Page 1


A WEBOS can be taken as “A window manager running on the client, where apps are located in these windows as iframes. This is not really an operating system, rather a window manager, where apps are in draggable layers/windows as a part of the webpage, running JavaScripts supported by a JavaScript library and possibly by the server with a public API for that purpose. This API would have to have some limitations/restrictions or it would be plain dangerous security wise. “These are the new types of operating system where everything resides on a web browser. With WEBOS, you can have your desktop, applications and files always with you, from your home, your college, your office or your neighbour's house. Just open a web browser, connect to your WEBOS System and access your personal desktop and all your stuff just like you left it last time.”If we look at conventional operating systems they can be taken as the interaction between hardware and software via drivers the memory and execution of programs the layout, retrieval, and modification of files on disk user management, permissions, and preferences higher level functionality like networking and user interface widgets So we can see a WEBOS as “an applications run entirely within a web browser, but have the look and feel of desktop applications. An application's code and data reside remotely but are executed and modified locally. This model allows for a great deal of freedom. You can edit a document at home in a text editor and then go to school or work and instantly access the same text editor and document.” So by using these new types of logical operating systems we can have our own operating system wherever we go, we just need to have a login name and password. So Working out of internet cafes or libraries? Your desktop, applications, and data travel with you from cafe to cafe, session to session.

List of WEBOS where you can register and work independently of the location: Legion Globus Netsolve Globe GOST PVM AppLesS Broadway: For more information on WEBOS search in “WEBOS” in your favorite search engine. Just give trial to this great emerging tool that may make you location free computer freak. SHASHWAT SHRIPARV dwivedishashwat@gmail.com


Page 2


GET INSPIRED Narayana Murthy


ARTICLE SECTION Self-defending network Web 2.0 & web design It is more than storage problem Can computer think like human brain

3. -ITKnowledge is power in the modern intellectual society information technology is a part of advance knowledge .Through this we gain knowledge in different field like our communicational technology, computing technology, computing technology and different type of virtual reality technology. So today society’s life is changing day by day now it is information society, tomorrow it becomes knowledge society and after some time wisdom society. IT play an important role in each and every phase …







SOURCE CODE OF THE MONTH Locking folder without any software


TIPS AND TRICKS Hibernate Option In Windows Windows Firewall


GAGET FREAKS Morphing Mobiles


FROM YOUR PEN Give Feedbacks Contacts


Page 3


NAGAVARA RAMARAO NARAYANA MURTHY Nagavara Ramarao Narayana Murthy, better known as N. R. Narayana Murthy, is an Indian industrialist, software engineer and one of the seven founders of India‘s one of the largest IT company Infosys Technologies, a global consulting and IT services company based in India. He is currently the non-executive Chairman and Chief Mentor of Infosys. He was the CEO of the company for 21 years, from 1981 to 2002. After stepping down as CEO in 2002, he has broadened his scope of activities to social services as well as promoting India globally Mr. Murthy was born into a Kannada Madhva Brahmin family in Mysore, India on August 20, 1946, He graduated with a degree in electrical engineering from the National Institute of Engineering, University of Mysore in 1967 after attending government school, and received his master's degree from IIT Kanpur in 1969. His first position was at IIM Ahmadabad as chief systems programmer where he worked on a time-sharing system and designed and implemented a BASIC interpreter for ECIL (Electronics Corporation of India Limited). After IIM Ahmadabad, he then joined Patni Computer Systems in Pune. Before moving to Mumbai, Murthy met his wife Sudha Murthy in Pune who at the time was an engineer working at Tata Engineering and Locomotive Co. Ltd. (Telco, now known as Tata Motors) in Pune. In 1981, he founded Infosys with six other software professionals. He served as president of the National Association of Software and Service Companies, India from 1992 to 1994. Murthy served as the founder CEO of Infosys for 21 years, and was succeeded by co-founder Nandan Nilekani in March 2002. He is the chairman of the governing body of the International Institute of Information Technology - Bangalore, and was the Chairman of the Governing Body of the Indian Institute of Management, Ahmadabad. In addition he is the member of board in several national and international institutions. Mr. Murthy has been the recipient of numerous awards and honors like Padma Shri, Padma Vibhushan. He is a living legend and an epitome of the fact that honesty, transparency, and moral integrity are not at variance with business acumen. He set new standards in corporate governance and morality. Compiled by: Shashidhar Chaturvedi

Quotes “Our assets walk out of the door each evening. We have to make sure that they come back the next morning.” “Performance leads to recognition. Recognition brings respect. Respect enhances power. Humility and grace in one's moments of power enhances dignity of an organization,” “The real power of money is the power to give it away.” “In God we trust, everybody else bring data to the table.” “Progress is often equal to the difference between mind and mindset.” “I want Infosys to be a place where people of different genders, nationalities, races and religious beliefs work together in an environment of intense competition but utmost harmony, courtesy and dignity to add more and more value to our customers day after day.” "Ships are safest in the harbor but they are not meant to be there. They have to sail long and hard and face stormy seas to reach the comfort of a desirable destination"

MCA, ER&DCIT Trivandrum (CUSAT)

Page 4


Page 5

` Self-Defending Networks

• Self-Defending Networks helps networking professionals understand how to deploy an end-to-end, integrated network security solution. It presents a clear view of the various components that can be used throughout the network to not only monitor traffic but to allow the network itself to become more proactive in preventing and mitigating network attacks. Understanding Types of Network Attacks and Defenses • Categorizing Network Attacks

Introducing Self-Defending Networks • Self-defending networks differ from traditional network defenses in that self-defending networks have the capability to provide some amount of automatic protection of the network components and end-user workstations in the event of a network attack. The layered self-defending network includes components that can protect the network connections in the data center, at the remote or branch location, and at the desktop.

Network attacks can be categorized based upon the nature of the attack. Categories of network attacks include the following: 1. Virus 2. Worm 3. Trojan Horse 4. Denial of service (DoS) 5. Distributed denial of service (DDoS) 6. Spyware 7. Phishing Understanding Traditional Network Defenses

Self-defending network components include the following: DDoS mitigation, including DDoS Guard and DDoS Traffic Anomaly Detector • Adaptive Security Appliances (ASA) • Incident Control Service (ICS) • Network Admission Control (NAC) • 802.1x • Host intrusion prevention: Cisco Security Agent (CSA) • Cisco Security Centralized management

Traditional network defenses are composed of the following products: 1. Router access lists 2. Firewalls 3. Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) 4. Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) 5. Antivirus programs


Page 6


DDoS Mitigation Automatic or self-defending DDoS mitigation involves the automatic rerouting of the DDoS traffic while maintaining the valid network traffic connections. Cisco Guard and Detector appliances and Catalyst 6500/7600 DDoS service modules can provide this automatic DDoS mitigation by creating a baseline of normal network activity, detecting DDoS attacks and then automatically rerouting the DDoS. traffic away from the target servers by updating the routing tables. Adaptive Security Appliance ASA is an integrated and extensible security appliance product line from Cisco. ASA is an integration of the PIX firewall, Network IDS/IPS system, and VPN 3000 concentrator. This ASA appliance contains many selfdefending characteristics including inline IPS support, application layer inspection/enforcement, and SYN Cookie capabilities. These self-defending features can enable the ASA appliance to drop network attack connections and protect end servers and users from attacks by monitoring, inspecting, and restricting the network connection attempts to target devices. Incident Control Service Cisco also offers the ability to contain a worm infection within the network. The Cisco Incident Control Service (ICS) is developed in partnership with Trend Micro. The Cisco ICS provides automatic updates of new vulnerability updates from Trend Micro. The Cisco ICS also provides the ability to automatically update these Outbreak Prevention Signatures on ASA, IOS router, and IPS platforms. In addition to Outbreak Prevention Signature update, Cisco ICS also provides Outbreak Prevention ACL (access list) updates, which can recommend or automatically apply a new ACL to an IOS router or ASA device in the event that a network infection has been identified to the Cisco ICS.

Host Intrusion Prevention: CSA CSA provides host intrusion protection for users or hosts on the network. CSA can be considered the last line of the layered selfdefending network defense because CSA can prevent malicious behavior on a host, including attacks such as buffer overflow. CSA can be automatically and centrally updated with new policies to help protect against new network attacks. Cisco Security Centralized Management A good defense is typically a layered defense. This layered defense can be composed of router access lists and firewall service modules to protect the core network and data center, ASA to protect DMZs and the perimeter, NAC to provide secure network access at the perimeter, and CSAs to protect the server, workstations, and laptops. Cisco Security Centralized management can be divided into two main functional areas: Centralized configuration management products, like the Cisco Security Manager, enable hundreds or thousands of routers and security appliances to be configured with a consistent or coordinated security policy. Centralized monitoring products, like the Cisco Security MARS, receive monitoring events like sys log, SNMP Traps, IPS Secure Device Event Exchange (SDEE), and Remote Data Exchange Protocol (RDEP) events and can create an end-to-end picture of what is happening in the network based upon the monitoring events from the devices in the network. The Cisco centralized monitoring Cisco Security MARS product also adds a response or self-defending feature where Cisco Security MARS can create a recommendation on how to stop a network attack as well as enable IPS signatures on IOS routers with the Distributed Threat Mitigation (DTM) feature. VINEET PRATAP (MCA B6, ER&DCI-IT, C-DAC)


Page 7

I still remember the day around the mid of June when I was in 5 standard, the year being 2000 when a friend of mine with me went to a café‘ (an internet one!) to check the results of a Olympiad, just after 1 month of exam……..he said‖Are you gone nuts? They take at least 2 months to compile the solutions and you are telling that they have ‗Mailed‘ you our results RATHER than the school!(coz the school hadn‘t had any mail ID those days!),anyways I don‘t know how to create a mailed leave apart using one. Now this surely must have happened to many of us, say around 5-6 years back, when visiting a café‘ was ‗suspicious‘ :P and people were doubtful as to how to surf on net, because they thought it was difficult to manage net and to know more about it. Have you ever thought about the difference between using the Internet in the late 1990s and in 2007? The most important and revolutionary change that has come about on the net is the gradual rise of a new collaborative Web. This new Web environment has so become a part of our daily lives that the Time magazine named its Person of the Year for 2006 as 'You'. The decision was based keeping in mind the role played by this phenomenon in changing the way people use the Internet. According to the magazine: "The story of 2006 was a story about community and collaboration on a scale never seen before. It's about cosmic compendium of knowledge Wikipedia and the people's network YouTube and the online metropolis MySpace. It's about the many wresting power from the few and helping one another for nothing and how that will not only change the world, but also change the way the world changes." According to O-Reilly media, Web 2.0 refers to second-generation of web-based services - social networking sites, wikis, blogs, User Generated Content (UGC) - that accentuate online collaboration and sharing among users. It is an arena where the web is a dominant platform compared to the desktop.
Blogger,live journal,wordpress,open source publishing Wikipedia-The revolutionary trust Bit Torrent-The radical decentralization Google-Open source and ad sense revolutionist Del.icio.us and Flickr-Non taxonomy Social networkingRenaissance served on internet The user’s web platform ,user controls his/her data.


Features:  Now Internet users can contribute and create all types of content - from text (www.wikipedia.org) to pictures (www.photobucket.com) to videos (www.muvee.com) to personal information (www.hi5.com) to open source software (www.openoffice.org).  There are also a variety of innovative and rich Web 2.0 applications that are being used by youngsters, students and almost all who seek knowledge. The most prominent among them being Nuvvo (www.nuvvo.com), Schoolr (www.schoolr.com), Learn Without Limits

(www.learnwithoutlimits.com), and Qunu (www.qunu.com).
 Another reason for the immense popularity of the Web 2.0 concept is the continuous rise in the number of Internet users.  But despite low user involvement it can be said that the new collaborative Web has certainly changed the lives of Internet users  Web 2.0, seen by many as a confluence of technology, people, and their attitudes, has changed the way we think and use the Internet.


Page 8


WEBSITE DESIGN Just continuing from the point I left at the starting…how many times you thought that you can have your own Email ID say around 7 years back? It seemed to be almost a difficult thing to have…but now each and every clerk has one! Similarly now many of us dream to have one‘s own website say at a very basic level, a one way conversational site but we don‘t know how to make one, or don‘t have time for the same…….now its an everyone‘s cup of tea ill assure you! Just follow my experience and see if you could make one for yourself…….  As I mentioned about web 2.0, the major advantage of it is open source tech and free wares and non taxonomy which means everything which is meant to be free IS free……and believe me this free outsourcing is one of the most paying businesses ;P  One way conversational sites: These just show you certain info and you just can‘t really interact with these site, nondynamic in nature, and basically meant for just online portfolios and stuff.  Requirements: HTML/XHTML, CSS (optional), Photoshop/Corel draw. Learn them to create web sites and images for your blogs.  Photoshop/CorelDraw: Image processing and editing software‘s, a must for every web designer but may not be that much for a novice in this field…..learn more on www.wz2k.com , www.phong.com , www.tutorialwiz.com  Apart from these, if you don‘t have a good hand on Photoshop and CSS for that matter, but know what attribute serves what purpose then download readymade templates from www.freecsstemplates.com and www.freecsstemplates.org and then edit the .html/.htm file and change its content to suit your purpose, also if you want to shift some settings on web page here and there study CSS a bit like what property serves what purpose and change it according to your need.

Two way conversational sites:All mentioned above and frontend developer languages like PHP or ASP.net developed on either C# or VB. MySQL(a database),javascript, ajax (For dynamic sites like FORUM,BLOG etc.)learn more on www.w3schools.com PHP+MySQL+Apache server(php codes execute on server rather than on browser) the combination of all is available in apps like easyPHP and XAMPP (Google it to download!) Free hosting: There are a lot of free hosting websites on ‗the‘ internet…… www.0fees.net, www.110mb.com, ww w.googlepages.com

Amar Deep Gupta 2nd year Student I.I.T. Kharagpur caustic576@gmail.com +91-9734428858


Page 9


It is more than storage problem In today‘s fast growing Information world, all of us on this earth want to store our information digitally especially on Web Spaces (i.e. on internet).As the number of users grow in size day-by-day there is a need of larger storage space arises. Today‘s most popular server Gmail has more then 1 lack of server in its America. well I m not talking about the problem of Storage Space, as it can be solved easily by spending more money in buying storage spaces, also the memory is less costly these days. The problem which i m talking about is how efficiently we can retrieve our information from the rapidly growing databases....? Every one of us are aware of the fact, that as the number of records grow in size inside any database its performance decreases rapidly. for example: if any Query of yours gives result in 100 milliseconds in 1 million records of database, after inserting 10 Billion more records in the same database ,same query will give you result in 100 seconds....? Isn‘t it quiet an amazing figure in terms of performance issues? Well this is a tested figure. Can u see the scenario when we use Google search engine whose database is scattered over 1 lack servers and then also it is giving any search result in 10 seconds....how this is possible...? Every popular mail server is suffering from the same problem, as no of email messages are increasing like Tsunami and think, if u have to search something in a larger database, how will u manage...? Its Obvious, by writing a program.
Jeetu Raj

Which is known as memory production framework. The theory says that ―the brain makes predictions about the world through pattern recognition and memory, recalling event sequences and their nested relationships.‖ First of all, the theory explains how the neo cortex works—not the entire brain. The neo cortex makes up roughly half of a human brain; it's where all high-level thought and perception takes place. It's the place where you perceive the world. And it's a type of memory system, though it's different from that of a computer in that it is composed of a treeshaped hierarchy of memory regions that store how patterns flow over time, like the notes in a melody. We call this Hierarchical Temporal Memory (HTM). Computers must be programmed to solve problems, but HTM systems are self-learning. By exposing them to patterns from sensors (just like the neo cortex receives information from the eyes and ears), HTMs can automatically build a model of the world. With this model, an HTM can recognize familiar objects and use that data to predict the future. So we're not claiming to build brains here. We are building things that we think can do what half of a human brain does. HTMs essentially do three things. First, they discover how the world works by sensing and analyzing the world around them. Second, they recognize new inputs as part of its model, which we call pattern recognition. Finally, they make predictions of what will happen in the future. We think we can build machines that are in some sense smarter than humans, that have more memory, that are faster and can process data nonstop, because they use hierarchical and temporal data to predict outcomes—the same way the human brain works. Rajeev Ranjan MCA ER&DCI-IT(CUSAT)

Can computer think like human brain??
Answer of this question can be viewed as a reinvention in the development in artificial intelligence. Palm computer founder JEFF HAWKINS developed a controversial theory of how the brain works, and he's using it to build a new race of computers. In Silicon Valley, Hawkins is best known as the founder of Palm Computing Inc. and Handspring Inc., and as the mastermind behind the Palm Pilot and Treo line of smart phones. The idea about this human computer is based on the theory developed by Hawkins,


Page 10


Page 11

Java is a high level programming developed by Sun Microsystems and released in 1995. Java was created by James Gosling in June 1991 for use in one of his many set top box. The language was initially called ―oak‖ after that the named to java. It should use the OOP methodology and allow the same program to be executed on multiple Operating Systems. What is java technology? Java technology is: 1. A programming language: A java programming language is use to create all kinds of applications that programmer could create by using conventional programming language. 2. A development environment: A java technology provides you with a large suite of tools: a compiler, an interpreter, a documentation generator, a class file packaging tool etc. it is usually mentioned in the perspective of World Wide Web and browser that are capable of running programs called ―applets”. Applets are programs written in the java that resides on web servers, are downloaded by a browser to a client‘s system and run by the browser. 3. An application environment: java applications are application or general-purpose programs that run on any machine where the Java runtime environment (JRE) is installed. 4. A deployment environment: there are two main using environments. First, the JRE supplied by the Java 2 software Development Kit contains the complete set of the class files for all of the java packages, which includes basic language classes, GUI component classes, an advance Collection API, and so on. Second, environment is on your web browser. Most commercial browsers supply a java technology interpreter and runtime environment. Java technology is versatility, efficiency; platform portability and security make it the ideal technology for network computing.
Program.java Program.class javac java


Different versions of java
 In 1995: Introduced version 1.0 of JDK 8 package with 212 class Netscape 2.0-4.0 include java 1.0  In 1997: Version 1.1 23 package with 504 class Improvements include better event handling Inner class swing package of greatly improved graphics became available during this time but not include with core language.  In 1999: Version 1.2 (Java 2 platform) 59 package with 1520 class Code and tools distributed the s\w development kit Java class based on swing for improved graphics and user interface include with core java.  In 2000: Version 1.3 76 package with 1842 class Performance enhancement including the Virtual machine  In 2002: Version 1.4 135 package with 2991 class Improved IO, XML support  In 2004: Version 5.0 165 package over 3000 class Metadata Improved multithreading features

Distinctive feature of java
Compiled and Interpreter: The other programming language is either compiled or interpreter but the java combines both these approaches. First java compiler translates source code into byte code instruction

Program.class Byte Code


Page 12


Platform Independent:

java is a platform independence language that means program written in the java language must run any supported h\w operating system (Windows, Linux, Solaris).One should be able to write a program once, compile at once and run it anywhere.

Way of using java Java program

Object oriented programming:

java is object oriented which means data and function reside within objects and class. Java comes with an extensive set of classes arranged in package.

Java compile r

Java c

Applet program
Java appletviewer (enable web browser)

Application program Java




Object 1 Communication Class Object 2

Secure: security is the most important aspects of any programming language, java is secure programming language. The absence of pointer in java ensures that programs can‘t gain access to memory location without proper authorization. Why java?  Write s/w on one platform run it on virtually any other platform.  Create programmers to run within a web browser and web services.  Develop server side application for online forums, stores, polls, HTML, form processing and more.  Combines application or services using the java language to create highly customized application and service.  Develop powerful and efficient application for mobile phones, remote processing, low cost consume products and practically any other device with a digital heartbeat.

Sample Code public class ASCII_code{ public static void main(String argv[]) { System.out.println("Value\tChar\tValue\tChar\tValue\tChar\ tValue\tChar\tValue\tChar\t"); int c=1; while (c < 256) { for (int col = 0; col < 5 && c < 256; col++, c++) System.out.print(c + "\t" + (char)c + "\t"); System.out.println(); }}}

Ravindra Bohra MCA B8 ER&DCIT(CUSAT)


Page 13


XHTML and CSS for presentation the Document Object Model for dynamic display of and interaction with data XML and XSLT for the interchange and manipulation of data, respectively the XMLHttpRequest object for asynchronous communication JavaScript to bring these technologies together

Ajax (asynchronous JavaScript and XML), or AJAX, is a group of interrelated web development techniques used for creating interactive web applications or rich Internet applications. With Ajax, web applications can retrieve data from the server asynchronously in the background without interfering with the display and behavior of the existing page. Data is retrieved using the XMLHttpRequest object or through the use of Remote Scripting in browsers that do not support it. Despite the name, the use of JavaScript, XML, or asynchrony is not required

While the term Ajax was coined in 2005,techniques for the asynchronous loading of content date back to 1996, when Internet Explorer introduced the IFrame element.Microsoft's Remote Scripting, introduced in 1998, acted as a more elegant replacement for these techniques, with data being pulled in by a Java applet with which the client side could communicate using JavaScript. In 1999, Microsoft created the XMLHttpRequest object as an ActiveX control in Internet Explorer 5, and developers of Mozilla and Safari followed soon after with native versions of the object.On April 5, 2006 the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) released the first draft specification for the object in an attempt to create an official web standard Technologies The term Ajax has come to represent a broad group of web technologies that can be used to implement a web application that communicates with a server in the background, without interfering with the current state of the page. In the article that coined the term Ajax, Jesse James Garrett explained that it refers specifically to these technologies:

Since then, however, there have been a number of developments in the technologies used in an Ajax application, and the definition of the term Ajax. In particular, it has been noted that: JavaScript is not the only client-side scripting language that can be used for implementing an Ajax application. Other languages such as VBScript are also capable of the required functionality. The XMLHttpRequest object is not necessary for asynchronous communication. It has been noted that IFrames are capable of the same effect.X ML is not required for data interchange and therefore XSLT is not required for the manipulation of data. JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) is often used as an alternative format for data interchange,although other formats such as preformatted HTML or plain text can also be used.


Page 14


The use of Ajax can reduce connections to the server, since scripts and style sheets only have to be requested once.

Reverse Ajax
Reverse Ajax refers to an Ajax design pattern that uses long-lived HTTP connections to enable low-latency communication between a web server and a browser. Basically it is a way of sending data from client to server and a mechanism for pushing server data back to the browser. This server–client communication takes one of two forms: Client polling, the client repetitively queries (polls) the server and waits for an answer. Server pushing, a connection between a server and client is kept open, the server sends data when available. Reverse Ajax describes the implementation of any of these models, including a combination of both. The design pattern is also known as Ajax Push, Full Duplex Ajax and Streaming Ajax.

Since then, however, there have been a number of developments in the technologies used in an Ajax application, and the definition of the term Ajax. In particular, it has been noted that: JavaScript is not the only client-side scripting language that can be used for implementing an Ajax application. Other languages such as VBScript are also capable of the required functionality. The XMLHttpRequest object is not necessary for asynchronous communication. It has been noted that IFrames are capable of the same effect. XML is not required for data interchange and therefore XSLT is not required for the manipulation of data. JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) is often used as an alternative format for data interchange,although other formats such as preformatted HTML or plain text can also be used.

In many cases, the pages on a website consist of much content that is common between them. Using traditional methods, that content would have to be reloaded on every request. However, using Ajax, a web application can request only the content that needs to be updated, thus drastically reducing bandwidth usage. The use of asynchronous requests allows the client's Web browser UI to be more interactive and to respond quickly to inputs, and sections of pages can also be reloaded individually. Users may perceive the application to be faster or more responsive, even if the application has not changed on the server side.

Darshana Datta MCA B6,ER&DCI-IT, C-DAC Campus, TVM


Page 15

Why PC Crashes?

Fatal error: the system has become unstable or is busy," it says. "Enter to return to Windows or press Control-Alt-Delete to restart your computer. If you do this you will lose any unsaved information in all open applications." You have just been struck by the Blue Screen of Death. Anyone who uses Mcft Windows will be familiar with this. What can you do? More importantly, how can you prevent it happening? 1 Hardware conflict The number one reason why Windows crashes is hardware conflict. Each hardware device communicates to other devices through an interrupt request channel (IRQ). These are supposed to be unique for each device. For example, a printer usually connects internally on IRQ 7. The keyboard usually uses IRQ 1 and the floppy disk drive IRQ 6. Each device will try to hog a single IRQ for itself. If there are a lot of devices, or if they are not installed properly, two of them may end up sharing the same IRQ number. When the user tries to use both devices at the same time, a crash can happen. The way to check if your computer has a hardware conflict is through the following route: * Start-Settings-Control Panel-System-Device Manager. Often if a device has a problem a yellow '!' appears next to its description in the Device Manager. Highlight Computer (in the Device Manager) and press Properties to see the IRQ numbers used by your computer. If the IRQ number appears twice, two devices may be using it. Sometimes a device might share an IRQ with something described as 'IRQ holder for PCI steering'. This can be ignored. The best way to fix this problem is to remove the problem device and reinstall it. Sometimes you may have to find more recent drivers on the internet to make the device function properly. A good resource is www.driverguide.com. If the device is a soundcard, or a modem, it can often be fixed by moving it to a different slot on the motherboard (be careful about opening your computer, as you may void the warranty). When working inside a computer you should switch it off, unplug the mains lead and touch an unpainted metal surface to discharge any static electricity. To be fair to Mcft, the problem with IRQ numbers is not of its making. It is a legacy problem going back to the first PC designs using the IBM 8086 chip. Initially there were only eight IRQs. Today there are 16 IRQs in a PC. It is easy to run out of them. There are plans to increase the number of IRQs in future designs.


Page 16

2 Bad Ram
Ram (random-access memory) problems might bring on the blue screen of death with a message saying Fatal Exception Error. A fatal error indicates a serious hardware problem. Sometimes it may mean a part is damaged and will need replacing. But a fatal error caused by Ram might be caused by a mismatch of chips. For example, mixing 70nanosecond (70ns) Ram with 60ns Ram will usually force the computer to run all the Ram at the slower speed. This will often crash the machine if the Ram is overworked.One way around this problem is to enter the BIOS settings and increase the wait state of the Ram. This can make it more stable. Another way to troubleshoot a suspected Ram problem is to rearrange the Ram chips on the motherboard, or take some of them out. Then try to repeat the circumstances that caused the crash. When handling Ram try not to touch the gold connections, as they can be easily damaged. Parity error messages also refer to Ram. Modern Ram chips are either parity (ECC) or non parity (non-ECC). It is best not to mix the two types, as this can be a cause of trouble. EMM386 error messages refer to memory problems but may not be connected to bad Ram. This may be due to free memory problems often linked to old Dos-based-programmes.

A common BIOS error concerns the CAS latency. This refers to the Ram. Older EDO (extended data out) Ram has a CAS latency of 3. Newer SDRam has a CAS latency of 2. Setting the wrong figure can cause the Ram to lock up and freeze the computer's display. Mcft Windows is better at allocating IRQ numbers than any BIOS. If possible set the IRQ numbers to Auto in the BIOS. This will allow Windows to allocate the IRQ numbers (make sure the BIOS setting for Plug and Play OS is switched to 'yes' to allow Windows to do this.).

4 Hard disk drives
After a few weeks, the information on a hard disk drive starts to become piecemeal or fragmented. It is a good idea to defragment the hard disk every week or so, to prevent the disk from causing a screen freeze. Go to Start-Programs-Accessories-System Defragmenter Tools-Disk

This will start the procedure. You will be unable to write data to the hard drive (to save it) while the disk is defragmenting, so it is a good idea to schedule the procedure for a period of inactivity using the Task Scheduler. The Task Scheduler should be one of the small icons on the bottom right of the Windows opening page (the desktop). Some lockups and screen freezes caused by hard disk problems can be solved by reducing the read-ahead optimisation. This can be adjusted by going to * Start-Settings-Control Panel-System Performance-File System-Hard Disk. Icon-

3 BIOS settings
Every motherboard is supplied with a range of chipset settings that are decided in the factory. A common way to access these settings is to press the F2 or delete button during the first few seconds of a boot-up. Once inside the BIOS, great care should be taken. It is a good idea to write down on a piece of paper all the settings that appear on the screen. That way, if you change something and the computer becomes more unstable, you will know what settings to revert to.

Hard disks will slow down and crash if they are too full. Do some housekeeping on your hard drive every few months and free some space on it. Open the Windows folder on the C drive and find the Temporary Internet Files folder.


Page 17

Deleting the contents (not the folder) can free a lot of space. Empty the Recycle Bin every week to free more space. Hard disk drives should be scanned every week for errors or bad sectors. Go to * Start-Programs-Accessories-System ScanDisk Tools-

Otherwise assign the Task Scheduler to perform this operation at night when the computer is not in use. 5 Viruses Often the first sign of a virus infection is instability. Some viruses erase the boot sector of a hard drive, making it impossible to start. This is why it is a good idea to create a Windows start-up disk. Go to * Start-Settings-Control Programs Panel-Add/Remove

This will also slow down the computer's performance. If the printer is trying to print unusual characters, these might not be recognised, and can crash the computer. Sometimes printers will not recover from a crash because of confusion in the buffer. A good way to clear the buffer is to unplug the printer for ten seconds. Booting up from a powerless state, also called a cold boot, will restore the printer's default settings and you may be able to carry-on.

7 Software
A common cause of computer crash is faulty or badly-installed software. Often the problem can be cured by uninstalling the software and then reinstalling it. Use Norton Uninstall or Uninstall Shield to remove an application from your system properly. This will also remove references to the programme in the System Registry and leaves the way clear for a completely fresh copy.

8 Overheating
Central processing units (CPUs) are usually equipped with fans to keep them cool. If the fan fails or if the CPU gets old it may start to overheat and generate a particular kind of error called a kernel error. This is a common problem in chips that have been overclocked to operate at higher speeds than they are supposed to.

Here, look for the Start Up Disk tab. Virus protection requires constant vigilance. A virus scanner requires a list of virus signatures in order to be able to identify viruses. These signatures are stored in a DAT file. DAT files should be updated weekly from the website of your antivirus software manufacturer. An excellent antivirus programme is McAfee VirusScan by Network Associates ( www.nai.com). Another is Norton AntiVirus 2000, made by Symantec ( www.symantec.com). 6 Printers The action of sending a document to print creates a bigger file, often called a postscript file. Printers have only a small amount of memory, called a buffer. This can be easily overloaded. Printing a document also uses a considerable amount of CPU power.

9 Power supply problems
With all the new construction going on around the country the steady supply of electricity has become disrupted. A power surge or spike can crash a computer as easily as a power cut. For graphics related problem install graphic card driver properly. Ratnakar Mishra MCA B6 ER&DCI-IT


Page 18


Courses Offered.
M.Tech in VLSI and Embedded Systems B.E/B.Tech degree in Electronics & Communications / Electronics & Instrumentation / Electrical & Electronics of a recognized University, with a minimum of 60% marks,with an aptitude and interest in electronics hardware design. Admission Forms can be obtained from the Office of ER&DCI(IT) by remitting a fee of Rs.750/-. As per the norms prescribed by CUSAT. Any graduate with Mathematics as one of the main or subsidiary subjects or graduate in Electronics /Computer Science / Computer applications / Engineering / Technology with a minimum of 55% marks in all subjects other than languages and humanities. Admission shall be based on the marks obtained in the qualifying examination The score obtained in the entrance test (objective type)
The Principal ER&DCI Institute of Technology, CDAC Campus, Vellayambalam, Trivandrum, Kerala – 695033 Ph: +91-471-2726106 +91-471-2723333 Ext-295,250 Fax +91-471-2723456 +91-471-2722230

About The Campus:- ER&DCI-IT is the manpower development and training arm of Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC), Thiruvananthapuram, an autonomous institution wholly owned by Department of Information Technology, Government of India. Formerly known as Electronics Research & Development Centre of India (ER&DCI), the Centre is engaged in a variety of research, design and development activities in advanced areas of Electronics. Since its inception in 1974, the Centre has acquired high competency, expertise and experience in the areas of VLSI - ASIC, Embedded Systems, Control & Instrumentation, Networking, Broadcast & Communications, Power Electronics, CyberForensics, language technologies, etc. with extensive onsite deployment of its technology outputs, and Transferof-Technologies for manufacture of the products developed. The campus at Vellayambalam, in the heart of Thiruvananthapuram city was formally dedicated to the nation on 10th November 1980, as a National Centre of Excellence by Smt. Indira Gandhi, then Prime Minister of India. ER&DCI-IT was started in 2001 with a mission to groom and nurture internationally competitive professionals, empowering them with state-of-the-art skill sets in Electronics, Communications and IT.

Master of Computer Application

Post Graduate Diploma in Language Technology



Page 19

Without use any software protects your folder for unauthorized access. 1. Make a new folder (name


as you like)
2-Inside this folder make a (TXT) file & copy the give code inside it this: After u copy the Commanding go to line (23) u will find this word: password here (Change it with) any password u like. After that make ‗save as‘ & name as (locker.bat ) Now back to the folder & u will find a ( LOCKER ) commanding. Click on it & u will find a new folder (Private ) Ok ,, now copy what u want in it & after that go to ( locker ) by click on it , it will open and ask you want lock your folder? Y/N? Type Y If you want UNLOCK your folder, go to (locker) & type your pass and you will see your private folder.


3. 4.

5. 6.

7. 8.

cls @ECHO OFF title Folder Private if EXIST "Control Panel.{21EC2020-3AEA-1069-A2DD08002B30309D}" goto UNLOCK if NOT EXIST Private goto MDLOCKER :CONFIRM echo Are you sure you want to lock the folder(Y/N) set/p "cho=>" if %cho%==Y goto LOCK if %cho%==y goto LOCK if %cho%==n goto END if %cho%==N goto END echo Invalid choice. goto CONFIRM :LOCK ren Private "Control Panel.{21EC2020-3AEA-1069-A2DD08002B30309D}" attrib +h +s "Control Panel.{21EC2020-3AEA-1069-A2DD08002B30309D}" echo Folder locked goto End :UNLOCK echo Enter password to unlock folder set/p "pass=>" if NOT %pass%== password here goto FAIL attrib -h -s "Control Panel.{21EC2020-3AEA-1069-A2DD08002B30309D}" ren "Control Panel.{21EC2020-3AEA-1069-A2DD-08002B30309D}" Private echo Folder Unlocked successfully goto End :FAIL echo Invalid password goto end :MDLOCKER md Private echo Private created successfully goto End :End
COMPILED BY: PADMAKAR MISHRA (PATNA) mishra_padmakar@yahoo.co.in


Page 20

Tips and Tricks
Hibernate Button on XP
Hibernate is great because it saves the status of your Windows XP session (all the programs and documents you have open) to the hard drive,so it can automatically restore it the next time you power up. The first step to making a Hibernate shortcut is to make sure you have Hibernate turned on. Note: First read ―support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;en-us;893056‖. 1. Make Hibernate is enabled: Go start → Control Panel → click Power Options →Choose the hibernate tab → Select Enable hibernate support → click OK. 2. From the desktop right click: Choose New → Shortcut and in Type the location of the item “%windir%\system32\rundll32.exe PowrProf.dll,SetSuspendState”. And click Next → Type Hibernate → Finish.

3. Finally right click on your new Hibernate shortcut Select Properties from the drop-down menu → Choose change icon by browse an icon. OR Right click on desktop Click [new][shortcut] to open the shortcut wizard type "shutdown -h -t 00" without the double quotes. Click [next] and give it any name u like eg:-" hibernate" or any name. Click finish to close the wizard. FOR restart FOR shutdown type "shutdown -r -t 00" type "shutdown -s -t 00"


Page 21

Enable and Disable Windows Firewall Quickly using Command-line
When testing network connectivity or when performing other troubleshooting tasks, you may need to turn off the Windows Firewall temporarily. To quickly disable or enable the Windows Firewall, you may use the Netsh.exe command-line in Windows XP and Windows Vista. Enabling Windows Firewall Click Start, Run and type:. Netsh firewall set opmode enable Disabling Windows Firewall Click Start, Run and type: Netsh firewall set opmode disable Windows Firewall status can be verified using Windows Security Center or the Windows Firewall applet. Note: In Windows Vista you need to run the above commands from an elevated Command Prompt. To open an elevated Command Prompt, click Start, click All Programs, click Accessories, right-click Command Prompt, and then click Run as administrator. You may create desktop two shortcuts to enable and disable the Windows Firewall. To run the commands as administrator, right-click on the shortcut and choose Run as administrator. Or right-click the shortcut properties, click Advanced and tick the Run as administrator checkbox and click OK. Double-clicking the shortcut run the Netsh… command elevated, after you click the Continue button in the UAC confirmation dialog. Customize the shortcut icons by picking an appropriate icon from Shell32.dll, Imageres.dll or from xpsp2res.dll (for Windows XP) for easy identification. Editor’s Note: Although the netsh firewall command works fine in Windows XP, Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008 Operating Systems, Microsoft recommends that you use the netsh advfirewall firewall command in Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008. Ashok Kumar ER&DCI-IT


Page 22


Morphing is a special effect in motion pictures and animations that changes (or morphs) one image into another through a seamless transition. After some time we morph the mobile phone also .Nokia launch the first Morphing Mobile phone. The main feature of this phone * Nanotech-based fiber mesh is flexible, stretchable, transparent, and strong. * Elasticity lets it change shape. * Can be worn on wrist. * Folds up to fit in pocket; unfolds to reveal keyboard, display, touch pad. * Nano-structured surface is self-cleaning. * Repels water, dirt, fingerprints. * Small, thin, quick-charge battery. * Built-in solar absorption charges the device. * Integrated sensors inform user of pollution and chemicals. * Transparent electronics offer new aesthetic dimension. * Made of biodegradable materials. So in coming day’s we change our Electronic gadget shape like any Hollywood science friction Film so ready for revolution .


Page 23


Readers are requested to send their comments about the magazine and its contents. Suggestions are always welcomed.

Send your mails at:
infinitytechmagazine@gmail.com infinitytechmagazine@rediffmail.com infinitytechmagazine@yahoomail.com

Join our communities and group at:
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/infinitytechmagazine infinitytechmagazine@yahoogroups.com http://www.orkut.co.in/Community.aspx?cmm=49916804

Join these groups to receive the magazine directly to your mail box. CONTRIBUTERS

visit us at : www.infinitytech.co.nr


Page 24