MIT 8.

03 Fall 2005 — Analysis of the Driven Triple Pendulum
We wish to study the behavior of three pendulums, each of mass m and length L, in the configuration shown below under the influence of a variable displacement η = η0 cos(ωt) at the top end. We first find the normal mode frequencies by considering the case in which the system is un-driven, i.e. η (t) = 0. We then proceed to find the amplitudes of oscillations of the pendulums as a function of the driving frequency ω . We begin by setting a convenient coordinate system and labeling the relevant variables.

η θ1 L x1 x2 x3
The figure below shows the forces acting on the individual pendula.

θ2

L θ3 L

T1

T2

1 0
mg

Τ2

11 00
mg

T3 T3 mg

1 0

For small angles, T1 ≈ 3mg , T2 ≈ 2mg and T3 ≈ mg . If all three angles are zero and the system is at rest then this follows immediately. The acceleration in the y-direction is negligible for small angles. Note that sin θ1 = (x1 − η )/L, sin θ2 = (x2 − x1 )/L and sin θ3 = (x3 − x2 )/L. Then, the equations of motion for the pendulums (for small oscillations) are mx ¨1 mx ¨2 mx ¨3 = T2 sin θ2 − T1 sin θ1 = T3 sin θ3 − T2 sin θ2 = −T3 sin θ3 ≈ 2mg (x2 − x1 )/L − 3mg (x1 − η )/L ≈ mg (x3 − x2 )/L − 2mg (x2 − x1 )/L ≈ −mg (x3 − x2 )/L,

where we have made the small angle approximations sin θ ≈ θ and cos θ ≈ 1. Rewriting the equations of motion in terms of ω0 = g/L and rearranging terms, x ¨2 +
2 x ¨ 1 + ω0 (5x1 − 2x2 ) 2 ω0 (−2x1 + 3x2 − x3 ) 2 x ¨ 3 + ω0 (x3 − x2 ) 2 = 3ω0 η = 0 = 0.

We use the (normal mode) anzatz xi = Ci cos ωt, where i = {1, 2, 3}. Note that x ¨i = −ω 2 xi . Then, the set of coupled differential equations (xi unknown) becomes a system of linear algebraic equations (Ci unknown):
2 2 2 −C2 ω 2 − 2C1 ω0 + 3ω0 C2 − ω0 C3 2 2 2 −C3 ω − ω0 C2 + ω0 C3 2 2 −C1 ω 2 + 5C1 ω0 − 2ω0 C2 2 = 3ω0 η0

= 0 = 0.

1

ω2 . You may ask what happened to the other three roots. Since the determinant is a polynomial of degree six. the complete solution to det A = 0 is given by ω 2 = {ω1 negative frequencies do not add new physics. 6 4 2 2 4 − 18ω0 ω + 9ω0 ω − ω 6 = 0. i. 2 2 2 . We now re-consider the forced case.35 = −1. det A = 6ω0 I. The exact solutions are too complicated to present here.e. 1.508ω0 } .e.tar The approximate values are C2 C1 C3 C1 ω =ω1 ω =ω1 = 2. Thus. 2 . 2 3ω0 η0 0 0 = η0 C2 = 2 5ω0 − ω2 2 −2ω0 0 2 5ω0 − ω2 2 −2ω0 0 2 4 2 2 2ω0 3ω0 − 4ω0 ω + ω4 2 − ω 2 ) (ω 2 − ω 2 ) (ω 2 − ω 2 ) (ω1 2 3 C3 = 2 −2ω0 2 3ω0 − ω 2 2 −ω0 det A 4 −6ω0 (ω − ω0 )(ω + ω0 ) = η0 2 2 − ω 2 ) (ω 2 − ω 2 ) 2 (ω1 − ω ) (ω2 3 = η0 6 6ω0 2 − ω 2 ) (ω 2 − ω 2 ) (ω 2 − ω 2 ) . we can write it in the convenient form: 2 2 2 − ω 2 )(ω2 − ω 2 )(ω3 − ω 2 ).05 C2 C1 C3 C1 ω =ω3 ω =ω3 = −0. Since it should have six roots.5147ω0 . ω3 } ≈ {0.92 C2 C1 C3 C1 ω =ω2 ω =ω2 = 1. 3ω0 − ω2 −ω0 0 2 2 2 0 −ω0 ω0 − ω C3 0 We now wish to find the normal mode frequencies in the source-free case. we use only the positive values of ω .6448ω0 . Since we know the roots of det A. i. In fact. C1 2ω0 0 triple.We can write these equations in the compact form Ax = b. Ax = b and solve for the amplitudes Ci using Cramer’s rule: 2 3ω0 η0 0 0 2 −2ω0 2 3ω0 − ω 2 2 −ω0 det A 2 3ω0 η0 0 0 det A C1 = 0 2 −ω0 2 ω0 − ω2 0 2 −ω0 2 ω0 − ω 2 . ω3 }. (ω1 2 3 A graph of the amplitudes is shown on the next page. x is the vector of amplitudes (unknowns) and b is the source vector.65 = 0.29 = 3. det A = (ω1 The relative amplitudes of oscillation at the normal modes are: 2 2 2ω0 ω0 − ω2 C2 = 4 − 4ω 2 ω 2 + ω 4 C1 2ω0 0 4 C3 2ω0 = 4 − 4ω 2 ω 2 + ω 4 .12. 2. In matrix form. this means ⎤⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ 2 2 2 − ω2 −2ω0 0 η0 3ω0 C1 5ω0 2 2 2 ⎦ ⎣ C2 ⎦ = ⎣ ⎣ −2ω0 ⎦.tar triple. where A is the matrix of coefficients. Instead. solved this equation using MAPLE. Igor Sylvester. I give the following approximations for the normal mode frequencies: ω = {ω1 . Ax = 0. ω2 .

5 C /η (bottom mass) It is interesting to note that the first mass is stationary. closest to driver) C /η (middle mass) 2 3 0 0 ω/ω0 2 2.764} ω0 . 0. 3 . the peculiar state is unstable. If you take the triple pendulum and drive it at a frequency equal to that of a simple pendulum of mass m and length L then the second mass will not move! You SHOULD ask yourself the question: How on Earth can the two masses (2 and 3) move if the upper mass (1) does not move at all? The answer is simple: it is not possible! It is only possible in our dream-world of zero damping. if ω = 2+ √ 2. I strongly recommend that you read Professor Lewin’s own words at the end of the solutions to Problem 3.Triple Pendulum 6 4 2 C/η 0 0 −2 −4 −6 0 0. C1 (ω ) = 0. You will be able to go through that “special” state by varying omega. 2− √ 2 ω0 (only real solutions) ≈ {1. but you cannot “stop” there.5 3 3.849. Even more interesting is that the second mass is stationary if ω = ω0 . no matter how little.5 C1/η0 (top mass. i.e.5 1 1. In the presence of damping.5.

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