Elementary School Arithmetic Worksheets

Dayalbagh Elementary School Math Teachers guided by Nam P. Bhatia Department of Mathematics University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC) Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. Visiting Teacher, Day Boarding School Dayalbagh, Agra, India March 1, 2013

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Acknowledgment
The author is most grateful and most humbly acknowledges the motivation, encouragement and advice provided by Professor Prem Saran Satsangi Sahab, the chairman of the Education Advisory Committee, Dayalbagh. It was at his urging during my visit to Dayalbagh in the summer of the year 2004 that I got associated with the Day Boarding School in Dayalbagh. His remark that our students lack proper understanding of the fundamentals (or foundations) of mathematics has since motivated my association and work at the Day Boarding School. The Day Boarding School in Dayalbagh caters to students in grades VIXII. My initial work, naturally therefore, concentrated on the development of foundational materials and workshops on the foundations of school mathematics suitable for these levels. The notes prepared by me for the ongoing summer mathematics workshops at the Day Boarding School were published by the Dayalbagh Educational Institute (deemed university) in 2010 in book form with the title ”Foundations of School Mathematics”. This book has three chapters, namely, 1. Sets and Counting, 2. Geometry and Measurement, and 3. The Real Numbers and the Number Line. This book provides the basis for the ongoing mathematics workshops for grades VI-XII. Further ongoing work for Grades VIXII is motivated by the exhortation of Professor Prem Saran Satsangi Sahab made on the report of the workshops submitted on July 3, 2007: “I hope the participating math-teachers would produce small text books that focus on the most powerful and generative ideas with emphasis on concepts and fundamentals presented in a careful sequence, as opposed to bulky text books cramped with forgettable details”. During these summer workshops, it became clear that the incoming students in grade VI were not ready for the foundational material as exposed in the above noted book and summer workshops. Moreover, the medium of instruction in our schools being Hindi made it difficult for the students to comprehend the material, particularly at grade levels VI-IX. Though progress has been and is being made with the help of some Hindi translations, but it is slow. Furthermore, we realize that most current text books cater to the syllabi but do not provide the insights and understanding of the foundations which the great teachers, mathematicians, and successful practitioners of mathematics use to do their i

2012. Bhatia February 15. Another Dayalbagh Primary School Mathematics Teachers Workshop was arranged in the period July 25. It soon became apparent that curriculum changes at the elementary school level will be more effective. the books being used at present were critically examined on methodology and content. Notes prepared for this purpose titled ”Number Systems and Arithmetic” were first used in summer workshops in 2011. This is acquired through contact with teachers and through self effort and reflection on the subject. Attempts were made to develop material for the grade VI students attending the summer workshops to cover the elementary school mathematics material with insights in the foundations. We only know that successful practice of any art or science requires and is based on a deep intuitive understanding of the foundations. N. Most of the existing textbooks commonly used in our schools and colleges are of little or no help in this. Encouragement and support of the REI Managing Committee in the above efforts is gratefully acknowledged. Teacher meetings were arranged(this included the Day Boarding School Math teachers and the elementary school math teachers) to exchange ideas as to how the content of these notes may be used in classroom activity. Finally. This workshop focused on teacher presentations of the methodology and content of mathematics. 2012. . 2013. These workshops were carried out at the Distance Education Center during February 6-11. Follow up primary school math teachers meetings brought about the proposal that WORKSHEETS for each of the grades I-V be prepared in Hindi for use in elementary school math teaching. The notes prepared for grade VI with the title ”Number Systems and Arithmetic” provided the material for these workshops.ii ACKNOWLEDGMENT work.P. Such an understanding of the fundamentals of mathematics is crucial in applications and for problem solving skills. So a proposal was made to conduct workshops for elementary school teachers where the elementary school math material is covered with foundations.August 2.

get their first lesson in counting from the mother. The worksheets are not a replacement of prescribed texts and do not change the syllabi for these grades. The main goal of Primary School Mathematics education is to bring home to the students effectively the meaning of these numbers and the basic operations of addition. multiplication and division on them through their use in counting and measuring. be it a ball. six. before joining an elementary school. three. The number ‘ten’ is the count of the fingers on both hands. iii . Here the number ‘one’ is the count of any collection of objects that contains a single object. This lesson essentially begins when the mother makes the child learn the number ‘one’ associated with a single object. The activity of counting and measuring is carried out primarily through the use of numbers called ’the natural numbers’ and ’the fractions’. and ten’. two. five. 2013. We use visualization extensively to bring out the key properties of arithmetic operations which are usually neglected in current texts. nine.V. Visualizations is recognized as the most effective means to develop and teach the number systems and the arithmetic operations on them. Measuring involves geometric shapes and their size. four. The current texts use visualization for this purpose but they do not bring out even the meaning of the notation in use. division but to develop an intuitive understanding of the number systems and the operations within those number systems that provide the language for expressing the results of counting and measuring. the basic activity by which we keep track of our possessions and advance our perception of the universe we all live in or are conscious of during our wakeful condition. subtraction. subtraction. or a tree. These worksheets are designed to help students in elementary schools not only to acquire the necessary skills in carrying out efficiently the operations of addition. It will be followed by worksheets for grades II . and ends with the learning of the first ten counting numbers ‘one. Bhatia February 15.Preface Mathematics education in Elementary Schools mainly deals with counting and measuring. eight. N. an apple. This issue of the worksheets is for grade I. Most children. or any other single object or item imaginable. multiplication.P. seven.

iv PREFACE .

2. . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . .1 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . 2. . . .1 Forming and counting pairs . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . counting . . . . . . . . . . .3 Worksheet 3: Straight Counting. . . .2 Worksheet 2: Counting . .5. . . .2. . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Worksheet 4: The first twenty five numbers and 1. . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.4. .1 Addition . . . . .1 Finding the count of a given collection . . . . . . . . .1 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . .1 Exercises .5. . . 2. . . 1. . . . . . . . 1. . . 2. .3. . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . 1. . . 1. . . . . . . . 2.2. . . . . . .2 Exercises . The first numbers . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . 1. . . . .Contents Acknowledgment Preface 1 Class 1 Worksheets 1. .1 Examples and Exercises: . . . . . . . . . . The count of a collection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Forming and counting triples . . . . . .3. .4 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . .1 Examples of Straight Counting . 1. . . . .1 Worksheet 1: Getting ready to count. . . . . . .5.2 Line displays for counting .1 Worksheet 1: The succession of counting numbers .1. . . . . . . . . . 1 1 2 3 3 3 4 5 6 8 8 9 10 10 13 13 15 15 16 17 17 18 19 20 21 22 24 2 Class 2 Worksheets 2. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Worksheet 3: Counting pairs and triples. . . . . .2 Exercises . 2. . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . .2 Worksheet 2: Line displays and position number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Exercises . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . .3 Subtraction . . . . . . . . .5 Exercises . . . . . . i iii 1 twelve counting . . 1.2 Exercises . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Addition and Subtraction . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . etc . . . . .4 The succession of numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Worksheet 6: Counting in Groups and The Place Value Notation 2. . . . .2 Place value for two digit numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 2. .3 Exercises . . . 2. . . . 2. .13. .9. . . . Area Measure . . .1 Using the symbols ’=’. . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . .4 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . .3 Addition Exercises: . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . and ’<’ .12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . Worksheet 12. . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . .4 Addition Exercises . Worksheet 5: Using Straight Counting to Add or Subtract . . . . . . . . . . .1 How are fractions used to represent parts of a whole .7. . .2 Principles of measurements of lengths . . . . . The Number Line: . .11.2 PLANES: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . Geometry . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . .2 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Exercises . . . . .7. . Worksheet 10.10. . . . . .3. . . . .1 Examples and Exercises . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . Worksheet 8: Multiplication and Division . .2 The order among Whole Numbers . >. . .6 2. . . .6. . . . . Measurements . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . .10 2.1 POINTS: . . . . . .3. . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . 2. . 2. 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 2. .12 2.7. . . . . . . . . .3 Adding two digit numbers using place value . . . . . . .1 Visualizing Multiplication and its Properties: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Worksheet 5: The Order among numbers: Meaning of <. . . .5 Products and Factors . . . . .1 The concept of an empty collection and its count . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Adding any number . . . . 2. . .4 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . 2. . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. 2. . Worksheet 7: Selling Almonds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . .10 Exercises . .3 Exercises: . 2. . . .9. . . . . Worksheet 11.4. . . . . .3 CONTENTS A Most Important Observation about counting and the Count of a Collection . . . . . . . .1 Adding or Subtracting 1 . . . . . . .5. . .6 exercises .5 2. = . . . . . . . .4 Subtracting any number . .7 2. . .5. . . . . . . . . . .1 The measuring scale or Ruler. . . .11 2. . . .13. .7. . . . . . . . .7 Place values in three digit numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 24 25 25 28 29 30 30 31 32 33 33 34 34 34 35 35 36 37 37 38 38 39 39 40 40 42 42 45 46 47 48 50 50 50 51 51 52 53 53 53 55 57 57 57 58 . . .6. . . . .10. . 2. . . . . . . . . . . .3 Visualizing Division and its Notation . . . . . . . . . . . 2. .9 Adding more than two numbers . . . .vi 2. . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . .6 Exercises . . ’>’.1 Exercises: . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9.10. . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . Fractions and fractional measures . . . 2. 2. . .7. . . .2 Exercises . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . .5 Subtraction using place value . . .9. . . 2.9. . . . . 2. . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Subtraction Exercises. . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . 2. .7. . . . . . . . .4 Exercises . . Worksheet 4: Addition and Subtraction . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .6 A characteristic property of lines and segments 2. . . . . . . . . . . 2. .5 Simple open and Simple closed Curves .3 SPACE: . 2. . . .4 Curves and Paths . . . . .1 Equality of Curves in a Plane: . . . . . . . . . 2. . vii 58 58 59 60 60 63 65 . . . . .15 Shapes of some surfaces and solids . . . . . .13.CONTENTS 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13. . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13. . . .14. . . . . . . . . . . .13. . . . . . . . . 2. . .14 Plane Curves . . . . . . . . . . . .

viii CONTENTS .

.. and ’123’ is a number. The first twelve counting numbers One 1 two 2 three 3 four 4 five 5 B. 1. 10 is a two digit number as it uses the numerals 1 and 0. 1 . The first five counting numbers in words and numerals are Just as English words are written using the English alphabet A. 1. The first twelve counting numbers.. .1 Exercises 1. Thus ’BOOT’ is an English word. 5. and their corresponding number forms are: one 1 two 2 three 3 four 4 five 5 six 6 seven 7 eight 8 nine 9 ten 10 eleven 11 twelve 12 Note that the first nine numbers are single digit numbers.1. 9. Complete the succession of the first ten counting numbers in the following table by providing the missing word and or the missing number form. C. The numbers 11 and 12 are also two digit numbers. 6.. 3.1 Worksheet 1: Getting ready to count. . Using numerals the number ten is written as 10. 8. numbers are written using the numerals 0. while there are ten numerals which have the same count ten as the number of fingers on both hands of a person. i. 4. 7. written in words. whereas the number ten. 2. The count of the English alphabet is twenty six or the number 26.e.Chapter 1 Class 1 Worksheets 1.

. 2 three . CLASS 1 WORKSHEETS four 4 five .... . Thus N A A M and M A A N are correct line displays of the collection containing the English letters A.. . Complete the succession of the first twelve counting numbers in the following table one .2 one 1 . 6 . 9 ten 10 2..... A correct line display contains each object in the collection exactly once. For example DADA is a word. Another line display of the objects in the same collection is P A Q S R C B This shows that there are many many possible line displays of the objects in a given collection. A display of objects along a line (here English alphabets) in the above picture is: A P Q R S B C Such a display of objects in a collection is called a line display. whereas 1212 is a number... . ..... 12 1.2 Line displays for counting The exhibit below is a collection of some of the English alphabets. numbers are line displays of numerals.. eight 8 . CHAPTER 1.... 9 ten 10 eleven . eight 8 . 6 .1. .. 2 three ..... .. A. Similarly. four 4 five . . P A Q S B C R It is sometimes convenient to display the objects (here some English alphabets) in a given collection along a line. But the line display N A M or the line display N A A A M is not a correct line display.. N.... M . Can you see why? English words are formed using line displays of some of the English alphabet......

and 7 the third numeral.1. 2. And in a number like 567. 7. 4. 11 the eleventh. 6 the second numeral. etc. 3.3 Exercises 1. Each line display is an English word. 5. 1. Write all numbers using each of the numerals 5. 2 the second counting number. Answer: 12 and 21. 9.5 Exercises 1. 3. 6. Write all the numbers where each of the numerals 1 and 2 is used exactly once. 4. DAD. Write all the numbers using each of the numerals 1.1. 2. 2. Exhibit the alphabet in the picture below in all possible line displays. 10. In a given line display of objects like that of the English alphabet below A P Q R S B C we say that A is the first alphabet in the display. 1. The word DDA is not a very familiar word. 5. Identify the third and seventh alphabet in the line display below. THE FIRST TWELVE COUNTING NUMBERS3 1. . 8. Write all words using the letters in the word M AD. where each numeral is used exactly once. S is the fifth alphabet in the display. 12 the number 1 is called the first counting number. but it is a word. 11. 6. A D D Answer: The various line displays are: ADD. The number 21 is called ’twenty one’. and 12 the twelve th counting number. 3. WORKSHEET 1: GETTING READY TO COUNT. 7. The number 12 is called ’twelve’. Here ADD and DAD are familiar words.4 The succession of numbers In the succession of the counting numbers 1.1. 2. and so on. 2. and DDA. Write all numbers that can be obtained by a line display of the numbers 1. 1. Thus 9 is the ninth.1. A P Q R S B C . 5 is the first numeral.1. exactly once. 10 the tenth.

The first curve in the display is called a circle. 6. 10. 8. 4. Answer: It is an ellipse.4 CHAPTER 1. 4.2 Worksheet 2: Counting Counting means assigning a unique number to a given collection. 4. third. 2. The objects in the line display below are very special curves. and fifth curves in the display above of special curves. and the fifth a rhombus. What are their names? 1. seventh. For example the count of the collection of special curves line displayed below is 5. 5. . The number assigned is called the count of the collection. Identify and display the first. Question: Draw and name the fourth curve in the above line display of curves. 7. 11. is paired with 1.. Thus the letter A is paired with the first number 1 and so also the first curve (the circle) above. The last number 5 in the pairing gives the count of the collection of curves. the third a triangle. and 5 is also the count of the alphabet in the next line display. and 5 shows the pairing as pointed out by the in-between up-down arrows. the second is called a square. 2. The assigning of a unique number to a given collection is done by pairing objects in the given collection with the successive numbers 1. The next line display of successive numbers 1. 3. 3. etc. second. the fourth an ellipse. Identify the third. 9. 12. 3. CLASS 1 WORKSHEETS 2. and eighth numeral in the number 75757575. as well as that of the collection of the alphabet.

e.. This may be done in any suitable way. One should note that any line display of the objects gives a pairing with counting numbers as described above and any such pairing gives the same count for the given collection. In the display below of objects (here some English alphabets) each object (i. In the example above the count is 7. Note further that the above collection of alphabets can be line displayed and counted in five .2. labeled. namely 7. The pairing begins with the first counting number 1 and ends with the number 7. WORKSHEET 2: COUNTING 5 A P Q R S 1 2 3 4 5 1. the successive numbers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 have been used. and each object (here alphabet) is paired with a different number than that of the other. alphabet) is paired (identified.1 Finding the count of a given collection It is not necessary to line display the objects in a collection for pairing with successive numbers. The number 7 being the last number with which the last object is paired.1. P (1) A(2) Q(3) S (4) B (5) C (6) R((7) In this pairing. for the collection. The pairing could be displayed in line display format as follows P (1) A(2) Q(3) S (4) B (5) C (6) R(7) A different pairing as given below in line display format is A(1) P (2) Q(3) R(4) S (5) B (6) C (7) It gives the same count. or tagged) with the successive counting numbers shown in the bracket after the alphabet. is the count of the collection.2.

However. 3. What is the count of the alphabets in each display? How many displays are there? Answer: The possible line displays are display 1: display 2: display 3: display 4: display 5: display 6: display 7: display 8: display 9: display 10: display 11: display 12: B B B T T T O O O O O O O O T O O B B O T T O B O T O O B O O T B O B T T O O B O O T B O B T O In each display the count of alphabets is Four. The count of all possible displays is twelve. i. 1. Exhibit all possible line displays of the alphabets in the word B O O T . Count the curves in the line display 4.2 Exercises O O T.6 CHAPTER 1. remember that the count of the alphabets displayed above is the number seven written 7 but the line displays are many. CLASS 1 WORKSHEETS thousand eighty two different ways and each will give the same count 7 for the collection. and the count of all possible line displays is a very large number. Here the count of the collection of alphabets is 4.2.e. 1. but the count of the collection of all possible displays is 12. This count of possible line displays is a big number which is written as 5082. You will learn such bigger numbers later. 12.e. Count the triangles in the line display . the number 4. i. Count the alphabets in the word B 2.

How many letters are there in the word DISP LAY M AT H ? 11. WORKSHEET 2: COUNTING 5. 9. Count the alphabets used in the word BISCU IT . . Count the numbers in the display 5 4 1 2 8 3 9 6 7 10 7 6. There are ten apples in a basket. How many apples from the basket are not displayed? Display the remaining apples from the basket (use one A for each remaining apple) on the dotted line. Count the dots in the display 7. In the picture below six of the apples in the basket are line displayed where each letter A represents an apple. How many A’s are in the name D A Y A L B A G H 10. The display of the six apples ends with a vertical bar | followed by a dotted line. Count the dots in the display 8.2.1.

.3 1. 12. CLASS 1 WORKSHEETS A A A A A A |. How many Bananas are line displayed in the picture below: . the answer depends on how many almonds were in the bag to start with.. . For example the collection of A’s and the collection of B ’s that are line displayed below have the same count. For example. Clearly. 1. we can say that there are four pairs of dots and one unpaired dot in a collection of nine dots... Then remove another two from the bag to give them to another person.. Number Answer: .... then after the first removal of two almonds we will be left with only one almond in the bag and no other person can get two almonds from the bag. it is convenient to line display the items as shown below for the case of the nine big dots (line displayed below): The picture below shows the grouping in pairs (two big dots in each group). Word Answer: . . Display six big dots in a line display.1 Worksheet 3: Counting pairs and triples. How many pairs of big dots can be formed? Is there an unpaired dot left? 2. given a bag of almonds. It is important to realize that different collections can have the same count. 1..3.. To see the answer for a given collection... So.... If we keep removing two almonds at a time then how many persons may get two almonds each from the bag. where each pair picked is boxed.. Note that there are four pairs of big dots in the collection of nine big dots and one big dots remains without pairing...... A B A B A B A B A B A B A B What is the count of each collection? Write the answer as a word and as a number. etc Forming and counting pairs Any two items in a collection form a pair.... For example if there were three almonds in the bag to start with.8 CHAPTER 1... we may remove two almonds from the bag and give it to somebody or put them aside...

You give three pistachios each to each of your friends. How many pairs of apples are there? 4.2 Forming and counting triples Just as one can form pairs of objects from a given collection.3. sub-collections each containing three objects) from a given collection. How many of your friends can get three almonds each? How many almonds you will have left? 5. You have ten almonds in a bag. Hoe many friends get three pistachios? How many are left for you? 6. How many of your friends get three pistachios each? What is left for you? If you give three pistachios each to three of your friends... etc. The following picture shows that one can form three triples out of a collection of nine big dots.1.3. ETC 9 How many pairs of Bananas can you form? How many are left without pairing? 3. birds. How many pairs of birds are there on the branch? Are any birds left without pairing? 2. In the above examples the big dots represent objects. 1. You distribute three pistachios each to your friends. How many pairs of apples can be obtained from a collection of twelve apples? Are any apples left after all possible pairs are formed? 4. toys. One may use and practice using any objects like balls. You have five coins in your pocket.e. apples. how many will be left for you? . one may obtain triples of objects (i. The following picture shows that one can form three triples out of a collection of eleven big dots and two remain as not part of a triple. sticks. You see twelve apples in a basket. You have twelve pistachios in a bag. You have eleven pistachios in a bag. How many pairs of coins you have? 3. How many pairs of apples can be obtained from a collection of eleven apples? Are any apples left after all possible pairs are formed? 1. There are four birds sitting on a branch of a tree. WORKSHEET 3: COUNTING PAIRS AND TRIPLES.

six (6).... eleven. eleven and twelve. eighteen . So let us practice counting by tens and relating it to the numbers ten. twelve (12). two single objects among the twelve objects. The numeral 2 on the right indicates that you have. thirteen (13.10 CHAPTER 1. the symbol 11 for the number eleven. four (4).. nineteen (19). eight (8). the numeral 1 on the left indicates that you have 1 group of ten. twenty-three . seven (7). two (2). eleven (11).. twenty (20). five (5). eighteen (18). i. shows one group of ten and no (i. twenty-three (23). then you may form one group of ten and will be left with two objects.. The symbol 10 for the number ten.. nine (9) ten (10). 1.e. three (3). This is depicted below in the line displays of twelve. In the number symbol 12 for the number twelve. twenty-two (22). If you have twelve objects.. fourteen (14). 2. Write the word form of each number below: . fifteen 15 seventeen .e. seventeen (17). Write the numerical form of each given number below: thirteen . The spoken word as written is followed by its numeric version expressed in round brackets below: one (1). fifteen (15). shows one group of ten and one single object.1 Exercises 1. each number is followed by another without there being a last number. twenty-four (24). Note that the singles box on the right in the last display is empty and the 0 in the singles place on the right in the notation 10 represents no singles. CLASS 1 WORKSHEETS Counting in groups of ten is the basis for the number notation. 1.4. Here we practice counting with the first twenty five numbers. Similarly. and ten objects below.. zero) single objects. twenty-one (21). twenty-five (25). besides the one group of ten. sixteen (16).4 Worksheet 4: The first twenty five numbers and counting The succession of natural numbers that one uses for counting continues indefinitely..

6.... Line display the numbers 1 to 24 in successive pairs by boxing successive two numbers... 20 4...... Count the successive pairs you have boxed! 1.................. Display the numbers 1 to 15 in successive pairs by boxing successive pairs of numbers..1............ 12 seven .. Leave any numbers that cannot be paired unboxed! Count the successive pairs you have boxed! What is the count of the unboxed numbers? 1. 5..... ..15 16 17 18 . 4 5.... Count the successive pairs you have boxed! 8...24 ...... 21 ..........4... Display the numbers 1 to 20 in successive pairs by boxing successive pairs of numbers..... Supply the missing successive numbers in the line display of the first twenty five successive numbers: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 . ...... 12 13. 8 9.. 15 thirteen 13 .... ... Number: ... 14 15 Answer: The count of boxed pairs is 7... 6 7. 10 11. 7..... ..Count the successive pairs you have boxed! 10. 8 9..... 2 3......... ..... ten .. 9...................... There is one number left unboxed.. 22 .. Display the numbers 1 to 21 in successive pairs by boxing successive pairs of numbers... WORKSHEET 4: THE FIRST TWENTY FIVE NUMBERS AND COUNTING11 . 4 5...... Write the missing word or numerical form of the numbers below: . Display the numbers 1 to 10 in successive pairs by boxing successive pairs.. 10 Answer: The number count of successive pairs boxed is 5... 12 .... 6 7.... 2 3... Leave any numbers that cannot be paired unboxed! Count the successive pairs you have boxed! What is the count of the unboxed numbers? Answer:. 24 3. Count the number of alphabet in the line display below: A B C D E H J K L M N O P Q R T U Z Answer: Word: .....

.. The display below shows eight big dots. groups of three numbers. Box successive groups of three numbers. Line display the successive numbers 1 to 25... Box successive groups of five numbers. Line display the numbers 1 to 25... 18. There are .... You put another five almonds in the same bag. How many big dots are there now? Answer: There are nine big dots now. Your Mom gives you two more... You have 17 almonds in a bag. 16. CLASS 1 WORKSHEETS 11. There are ...... You see 7 birds sitting on an electric wire.12 CHAPTER 1.. Line display the numbers 1 to 25. Two more birds fly in to sit on the same wire besides the others.. . Box successive groups of four numbers.. 15.... How many almonds are there in the bag? Answer: .. 14.. There are .. unboxed numbers.. unboxed numbers... How many birds are there now? Answer: ...... 13.. groups of four numbers. 17... You have thirteen rupee coins....... The display below shows six big dots. .. Three more big dots are added after the vertical bar as shown below. How many groups of three numbers are there? Are any numbers left unboxed? Answer: There are ... . . unboxed numbers.. 12.. groups of five numbers. How many rupee coins you have now? Answer: .. How many groups of four numbers are there? Are any numbers left unboxed? Answer: There are .. How many groups of five numbers are there? Are any numbers left unboxed? Answer: There are ...

. 22. then how many chairs are left in the room? Answer: Word Form: .5. Number Form:.. If you have thirteen chairs in the room and you remove one chair from the room.. then how many chairs are there in the room altogether now? Answer: Word Form: .. 21... . . 19... . We put all these apples on a single tray to obtain five apples on a single tray. ..1 Addition and Subtraction Addition Given two collections of objects we may put them together(combine them) and make a single collection. The relationship between the three counts 2.. 3. For example consider a collection of two dots and another of three dots... You take out and eat five almonds from the bag.... Answer: .. 20.. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION You box three of them as shown below 13 How many are left unboxed? Answer: Five are unboxed. .. You have 13 rupees.. How many almonds are left in the bag? Answer: . The counts of the two separate collections and the count of the single collection obtained from them are related. You deposit all in your Bank account. You have 23 almonds in a bag... How many are left on the tree branch... The symbol ’+’ signifies ’addition’ and we read the statement as ’two plus three equals five’ or as ’three plus two equals five’...1...5 1...... We also conclude from this that 2 + 3 = 3 + 2 as both the numbers 2 + 3 and 3 + 2 stand for the same number 5.. 23. We may line display them for counting as follows: .. 1.... How many rupees are left with you. We therefore relate and understand the arithmetic through counting.. Three fly away.... and 5 in this situation is expressed in the statement 2 + 3 = 5 or also as 3 + 2 = 5. Answer: . .. We have learned that numbers represent counts of collections. You see 6 birds sitting on a tree branch.. Number Form: .. For example we have two apples on one tray and three apples on a second tray.5.. If you have thirteen chairs in a room and you bring in one more chair in the room...

We read the first statement as ’two plus three equals five’ and the second as ’three plus two equals five’. The last display shows the collection obtained by adding the second collection to the first. This property is named as ’the commutative property’ as it is true for the counts of any two collections. 3 + 7 = 7 + 3. In general this property is described symbolically by m + n = n + m. We emphasize that counts are numbers and the counts do not depend on the nature of objects in a collection. etc. This is then written as 2 + 3 = 5 for the first display and as 3 + 2 = 5 for the second display. The letter ’O’ may be used for any object. That is why the two dot collection is displayed to the right of the three dot collection. This kind of line display identifies the process of adding the three dot collection to the two dot collection. Thus. And then to its right we display the collection of three dots. For example if we are counting almonds or apples we may use the letter A to identify each object. Thus for display and understanding we may identify the objects in a collection in any suitable convenient way. O and O O O O O O O O O When the counts are small numbers. Symbolically it is written as 2 + 3. Thus the following two pictures using the letter O instead of a dot represent the process of adding the number 3 to the number 2 to obtain the sum 2 + 3 = 5. 13 + 12 = 12 + 13. CLASS 1 WORKSHEETS or as The next picture shows that the two collections have been combined to obtain a single collection of five dots The first line display contains two dots.. irrespective of their individual counts. we can mentally picture the process and come up with the count of the combined collection. The last statement expresses a property of addition. It produces the same display in either case. Now we straight count the combined collection in the last display and see that it has a count of five. The second display indicates the process of adding the two dot collection to the three dot collection.14 CHAPTER 1. Since both counts when added result in the same number 5. We may use our fingers . where m and n identify the counts of the two collections and m + n as well as n + m the count of the combined collection depending on how the two collections are line displayed for counting. we learn that 2+3 = 3+2.

The relationship between these three numbers is expressed in the form 7 − 2 = 5.. however... 15 + 7 = . Line displays help in understanding the process and in counting.. Addition and subtraction are done using straight counting.. Pictorially show that 12 + 1 = 13. It should be kept in mind that when we remove all objects from a given collection we will be left with no remaining objects. The symbol ’−’ identifies subtraction (or removal). Mentally find 1 + 15 = . the line displays are no more resorted in counting......1.. 5..... 3... We may picture this as follows: Here the first line display has seven dots showing the seven apples we had originally.. for example 3 − 3 = 0 for the case of a collection having count 3.. the process becomes cumbersome and we use the place value system.2 on counting...5.. The count of the apples that were eaten is 2 and the count of the remaining apples is 5. When the counting process is clear..5........ Note that the count of the apples in the beginning was 7. The subtraction in this case takes the form... The second display has the two dots replaced by circles showing the two apples that were eaten and the five dots that are left.. 1.. Pictorially show that 3 + 1 = 1 + 3 = 4. Calculate 15 + 6 = . Find 13 + 12 = . 4... The line display for a collection of seven objects will appear as .. 6.. 15 + 9 = . For large numbers. 1.. 3 + 15 = .... 21 + 3 = . 4 + 15 = .... Mentally calculate 21 + 1 = . 21 + 4 = . But the underlying process remains straight counting.. that means that the remaining collection has no objects in it or the remaining collection is empty..2 Exercises 1.. The basic underlying process is straight counting as described in section 1...3 Subtraction Given a collection of objects we may remove some objects from the collection.. 2. For example we have seven apples and we eat two of them so that we are left with only five apples. 2 + 15 = ..5. 21 + 2 = ... 13 + 10 = . We read the statement 7 − 2 = 5 as ’Seven minus two is five’ or as ’seven take away two is five’... The numeral 0 is used to express the count of an empty collection.. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION 15 or parts of fingers to aid in the addition process.

....... (b) 12 − 2 = . 17 − 10 = ..... Find the answer by mentally picturing line display of objects or using your fingers... 7 − 3 = ... 24 − 24 = ..... CLASS 1 WORKSHEETS Here the empty box on the left shows that no dots are left and the box on the right shows the seven dots that have been removed by picturing them as circles...... 3 − 3 = . 4 − 2 = .... (c) 21 − 1 = .. (a) 5 − 2 = . 22 − 3 = ..... 10 − 6 = . ..... 9 − 5 = ..............16 CHAPTER 1..5............4 Exercises 1.... Find the answer using line displays as above: (a) 3 − 1 = . 10 − 3 = ............. 2. 3.... 16 − 6 = .. (b) 13 − 5 = ..... 12 − 12 = .. 1. 15 − 3 = . (c) 20 − 13 = ....

. 7(seven). You have learned the numbers up to the number 100 (one hundred). 4(f our). etc. 5 (five. 9(nine) These numerals are the alphabet of the numbers just as the English letters a. 3(three). 8(eight).. 6(six). It is not possible to write all the numbers. b. but we will learn to write the number that follows any given number.Chapter 2 Class 2 Worksheets 2. 1(one). are the alphabet used for English words. 3 (three.1 Worksheet 1: The succession of counting numbers The succession of counting numbers begins with the number 1 (one) and is followed by the successive numbers 2 (two). 4 (four). . 17 . The succession of the first hundred counting numbers is given below: 1 11 21 31 41 51 61 71 81 91 2 12 22 32 42 52 62 72 82 92 3 13 23 33 43 53 63 73 83 93 4 14 24 34 44 54 64 74 84 94 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 95 6 16 26 36 46 56 66 76 86 96 7 17 27 37 47 57 67 77 87 97 8 18 28 38 48 58 68 78 88 98 9 19 29 39 49 59 69 79 89 99 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Note that numbers are written using the ten numerals 0(zero). . . without end. 2(two). It continues without a break. c. 5(f ive). each number followed by another.

100 is the first number that uses three numerals. and 0.1 Exercises 1. The number that comes just after a number is called its successor. . The succession of numbers written with three numerals begins with the number 100 and ends with 999 (nine hundred ninety nine). Although not exhibited in the table. Also observe that 1 comes just before 2. So. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS It is important to keep in mind the order in which the succession of numbers is written. 8 is the successor of 7. . We see that every number has a successor. A number that comes just before a number is called its predecessor. and 99 is the predecessor of 100. 1 is the predecessor of 2. . 1 has no predecessor as there is no counting number that comes before 1. and every number except 1 has a predessor. The ending number is 9. Thereafter comes the successive numbers that use four numerals. They begin with the number 10 (ten) and end with the number 99 (ninety nine). Similarly. They begin with 1 and end with 9. Observe that for each number there is a number that comes just after it. and 76 is just before 77. the number that follows is 101 (one hundred one). . Answer: The beginning number is 1 . It is followed by numbers that are written with two numerals. . in that order. Complete the succession of counting numbers in the last two line of the table 1 11 21 31 41 51 61 71 81 2 12 22 32 42 52 62 72 82 3 13 23 33 43 53 63 73 83 4 14 24 34 44 54 64 74 84 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 95 6 16 26 36 46 56 66 76 86 7 17 27 37 47 57 67 77 87 8 18 28 38 48 58 68 78 88 9 19 29 39 49 59 69 79 89 99 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 2. . These begin with 1000 (one thousand) and end with 9999 (nine thousant ninety nine). . The number that follows the number 99 is 100 (one hundred) and it uses the three numerals 1. 0. .18 CHAPTER 2. Write the beginning and ending numbers in the succession of numbers that use five numerals. Note that the first line in the table above contains all the counting numbers written using a single numeral.1. and 100 is the successor of 99. Note for example that 78 comes just after 77 and so 78 is the successor of 77. 2. and 76 is the predecessor of 77.

. ....2....e... . ... Some more examples are: .. . Write the successor and predecessor of each given number in the following table predecessor . . Consider the five children standing in line below: MILAN first 1 CYRUS second 2 MAULI third 3 NRYN fourth 4 AGAM fifth 5 Moving from left to right......2 Worksheet 2: Line displays and position number When children are made to stand in line (i. .. 4. given number 99 100 999 1000 10000 9999 successor . The line-up of children above is a typical example. WORKSHEET 2: LINE DISPLAYS AND POSITION NUMBER 19 3... ... . CYRUS in second. . . ...... In the above line-up the number 5 identifies the position of AGAM in the line-up.2.. NRYN in fourth. MAULI in third... 2... 2. 4. . are made to line-up) they are said to be standing in a position that is identified by a number which identifies the position of the child in the line. Arranging or placing objects or persons along a line is called a line-display of the objects or persons. . and 5 as is shown in the line up. MILAN is in first position. .. Write the successor and predecessor of each given number in the table that follows.. ... What number identifies the position of MUALI? Answer:...... predecessor . We may also identify these positions by the numbers 1. and AGAM in fifth position.... . given number 31 20 55 7 successor . 3..

. We can also say that the first A is in second position. What number specifies the position of the third A? Answer: . What number identifies the position of the letter U... 2... ..1 Examples and Exercises: 1.. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Question: Which numeral is in the first position? Answer: The numeral 0. Answer:. . English words are line displays of some English letters. Below is a line display of a few dots. Which numeral is in the third position? Answer: The numeral 2. The numbers below each dot identify the position of each dot in the display. . Cyrus: fourth . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 The following is a line display of some big dots: . NRYN: .. 5.. . 5.. and U. Below is a line display of the numerals used to write numbers.. In what position is the letter M in the word D U M? Answer: M is in the third position. What number identifies the position of the numeral 7? Answer: ...2. . M. 3..20 CHAPTER 2.. The word ’D U M’ is a line display of the letters D. Mauli: . ... . Below is another line-up of the same children AGAM first 1 NRYN second 2 MAULI third 3 CYRUS fourth 4 MILAN fifth 5 Write down the position of each child in word and number: Answer: AGAM: first ... What number identifies the position of the letter M in the word D U M? Answer: the number 3. Look at the word D A Y A L B A G H What number specifies the position of the first A? Answer: 2.. MILAN: . 4...... CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS 2... . 2..

The count of a collection. the count of a collection containing a single object is 1 (one). almonds in a bag. This is the first picked apple. The process of pairing or labeling is typically called as counting. 2. persons in a family. Be it an apple.. The position numbers of each numeral used in the number 4107303271 are noted below 4 1 1 2 0 3 7 4 3 5 0 6 3 7 2 8 7 9 1 10 In what position is the first 0 (zero)? Answer: 3. stars in the Milky Way. We put the first picked apple aside (outside the basket) and pick another apple from the basket and mentally pair it with the number 2 (the successor of 1). Whenever a collection contains many objects.21 4 Write the numerical position of each dot below the dot! 6. or that the number of fingers on both hands is 10 (ten).. The process ends with the assignment of a number. Simply stated. or rupee coins in ones pocket.. For practice you may arrange any items in a line display and assign position numbers to each object.3. a child. planets of the sun.. . or almonds in a bag. Every collection has a unique number assigned to it as the count of the collection. To start with. The number 5 (five) or 10 (ten) is the count we have assigned to the fingers of one hand. In what position is the second 0 (zero)? Answer: 6 or in sixth position.. the hair on one’s head. or a rupee coin in one’s pocket. think of any single object. For any collection of objects.. The count does not depend on the nature of the objects. In what position is the second 3 (three)? Write the answer: . the count of a collection is a number that is assigned to it... called the count of the collection. a chair. or balls in a box. respectively two hands. In what position is the first 3 (three)? Write the Answer: . we start by picking an apple from the basket and mentally pairing it with the number 1. It is like giving a special name to a child by which the child is known. A typical example is counting apples in a basket.3 Worksheet 3: Straight Counting. the count of each of these collections is the number 1 (one). For example. like apples in a basket. .2. To count the apples in a basket. THE COUNT OF A COLLECTION... the method of pairing or labeling the objects with successive numbers starting with the number 1 is used to assign a number as the count of the collection. We . we say that the count of the fingers on one hand is 5 (five). Counting numbers are line displays of numerals. an almond. or also third position. WORKSHEET 3: STRAIGHT COUNTING...

An example of pairing which does not use a line display is . 2. This was the case in picking apples from a basket and pairing each pick with a successive number starting with 1. The numbers below each dot is the number with which that dot is paired. The process of pairing starts by pairing the first dot on the left with the number 1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 See that the numbers used in pairing are the successive counting numbers beginning with 1 and ending with 8. Line displays of objects in a collection are helpful in counting. then the count is 35. each adjacent dot is paired with the successor of the last number with which the previous dot was paired.22 CHAPTER 2.1 Examples of Straight Counting 1. so the basket of apples is now empty.e. The picture below shows certain big dots arranged on a line (you may think of the dots as apples or almonds or any other objects in a collection whose count is to be found out). 3. Consider counting the number of letters used in an English word. It is not necessary to line display the objects in a collection as long as the pairing of objects in the collection with successive numbers beginning with 1 is clearly shown. If the last number used for pairing is 7 then the count of apples is 7. has no more apples left. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS then put this second picked apple aside and pick another from the basket and mentally pair it with the number 3 (again the successor of 2). we write the successive numbers beginning with 1 below each letter as shown below: D 1 A 2 Y 3 A 4 L 5 B 6 A 7 G 8 The last counting number used in this pairing is 8. Several examples of pairing and assigning the count follow 2. The number 8 is the assigned count of the collection of dots.3. i. The process of picking and pairing with successive numbers continues until the last apple has been picked and paired with a number that is the successor of the previously used number for pairing. Thereafter. It is customary to start be pairing the object on the left on the line with the number 1. As an example consider the word ’Dayalbagh’. To answer the question ’How many letters are used in the word ’Dayalbagh’ ?. This number 8 is the count of the collection of letters in the word ’DAYALBAGH”. If it is 35. The last number used in this pairing is 8 and this number is the count of the collection of dots in the display.

The ending number in this situation is the assigned count of the collection of successive numbers that begins with 1.2. The last number used in the pairing is the number 7 and it is the (assigned) count of the collection of letters. we pair each object in the collection with successive numbers starting with 1.3. It is important to note that the count of a collection of successive numbers that begin with 1 and ends with a specified number is that specified number. Starting with any one of the letters which is paired with the number 1 shown in a bracket after the chosen letter. This is shown in the table below for ending numbers up to 12 (twelve): collection 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 count 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 12 4. until all the letters have been paired with a number. If a collection of successive numbers starts with any other number different from 1 its count has to be found in the manner above indicated. The last number used in the pairing is the count of the collection. we continue picking letters and pairing them with successive numbers 2. 3. For example the count of successive numbers beginning with 7 and ending with 16 is seen to be 10 as seen from the pairing 7 1 8 2 9 3 10 4 11 5 12 6 13 7 14 8 15 9 16 10 .23 P (1) A(2) Q(3) S (4) B (5) C (6) R((7) Here we find the count of the letters on a Board or in a picture. For finding a count of a collection. THE COUNT OF A COLLECTION.. WORKSHEET 3: STRAIGHT COUNTING. etc.

. Find the count of successive numbers beginning with 90 and ending with 99..3 A Most Important Observation about counting and the Count of a Collection Note that counting is done by picking objects in a collection and pairing each successive picked object with a successive number.3. we note all the possible line displays of these letters given below: . How many letters are there in the word M AT HEM AT ICS ? number. How many walls are there in the class room? Answer:. How many pages are there in your Math Book? 10.. What is their count? Write your answer as a word and as a number! 5. For example for counting the objects in the collection that contains the letters A. .. 3. How many successive numbers are there that begin with 35 and end with 50? 4. 2. 9. B ... How many houses are there on the street or lane where you live? Answer: . and C ..24 CHAPTER 2. How many legs does a Donkey have? 11. .. The first object picked in the process is paired with the number 1... 6. 2. And the count of the collection whose objects are paired with these one to one is the count of those successive numbers.. Count the number of chairs in the class room! Give your answer in the word form and also as a number. is that specific number. Line displays are helpful in counting but are not necessary to carry out the pairing process. What is the count of the successive numbers beginning with 1 and ending with 100. . How many words are there on page 20 of your Book? Answer: . Take a bag full of marbles and count them.. The count is the number with which the last picked object is paired. 2. That the process assigns a unique number as the count of a collection becomes evident when line displays are used for counting....3.. 7. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS The important thing to remember is that the count of a collection of numbers that contains all the successive numbers beginning with 1 and ending with a specific number. 8.2 Exercises 1.

Thus to find the count of a collection using a line display. 3. WORKSHEET 4: ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION A A B B C C 1 B C A C A B 2 C B C A B A 3 25 Here the last line that contains the successive numbers 1. The collection containing: three apples. we need use only one of several possible line displays. Question: How many line displays are there for the collection of letters A. most importantly. a pair..e. 1. 0. namely. 2. . and C ? Your Answer: .4 Exercises Find the count of each collection below by using a line display of items in the collection.4 Worksheet 4: Addition and Subtraction Common everyday problems point to the underlying concepts of Addition and of Subtraction of numbers. The Process of Subtraction: There is a basket containing some apples and we remove some apples from that basket..e. 5. and 0. But. Question: ”What is the count of apples in the basket after we have placed in some more apples in the basket?” Addition answers this question. and 3. subtracting) some objects from a collection. adding) more objects in a collection. each line display gives the same count for the collection. Display all possible line displays in each of the above exercises! What is the count of the line displays in each exercise? 2. The collection containing the symbols: ∅. Question: ”What is the count of .. shows the pairing and the fact that the count of the collection is 3 for each line display. B . 4. Straight counting is used to find the answer. and a banana. 2. and two bananas. The collection containing the numbers: 21 and 12. It shows that different line displays give the same count. Consider the two processes on examples: The Process of Addition: There is a basket containing some apples and we place some more apples into that basket. 2.3. the number 3 for the count of the collection. Subtraction conceptualizes the process of removing or taking out (i. Addition conceptualizes the process of putting or placing (i.4. The collection containing: an apple.2.

We may line display the objects in the following form (without showing the boxes). add) the apples from the basket on the right to the basket on the left. we may start with the display of objects in a collection whose count is expressed as a sum of two numbers: Consider the objects of a collection whose count is 2 + 3 and it indicates that the collection is obtained by adding a collection of 3 objects to a collection of 2 objects. The basket on the right has three apples in it.26 CHAPTER 2. The result is represented by the picture Note that the left basket has five apples (Why?) and the right basket is empty (Why?). The problem of finding the number represented by the symbol ’5 + 3’ is solved by straight counting to get the answer 8. For the visualization of the number ’2 + 3’. In this case we will use the symbol ’3 + 2’ to represent the count of apples after the move. A pictorial illustration of the process of addition using dots (think of each dot as representing an apple) is as follows: The picture represents two baskets of apples. This means that 5 + 3 = 8.e. The symbol is simply read as ”five plus three” or as ”3 added to 5”. Now note that both symbols ’2 + 3’ and 5 represent the count of the apples in the left basket after completing the process of moving apples from the right basket to the left basket. We may indeed want to move the apples in the left basket (that has two apples) to the basket on the right (that has three apples). The basket on the left has two apples (represented by two dots). . The count of the apples in the left basket (after the move) is 5. The symbol ’5 + 3’ is used and it identifies the count of apples in the basket after we have added the 3 apples in the basket. We move (i. This results in the right basket having five apples and so we write ’3 + 2 = 5’. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS apples in the basket after we have removed some apples from that basket?” Subtraction answers this question. We put (place or add) 3 more apples in this basket. Note that the left basket is now empty. The resulting picture will be The result of moving (adding) two apples in the left basket to the three apples in the right basket is now represented by the symbol ’3 + 2’. Straight counting is used to find the answer. since we now are adding two apples to the basket that already has three apples. and the result of addition along with the resulting notation. Notation for Addition: A basket has 5 apples. The examples that follow explain the underlying notation for addition and subtraction. This says that the result of adding 3 to 2 is 5. This shows that the sum ’2 + 3’ number is the same as the number 5 and we write ’2 + 3 = 5’.

2.4. WORKSHEET 4: ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION

27

or they may be displayed in two rows in the form

The first display suggests visualizing addition in the form + which suggests writing addition in the form 2+3=5 The second display suggests visualizing addition in the form =

+ = which suggests writing addition in the form 2 3 5 2 3 5

+ =

or

+

Combining collections of objects and the resulting relationship between the counts has motivated the concept of addition of numbers. The result of adding the two numbers 2 and 3 can be expressed in the form ”2 + 3 = 5” or ”3 + 2 = 5”. Since both sums equal the same number 5, we conclude that the sums are equal, i.e., 3 + 2 = 2 + 3. This conclusion is a property of the operation of addition. It is called the commutative property as it holds for all numbers. It is expressed symbolically by writing m + n = n + m, where m and n stand for any given numbers. Thus without finding the actual count of the combined collection we can say that 5 + 6 = 6 + 5, 123 + 7 = 7 + 123, etc., N otationf orSubtraction: A basket has 5 apples. We remove (subtract) 2 apples from this basket. The symbol 5 − 2 is used and it identifies the count of apples in the basket after removing 2 apples from the basket. The symbol is simply read as ”five minus two” or as ”2 subtracted from 5”. The problem of finding the number represented by the symbol ’5 − 2’ is solved by straight counting to get the answer 3. This means that 5 − 2 = 3.

28

CHAPTER 2. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS

2.4.1

The concept of an empty collection and its count

When we think of a collection we think of certain objects. Thus ’Almonds in a bag’, ’Chairs in a room’, ’children in a class’, ’Bananas in a bunch’, are all examples of collections. The count of a collection refers to the objects only. The bag, the room, the class, and the bunch in the above examples were containers of those objects that were counted. Indeed, if the same objects were placed in a different container, the count will be the same. Now consider the concept of subtraction and the notation used for it. Subtraction identifies the count of a collection after removal of some objects from a given collection. Thus ’3 − 1’ identifies the count of a collection after one object has been removed from the collection that had three objects before removal. If we had removed all three objects, we clearly can identify the result by the symbol ’3 − 3’. However, now we have an empty container and no number (count) to identify the symbol ’3 − 3’ as a number. To rectify this situation, one introduces the notion of an empty collection: ’An empty collection is a container with no objects in it’. Now note that we have used the numeral ’0’ like an alphabet to write numbers. The un-ending succession of numbers used for counting starts with the number ’1’ but does not contain 0 as a number for counting. We have conceptualized an empty collection as a container without any objects in it. We now assign the numeral ’0’ as a count of an empty collection and from now on we call ’0’ as a number just like the numerals 1, 2, 3, etc are numbers. It allows us to answer questions like ’3 − 3 =?’, ’234 − 234 =?’, etc., by writing ’3 − 3 = 0’, ’234 − 234 = 0’, etc. We will see later the numeral 0 has a deep meaning in the notation that we use for numbers. Each of the ten numerals in a number has a place in that number that will identify a value called the place value. Since the system uses ten numerals we call it as ’Base ten number system’. By conceiving 0 as a number we have extended the succession of the counting numbers to the un-ending succession of numbers displayed below

The extended succession of numbers 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1 11 21 31 41 51 61 71 81 91 . 2 12 22 32 42 52 62 72 82 92 . 3 13 23 33 43 53 63 73 83 93 . 4 14 24 34 44 54 64 74 84 94 . 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 95 . 6 16 26 36 46 56 66 76 86 96 . 7 17 27 37 47 57 67 77 87 97 . 8 18 28 38 48 58 68 78 88 98 . 9 19 29 39 49 59 69 79 89 99 .

2.4. WORKSHEET 4: ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION

29

We call this as the succession of whole numbers. Here the successor of the number 0 is the number 1 and 0 + 1 = 1 and 1 + 0 = 1. The table that follows is called the addition table. It identifies all the sums like 3 + 5, 7 + 5, 0 + 0, etc,. To see that ’2 + 5 = 7’, we look at the underlined ’2’ in the left most column, and the underlined ’5’ in the top row. The answer ’7’ appears at the junction of the row containing the underlined ’2’ and the column containing the underlined ’5’. ADDITION TABLE + 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 3 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 4 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 5 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 6 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 7 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 8 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 9 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

The table contains answers to one hundred sums. Students should establish all these sums by the method of straight counting. They should clearly conceptualize the correctness of sums like ’0 + 0 = 0’, ’2 + 0 = 0 + 2 = 2’ using the concept of an empty collection and its count.

2.4.2

Exercises

Use the method of straight counting to establish the sums using pictorial illustrations. 1. 5 + 7 = ...?, 2 + 2 = ...?, 1 + 0 = ...? 2. Verify the correctness of your answer from the addition table. 3. 5 − 2 = ...?, 9 − 5 = ...?, 7 − 7 = ...?. 4. 67 + 1 = ...?, 100 + 1 = ...?, 769 + 1 = ...?. 5. 786 + 2 = ...?, 788 + 2 = ...?, 788 + 4 = ...?. 6. 2 + 786 = ...?, 2 + 788 = ...?, 4 + 788 = ...?.

The process of of subtracting a single item from a collection (this means subtracting 1 from a number) whose count is given may be displayed as shown in the two examples below: − 4 ∗ 3 and 4 − 234 ∗ 233 Note that 3 is the predecessor of 4. Straight counting tells us that 4 + 1 = 5. We recognize now that 5 is the successor of 4. and pronounce that he has five coins. the child starts with the count two of the coins in one pocket and continue to straight count by recalling the next three successive numbers three. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS 2. For example. How many coins does the child possess? If the question is put to the child. and five to triumphantly say that he has five coins. if the count of a collection is 4 and we add a single item to it. say the count three. and 23 is the successor of 22. and continue to straight count by recalling the next two successive numbers four and five that come after three.. . namely Subtracting 1 from a non zero number gives its predecessor.1 Adding or Subtracting 1 Adding 1 to a number is motivated by adding a single item to a given collection. And if we start with a count of 22 and add one item then the count after addition is 22 + 1. Straight counting gives the predecessor in this case. and 233 is the predecessor of 234. namely. The count of the collection after adding a single item is obtained by adding 1 to the count of the collection before the addition.30 CHAPTER 2. he may start with the count of the coins in one pocket. and 22 + 1 = 23. The process of adding a single item to a collection (this means adding 1 to a number) whose count is given may be displayed as shown in the two examples below: + 4 ∗ 5 and + 234 * 235 Similarly.5. Or alternately. Thus 4 + 1 = 5. This points to a universal rule. etc. 2. The child has indeed mastered the art of straight counting and the process of addition of two numbers using straight counting. 234 + 1 = 235. four. Subtracting 1 from a number is motivated by removing a single item from a nonempty collection. then the count after addition is 4 + 1. Adding 1 to a number gives its successor.5 Worksheet 5: Using Straight Counting to Add or Subtract A child has two coins in one pocket and three in the other pocket. consider removing a single item from a non empty collection. This points to the universal rule for subtracting 1 from a non zero number (remember that we can not remeove any item from an empty collection).

we notice that for answering ’3 + 2 =?’. Illustration + 2 2. Under the first star is the number 3 showing that when we add one object to the given two the count becomes 3.5. The steps also indicate that the child adds ’1’ three times to the number ’2’ to get the result 2 + 3 = 5. + 2 ∗ 3 ∗ 3 ∗ 4 ∗ 3 ∗ 4 ∗ 5 .e. and 2 + 3 = 5’ to conclude 2 + 3 = 5. ’2 + 2 = 4’.. Which allows us to conclude that (3 + 1) + 1 = 3 + (1 + 1). This means that to add 2 we actually add 1 twice. five’ to conclude 2 + 3 = 5.2. Some examples are 1. Such illustrations can be used to see the truth of many statements. . The two steps can be combined to write 3 + 2 = (3 + 1) + 1 = 4 + 1 = 5.i. Then adding the second star (that means adding teo stars) the count becomes 4. Illustration + 2 3. 2 + 3 = 5. five’ and states the answer as ’5’. It says that 3 + 1 = 4. 2 + 1 = 3. and 3 + 2 = 5. The second row continues after the seperating vertical line with the successive numbers 3. He thus pronounces the three successive numbers that come after two to get the answer ’5’. WORKSHEET 5: USING STRAIGHT COUNTING TO ADD OR SUBTRACT31 2. This illustration answers the three questions ’2 + 1 = 3’. 2 + 1 = 3. four. meaning 2 + 2 = 4. Similarly. He has thus pronounced the two successive numbers that come after ’3’ to answer the question. and 5 that come after 2.5. 2 + 2 = 4. in answering 2 + 3 =?. we can write 3 + 2 = 3 + (1 + 1). the child loudly says ’four. Since 2 = 1 + 1.2 Adding any number In the example of the child at the beginning. Finally adding the third star we get ’2 + 3 = 5’. the child loudly says ’three. We may illustrate this as + 3 ∗ 4 ∗ 5 The illustration in fact answers the two questions ’3 + 1 =?’ and ’3 + 2 =?’. This is illestrated below + 2 ∗ 3 ∗ 4 ∗ 5 In this illustration we are adding three objects represented by three stars in the first row to the two objects whose count 2 is noted as the first number in the second row. 4.

Thus to add 2 to any number.... ? 15 + 5 = . + 75 ∗ 76 ∗ 77 ∗ 78 ∗ 79 6.... ? 75 + 5 = . we think of adding two items to a collection.. ? (b) 15 + 3 = .. ? 1..... ? 95 + 5 = . ? (d) 95 + 3 = ..... 4 + 75 = 79... Thus to find 5 + 2 we write 5 + 2 = (5 + 1) + 1... Similarly. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS ∗ 238 ∗ 239 ∗ 240 5. one item at a time...... Since 4 + 75 = 75 + 4 by the commutative property. 2.. ? 75 + 6 = . 2 + 3 = 3 + 2....... adding 3 to a number is obtained by adding three items to a collection. ? 75 + 4 = .32 4.. ? 95 + 4 = .3 Addition Exercises: (a) 5 + 3 = ... Note the four stars in the first row.. For addition we write the succession of Successors of the given number... can be used to find the sum of any two numbers....... ? 5 + 5 = .. This allows us to conclude 5 + 2 = (5 + 1) + 1 = 6 + 1 = 7.. Extending the above idea. ? (c) 75 + 3 = . Illustration + 237 CHAPTER 2. ? 95 + 6 = .. we may illustrate as below to conclude ’4 + 3 = 7’...... we illustrate 75 + 4 = 79.. ? 15 + 4 = .... one item at a time. Adding singles ..... 230 + 2 = (230 + 1) + 1 = 231 + 1 = 232..... + 4 To find the sum 3 + 4 we may display + 3 ∗ 4 ∗ 5 ∗ 6 ∗ 7 ∗ 5 ∗ 6 ∗ 7 and conclude that 3 + 4 = 7... This is correct as both sums equal the samr number 5 as seen from the two illustrations + 2 ∗ 3 ∗ 4 ∗ 5 and + 3 ∗ 4 ∗ 5 As another example consider finding the sum 4 + 3 =?... ? 5 + 6 = .. Thus to find the sum 5 + 3 we write 5 + 3 = ((5 + 1) + 1) + 1 = (6 + 1) + 1 = 7 + 1 = 8.. 237 + 3 = 240.. ? 15 + 6 = ....5... They represent adding four object to three.. The knowledge that adding 1 to any number gives its successor... ? 5 + 4 = ..

.. for example... we simply write the predecessor of 3. Similarly. ?19 + 15 = . The answer can be obtained by removing one object at a time until two objects are removed. This gives the answer 3 − 1 = 2.. Moreover we cannot subtract a number that follows the given number in the succession of numbers....... and 34. 1..5 Subtraction Exercises..?? (b) 6 − 0 = .? 13−7 = .. ? 3 + 30 = ... ? 3 + 20 = ........ WORKSHEET 5: USING STRAIGHT COUNTING TO ADD OR SUBTRACT33 2.? 17−8 = ...4 Subtracting any number We have already noted that subtracting the number 1 gives the predecessor..... ? 3. (c) 15−4 = ..... ? (b) 14 + 10 = ...? 15−6 = . We must always keep in mind that just as we cannot remove any items from an empty container.. we cannot subtract any number from 0.. which is the result of removing one object from a collection of count 3. and 34 − 1 = 33.? 0 − 0 = . 121 − 124 are meaningless....... and 3 − 2 = 1 as the result of removing two objects.. ? (b) 75 + 39 = ..2... We will learn later that by extending the number system we can subtract any number from a given number. More Adding (a) 14 + 15 = . Subtraction conceptualizes the removal of objects from a given collection. respectively... For subtraction we write the succession of predescessors of the given number.... This may be displayed in a similar way to that adopted for addition.... 37.......... For example....5.? 8 − 4 = . to answer ’3 − 1 =?’. Adding tens (a) 3 + 10 = .. ? 2.... This means that expressions like 3 − 5..............5. just as we can add any number to a given number. ? 14 + 30 = ....... ? 14 + 80 = .. The resulting count after removal is the answer......?.. ? 14 + 16 = ..? 7 − 3 = ....... ? 14 + 17 = . the second example shows 37 − 1 = 36 and 37 − 2 = 35. The illustration below displays the subtraction in the two cases − 3 ∗ 2 ∗ 1 and 37 ∗ 36 ∗ 35 Note that in the first example we have 3 − 1 = 2 .... 2.. respectively.. ? 3 + 70 = ..5... and ’34 − 1 =?’..? 2 − 3 = .... answering the question ’3−2 =?] or ’37−2 =?’ is conceived as removing two objects from a collection whose count is 3.? . ? 14 + 20 = . Substacting single numbers (a) 3 − 1 = ...? 15−5 = .

’equal to’ that we use in our every day language to express a form of comparison of two objects. ’>’..?. . CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS (d) 25 − 4 = .6. ’>’. In such a write-up the three dots between numbers represent the successive numbers between the number on the left of the dots and the number on the .. And this is just the right answer. (a) 16 − 11 = . ... .? 2.? 25 − 6 = . and 75 > 69.? 2. and ’<’ ’a = b’ simply means that the letters ’a’ and ’b are used for or represent the same object.... Thus ’a = 3’ simply says that the letter ’a’ stands for the number ’3’. since the numbers 2 and 3 are not the same we cannot write 2 = 3.. (b) 17 − 18 = . So far we have used numbers to express counts. The intuitive idea of a collection having more objects than another collection is made precise by using these symbols. and ’=’ are used in a manner to give meaning to the expressions like ’less than’..? 16 − 10 = .. Thus 5 > 3. . The expression m > n means the same as the expression n < m. < n < ..? 81 − 7 = ... This means that the number m comes after the number n in the succession of whole numbers.. It is read as ’n is less than m’. bigger than’. we write ’m > n’ whenever the number m comes after the number n in the succession of numbers.2 The order among Whole Numbers 0 < 1 < 2 < 3 < . When there is a need to emphasize that letters ’a’ and ’b’ represent different objects we express it by writing ’a = b’. Thus ’2 = 3’ simply asserts that the numbers 2 and 3 are not the same or are different.6...6 Worksheet 5: The Order among numbers: Meaning of <. In particular. >. All these statements mean only that a count of 10 is greater than a count of 8. You could also say that Ram has more than Shyam or that Shyam has less than Ram. 2. The same is conveyed in symbols by writing ’10 > 8’ or by writing ’8 < 10’.....1 Using the symbols ’=’. We read the statement ’m > n’ as ’m is greater than ’n’. ’smaller than’. . Subtracting any number.34 CHAPTER 2. < 9 < 10 < . < m < . Ram has 10 rupees and Shyam has 8.. ’greater than’. Thus 3 < 5 and 69 < 75... Given two numbers m and n... = The symbols ’<’. The order among successive whole numbers is expressed as follows 2. .. . We simply say that 10 is greater than 8 or that 8 is less than 10. Who has more money? Many of you will answer that Ram has more money. .....

..7 23.303 303. After bagging you may be left with some loose almonds...... 9.. Arrange the numbers 8.. 3 in descending order! Answer: 9. each containing tem almonds...32 32. Arrange the numbers 35.. . 15.. Indicate the order among the pairs of numbers 0.. Question: What do the three dots between the number m and the number n signify? Question: What do the three dots after the number n signify? 2.. 3.. 9. You have made as many bags as possible... 2 in ascending order! Answer: 2... . each bag containing ten almonds..5... 6... 4. . . 1. .. Thus the first occuring three dots stand for ˙ < 7 <8 4 < 5 <6 The next occurring three dots stand for all the successive numbers that come after 10 but that are before the number m..... 4... 45... .. 9. 5... WORKSHEET 6: COUNTING IN GROUPS AND THE PLACE VALUE NOTATION35 right of the dots. and the number 3 in the box on the right indicates that the right box contains three loose unbaged almonds.. Note that 9 > 8 > 3..23 3.3 2. 3...... the number 1 in the left box indicates that the left box contains one bag of almonds (remember that each bag has ten almonds in it)..6. 7.... Arrange the numbers 7. 10. 8. 25. 55 in descending order.... Arrange the numbers 12.. 2 in ascending order! Answer: . 3...... 1 in ascending order! Answer: .7. but their number will not be more than nine (Why?).... Arrange the numbers 0. The box on the left contain the bags containing ten almonds each that you have made and the one on the right contains any left over unbaged loose almonds.3 Exercises 1. You will make a profit if you make bags where each bag contains ten almonds and you sell each bag of almonds for rupees five. Note that 2 < 7 < 9. So you start making bags of almonds.. For selling the almonds you display them in two boxes.. 25. In the picture below. 5....7 Worksheet 6: Counting in Groups and The Place Value Notation Imagine that you have a box full of almonds and you want to sell them. Answer: 2.2.

1 0 2.. = . almonds. How many almonds in the right box? Answer: ... How many almonds in the right box? Answer: ..... ... bags = ... 2. How many almonds in the right box? Answer: .......... + .1 Exercises: Answer the following questions by looking at the displaysthat follow the question: 1..... Question: How many bags of almonds are in the left box? Answer: .... 2 0 4... . How many in both boxes? Answer: .... = ... = ..... How many almonds in the left box? Answer: 1 bag = 10 almonds. almonds. + .... = ..36 CHAPTER 2..... Question: How many bags of almonds are in the left box? Answer: .... Question: How many bags of almonds are in the left box? Answer: ... ........ How many almonds in the right box? Answer: 3 almonds...7. bag......... almonds.. almonds. How many almonds in the left box? Answer: . CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS 1 3 Question: How many bags of almonds are in the left box? Answer: 1 bag.. bags = ... almonds.. almonds. 1 4 3.. bag.... How many in both boxes? Answer: ........ How many almonds in the right box? Answer: . almonds.. Question: How many bags of almonds are in the left box? Answer: .. How many almonds in both boxes? Answer: ... bag.. + .. bag. How many in both boxes? Answer: .. almonds.. How many almonds in both boxes? Answer: 10 + 3 = 13 almonds.... 2 7 . How many almonds in the left box? Answer: .. + . How many almonds in the left box? Answer: . bags = . How many almonds in the left box? Answer: ... bags = ... ...

... almonds.7.. Keeping in mind the place values we write this in the form 32 + 25 = 57.. 3 2 2.. In this way each numeral in a number has a place value.7. we must keep this property of numbers in mind. + . since each bag contains 10 almonds. bags = ..3 Adding two digit numbers using place value Adding means combining two collections to get a single collection... since 2 + 5 = 7. This means that the first numeral 2 on the right of 32 stands for the number 2 or two singles. WORKSHEET 6: COUNTING IN GROUPS AND THE PLACE VALUE NOTATION37 5... While doing addition and subtraction we can add singles to singles and tens to tens to get the result. almonds. and the next numeral 3 stands for the number 30 or three tens.. since 3 + 2 = 5. . Question: How many bags of almonds are in the left box? Answer: . = . How many in both boxes? Answer: . How many almonds in the right box? Answer: .. How many almonds in the left box? Answer: . Consider adding the two collection 3 2 and 2 5 We may exhibit the addition and the answer in the form 3 2 + 2 5 = 5 7 Where the result of adding tens is the number 5.. bag.7..2. the value or number it stands for.2 Place value for two digit numbers We saw in the examples and exercises that a two digit number like 32 expresses the count of almonds in 3 bags of almonds together with 2 loose unbaged almonds which was expressed in the form 3 2 This shows that the number 32 is the sum 30 + 2. Thus in working with numbers.. and the result of adding singles is the number 7...... Another common form to express addition is ...... This is done on examples below: 2.

... This is an advantage over straight counting (Why is it an advantage?).. ?.. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS 3 2 5 2 5 7 + Here the numbers in the singles place are added to get the sum of singles. 13 23 . namely 2+5 = 7..4 Addition Exercises Use place values of numerals in a number to find the following sums: A.... So consider removing 25 objects from a collection that has 67 objects. And we only need to add one digit numbers no matter how large the numbers may be. The process of removing can be depicted in the form where we remove 2 bags from the tens box and 5 singles from the singles box to get the result. and the numbers in the tens place are added to get the number of tens.38 CHAPTER 2. ? B. 17 31 .7.. The result is exhibited in the bottom line...... 52 07 . 6 7 − 2 5 = 4 2 This result is written as 67 − 25 = 42. ? 79 + 20 = . 12 + 17 = .5 Subtraction using place value Subtraction means removing objects from a collection.7..... 2.. Remember that the count 25 consists of 2 tens and 5 singles... . 89 10 .... Observe that in adding we use place values until the operation is complete. Or one may use the form 67 25 42 - The result is obtained by subtracting the numeral in singles place from the numeral in singles place and subtracting the numeral in tens place from the numeral in tens place. 54 + 45 = .. namely 3 + 2 = 5... + + + + 2.

. the number of tens may be ten or more... 53 − 31 = . 59 07 ...... tens to tens... Thus we see that in the number 345. Let us say the counting stops with 3 bigbags....... the numeral 5 on the right represents the number 5 (5 singles).. WORKSHEET 6: COUNTING IN GROUPS AND THE PLACE VALUE NOTATION39 2. See that We have indeed 300 + 40 + 5 = 345. and hundreds to hundreds to get the count of the combined collection..2.. The following example illustrates this 3 4 5 + 4 3 1 = 7 7 6 The addition and result is exhibited in one of the following two forms: A. So the total count of almonds is 300 + 40 + 5 = 345 almonds. Combining two collections into a single collection can be done by adding singles to single. and the next box to its left contains 3 bigbags of almonds each containing ten bags each containing 10 almonds or 100 almonds altogether.... 12 − 2 = . 345 + 431 = 776 B.6 A.. For example in counting almonds it will mean that we have ten or more bags each containing ten almonds.. 2.... and 5 loose almonds..7 Place values in three digit numbers While counting a large collection in groups of tens. In this case we again bag ten bags of almonds in a bigbag. 55 − 15 = ..7... Each bigbag will contain ten small bags. 89 10 . B. the next numeral 4 represents four tens or a count of 40.. 4 small bags.7. The next box contains 4 bags of almonds each containing 10 almonds. so that a bigbag will contain 100 almonds. exercises 25 − 12 = . 23 23 . 79 − 22 = .... and the next numeral 3 to its left represents three hundreds or a count of 300.. .. We may depict the result in three boxes as follows: Display of 345 almonds 3 4 5 Here the box on the right contains 5 loose unbaged almonds..7. 47 31 .

8 0 .. If the counts of apples in the three baskets are...... 758 − 425 = ...?.?. then we may express the count of apples in the box by any of the six symbols 4 + 5 + 6. 567 + 2 = ...?.. Question: How do we exhibit the process and find the count of apples in the box. 9 0 ......... 7 4 3 4 3 1 5 1 4 2. 2 2 .. 5 + ....9 Adding more than two numbers Consider that you have three baskets of apples and you transfer the the apples in the baskets in to a box. As an example consider 7 4 5 − 4 3 1 = 3 1 4 The subtraction and result is exhibited in one of the following two forms: A. 1 5 . 323 − 122 = . 5 + 6 + 4. 6 + 4 + 5.?. ! 3 .... 5 .. 0 9 .40 CHAPTER 2.. + 2 3 .. Exercises 123 + 321 = .. 745 − 431 = 314 B.. say..8 A.... subtraction can be carried out by subtracting singles from singles. 7 0 .... . B..?.. 320 − 120 = . 567 − 2 = .. 3 2 . 5 4 . and 6.. tens from tens and hundreds from hundreds.. 1 0 . 6 + 5 + 4.. 7 1 .... 3 2 .?. 8 0 ... 9 3 . + 3 5 ..... 5... 5 5 .?....7.. 2 0 ... 708 + 191 = ... 7 1 .. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS 3 4 7 4 3 7 5 1 6 + Similarly... 320 + 129 = ...7... 5 + 4 + 6.... 6 5 .. + C. D... 4 + 6 + 5...?.... 2 7 . 5 4 ....... 4.. 2.

2. This is an important property of addition and we call it the Associative Property of Addition. however. and then to add the third number 6 to the sum of the first two. Both calculations tell us that the count of apples in the box is the number 15. p it is stated in the form (m + n) + p = m + (n + p) The associative ptroperty of addition is the second important property of addition. In this fashion we calculate 4 + 5 + 6 = (4 + 5) + 6 = 9 + 6 = 15. For any three numbers m. m+n=n+m The commutative together with the associative property of addition ensure that all the six symbolic expressions at the beginning of this section represent the same number. We could also carry out the calculation by first adding the last two numbers. Note that this gives meaning to the symbol ’4 + 5 + 6’. The calculation can be made by any of the two ways of calculation that were used above to calculate the sum ’4+5+6’. The method certainly works because we add only two numbers at a time throughout the process. . WORKSHEET 6: COUNTING IN GROUPS AND THE PLACE VALUE NOTATION41 We expect each of these symbols to represent the same count. Indeed as we expect. So we calculate 4 + 5 + 6 = 4 + (5 + 6) = 4 + 11 = 15. First. namely. The important observation is that each of two expressions ’(4 + 5) + 6’ and ’4 + (5 + 6)’ allows us to calculate the required count and they both give us the same number.7. we would like to use this knowledge to carry out the addition of three numbers. The method also tells us how to calculate sums containing more than three numbers. + . So we write. The first was the Commutative Property of addition of any two numbers m and n. This is as expected. we must carry out the addition. n. The brackets in form (4 + 5) + 6 tell us to add first the first two numbers 4 and 5. But we want to be sure of that. For example to calculate the number expressed by the symbol ’4 + 5 + 6 + 7’ we do the calculation as follows 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 = ((4 + 5) + 6) + 7 = (9 + 6) + 7 = 15 + 7 = 22. Since we only have learned to add two numbers at a time. say the sum 4 + 5 + 6 in the form (4 + 5) + 6.

....... = . + ... 2.. We made bags each containing ten almonds.. (d) 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = (1 + 2) + (3 + 4) = .. + . + 4 = ... = ......... Now you have baged the almonds you had in bags containung ten almonds and bigbags contain one hundred almonds and you also have some loose unbaged almods... + ...) + ... + 3) + 4 = ..... . + ........ = ... = .. An easier way is to group the sum (since we only add two numbers at a time) and see that the sum is (5 + 5) + (5 + 5) + (5 + 5) + (5 + 5) + (5 + 5) = 10 + 10 + 10 + 10 + 10 = 50 This calculation says that we must sell each bigbag for rupees fifty...... the display of almonds will change.......... 12 + 21 + 33 = (............ CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS 2.8 Worksheet 7: Selling Almonds In this section we learned to count in groups of ten.. You will sell each bigbag of almonds for rupees fifty.) = ......... Find the indicated sums (a) 5 + 6 + 7 = (5 + 6) + 7 = . You can certainly find the answer be straight counting... (g) 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 = ((4 + 4) + (4 + 4)) + (4 + 4) = (8 + ....10 Exercises 1.... (c) 7 + 6 + 5 = (7 + 6) + 5 = ......... We wanted to make a profit by selling each bag of ten almonds for rupees five..... and bgbags each containing one hundred almonds.) + (... + ..... So let us start selling.. 3.. + .)+3 = .. = ..42 CHAPTER 2. + . 10 + 11 + 12 + 13 = (. = ......+.......... You now display them to sell and your display is Display of almonds 3 4 5 Money in box 0 rupees Think that after you sell some almonds to a customer. and you decide to sell each loose almond for rupee one.. Let us fix the price for each bigbag containing one hundred almonds..... each bag of almonds for rupees five....... (f) 3+3+3+3+3 = ((3+3)+(3+3))+3 = (..... + 5 = .. = ...) + .. + 7 = ..... 2......+3 = . So with each customer we shall see how much money we get and the display for the next customer... (b) 5 + 6 + 7 = 5 + (6 + 7) = 5 + .... Since thre are ten bags of almonds in each bigbag and each bag sells for five rupees... (e) 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = ((1 + 2) + 3) + 4 = (.7... the price of the bigbag will be 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5.....

The third customer: Can I have three bags of almonds please? You: Certainly. If you sold all your almonds to the first customer that comes. 20 for the bags. then you will get 150 for the bigbig bags. The first customer: Can I have three almonds please? You: Certainly. The display of almonds and the money in your money box after the second customer is Display of almonds 3 2 2 Money in box 13 rupees Justify The change in the display after the second customer! Now you attend the next customer. The actual process of sales goes as follows. You pick three almonds from the loose almonds box and you hand them to the customer and ask for rupees three (each loose almond sells for rupee one).8. You pick two bags of almonds from the box containing bags and you hand them to the customer and ask for rupees ten (each bag of almond sells for five rupee ). The customer pays you fifteen rupees. The display of almonds and the money in your money box after the first customer is Display of almonds 3 4 2 Money in box 3 rupees Justify The change in the display after the first customer! Now you attend the next customer. The second customer: Can I have two bags of almonds please? You: Certainly. 2.2. Now you ask the customer for fifteen rupees (the price of three bags). WORKSHEET 7: SELLING ALMONDS 43 1. You put the money in your money box. So you actually take one bigbig bag from the bigbig bags box (it contains ten bags) and you give the customer three bags out of it and put the remaining seven bags in the bags box. The display of almonds and the money in your money box after the third customer is Display of almonds 2 9 2 Money in box 28 rupees . 3. 4. and 5 for loose almonds for a total of 150 + 20 + 5 = 175 rupees. You put the money in your money box. You think since you do not have three bags in the bags box. The customer pays you ten rupees. The customer pays you three rupees. You put the money in your money box. This is your expected sale proceeds.

The fourth customer: Can I have one bag of almonds and three almonds for my three kids lease? You: Certainly. You thank the customer and put the money in your money box. The customer gives you the money and you put it in the money box to be ready for the next customer.44 CHAPTER 2. The fifth customer: Can I have one bigbag bag of almonds and three almonds for my three kids lease? You: Certainly. The display of almonds and the money in your money box after the sixth customer is Display of almonds 0 7 3 Money in box 142 rupees . You give the customer three loose almonds for the kids first and then a bigbig bag and ask for fifty three rupees. You think since you do not have three loose almonds in the loose almonds box. 5. The customer pays you eight rupees. Now you ask the customer for eight rupees (the price of one bag and three loose almonds). You give the customer three loose almonds for the kids first and then a bigbig bag and ask for fifty three rupees. 7. The display of almonds and the money in your money box after the fifth customer is Display of almonds 1 7 6 Money in box 89 rupees Justify The change in the display after the fifth customer! Now you attend the next customer. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS Justify The change in the display after the third customer! Now you attend the next customer. 6. The customer gives you the money and you put it in the money box to be ready for the next customer. The sixth customer: Can I have one bigbag bag of almonds and three almonds for my three kids please? You: Certainly. So you take one bag from the bags box (it contains ten almonds) and you give the customer three almonds for the kids and put the remaining loose almonds in the loose almonds box. Then you take another bag from the bags box to give the customer a bag that he asked. The display of almonds and the money in your money box after the fourth customer is Display of almonds 2 7 9 Money in box 36 rupees Justify The change in the display after the fourth customer! Now you attend the next customer.

. Division: It conceptualizes the process of repeated subtraction.. .. The seventh customer: Can I have one bigbag bag of almonds please? You: Sorry.. So you hand himm the seven bags and three loose almonds and ask for . How much money would you have if you had sold all your almonds to the first customer? Answer:.. Multiplication: It conceptualizes the process of repeated addition.... Customer: Well that will be O.2. How many apples are there in all the boxes in the warehouse? Answer:75+75+· · ·+75. Question: How many apples did the fruit seller buy? Answer: 75+75+75. Fill in the The display of almonds and the money in your money box after the seventh customer! Justify the numbers you fill! Display of almonds .. 8... WORKSHEET 8: MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION 45 Justify The change in the display after the sixth customer! Now you attend the next customer. I do not have them anymore. Money in box 180 rupees How much money you have in your money box? Answer:.......9 Worksheet 8: Multiplication and Division Addition and subtraction provide the basis for the two operations that are called multiplication and division. say...9. Customer: O. Try finding the above . Examples of repeated addition are 3 + 3 + 3. Let us say that each box of apples contains..... Why is your actual money more than your expected money. The customer gives you the price and you put it in the money box. 5 + 5 + 5 + 5.. The warehouse has.... but the calculation takes time when the sum contains many many numbers to add. I can sell you all that I have. A fruit seller buys 3 boxes of apples from the wholesale market... for now. 75 + 75 + 75.. . Consider the two processes on examples: The Process of Multiplication and its notation: Boxes of apples are stored in warehouses before they are brought to the market for sale to the fruit sellers.K.. but I will get more tomorrow.K. rupees. ... say 75 apples... but can I have some almonds? You: Certainly. where the three dots are used to indicate that the number 75 is erpeated 237 times in the eum 75 + 75 + · · · + 75 We have learned to add more than two numbers.. 237 boxes of apples ... Justify the difference! 2... A warehouse may have up to a thousand boxes of apples. ..

We note that 35 − 5 × 6 = 3.. i.9. Calculate 3 × 9..46 CHAPTER 2. until the basket is left with less than 6 apples. The objects in a collection whose count is 3 × 4 may be displayed as below * * * * * * * * * * * * . The answer is written in the form 35 = 5 × 6 + 3 or in the 3 form 35 6 = 5 + 6. Question: ”How many times the process was repeated and what is the count of apples left after the process stops? Division answers this question....e. Exercises: Write the numbers expressed in the multiplication notation as sums: 1. For example. The Process of Division and its Notation: A basket contains. visualizing the operation of addition using collections allowed us to see the two fundamental properties of addition. The next section introduces rectangular displays of objects in a collections which are helpful in understanding the notation and properties of multiplication. namely. The notion of multiplication helps here. Using multiplication notation the sum 75 + 75 + 75 is written as 3 × 75 which reads ’three times seventy five’. Similarly. the commutative property and the associative property of addition. at which time we cannot remove 6 apples and the process stops. Simply stated ’3 × 75 = 75 + 75 + 75’. we note that we must take out 6 apples from the basket five times when the process stops to leave three apples. The two symbolic expressions stand for the same number. Repeated sums when written in multiplication notation are called products. + . The visualization with line displays were helpful in straight counting (for finding the count of a collection) and for comprehending the process and the fundamental properties of addition and subtraction. So we need to find quicker ways to find the number represented by the sum. + ..1 Visualizing Multiplication and its Properties: We start with the display of objects in a collection whose count is expressed in the form of a product: For example the number 3 × 4 stands for the repeated sum 4 + 4 + 4 . We repeatedly remove (take out) 6 apples from the basket. 3 × 9 = ... Then we learned that group counting in groups of 10 is helpful in understanding the notation used for numbers and provides a different method for addition and subtraction (that uses place value) than straight counting.. to calculate such sums.. apples. 2.. Answer: 3 × 9 = (9 + 9) + 9 = 18 + 9 = 27... 75 + 75 + · · · + 75 = 237 × 75. 4. 6 × 11 = − − − − + − − − − + − − − − + − − − − + . The expression is read ’237 times 75’ and means that the number 75 is to be added 237 times. 3.. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS noted sum.. 2. Find the product 6 × 11. + . Since 5 × 6 = 6 + 6 + 6 + 6 + 6. say 35.

We conclude form this that 3 × 4 = 4 × 3 a property of multiplication called the commutative property. WORKSHEET 8: MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION 47 The same objects can also be displayed in the another form as below. 3 × 9. where the objects in each of the three rows are displayed in three columns * * * * * * * * * * * * This tells us that the count of objects is the same in each display. 7 × 9. Such rearrangement of objects in a display can be used to calculate the number represented by a product of two numbers.9.2. 4 × 9. 2. Visual means can also be used to find the counts.2 Exercises 1.Thus actual counting confirms the same. 8 × 9. Use any means to calculate: 9 × 9. 2 × 9. This provides a good visual means for finding the number 3 × 4 or 4 × 3. The second display has one column of 10 objects and a column of 2 objects for a count of 12. 6 × 9. 1 × 9. Actual counting of objects in any of the displays shows that the count of objects in each display is 12. 0×9 . we may rearrange the objects in any of these displays in the form * * or the form * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * The first display has one row of 10 objects and a row of 2 objects to give a count of 12.9. For example. 5 × 9.

48 CHAPTER 2. It identifies all the products like 3 × 5. say 9 by 2. and how many almonds were left in the bag?’ You can answer this question if you were counting the number of field workers who got two almonds each. You can continue to take out and give two almonds to a field worker as long as there are two or more almonds left in the bag.. and the underlined ’5’ in the top row. 2. 0 × 0. Imagine that you have a bag of almonds.3 Visualizing Division and its Notation Division is repeated subtraction. 7 × 5. Question: Why will the process stop? Answer: Becuse you can not take out two almonds now(the bag is left with less than two almonds). Dividing. MULTIPLICATION TABLE × 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 3 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 4 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 6 0 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 7 0 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 8 0 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 9 0 9 18 27 36 45 54 63 72 81 Use any means to verify entries in the multiplication table given above. This may be visualized as follows: Start with a line display of 9 objects. The process of taking out and giving two almonds will stop when you are left with less than two almonds in the bag. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS 2. You repeatedly take out two almonds at a time (perhaps to distribute to people working in the fields). To see that ’2 × 5 = 12’. we look at the underlined ’2’ in the left most column. as for example * * * * * * * * * . means finding the maximum number of times you can subtract 2 from 9 and to know what number is lefyt after subtraction process is complete.9. If the count of almonds in the bag is known you may repeatedly subtract the number 2 from the count of almonds in the bag until the result of repeated subtraction is 0 oe 1(the two numbers less than 2). That is when the process stops. Somebody may ask: ’How many times you took out two almonds from the bag. etc. The answer ’10’ appears at the junction of the row containing the underlined ’2’ and the column containing the underlined ’5’. The table that follows is called the multiplication table.

The 1 at the bottom of the second column is the remainder after the fourth step.9. the result may be obtained in two steps as shown below 2 9 4 5 4 1 2 2 4 Step 1 2 or even in one step as shown below 2 9 8 1 4 4 Step 1 . The repeated subtraction can be shown as 2 9 2 7 2 5 2 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 4 Step 1 2 3 4 The right column shows the number of times the number 2 has been subtracted in the marked step. 9 = 4 × 2 + 1. Each entry showing the number of times 2 was subtracted. At each step we may subtract 2 any number of times as long as subtracation can be carried over. The result may be written in one of two forms A.2. WORKSHEET 8: MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION 49 Now form groups of 2 objects each. This can help reduce the number of steps in which the final result is obtained. 2 =4+ 1 2 C. starting from the right or left as shown below * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Each display shows that you can subtract 2 from 9 four times and will be left with one object. The 4 at the bottom of the third column is the sum of the entries in the third column. For example. 9 ÷ 2 = 4 with remainder 1 9 B. This can be done by putting a vertical bar after every two successir eobjrcts. 9 − 4 × 2 = 1 D.

. 2. 2.6 Exercises 1. Whenever a number can be written as a product of two numbers... the divisor is a factor of the given number. It is sometimes 0... We also write 12 3 = 4 and 12 = 3. i. and 12 ÷ 4 = 3. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS The next example shows the division of 25 by 7. 3 or 4. 12 = 3 × 4....? . 5.?. the numbers 3 and 4 are factors of the number 12. 10 ÷ 4. where 12 is divided by one of its factors.9. 12 = 3 × 4.?... 36 ÷ 18 = .e. 21 ÷ 3 10 ÷ 3. 2... Calculate 10 ÷ 2... What is 12 ÷ 3 = .. 3. 51 ÷ 17 = 3.. In fact. Is 51 ÷ 1 = 51 true? Explain your answer.. Verify that 36 = 6×6 = 4×9 = 2×18 = 1×36..e. 36 9 = . 19 ÷ 3. or equivalently.?. Then answer: 36÷6 = .50 CHAPTER 2.?. 4. It calculates 25 ÷ 7. Verify that 17 × 3 = 51. for example... 7 25 21 4 3 3 Step 1 The calculation shows that 25 ÷ 7 = 3 with remainder 4. In fact this is always the case in any division by a factor. Find 17 ÷ 3. Thus since.?. 15 3 = .. Which numbers among 2. Note that the remainder is 0 in 12 ÷ 3..? 4.5 Products and Factors The process of division.. Explain why? 2.4 Exercises 1. One can easily see from the definition of a product that division by a factor has remainder 0. repeated subtraction shows that for any division problem the remainder is always less than the number with which we divide.. the numbers in the product are called factors of the given number. 4 2.. In such cases we symply express the result of division without specifying the remainder. 10 ÷ 5 3... What is 12 ÷ 4 = . Then answer the questions . Thus we write 12 ÷ 3 = 4. as well as in 12 ÷ 4.. 18 ÷ 3...9. whenever the remainder in division is the number 0. It is therefore customary to say that a number is divisible by another number...9.. 20 ÷ 3. i. 1. Explain why the expression 3 ÷ 0 has no meaning. 15 are factors of the number 15.

Similarly. The scheme of chosing a point and marking (or labeling) it with a number yields a unique point for each number and is described later. Its length is one centemeter. Inches and centimeters are only two of the commonly used units of measure. The length of this first one inch segment is one inch. 2. appears as follows and we call it a number line: The Number Line 0 1 2 3 . In the inch ruler the first one inch segment is shown divided into eight equal parts. 2. WORKSHEET 10. For this one starts with a line and choses two points marked with the numbers 0 and 1. 4. Measurements Besides counting. . The line marked with the successive numbers 0. There are measures of areas and volumes. etc. The segment between 0 and 1 is assigned the measure 1 unit and is called the chosen unit segment. which tell us how much space is taken by a liquid like water. milk. . A 6 inch ruler 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 A 10 centimeter ruler 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Note that the first one inch segment in the inch ruler is between the points marked with the numbers 0 and 1. .1 The measuring scale or Ruler. MEASUREMENTS 51 2.2.10. In the centemeter ruler the first one centemeter segment is shown divided unto ten equal parts and the remaining one centemeter segments are shown divided into two equal parts. 1. . Measuring is done using a scale. 3. 4. The Number Line: Shown below are a six inch ruler and a ten centimeter ruler. the first one centemeter segment in the centemeter ruler is between the points marked 0 and 1. We measure lengths or distances using a measuring tape.10 Worksheet 10.. etc. . To measure heaviness of an object we use weights. . The common feature of all types of measures is that they are stated by assigning a number and a unit of measure. the other major activity that helps explore the world around us is that of measuring. Then one choses other points on the line and marks them with the successive numbers 2. Then there are liquid measures.10. One may indeed designate any length as a unit length and make a scale or ruler that uses the chosen length as a unit of measure. 5. 3.

thereafter. the symbol |AB | is used to express the length of the segment AB and we also write |AB | = |AC | + |CB |. the segment AC is seen as being obtained by removing (subtracting) the segment CB from the segment |AB . Moreover. SUBTRACTION: In the same picture as above. This segment is the chosen unit of maeasure (like the inch or the centemeter). We also write |AC | = |AB | − |CB |. ADDITION: Consider the picture of a segment AB and a point C between A and B as shown below: A C B Here. . To measure a segment P Q as shown below P Q one alligns the end point P with 0 on the ruler and reads the mark on the ruler with which Q gets alligned. The segment between the points 0 and 1 is called the chosen unit segment. After this choice the point marked 2 is chosen so that 1 is between 2 and 0. and we write AB = AC + BC . and the segment between 1 and 2 equals (has legth equal to) the segment between 0 and 1. are chosen. the segment AB is called the sum of the segments AC and BC . and we write AC = AB − CB . The remaining points 3. that is has length one unit.10. . CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS The choice of points marked 0 and 1 is arbitrary. . 5. and the seqment between the point and its predesessor equals the segment between 0 and 1. .2 Principles of measurements of lengths 1.52 CHAPTER 2. Thus the segment has length of 3 centimeters as seen from the picture below: Measuring with a 10 centimeter ruler P 0 1 2 Q 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2. 2. as measured earlier is written |P Q| = 3 cm.. Thus the length of the segment P Q. 4. This reading gives length of the segment as a number of the units (inches or centimeters). Addition and Subtraction of segments. to ensure that each is brtween its successor and predecessor.

11... P R Q Answer the following questions.. cms... cms.. |RQ| = .. What is the length of the segment P Q in the picture in section 2.. |P R| = .. P R..cms. (b) |P R| + |RQ| = ...... 4..11.. 3. Measeure (find length of) the segment AB below in centimeters.11 Worksheet 11.... (c) |P Q| − |RQ| = ... = .. .... . = .. For this the accepted unit area is the area of a square whose sides are all of one unit length like the one below with side length equal to 1 cm: 1 cm2 area 2..1 Examples and Exercises First consider the example of a rectangle with adjecent sides of length 2 cm and 3 cm as shown below: . 2. + ... How many one inch segments are there in a six inch ruler? Answer:....... − . (e) |P Q| − |RQ| = ... (d) |RQ| + |P R| = . = .. WORKSHEET 11... A B 5.cms..3 Exercises: 1. + . How many one centemeter segments are there in a ten centemeter ruler? Answer:..10. Area Measure To measure an area we first establish a unit area..2. 2. Now measure it in inches... = ...10.2.cms. Measure the lengths of the segments P Q. AREA MEASURE 53 2. .. Answer: .... RQ in the picture below in centimeters.... .... ....... − . Answer:..... ..cms... (a) |P Q| = ..

divide into unit squares and find their areas. 1. Measure the sides of the three rectangles.54 CHAPTER 2. Area of square C = . cm2 .. Area of square B = 9 . This is shown below: Rectangle divided into six unit squares 2 1 0 1 2 3 By counting the number of unit squares into which the rectangle is divided we see that the area of this rextangle is 6 square centimeters which is written as 6 cm2 .. A B C Answer: Area of square A = 4 cm2 .. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS Rectangle with sides 2 cm and 3 cm This rectangle can be divided into 6 unit squares (the unit being the centimeter square).... . . 2.. divide into unit squares and find their areas. Measure the sides of the three squares below in centimeters.

... Cut a one meter length of string in two pieces. . . or volume. 3. or power.... or weight... 2. . Area enclosed by curve B = . This is the case with all types of measures. . ... .. and numbers that are called fractions..... WORKSHEET 12. 2. whether of length. We consider some cases to learn how fractional measures. More generally. 3.. or area. or energy. . Measure the sides of each of the simple closed curves. ....12 Worksheet 12. What is the length of each of the pieces? You can see intuitively that none of the numbers 1.. Area of rectangle B = . Area of rectangle C = . FRACTIONS AND FRACTIONAL MEASURES 55 A B C Answer: Area of rectangle A = .... Consider some examples... . arise in practice.. A B C Answer: Area enclosed by curve A = 6 cm2 . Fractions and fractional measures In measuring parts of a whole we frequently use numbers that are called FRACTIONS. divide into unit squares and find the enclosed areas.. ..12. ... ... in fact anything measurable. Area within curve C = .2.... 1. . can be used to represent the length of each piece. .

. three. .2). . 3. The next five pictures below show a unit segment (end points 0 and 1) divided into two. To see how fractions are used to indicate parts of areas. . Any point C on this segment divides the segment AB in to two segments AC and CB as shown below: A C B Here indeed by the accepted rules for addition of lengths. . . respectively. 2. 4. four. . . consider dividing a unit square into four equal parts. . then none of the numbers 1.56 CHAPTER 2. Consider any segment and label its end points as A and B . We may indeed divide a given segment into any number of equal parts. . . So that if for example. 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 are fractions which identify the dividing points on each segment. . 0 0 0 0 0 Here the numbers 1 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 . . In other words we need new numbers to represent such lengths. This is done in the three pictures below: 1 6 1 5 2 6 1 4 2 5 3 6 1 3 2 4 3 5 4 6 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 1 1 1 1 1 OBSERVE: The black area in each square is 1 4 unit squares. 3. five. . |AB | = 1 unit. and six equal parts. In general any number written in the form m n . CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS 2.10. we have |AB | = |AC | + |CB | and |AC | = |AB | − |CB | (see 2. . can be used to represent the lengths |AC | and |CB |. where m and n represent counting numbers of our choice is called a fraction. . .

surfaces. When the unit segment between 0 and 1 is divided into two equal parts.13.. 2. These are intuitively understood from physical obsvations. an area into two equal areas. The unit square on the right these four squares has area 4 is divided into four equal triangles. curves.2. surfaces.13. and space are collections of points. D next to the dots: C D A B . we simply say that each part is 2 original. Each of 1 unit squares. 2. They are thus abstractions of the perception left in our brain from certain physical examples or observations. In the map of a country the location of cities is indicated by dots on the map.1 How are fractions used to represent parts of a whole Whenever we divide something into two equal parts.. planes. Indeed points cannot be seen (though we tend to forget this). the dividing point marked by the fraction 1 2 is such that the segment between 0 and 1 1 equals the segment between and 1.13 Geometry The basic items in geometry are points. a volume into two equal volumes. 2 2 2. These are not defined (in spite of many books containing their so called definitions). a weight 1 (one half) of the into two equal weights. on a given curve or line or surface. Thus curves. lines. Points are represented by dots and named using capital letters. Some observations that help in the intuitive understanding are given below.1 POINTS: On a clear night the stars on the background of the sky are perceived as so many shiny dots. etc.12. Each of these four equal triangles has area 1 4 unit squares. and space. lines. planes.e. i. a legth into two equal lengths. The idea of a point is represented by a dot. Points represent location in space. B . C . GEOMETRY 57 Here the unit square on the left is divided into four equal squares. For example we have named below four points represented by four dots using letters A.

A simple type of exceptional point is an end point. running track in a school playground. An air plane moving through space moves on a curve in space.13. because planes extend indefinitely.58 CHAPTER 2. The use of the word ‘most’ suggests that there may be exceptional points on a curve. whereas space has no such limitation. An end point of a curve is a point such that one can only move to the point or from the . all suggest the idea of a curve. the top of a table. 2. The following are examples of curves: Curves have the inportant property that while moving along the curve one can move through most points on the curve in one direction or its opposite direction. a path around a lake. Each particle of air in the room representing a point in space. No physical representation gives any reasonable idea of space. a path in a jungle. The room is indeed limited by floor.2 PLANES: The idea of a plane is obtained by observing the surface of a calm lake. Table top and geometric plane 2. a river as seen from the window of a high flying airplane. ceiling and walls. though we think of space as the interior of the room we may be in. a rubber band. One must keep in mind that any physical object can only represent a part of a geometric plane.3 SPACE: We think of space as a collection of all points. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS 2.13. Thus the drawing or sketch obtained by moving a pen (or pencil) on a piece of paper provides a representation of a physical curve.13.4 Curves and Paths A piece of string. or any smooth flat surface like the floor or the wall of a room. the chalk board.

It is called simple. GEOMETRY 59 point but not through the point. A Path or a track is part of a curve with the property that one may move along the path from one point to another in one direction or in the opposite direction. The totality of all streets being the curve.5 Simple open and Simple closed Curves An open curve is distinguished by the property that for any two points A and B on the curve. namely the crossings of streets. Here are some examples of curves with two end points (dots represent end points). Thus the following figures show a curve with a direction of motion indicated by an arrow.2. Some more examples of simple open curves are A Line A B Segment with end points A and B A Ray with end point A A Angle with vertex A Angle with vertex A A . there is only one way or path to move from A to B without retracing any part of the path or moving through any point of the path more than once. Here the path (home to school) is part of the curve that represents all roads in the neighborhood in which the home and school are located. 2. if the only exceptional points (if any) are end points. Thus paths are simple open curves.13. We shall use the word ’path’ for a curve or part of a curve along which one may move from one point to another without reversing direction and passing each point of the path exactly once. A street map of a town or city showing all the streets is a general example of a curve that has many exceptional points. Thus a child going to school from home covers the path (home to school) in one direction and covers (or retraces) the same path (school to home) in the opposite direction.13. On a curve or path we shall indicate the direction of movement (when necessary) by means of an arrow.

The most common examples of such paths are a path around a lake or the oval shaped running track in a school playground.These properties may be thought of as intuitively clear. or an angle are basic common examples of simple open curves.60 CHAPTER 2. This means that all points on the curve are in a fixed plane. Two other examples of simple open curves with end points A and B are: B B A A 2. Observe also that a line has no end points. . The following are examples of simple closed corves: 2. and are part of a collection of accepted rules (also called axioms) of Euclidean Geometry. although there may be many many si mple open curves (with or without end points) that contain the two points. there is exactly one segment with end points A and B . Moreover. a segment. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS A line. In other words two given points determine a unique segment with the two given points as end points and also a unique line that contains the two points. All curves that are drawn on a chalk board or piece of paper are plane curves in the plane of the chalk board or the paper.6 A characteristic property of lines and segments It is important to observe that for any two points A and B . but many many simple open curves with end points A and B . They are accepted as true in School Geometry (also called Euclidean Geometry).13.14 Plane Curves In School Geometry one mainly studies curves that lie in a plane. a ray. there is only one line that contains the two points. The following are some general examples of curves (exceptional points that are not end points are marked by a dot): A path is said to represent a simple closed curve if one can ‘travel’ (or walk) along the path and get back to the starting point without retracing any part of the path or going through any point on the path more than once.

It has three sides and three angles. A SQUARE: . identify all three sides and angles of this triangle. The side marked is the segment with end points A and C . As an exercise. each of which is called a vertex of the triangle. i. Each side of a triangle is a segment with two of the vertices as end points. and C as marked C Side with end points A and C A B The angle at vertex B is marked. Many are made of segments like the following 1. TRIANGLES:Triangles are the most common and also perhaps most important examples of simple closed curves. Any two sides with a common vertex represent an angle of the triangle. only one plane can contain three points that are not on a line. a square. This means that only one plane can contain a line and a point that is not on that line. This is so. a rectangle. The triangle below has vertices A.. PLANE CURVES 61 Most common examples that are studied are of simple closed curves in a plane.2. B .14. and an ellipse. Their shapes are shown below 2.e. a circle. Other noteworthy simple closed curves in a plane that are of great interest and importance are. Some other examples of triangles are Every triangle is necessarily a plane curve. A line and a point that is not on the line also determine a unique plane. A triangle is formed by three points. as three points which are not on the same line determine a plane.

MORE CIRCLES: . CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS A Square 3. A RECTANGLE: A Rectangle 5. MORE SQUARES: 4. A CIRCLE: A Circle 7.62 CHAPTER 2. MORE RECTANGLES: 6.

14. PLANE CURVES 63 8. AN ELLIPSE: An Ellipse 9. if 2.2.1 Equality of Curves in a Plane: We call two planer curves as being the same or equal if the trace of one fits exactly the other. MORE ELLIPSES: A deeper study of these forms and disinguishing them from other forms and shapes the concept of equality of segments and angles as well as the notion of a right angle is used (this does not require measurements of segments and angles). As examples consider a segment and an angle and their .14.

In this case the two segments are equal. In Case 1 and Case 3 the trace does not fit the segment with end points C and D. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS traces shown below. . If it does. The curve is visible through the thin paper placed over it and one draws an exact copy of the curve on the thin paper with a pen or pencil. then the two curves are equal (or same). Trace of Angle Angle To assertain if two curves are equal (this means that one is an exact copy of the other). As examples consider the segment with end points A and B shown above and its trace. In these two case. The traces are shown as a dashed segment and dashed angle. A Segment Trace of segment A B B The picture below shows an angle and the trace of the same angle.64 CHAPTER 2. Case 1 C Segment Trace of segment A Case 2 C Segment Trace of segment A Case 3 C Segment Trace of segment A D B D B D B Only in Case 2 the trace of segment with end points A and B fits exactly the segment with end points C and D. Three possible situations arise when we try to place and fit the trace with three segments shown below with end points C and D. one makes a trace of one of the curves and then sees if the trace fits the other curve exactly. the two segments are not equal. otherwise they are un-equal. The traces are drawn on a thin (or tracing) paper placed over the curve.

2. A RIGHT CIRCULAR CYLINDER A Cylinder 5.15. A Sphere: A Ball or Sphere 2.15 Shapes of some surfaces and solids 1. A Cube A Cube 3. SHAPES OF SOME SURFACES AND SOLIDS 65 2. A BRICK or Rectangular Parallelopiped A Brick 4. A RIGHT CIRCULAR CONE .

66 CHAPTER 2. A PYRAMID A Pyramid 7. CLASS 2 WORKSHEETS A Cone 6. A PRISM A PRISM .

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