the operation is complete.. 17 31 ... namely 2+5 = 7. And we only need to add one digit numbers no matter how large the numbers may be..

7... exercises 25 − 12 = .. and hundreds to hundreds to get the count of the combined collection. B.7 Place values in three digit numbers While counting a large collection in groups of tens.7. So the total count of almonds is 300 + 40 + 5 = 345 almonds. 55 − 15 = ...... 4 small bags. and 5 loose almonds. and the next box to its left contains 3 bigbags of almonds each containing ten bags each containing 10 almonds or 100 almonds altogether. 2. 23 23 .. The next box contains 4 bags of almonds each containing 10 almonds..6 A. See that We have indeed 300 + 40 + 5 = 345. so that a bigbag will contain 100 almonds.... WORKSHEET 6: COUNTING IN GROUPS AND THE PLACE VALUE NOTATION39 2.. The following example illustrates this 3 4 5 + 4 3 1 = 7 7 6 The addition and result is exhibited in one of the following two forms: A. 89 10 .. and the next numeral 3 to its left represents three hundreds or a count of 300. 59 07 .. In this case we again bag ten bags of almonds in a bigbag.7.. the next numeral 4 represents four tens or a count of 40.. 53 − 31 = ... tens to tens.. Combining two collections into a single collection can be done by adding singles to single. For example in counting almonds it will mean that we have ten or more bags each containing ten almonds..... Each bigbag will contain ten small bags. 345 + 431 = 776 B. 12 − 2 = ...2.. 47 31 .... Let us say the counting stops with 3 bigbags. the number of tens may be ten or more. Thus we see that in the number 345.. We may depict the result in three boxes as follows: Display of 345 almonds 3 4 5 Here the box on the right contains 5 loose unbaged almonds... 79 − 22 = ..... . the numeral 5 on the right represents the number 5 (5 singles).

7 4 3 4 3 1 5 1 4 2. say. 745 − 431 = 314 B.. B.. ! 3 .. 4 + 6 + 5. 7 1 .. 9 3 ....?... 2 7 ..?. + 2 3 .. + C.... 1 0 .. Exercises 123 + 321 = .. 2 2 .. 4.?...40 CHAPTER 2...?. 5 + 4 + 6.. 5 + 6 + 4.... 320 − 120 = ...... and 6...... 5 5 .. 5 + ......... If the counts of apples in the three baskets are.. 708 + 191 = ...... 6 5 .7... + 3 5 . 1 5 . CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS 3 4 7 4 3 7 5 1 6 + Similarly... tens from tens and hundreds from hundreds...... 2 0 . As an example consider 7 4 5 − 4 3 1 = 3 1 4 The subtraction and result is exhibited in one of the following two forms: A... 5 .. 8 0 .. 758 − 425 = . then we may express the count of apples in the box by any of the six symbols 4 + 5 + 6.?.. 3 2 . ...... 8 0 ..9 Adding more than two numbers Consider that you have three baskets of apples and you transfer the the apples in the baskets in to a box. 5. 567 − 2 = .... 5 4 . 6 + 4 + 5..?. 7 1 . 323 − 122 = . Question: How do we exhibit the process and ﬁnd the count of apples in the box. 0 9 .. subtraction can be carried out by subtracting singles from singles..7. 6 + 5 + 4.?.. 320 + 129 = ...?..8 A. 9 0 . 7 0 .... D.. 3 2 .. 5 4 .... 2. 567 + 2 = .

For example to calculate the number expressed by the symbol ’4 + 5 + 6 + 7’ we do the calculation as follows 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 = ((4 + 5) + 6) + 7 = (9 + 6) + 7 = 15 + 7 = 22. and then to add the third number 6 to the sum of the ﬁrst two. This is as expected. Indeed as we expect. This is an important property of addition and we call it the Associative Property of Addition. The method certainly works because we add only two numbers at a time throughout the process. The brackets in form (4 + 5) + 6 tell us to add ﬁrst the ﬁrst two numbers 4 and 5. The calculation can be made by any of the two ways of calculation that were used above to calculate the sum ’4+5+6’. The important observation is that each of two expressions ’(4 + 5) + 6’ and ’4 + (5 + 6)’ allows us to calculate the required count and they both give us the same number. But we want to be sure of that. WORKSHEET 6: COUNTING IN GROUPS AND THE PLACE VALUE NOTATION41 We expect each of these symbols to represent the same count. n. We could also carry out the calculation by ﬁrst adding the last two numbers. + . . Since we only have learned to add two numbers at a time. First. The ﬁrst was the Commutative Property of addition of any two numbers m and n. p it is stated in the form (m + n) + p = m + (n + p) The associative ptroperty of addition is the second important property of addition. So we write. In this fashion we calculate 4 + 5 + 6 = (4 + 5) + 6 = 9 + 6 = 15. Both calculations tell us that the count of apples in the box is the number 15. The method also tells us how to calculate sums containing more than three numbers.2. Note that this gives meaning to the symbol ’4 + 5 + 6’. we must carry out the addition. m+n=n+m The commutative together with the associative property of addition ensure that all the six symbolic expressions at the beginning of this section represent the same number. For any three numbers m. namely. however.7. say the sum 4 + 5 + 6 in the form (4 + 5) + 6. So we calculate 4 + 5 + 6 = 4 + (5 + 6) = 4 + 11 = 15. we would like to use this knowledge to carry out the addition of three numbers.

You now display them to sell and your display is Display of almonds 3 4 5 Money in box 0 rupees Think that after you sell some almonds to a customer...........) + (.....)+3 = ... (c) 7 + 6 + 5 = (7 + 6) + 5 = ...... = ... + 4 = ... CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS 2. An easier way is to group the sum (since we only add two numbers at a time) and see that the sum is (5 + 5) + (5 + 5) + (5 + 5) + (5 + 5) + (5 + 5) = 10 + 10 + 10 + 10 + 10 = 50 This calculation says that we must sell each bigbag for rupees ﬁfty.. 2.. Since thre are ten bags of almonds in each bigbag and each bag sells for ﬁve rupees....... + . each bag of almonds for rupees ﬁve.. the display of almonds will change.. 10 + 11 + 12 + 13 = (. Let us ﬁx the price for each bigbag containing one hundred almonds... (b) 5 + 6 + 7 = 5 + (6 + 7) = 5 + .. You can certainly ﬁnd the answer be straight counting........ (g) 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 = ((4 + 4) + (4 + 4)) + (4 + 4) = (8 + .... (e) 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = ((1 + 2) + 3) + 4 = (. + 7 = .7.... + 5 = .... (f) 3+3+3+3+3 = ((3+3)+(3+3))+3 = (.....+..10 Exercises 1... = ... We made bags each containing ten almonds. Find the indicated sums (a) 5 + 6 + 7 = (5 + 6) + 7 = . (d) 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = (1 + 2) + (3 + 4) = ....) + .... = ..... + ......... So with each customer we shall see how much money we get and the display for the next customer...... + . + .........) + .+3 = ... 3... + ..... Now you have baged the almonds you had in bags containung ten almonds and bigbags contain one hundred almonds and you also have some loose unbaged almods.......... 12 + 21 + 33 = (.. + ... + 3) + 4 = . the price of the bigbag will be 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5..8 Worksheet 7: Selling Almonds In this section we learned to count in groups of ten.. and you decide to sell each loose almond for rupee one.......... = .42 CHAPTER 2... You will sell each bigbag of almonds for rupees ﬁfty.) = ... We wanted to make a proﬁt by selling each bag of ten almonds for rupees ﬁve........ = . = ....... and bgbags each containing one hundred almonds... = .. + .... So let us start selling.......... ..... 2.

4. You think since you do not have three bags in the bags box. The display of almonds and the money in your money box after the ﬁrst customer is Display of almonds 3 4 2 Money in box 3 rupees Justify The change in the display after the ﬁrst customer! Now you attend the next customer. and 5 for loose almonds for a total of 150 + 20 + 5 = 175 rupees. The customer pays you ﬁfteen rupees. 2. The third customer: Can I have three bags of almonds please? You: Certainly. Now you ask the customer for ﬁfteen rupees (the price of three bags). The customer pays you ten rupees. If you sold all your almonds to the ﬁrst customer that comes. The actual process of sales goes as follows. You put the money in your money box. The display of almonds and the money in your money box after the second customer is Display of almonds 3 2 2 Money in box 13 rupees Justify The change in the display after the second customer! Now you attend the next customer. The customer pays you three rupees. This is your expected sale proceeds.8. You pick two bags of almonds from the box containing bags and you hand them to the customer and ask for rupees ten (each bag of almond sells for ﬁve rupee ). The ﬁrst customer: Can I have three almonds please? You: Certainly. The display of almonds and the money in your money box after the third customer is Display of almonds 2 9 2 Money in box 28 rupees . 20 for the bags.2. WORKSHEET 7: SELLING ALMONDS 43 1. So you actually take one bigbig bag from the bigbig bags box (it contains ten bags) and you give the customer three bags out of it and put the remaining seven bags in the bags box. then you will get 150 for the bigbig bags. You put the money in your money box. 3. You pick three almonds from the loose almonds box and you hand them to the customer and ask for rupees three (each loose almond sells for rupee one). The second customer: Can I have two bags of almonds please? You: Certainly. You put the money in your money box.

6. The customer gives you the money and you put it in the money box to be ready for the next customer. The display of almonds and the money in your money box after the fourth customer is Display of almonds 2 7 9 Money in box 36 rupees Justify The change in the display after the fourth customer! Now you attend the next customer. 7. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS Justify The change in the display after the third customer! Now you attend the next customer. The ﬁfth customer: Can I have one bigbag bag of almonds and three almonds for my three kids lease? You: Certainly. The fourth customer: Can I have one bag of almonds and three almonds for my three kids lease? You: Certainly. Now you ask the customer for eight rupees (the price of one bag and three loose almonds). You give the customer three loose almonds for the kids ﬁrst and then a bigbig bag and ask for ﬁfty three rupees. You thank the customer and put the money in your money box. The sixth customer: Can I have one bigbag bag of almonds and three almonds for my three kids please? You: Certainly. 5. The display of almonds and the money in your money box after the ﬁfth customer is Display of almonds 1 7 6 Money in box 89 rupees Justify The change in the display after the ﬁfth customer! Now you attend the next customer. The customer gives you the money and you put it in the money box to be ready for the next customer. You give the customer three loose almonds for the kids ﬁrst and then a bigbig bag and ask for ﬁfty three rupees. You think since you do not have three loose almonds in the loose almonds box. Then you take another bag from the bags box to give the customer a bag that he asked.44 CHAPTER 2. So you take one bag from the bags box (it contains ten almonds) and you give the customer three almonds for the kids and put the remaining loose almonds in the loose almonds box. The customer pays you eight rupees. The display of almonds and the money in your money box after the sixth customer is Display of almonds 0 7 3 Money in box 142 rupees .

. Try ﬁnding the above ... Customer: O. for now. WORKSHEET 8: MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION 45 Justify The change in the display after the sixth customer! Now you attend the next customer. Consider the two processes on examples: The Process of Multiplication and its notation: Boxes of apples are stored in warehouses before they are brought to the market for sale to the fruit sellers... Customer: Well that will be O.. The customer gives you the price and you put it in the money box. Division: It conceptualizes the process of repeated subtraction. say.. Justify the diﬀerence! 2. . I can sell you all that I have....... but can I have some almonds? You: Certainly. Why is your actual money more than your expected money. How many apples are there in all the boxes in the warehouse? Answer:75+75+· · ·+75.... but I will get more tomorrow. 75 + 75 + 75. 237 boxes of apples ... Money in box 180 rupees How much money you have in your money box? Answer:..... The seventh customer: Can I have one bigbag bag of almonds please? You: Sorry. A fruit seller buys 3 boxes of apples from the wholesale market.. The warehouse has. I do not have them anymore.. Let us say that each box of apples contains...9.... .K. where the three dots are used to indicate that the number 75 is erpeated 237 times in the eum 75 + 75 + · · · + 75 We have learned to add more than two numbers.K. How much money would you have if you had sold all your almonds to the ﬁrst customer? Answer:.... Fill in the The display of almonds and the money in your money box after the seventh customer! Justify the numbers you ﬁll! Display of almonds . . rupees. 5 + 5 + 5 + 5. .. but the calculation takes time when the sum contains many many numbers to add...... 8. A warehouse may have up to a thousand boxes of apples.2. Examples of repeated addition are 3 + 3 + 3. So you hand himm the seven bags and three loose almonds and ask for .9 Worksheet 8: Multiplication and Division Addition and subtraction provide the basis for the two operations that are called multiplication and division... Question: How many apples did the fruit seller buy? Answer: 75+75+75. say 75 apples.. Multiplication: It conceptualizes the process of repeated addition.

The answer is written in the form 35 = 5 × 6 + 3 or in the 3 form 35 6 = 5 + 6.. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS noted sum. until the basket is left with less than 6 apples.. The next section introduces rectangular displays of objects in a collections which are helpful in understanding the notation and properties of multiplication. apples. Calculate 3 × 9. We repeatedly remove (take out) 6 apples from the basket.9. 2. Repeated sums when written in multiplication notation are called products. The two symbolic expressions stand for the same number. The notion of multiplication helps here. namely. The Process of Division and its Notation: A basket contains... at which time we cannot remove 6 apples and the process stops. to calculate such sums. Find the product 6 × 11.. For example. 4. 75 + 75 + · · · + 75 = 237 × 75... The objects in a collection whose count is 3 × 4 may be displayed as below * * * * * * * * * * * * . i. 6 × 11 = − − − − + − − − − + − − − − + − − − − + . 3. Then we learned that group counting in groups of 10 is helpful in understanding the notation used for numbers and provides a diﬀerent method for addition and subtraction (that uses place value) than straight counting. So we need to ﬁnd quicker ways to ﬁnd the number represented by the sum. Using multiplication notation the sum 75 + 75 + 75 is written as 3 × 75 which reads ’three times seventy ﬁve’. The visualization with line displays were helpful in straight counting (for ﬁnding the count of a collection) and for comprehending the process and the fundamental properties of addition and subtraction. The expression is read ’237 times 75’ and means that the number 75 is to be added 237 times. Exercises: Write the numbers expressed in the multiplication notation as sums: 1... + . We note that 35 − 5 × 6 = 3. say 35. Question: ”How many times the process was repeated and what is the count of apples left after the process stops? Division answers this question... we note that we must take out 6 apples from the basket ﬁve times when the process stops to leave three apples. the commutative property and the associative property of addition.e. + . 2.. Answer: 3 × 9 = (9 + 9) + 9 = 18 + 9 = 27..1 Visualizing Multiplication and its Properties: We start with the display of objects in a collection whose count is expressed in the form of a product: For example the number 3 × 4 stands for the repeated sum 4 + 4 + 4 . 3 × 9 = . + . Since 5 × 6 = 6 + 6 + 6 + 6 + 6.46 CHAPTER 2. Simply stated ’3 × 75 = 75 + 75 + 75’. visualizing the operation of addition using collections allowed us to see the two fundamental properties of addition... Similarly.

7 × 9. 5 × 9.9. The second display has one column of 10 objects and a column of 2 objects for a count of 12. WORKSHEET 8: MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION 47 The same objects can also be displayed in the another form as below. where the objects in each of the three rows are displayed in three columns * * * * * * * * * * * * This tells us that the count of objects is the same in each display. 3 × 9. Actual counting of objects in any of the displays shows that the count of objects in each display is 12.Thus actual counting conﬁrms the same. 8 × 9. We conclude form this that 3 × 4 = 4 × 3 a property of multiplication called the commutative property.2. This provides a good visual means for ﬁnding the number 3 × 4 or 4 × 3. Use any means to calculate: 9 × 9. we may rearrange the objects in any of these displays in the form * * or the form * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * The ﬁrst display has one row of 10 objects and a row of 2 objects to give a count of 12. 2 × 9. 2. For example. 1 × 9. 4 × 9.2 Exercises 1. Such rearrangement of objects in a display can be used to calculate the number represented by a product of two numbers.9. Visual means can also be used to ﬁnd the counts. 0×9 . 6 × 9.

2. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS 2. You repeatedly take out two almonds at a time (perhaps to distribute to people working in the ﬁelds). The table that follows is called the multiplication table. You can continue to take out and give two almonds to a ﬁeld worker as long as there are two or more almonds left in the bag. The process of taking out and giving two almonds will stop when you are left with less than two almonds in the bag. Dividing.9. say 9 by 2. and how many almonds were left in the bag?’ You can answer this question if you were counting the number of ﬁeld workers who got two almonds each. Imagine that you have a bag of almonds.3 Visualizing Division and its Notation Division is repeated subtraction.. 0 × 0. The answer ’10’ appears at the junction of the row containing the underlined ’2’ and the column containing the underlined ’5’. It identiﬁes all the products like 3 × 5.48 CHAPTER 2. means ﬁnding the maximum number of times you can subtract 2 from 9 and to know what number is lefyt after subtraction process is complete. we look at the underlined ’2’ in the left most column. as for example * * * * * * * * * . and the underlined ’5’ in the top row. That is when the process stops. Question: Why will the process stop? Answer: Becuse you can not take out two almonds now(the bag is left with less than two almonds). To see that ’2 × 5 = 12’. If the count of almonds in the bag is known you may repeatedly subtract the number 2 from the count of almonds in the bag until the result of repeated subtraction is 0 oe 1(the two numbers less than 2). Somebody may ask: ’How many times you took out two almonds from the bag. 7 × 5. MULTIPLICATION TABLE × 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 3 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 4 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 6 0 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 7 0 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 8 0 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 9 0 9 18 27 36 45 54 63 72 81 Use any means to verify entries in the multiplication table given above. etc. This may be visualized as follows: Start with a line display of 9 objects.

9 ÷ 2 = 4 with remainder 1 9 B. 9 − 4 × 2 = 1 D. Each entry showing the number of times 2 was subtracted. This can help reduce the number of steps in which the ﬁnal result is obtained.9. 9 = 4 × 2 + 1. This can be done by putting a vertical bar after every two successir eobjrcts. The result may be written in one of two forms A.2. the result may be obtained in two steps as shown below 2 9 4 5 4 1 2 2 4 Step 1 2 or even in one step as shown below 2 9 8 1 4 4 Step 1 . 2 =4+ 1 2 C. The repeated subtraction can be shown as 2 9 2 7 2 5 2 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 4 Step 1 2 3 4 The right column shows the number of times the number 2 has been subtracted in the marked step. For example. starting from the right or left as shown below * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Each display shows that you can subtract 2 from 9 four times and will be left with one object. The 4 at the bottom of the third column is the sum of the entries in the third column. WORKSHEET 8: MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION 49 Now form groups of 2 objects each. At each step we may subtract 2 any number of times as long as subtracation can be carried over. The 1 at the bottom of the second column is the remainder after the fourth step.

. 10 ÷ 5 3. 21 ÷ 3 10 ÷ 3.. and 12 ÷ 4 = 3. Explain why the expression 3 ÷ 0 has no meaning..4 Exercises 1...... whenever the remainder in division is the number 0. It is therefore customary to say that a number is divisible by another number. Explain why? 2. where 12 is divided by one of its factors.6 Exercises 1. 3 or 4. 3.. We also write 12 3 = 4 and 12 = 3.e... 5. It is sometimes 0. 12 = 3 × 4. repeated subtraction shows that for any division problem the remainder is always less than the number with which we divide. In fact..?.. Then answer: 36÷6 = .?. Whenever a number can be written as a product of two numbers. 4. Thus since. Verify that 36 = 6×6 = 4×9 = 2×18 = 1×36. 36 9 = .. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS The next example shows the division of 25 by 7.. 12 = 3 × 4. It calculates 25 ÷ 7.. the numbers in the product are called factors of the given number.? 4.9.. In fact this is always the case in any division by a factor. i. 1. i..50 CHAPTER 2.5 Products and Factors The process of division.?. 15 3 = .?.. Is 51 ÷ 1 = 51 true? Explain your answer.. Find 17 ÷ 3. In such cases we symply express the result of division without specifying the remainder. 2. 18 ÷ 3. 20 ÷ 3.?.? . Which numbers among 2. What is 12 ÷ 4 = .. 2.. What is 12 ÷ 3 = .. Note that the remainder is 0 in 12 ÷ 3. the divisor is a factor of the given number. 2.. Calculate 10 ÷ 2..e.9. 51 ÷ 17 = 3. 36 ÷ 18 = . the numbers 3 and 4 are factors of the number 12. Verify that 17 × 3 = 51. or equivalently.. 15 are factors of the number 15. Then answer the questions . Thus we write 12 ÷ 3 = 4.9... 10 ÷ 4. 7 25 21 4 3 3 Step 1 The calculation shows that 25 ÷ 7 = 3 with remainder 4. for example. as well as in 12 ÷ 4... 4 2. 19 ÷ 3.... One can easily see from the deﬁnition of a product that division by a factor has remainder 0.

In the inch ruler the ﬁrst one inch segment is shown divided into eight equal parts. 3. The length of this ﬁrst one inch segment is one inch. Its length is one centemeter.10. The segment between 0 and 1 is assigned the measure 1 unit and is called the chosen unit segment. the other major activity that helps explore the world around us is that of measuring. 5.2. 2. Inches and centimeters are only two of the commonly used units of measure. etc. One may indeed designate any length as a unit length and make a scale or ruler that uses the chosen length as a unit of measure. MEASUREMENTS 51 2. . Measurements Besides counting. The scheme of chosing a point and marking (or labeling) it with a number yields a unique point for each number and is described later. appears as follows and we call it a number line: The Number Line 0 1 2 3 . 4. milk. The common feature of all types of measures is that they are stated by assigning a number and a unit of measure.1 The measuring scale or Ruler. WORKSHEET 10. Measuring is done using a scale. Similarly.10. 3. For this one starts with a line and choses two points marked with the numbers 0 and 1. There are measures of areas and volumes. . which tell us how much space is taken by a liquid like water. Then one choses other points on the line and marks them with the successive numbers 2. 1. . In the centemeter ruler the ﬁrst one centemeter segment is shown divided unto ten equal parts and the remaining one centemeter segments are shown divided into two equal parts. Then there are liquid measures. The line marked with the successive numbers 0. We measure lengths or distances using a measuring tape. . . To measure heaviness of an object we use weights. . the ﬁrst one centemeter segment in the centemeter ruler is between the points marked 0 and 1. A 6 inch ruler 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 A 10 centimeter ruler 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Note that the ﬁrst one inch segment in the inch ruler is between the points marked with the numbers 0 and 1.. etc. 4. 2. The Number Line: Shown below are a six inch ruler and a ten centimeter ruler.10 Worksheet 10.

to ensure that each is brtween its successor and predecessor. To measure a segment P Q as shown below P Q one alligns the end point P with 0 on the ruler and reads the mark on the ruler with which Q gets alligned. as measured earlier is written |P Q| = 3 cm. ADDITION: Consider the picture of a segment AB and a point C between A and B as shown below: A C B Here. Addition and Subtraction of segments.. the segment AC is seen as being obtained by removing (subtracting) the segment CB from the segment |AB . . and we write AB = AC + BC . After this choice the point marked 2 is chosen so that 1 is between 2 and 0. 5.52 CHAPTER 2. This reading gives length of the segment as a number of the units (inches or centimeters). . CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS The choice of points marked 0 and 1 is arbitrary.10. The segment between the points 0 and 1 is called the chosen unit segment. 2. thereafter.2 Principles of measurements of lengths 1. the segment AB is called the sum of the segments AC and BC . . Thus the segment has length of 3 centimeters as seen from the picture below: Measuring with a 10 centimeter ruler P 0 1 2 Q 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2. and the segment between 1 and 2 equals (has legth equal to) the segment between 0 and 1. and the seqment between the point and its predesessor equals the segment between 0 and 1. are chosen. and we write AC = AB − CB . Moreover. The remaining points 3. that is has length one unit. 4. the symbol |AB | is used to express the length of the segment AB and we also write |AB | = |AC | + |CB |. . SUBTRACTION: In the same picture as above. We also write |AC | = |AB | − |CB |. This segment is the chosen unit of maeasure (like the inch or the centemeter). Thus the length of the segment P Q.

11. ..... RQ in the picture below in centimeters.. . + . cms. 2. Measeure (ﬁnd length of) the segment AB below in centimeters... (a) |P Q| = .... ... 3....11. ..10.. For this the accepted unit area is the area of a square whose sides are all of one unit length like the one below with side length equal to 1 cm: 1 cm2 area 2... Area Measure To measure an area we ﬁrst establish a unit area..cms.11 Worksheet 11. P R Q Answer the following questions... = ...3 Exercises: 1.. Measure the lengths of the segments P Q.cms....... = . + .2. How many one inch segments are there in a six inch ruler? Answer:. |RQ| = .. (e) |P Q| − |RQ| = ....... − . 2.. Answer: . (d) |RQ| + |P R| = .... (b) |P R| + |RQ| = .... A B 5.. .. How many one centemeter segments are there in a ten centemeter ruler? Answer:... Answer:.. (c) |P Q| − |RQ| = . cms........ AREA MEASURE 53 2. WORKSHEET 11.... Now measure it in inches.. = . What is the length of the segment P Q in the picture in section 2. − .2.. = .cms.cms.... .1 Examples and Exercises First consider the example of a rectangle with adjecent sides of length 2 cm and 3 cm as shown below: ..10.... |P R| = .... 4. P R.

divide into unit squares and ﬁnd their areas. cm2 ...... 2. Area of square C = . Measure the sides of the three squares below in centimeters. divide into unit squares and ﬁnd their areas.. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS Rectangle with sides 2 cm and 3 cm This rectangle can be divided into 6 unit squares (the unit being the centimeter square). . A B C Answer: Area of square A = 4 cm2 . Measure the sides of the three rectangles. 1.54 CHAPTER 2.. Area of square B = 9 . This is shown below: Rectangle divided into six unit squares 2 1 0 1 2 3 By counting the number of unit squares into which the rectangle is divided we see that the area of this rextangle is 6 square centimeters which is written as 6 cm2 . .

arise in practice. Area of rectangle C = . . . or area. A B C Answer: Area enclosed by curve A = 6 cm2 . or power. Fractions and fractional measures In measuring parts of a whole we frequently use numbers that are called FRACTIONS.. Cut a one meter length of string in two pieces.. 2. can be used to represent the length of each piece... .. divide into unit squares and ﬁnd the enclosed areas. whether of length.. . 1. and numbers that are called fractions.. WORKSHEET 12... .. or volume... More generally.12 Worksheet 12.. Consider some examples. 3.. Area of rectangle B = ... 2. .. Measure the sides of each of the simple closed curves.... . or weight. 3. Area enclosed by curve B = . This is the case with all types of measures.. . We consider some cases to learn how fractional measures. .12... in fact anything measurable..2.. What is the length of each of the pieces? You can see intuitively that none of the numbers 1.... . . .. ... Area within curve C = . or energy.. FRACTIONS AND FRACTIONAL MEASURES 55 A B C Answer: Area of rectangle A = .... .

. .56 CHAPTER 2. three. |AB | = 1 unit. . . . 4. . can be used to represent the lengths |AC | and |CB |. .10. . . 2. four. 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 are fractions which identify the dividing points on each segment. where m and n represent counting numbers of our choice is called a fraction. 3. ﬁve. . To see how fractions are used to indicate parts of areas. . So that if for example. then none of the numbers 1. consider dividing a unit square into four equal parts. and six equal parts. respectively. The next ﬁve pictures below show a unit segment (end points 0 and 1) divided into two. . Any point C on this segment divides the segment AB in to two segments AC and CB as shown below: A C B Here indeed by the accepted rules for addition of lengths.2). Consider any segment and label its end points as A and B . . . CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS 2. We may indeed divide a given segment into any number of equal parts. 0 0 0 0 0 Here the numbers 1 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 . This is done in the three pictures below: 1 6 1 5 2 6 1 4 2 5 3 6 1 3 2 4 3 5 4 6 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 1 1 1 1 1 OBSERVE: The black area in each square is 1 4 unit squares. In general any number written in the form m n . we have |AB | = |AC | + |CB | and |AC | = |AB | − |CB | (see 2. 3. . . . In other words we need new numbers to represent such lengths.

surfaces. lines. The unit square on the right these four squares has area 4 is divided into four equal triangles. 2.2. an area into two equal areas. i.1 POINTS: On a clear night the stars on the background of the sky are perceived as so many shiny dots. B . planes. Each of 1 unit squares. Some observations that help in the intuitive understanding are given below. Points are represented by dots and named using capital letters. curves. lines.13 Geometry The basic items in geometry are points. etc. For example we have named below four points represented by four dots using letters A. These are not deﬁned (in spite of many books containing their so called deﬁnitions). and space are collections of points.e. D next to the dots: C D A B . The idea of a point is represented by a dot. They are thus abstractions of the perception left in our brain from certain physical examples or observations. on a given curve or line or surface.13. These are intuitively understood from physical obsvations.. In the map of a country the location of cities is indicated by dots on the map.12. and space. Thus curves. GEOMETRY 57 Here the unit square on the left is divided into four equal squares. planes. C .1 How are fractions used to represent parts of a whole Whenever we divide something into two equal parts. 2 2 2. a weight 1 (one half) of the into two equal weights. the dividing point marked by the fraction 1 2 is such that the segment between 0 and 1 1 equals the segment between and 1. surfaces.. Each of these four equal triangles has area 1 4 unit squares. we simply say that each part is 2 original. 2. Points represent location in space. Indeed points cannot be seen (though we tend to forget this). a legth into two equal lengths. When the unit segment between 0 and 1 is divided into two equal parts. a volume into two equal volumes.13.

because planes extend indeﬁnitely. running track in a school playground. Each particle of air in the room representing a point in space. 2. ceiling and walls.4 Curves and Paths A piece of string. though we think of space as the interior of the room we may be in. or any smooth ﬂat surface like the ﬂoor or the wall of a room.13. The room is indeed limited by ﬂoor. the top of a table. a path around a lake. a path in a jungle. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS 2. the chalk board. No physical representation gives any reasonable idea of space. a rubber band.2 PLANES: The idea of a plane is obtained by observing the surface of a calm lake. The use of the word ‘most’ suggests that there may be exceptional points on a curve. a river as seen from the window of a high ﬂying airplane. An end point of a curve is a point such that one can only move to the point or from the .3 SPACE: We think of space as a collection of all points. whereas space has no such limitation. An air plane moving through space moves on a curve in space.13.13. The following are examples of curves: Curves have the inportant property that while moving along the curve one can move through most points on the curve in one direction or its opposite direction. A simple type of exceptional point is an end point. Thus the drawing or sketch obtained by moving a pen (or pencil) on a piece of paper provides a representation of a physical curve. One must keep in mind that any physical object can only represent a part of a geometric plane. all suggest the idea of a curve.58 CHAPTER 2. Table top and geometric plane 2.

13. 2. Thus a child going to school from home covers the path (home to school) in one direction and covers (or retraces) the same path (school to home) in the opposite direction. A street map of a town or city showing all the streets is a general example of a curve that has many exceptional points. It is called simple. Some more examples of simple open curves are A Line A B Segment with end points A and B A Ray with end point A A Angle with vertex A Angle with vertex A A . Here the path (home to school) is part of the curve that represents all roads in the neighborhood in which the home and school are located. GEOMETRY 59 point but not through the point. Thus paths are simple open curves. if the only exceptional points (if any) are end points.5 Simple open and Simple closed Curves An open curve is distinguished by the property that for any two points A and B on the curve. Thus the following ﬁgures show a curve with a direction of motion indicated by an arrow. A Path or a track is part of a curve with the property that one may move along the path from one point to another in one direction or in the opposite direction. The totality of all streets being the curve. namely the crossings of streets.13. On a curve or path we shall indicate the direction of movement (when necessary) by means of an arrow. there is only one way or path to move from A to B without retracing any part of the path or moving through any point of the path more than once.2. Here are some examples of curves with two end points (dots represent end points). We shall use the word ’path’ for a curve or part of a curve along which one may move from one point to another without reversing direction and passing each point of the path exactly once.

They are accepted as true in School Geometry (also called Euclidean Geometry). CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS A line. a ray. In other words two given points determine a unique segment with the two given points as end points and also a unique line that contains the two points.13. there is only one line that contains the two points. The following are examples of simple closed corves: 2.These properties may be thought of as intuitively clear. .14 Plane Curves In School Geometry one mainly studies curves that lie in a plane. Observe also that a line has no end points. although there may be many many si mple open curves (with or without end points) that contain the two points.60 CHAPTER 2. a segment. This means that all points on the curve are in a ﬁxed plane. there is exactly one segment with end points A and B . or an angle are basic common examples of simple open curves. Moreover. but many many simple open curves with end points A and B .6 A characteristic property of lines and segments It is important to observe that for any two points A and B . All curves that are drawn on a chalk board or piece of paper are plane curves in the plane of the chalk board or the paper. The following are some general examples of curves (exceptional points that are not end points are marked by a dot): A path is said to represent a simple closed curve if one can ‘travel’ (or walk) along the path and get back to the starting point without retracing any part of the path or going through any point on the path more than once. Two other examples of simple open curves with end points A and B are: B B A A 2. The most common examples of such paths are a path around a lake or the oval shaped running track in a school playground. and are part of a collection of accepted rules (also called axioms) of Euclidean Geometry.

and an ellipse. As an exercise. a rectangle. and C as marked C Side with end points A and C A B The angle at vertex B is marked. a circle. only one plane can contain three points that are not on a line. A SQUARE: . Some other examples of triangles are Every triangle is necessarily a plane curve. Their shapes are shown below 2. as three points which are not on the same line determine a plane. The side marked is the segment with end points A and C .e. This is so. Many are made of segments like the following 1. a square. A triangle is formed by three points.14. It has three sides and three angles.. Any two sides with a common vertex represent an angle of the triangle. The triangle below has vertices A. each of which is called a vertex of the triangle. PLANE CURVES 61 Most common examples that are studied are of simple closed curves in a plane. i. A line and a point that is not on the line also determine a unique plane. identify all three sides and angles of this triangle. This means that only one plane can contain a line and a point that is not on that line. Other noteworthy simple closed curves in a plane that are of great interest and importance are. TRIANGLES:Triangles are the most common and also perhaps most important examples of simple closed curves. Each side of a triangle is a segment with two of the vertices as end points. B .2.

62 CHAPTER 2. MORE CIRCLES: . CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS A Square 3. A CIRCLE: A Circle 7. MORE RECTANGLES: 6. MORE SQUARES: 4. A RECTANGLE: A Rectangle 5.

1 Equality of Curves in a Plane: We call two planer curves as being the same or equal if the trace of one ﬁts exactly the other. AN ELLIPSE: An Ellipse 9.2. MORE ELLIPSES: A deeper study of these forms and disinguishing them from other forms and shapes the concept of equality of segments and angles as well as the notion of a right angle is used (this does not require measurements of segments and angles).14. PLANE CURVES 63 8. As examples consider a segment and an angle and their .14. if 2.

A Segment Trace of segment A B B The picture below shows an angle and the trace of the same angle. The curve is visible through the thin paper placed over it and one draws an exact copy of the curve on the thin paper with a pen or pencil. the two segments are not equal. one makes a trace of one of the curves and then sees if the trace ﬁts the other curve exactly. In these two case. .64 CHAPTER 2. The traces are drawn on a thin (or tracing) paper placed over the curve. Trace of Angle Angle To assertain if two curves are equal (this means that one is an exact copy of the other). As examples consider the segment with end points A and B shown above and its trace. Three possible situations arise when we try to place and ﬁt the trace with three segments shown below with end points C and D. In Case 1 and Case 3 the trace does not ﬁt the segment with end points C and D. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS traces shown below. If it does. then the two curves are equal (or same). otherwise they are un-equal. Case 1 C Segment Trace of segment A Case 2 C Segment Trace of segment A Case 3 C Segment Trace of segment A D B D B D B Only in Case 2 the trace of segment with end points A and B ﬁts exactly the segment with end points C and D. The traces are shown as a dashed segment and dashed angle. In this case the two segments are equal.

A Sphere: A Ball or Sphere 2. A RIGHT CIRCULAR CONE .15 Shapes of some surfaces and solids 1.2. A BRICK or Rectangular Parallelopiped A Brick 4. SHAPES OF SOME SURFACES AND SOLIDS 65 2. A Cube A Cube 3. A RIGHT CIRCULAR CYLINDER A Cylinder 5.15.

A PRISM A PRISM . CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS A Cone 6. A PYRAMID A Pyramid 7.66 CHAPTER 2.

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