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Fixed Point Theory and Applications 2013, 2013:137 doi:10.1186/1687-1812-2013-137

ISSN Article type Submission date Acceptance date Publication date Article URL

http://www.fixedpointtheoryandapplications.com/content/2013/1/137

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2013 Kamran and Ali This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Muhammad Usman Alia and Tayyab Kamranb a) Centre for Advanced Mathematics and Physics National University of Sciences and Technology H-12, Islamabad-Pakistan Email: muh_usman_ali@yahoo.com b) Department of Mathematics Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad-Pakistan Email: tayyabkamran@gmail.com

Abstract In this paper, we generalize the contractive condition for multi-valued mappings given by Asl, Rezapour and Shahzad in 2012. We establish some xed point theorems for multi-valued mappings from a complete metric space to the space of closed or bounded subsets of the metric space satisfying generalized ( , )-contractive condition.

Key words and phrases. -admissible; -contractive mapping; generalized ( , ) contractive mapping 2010 Mathematics Subject Classication. 47H10, 54H25.

Introduction

Samet et al. [1] introduced the notion of -contractive self-mappings of a metric space. Recently, Asl et al. [2] introduced the notion of -contractive mappings to extend the notion -contractive mappings. In this paper, we generalize the notion of -contractive mappings and prove some xed point theorems for such mappings. Let be a family of nondecreasing functions, : [0, ) [0, ) such that

n=1

n (t) <

for each t > 0, where n is the nth iterate of . It is known that for each , we have (t) < t for all t > 0 and (0) = 0 for t = 0 [1]. Let (X, d) be a metric space. A mapping G : X X is called -contractive if there exist two functions : X X [0, ) and such that (x, y )d(Gx, Gy ) (d(x, y )) for each x, y X . 1

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A mapping G : X X is called -admissible [1] if (x, y ) 1 (Gx, Gy ) 1 . We denote by N (X ) the space of all nonempty subsets of X , by B (X ) the space of all nonempty bounded subsets of X and by CL(X ) the space of all nonempty closed subsets of X . For A N (X ) and x X , d(x, A) = inf {d(x, a) : a A}. For every A, B B (X ), (A, B ) = sup{d(a, b) : a A, b B }. When A = {x}, we denote (A, B ) by (x, B ). For every A, B CL(X ), let max{sup xA d(x, B ), supy B d(y, A)} if the maximum exists; H (A, B ) = otherwise. Such a map H is called generalized Hausdor metric induced by d. Let (X, , d) be an ordered metric space and A, B X . We say that A r B if for each a A and b B , we have a b. We give a few denitions and the result due to Asl et al. [2] for convenience. Denition 1.1. [2] Let (X, d) be a metric space and let : X X [0, ) be a mapping. A mapping G : X CL(X ) is -admissible if (x, y ) 1 (Gx, Gy ) 1, where (Gx, Gy ) = inf {(a, b) : a Gx, b Gy }. Denition 1.2. [2] Let (X, d) be a metric space. A mapping G : X CL(X ) is called -contractive if there exist two functions : X X [0, ) and such that (Gx, Gy )H (Gx, Gy ) (d(x, y )) for all x, y X . Theorem 1.3. [2] Let (X, d) be a complete metric space, let : X X [0, ) be a function, let be a strictly increasing map and T be a closed-valued, -admissible and -contractive multi-function on X . Suppose that there exist x0 X and x1 Gx0 such that (x0 , x1 ) 1. Assume that if {xn } is a sequence in X such that (xn , xn+1 ) 1 for all n and xn x, then (xn , x) 1 for all n. Then G has a xed point. (1.1)

Main results

We begin this section by introducing the following denition. Denition 2.1. Let (X, d) be a metric space and let G : X CL(X ) be a mapping. We say that G is generalized ( , )-contractive if there exists such that (Gx, Gy )d(y, Gy ) (d(x, y )) for each x X and y Gx, where (Gx, Gy ) = inf {(a, b) : a Gx, b Gy }. 2 (2.1)

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Note that an -contractive mapping is generalized ( , ) contractive. In case when is strictly increasing, generalized ( , )-contractive is called strictly generalized ( , )-contractive. The following lemma is inspired by [3, Lemma 2.2]. Lemma 2.2. Let (X, d) be a metric space and B CL(X ). Then, for each x X with d(x, B ) > 0 and q > 1, there exists an element b B such that d(x, b) < qd(x, B ). Proof. It is given that d(x, B ) > 0. Choose = (q 1)d(x, B ). Then, by using the denition of d(x, B ), it follows that there exists b B such that d(x, b) < d(x, B ) + = qd(x, B ). (2.2)

Lemma 2.3. Let (X, d) be a metric space and G : X CL(X ). Assume that there exists a sequence {xn } in X such that limn d(xn , Gxn ) = 0 and xn x X . Then x is a xed point of G if and only if the function f ( ) = d(, G ) is lower semi-continuous at x. Proof. Suppose f ( ) = d(, G ) is lower semi-continuous at x, then d(x, Gx) lim inf f (xn ) = lim inf d(xn , Gxn ) = 0.

n n

By the closedness of G it follows that x Gx. Conversely, suppose that x is a xed point of G, then f (x) = 0 lim inf n f (xn ). Theorem 2.4. Let (X, d) be a complete metric space and let G : X CL(X ) be an -admissible strictly generalized ( , )-contractive mapping. Assume that there exist x0 X and x1 Gx0 such that (x0 , x1 ) 1. Then x is a xed point of G if and only if f ( ) = d(, G ) is lower semi-continuous at x. Proof. By the hypothesis, there exist x0 X and x1 Gx0 such that (x0 , x1 ) 1. If x0 = x1 , then we have nothing to prove. Let x0 = x1 . If x1 Gx1 , then x1 is a xed / Gx1 . Since G is -admissible, so (Gx0 , Gx1 ) 1, we have point. Let x1 0 < d(x1 , Gx1 ) (Gx0 , Gx1 )d(x1 , Gx1 ). For given q > 1 by Lemma 2.2, there exists x2 Gx1 such that 0 < d(x1 , x2 ) < qd(x1 , Gx1 ). 3 (2.4) (2.3)

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It follows from (2.3), (2.4) and (2.1) that 0 < d(x1 , x2 ) < q (d(x0 , x1 )). (2.5)

It is clear that x1 = x2 and (x1 , x2 ) 1. Thus (Gx1 , Gx2 ) 1. Since is strictly increasing, by (2.5), we have (d(x1 , x2 )) < (q (d(x0 , x1 ))). Put q1 =

(q (d(x0 ,x1 ))) . (d(x1 ,x2 ))

then by Lemma 2.2, there exists x3 Gx2 such that 0 < d(x2 , x3 ) < q1 d(x2 , Gx2 ) q1 (Gx1 , Gx2 )d(x2 , Gx2 ), q1 (d(x1 , x2 )) = (q (d(x0 , x1 ))). It is clear that x2 = x3 , (x2 , x3 ) 1 and (d(x2 , x3 )) < 2 (q (d(x0 , x1 ))). Now put q2 =

2 (q (d(x0 ,x1 ))) . (d(x2 ,x3 ))

Then by Lemma 2.2 there exists x4 Gx3 such that 0 < d(x3 , x4 ) < q2 d(x3 , Gx3 ) q2 (Gx2 , Gx3 )d(x3 , Gx3 ), q2 (d(x2 , x3 )) = 2 (q (d(x0 , x1 ))). By continuing the same process, we get a sequence {xn } in X such that xn+1 Gxn . Also, xn = xn+1 , (xn , xn+1 ) 1 and 0 < d(xn , xn+1 ) < n1 (q (d(x0 , x1 ))) or 0 < d(xn , Gxn ) < n1 (q (d(x0 , x1 ))). For each m > n, we have

m1 m1

(2.6)

d ( xn , xm )

i=n

i=n

i1 (q (d(x0 , x1 ))).

Since , it follows that {xn } is a Cauchy sequence in X . Thus there is x X such that xn x. Letting n in (2.6), we have

n

(2.7)

The rest of the proof follows from Lemma 2.3. Example 2.5. Let X = R be endowed with the usual metric d. Dene G : X CL(X ) and : X X [0, ) by [x, ) if x 0, Gx = (, x2 ] if x < 0, 4

(2.8)

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and

1 if x, y 0, (x, y ) = 0 otherwise.

t 2

(2.9)

Let (t) =

for all t 0. For each x X and y Gx, we have 1 (Gx, Gy )d(y, Gy ) = 0 d(x, y ). 2

Hence G is a strictly generalized ( , ) contractive mapping. Clearly, G is -admissible. Also, we have x0 = 1 and x1 = 1 Gx0 such that (x0 , x1 ) = 1. Therefore, all conditions of Theorem 2.4 are satised and G has innitely many xed points. Note that Theorem 1.3 in Section 1 is not applicable here. For example, take x = 1 and y = 1. Corollary 2.6. Let (X, , d) be a complete ordered metric space, be a strictly increasing map and G : X CL(X ) be a mapping such that for each x X and y Gx with x y , we have d(y, Gy ) (d(x, y )). Also, assume that (i) there exist x0 X and x1 Gx0 such that x0 (ii) if x y , then Gx r Gy . x1 , (2.10)

Then x is a xed point of G if and only if f ( ) = d(, G ) is lower semi-continuous at x. Proof. Dene : X X by 1 if x y, (x, y ) = 0 otherwise.

By using condition (i) and the denition of , we have (x0 , x1 ) = 1. Also, from condition (ii), we have x y implies Gx r Gy ; by using the denitions of and r , we have (x, y ) = 1 implies (Gx, Gy ) = 1. Moreover, it is easy to check that G is a strictly generalized ( , ) contractive mapping. Therefore, by Theorem 2.4, x is a xed point of G if and only if f ( ) = d(, G ) is lower semi-continuous at x. Denition 2.7. Let (X, d) be a metric space and G : X B (X ) be a mapping. We say that G is a generalized ( , , ) contractive mapping if there exists such that (Gx, Gy ) (y, Gy ) (d(x, y )) for each x X and y Gx, where (Gx, Gy ) = inf {(a, b) : a Gx, b Gy }. 5 (2.11)

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Lemma 2.8. Let (X, d) be a metric space and G : X B (X ). Assume that there exists a sequence {xn } in X such that limn (xn , Gxn ) = 0 and xn x X . Then {x} = Gx if and only if the function f ( ) = (, G ) is lower semi-continuous at x. Proof. Suppose that f ( ) = (, G ) is lower semi-continuous at x, then (x, Gx) lim inf f (xn ) = lim inf (xn , Gxn ) = 0.

n n

Hence, {x} = Gx because (A, B ) = 0 implies A = B = {a}. Conversely, suppose that {x} = Gx. Then f (x) = 0 lim inf n f (xn ). Theorem 2.9. Let (X, d) be a complete metric space and let G : X B (X ) be an admissible generalized ( , , ) contractive mapping. Assume that there exist x0 X and x1 Gx0 such that (x0 , x1 ) 1. Then there exists x X such that {x} = Gx if and only if f ( ) = (, G ) is lower semi-continuous at x. Proof. By the hypothesis of the theorem, there exist x0 X and x1 Gx0 such that / Gx1 . As (x0 , x1 ) 1. Assume that x0 = x1 , for otherwise, x0 is a xed point. Let x1 G is -admissible, we have (Gx0 , Gx1 ) 1. Then (x1 , Gx1 ) (Gx0 , Gx1 ) (x1 , Gx1 ) (d(x0 , x1 )). Since Gx1 = , there is x2 Gx1 . Then 0 < d(x1 , x2 ) (x1 , Gx1 ). From (2.12) and (2.13), we have 0 < d(x1 , x2 ) (d(x0 , x1 )). Since is nondecreasing, we have (d(x1 , x2 )) 2 (d(x0 , x1 )). (2.15) (2.14) (2.13) (2.12)

As x2 Gx1 , we have (x1 , x2 ) 1. Since Gx2 = , there is x3 Gx2 . Assume that x2 = x3 , for otherwise, x2 is a xed point of G. Then 0 < d(x2 , x3 ) (x2 , Gx2 ) (Gx1 , Gx2 ) (x2 , Gx2 ) (d(x1 , x2 )) 2 (d(x0 , x1 )). (2.16) Since is nondecreasing, we have (d(x2 , x3 )) 3 (d(x0 , x1 )). (2.17)

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By continuing in this way, we get a sequence {xn } in X such that xn+1 Gxn and xn = xn+1 for n = 0, 1, 2, 3, . Further we have 0 < d(xn , xn+1 ) (xn , Gxn ) n (d(x0 , x1 )). For each m > n, we have

m1 m1

(2.18)

d ( xn , x m )

i=n

d(xi , xi+1 )

i=n

i (d(x0 , x1 )).

Since , it follows that {xn } is a Cauchy sequence in X . As X is complete, there exists x X such that xn x. Letting n in (2.18), we have

n

(2.19)

The rest of the proof follows from Lemma 2.8. Example 2.10. Let X = {0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, ...} be endowed with the usual metric d. Dene G : X B (X ) and : X X [0, ) by {(x 2), x} if x = 0, Gx = {0} if x = 0, and (x, y ) = 0 if x = y = 0, 1 if x = y = 0, 1 otherwise. 4

Let (t) =

t 2

for all t 0. For each x X and y Gx, we have 1 (Gx, Gy ) (y, Gy ) (d(x, y )). 2

Hence G is a generalized ( , , ) contractive mapping. Clearly, G is -admissible. Also, we have x0 = 0 X and x1 = 0 G0 such that (x0 , x1 ) = 1. Therefore, all conditions of Theorem 2.9 are satised and G has innitely many xed points. Corollary 2.11. Let (X, , d) be a complete ordered metric space, and G : X B (X ) be a mapping such that for each x X and y Gx with x (y, Gy ) (d(x, y )). Also, assume that y , we have (2.20)

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(i) there exists x0 X such that {x0 } 1 Gx0 , i.e., there exists x1 Gx0 such that x0 (ii) if x x1 , y , then Gx r Gy .

Then there exists x X such that {x} = Gx if and only if f ( ) = (, G ) is lower semi-continuous at x. Proof. Dene : X X by 1 if x y, (x, y ) = 0 otherwise.

By using condition (i) and the denition of , we have (x0 , x1 ) = 1. Also, from condition (ii), we have x y implies Gx r Gy , by using the denitions of and r , we have (x, y ) = 1 implies (Gx, Gy ) = 1. Moreover, it is easy to check that G is a generalized ( , , ) contractive mapping. Therefore, by Theorem 2.9, there exists x X such that {x} = Gx if and only if f ( ) = (, G ) is lower semi-continuous at x.

Competing interests

Authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors contributions

Both authors contributed equally in this article.

Acknowledgements

Authors are grateful to referees for their suggestions and careful reading.

References

[1] B. Samet, C. Vetro, P. Vetro, Fixed point theorems for -contractive type mappings, Nonlinear Analysis 75, 2154-2165 (2012). [2] J. H. Asl, S. Rezapour, N. Shahzad, On xed points of -contractive multifunctions, Fixed Point Theory and Applications 2012, 2012:212 doi:10.1186/1687-18122012-212. 8

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[3] T. Kamran, Mizoguchi-Takahashis type xed point theorem, Computers and Mathematics with applictions 57, 507-511 (2009).

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