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24/25, Special Double Issue on New German Cinema (Autumn, 1981 - Winter, 1982), pp. 186-198 Published by: New German Critique Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/488049 . Accessed: 01/07/2013 11:49
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in 1944. New to Adorno 1.13 on Mon.in The EssentialFrankfurt Regression Review. tobigbusiness. popular in thefield massculture focuson developments cf. in as Mass Deception" 2.Thetheoretical critique groundwork written in 1937-38 Versuch on Wagner.: 1964).as wellas papers during "A SocialCritique ofRadioMusic.by E.most ofEnlightenment of music.ed. Andreas "Introduction Industry [Culture Huyssen." character (Adorno/Eisler. below). trans. Besidesthechapter entitled "Culture Industry: Enlightenment on reflections ofAdorno's Horkheimer andAdorno's Dialectic (1944). "Transparencies Introduction on Film" (1966) B. 1941). Similarly publication neglected history andfragments ofaphorisms Leben 1951 ). 1974). "On Popular Music. Andrew des Hbrens" (1938). a book (Frankfurt/M.Adorno's detailed."'the reader theradio inNovember after First 1966(only three surprised."UberdenFetischcharakter Suhrkamp.2 datefrom which.16. "Technology upunlimited opportunities opens are moments whensuch even in thepoorest there motion picture has that Butthesameprinciple arestrikingly opportunities apparent." no. German Critique. Composing forthe ideological detected a "shift of If thereader of "Culture Reconsidered" Industry and a modification of Adorno's thesis of "universal emphasis. already shapeinhisstudy iiber most most andfirst in 1952(English trans. London: NLB.to Adorno. 3-11. part. pragmatic Composing.for list from this ofitstricky omitted because written in 1944together with Hanns is usually Eisler. Jephcott from NLB. theory Industry.N." Studies in Philosophyand Social Sciences. Hansen byMiriam Films) for art inthe and future. ofideology andaesthetics contribution toquestions Films. 6 (Fall 1975). are thescattered butpoignant (see n. 1980). 1 Jul 2013 11:49:21 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ." manipulation on Film" maybe even more of "Transparencies delusion. "The Radio Symphony. Reconsidered]. his written andEikeGebhardt Arato (NewYork:Urizen Books.repr. on jazz. years published some lecture seems to of the this major just mentioned). Reflections DamagedLift.F. 7/2 (1945). published the offilm. culture takes Wagner.16. Paul Lazarsfeld (1941). on and mass culture the of Adorno's film against grain writings reading for themost theperiod of hisexile. ed. 9/1 aus dem remarkson film and cultureindustry in Adorno's Minima Moralia: Reflexionen and Frank in Radio Research 1941. (London: 186 This content downloaded from 200. 34. inderMusik unddie Musicaux (Frankfurt/M. factors: theaesthetic potentialities at present. "UberJazz" (1936). A discusalsotiesthem upthese opened opportunities showtheinteraction of these two sionof industrialized culture must and its of massartin thefuture.pp. essay suspend a fixations ofAdorno's onCulture itencourages Moreover."Kenyon tenure with RadioResearch the Princeton Project: School Reader. his writings inMoments music: andthemassreproduction of 'serious' music.: begun beschddigten Suhrkamp.English subtitled translation." ofmass ofAdorno's Stanton (NewYork:Harper.1978).
University inGesamnnelte vol. because he is forgiven thetricks ofthe 3. system practice film-making indictment of maintained hisandHorkheimer's able. Hanns (NewYork:Oxford Eisler(andTheodor fortheFihnlms Composing Libraries N.4 ofliberation andreification Adorno Unlike inwhose internal music. Schriften.13 on Mon.Y. Thisshift under socialandeconomic alternative the given practice in which ofanglere-opens areasofspeculation seemstereotypically blocked thequestion ofan aesthetics to earlier forinstance Adorno's work. Industry suchan theessayreprinted heretakesas its pointof departure precisely West ofan independent German tomake a difference: the beginnings attempt theviewon a paralyzing cinemain thewakeof Oberhausen. possible aesthetic idea.p. "Whenever Wellesoffends Orson trade.16. themeans aresecondary techniques aesthetic from influence of the detrimental commercialism. to ideological purpose: reproduce spectator/listener to make a differframework ofmonopoly thecultural anyattempt capitalism of the and thusto servethevalidation encewas doomed to be assimilated conceivseemed a no alternative of as whole. W. totality particular. Adorno). 4. specific film as wellas theissueofreception.Introduction toAdorno 187 as onerecalls was seenas Thecinema.eventheir hinges that itsaestheassumption ofthecinema. ming Seabury Atufjirung W. 129.: Booksfor Press.: (Adorno's version)..1972). Adorno. vol." ofEnlightenment. original repr. against all themore which serve as calculated mutations thenorm are regarded hisdepartures from trans. Gesanmmelte p. German Freeport. thetic toitstechnology. processes toitstechnological discerned traces oftechnification evenprior (re-)produciwhich on Wagner). 1969).3 (Frankfurt/M. from Dialectic ofEnlightenment. This content downloaded from 200. 63. are the and distribution thecinema's of mass very techniques reproduction basisof itsartistic processes. orcriticism sociology on the traditional mostavant-garde manifestations. arts.p.1971).hisstudy bility reference to as its As reiterates with Adorno Benjamin figures original. film does notrateas a In thecontext of Adorno's writings.however transcend the boundaries ofthe Adorno ofaesthetics subject may . an exemplary branch ofa system which subordinated all aesthetics toa single Within the as a consumer. Suhrkamp. 1976). doesnothavea tradition thecinema (cf.1947. Exchanging on a more evenpartial Adorno setsouttoreflect for angle.p. 150. 1 Jul 2013 11:49:21 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . century optical toany is essentially orrelated which unrelated. Press. only very indirectly.: 1981).butis rather considered within thefield of senseof that traditional term the Theexclusion offilm from ofculture ofideology. Quite analyses apart lessin it is rooted ofthemotion because become easily inadequate picture inthe that inthe than fact artistic wants [inderkiinstlerischen Konzeption] a definite andacoustic technic twentieth [sic]reached stage. 64. strongly der Dialektik (1944/ Press. who conceives of an confronted problems inevitably by any film-maker conditions.16.German (NewYork: orig.3 While Adorno basically order of the Federal for the cultural Culture administrative Republic. generally .in:Theodor Suhrkamp. Schriften.rpt. 15(Frankfurt/M. CumJohn thevalidity Dialectic toconfirm ofthesystem. technological origins specifically ofreproduction.
lighting.Narrative Ill. that totheshaping offilm his contributed arts) popular hypostasiaesthetics. . in Screen. of theGerman term "Technologie"(whichin Adorno's usage means with theEnglish term Adorno usestheword "'Tech(forwhich "technique") "technology" Revieitw. inBenjamin. 1977). 1981).e. Jameson (London: NLB. EisenBrecht. being . brought bymechanical changes reproduction. Barthes.painting." cinema.5 of Benjamin's zation results in precisely that reductive viewof observation which heaccuses oftechnique andtechnology.Rick Altman. ed. "Mediation. Strategies on D. categories purposefulness style.so completely all processes controls offilm logical complicity production that of artistic to be subsumed anyconcept byit. Stephen 1977).6 inAdorno's thedialectical view. Heath. seems todwell ona level above more concrete historical the onereferred samtkunstwerk) tohere. Filmand theNarrative ofOklahomaPress. & J. Horkheimer and Adorno's of thesrategies of theculture certain with linking industry ofbourgeois aesthetics without Ge(e. 121. catharsis. rather thrives on infantile narrative ofreality which constructions itpretends to render thiscaveat. Besides Looking Babylon. 1 Jul 2013 11:49:21 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Ibid. 3/1 a (1979). purpose. Okla. Tradition (Norman. (Summer there.16. p. p.g.1936. Fredric Frame: Film and Ideology. inHarry 1974).inImage-Music-Text. John Fell.R. 7.." Angle.inextricably andideobound economic reproduction upwith dependency . Griffith's remarks use of 18th and 19th illuminating see Russell century painting "On First into Griffith's Wide Merritt. as wellas other essaysreprinted 6. Novelistic.1001-6. YuleFrench conceptions 60 (1980). theater. Judith the andFilm in:S. 1973). Adomo Beyond simply photographically. letter toBenjamin. 124.Adorno ofdilution andbastardization andHorkheimer as tocall film the process go so far . 1001." 1974). "Diderot. the about (Technik).188 Miriam Hansen from thefact Adorno thecomplex interaction that and Apart disregards transformation of sources(the 19thcentury the novel. nik"). aretocommercial film mainstream cinema practices production.the ofnovel andphotography" formation ofthe "mesalliance cinema inrelation tothe other arts involved a gooddealofrepression.: Suhrkamp.however.x technique appears 5. the ofautonomous art (Techniziteit) object.: Western Illinois Welsch." Questions of Cinema (Bloomington:Indiana University Press. M. 11. composition. eds. relationship between hispolitical intechnology. Studies. Conger 1974). repr. "Lessonsfrom and"On Screen. radical pointing techniques unique ofmontage.13 on Mon.1980).. March Schriften. New Left 81 (Sept." Mayne. Press. Adorno.-Oct. with toa parent as closeas the theater.Adorno reresponse oftechnique the"primacy inhisownwork on (Technologie)" emphasizes music anddistinguishes ofthat the inner dialectics from theimpact technique oftechnology i.103-128.: University 8.collapses Benjamin. the latter: the confusion Inhis to Benjamin's famous Workof Artessay in 1936. Narrative. Cf. especially regard therepression oftheatricality in favor ofa novelistic-pictorial a point of illusionism provides return for ofthe Cf. Heath (NewYork:HillandWang."7Adorno inparticular outhowmarginal tocinema. these twowith investment surrenthereby theconcept of aesthetic theinternal of the dering organization technique. trans."You under-estimate technicality and over-estimate that of dependent is certainly correct in art.15/2 Brecht.. alternative "Introduction. doesnot differentiate between levels ofcinematic such as camera signification or modesof editing: thelogicof mechanical work. 1:3(Frankfurt/ 18. repr. DianeWaldman makes this in"'Critical andFilm: Adorno and'TheCulture Theory point This content downloaded from 200.Roland stein"(1973).M.for University (Macomb. 13f.p.Theissueisfurther confusion. in Aesthetics and Politics.16.p.issueonCiema/Sound.W. complicated bythe Zohn's translation.
Under thesupremacy ofeffect. inparticular since theadvent most comprehensively. through an element in autonomous art. 12(Fall 1977). then. scope. He introduces position roughly stereotypical "equation itas problemoftechnique infilm. 1974). inthe p. the down to elaborate calculation ofthe response spectator's lastnuance. tothe a blind ofanaesthetics the speculations.e. Adorno debate suggests film to the overall between and complicated techniques proper relationship .stillprovides ." Useful as this distinction phenomena of translation.'9 Throughout NewGerman no. .p.13 on Mon. that Adorno seesoperating its especially of enhance the false of the identification techniques illusionism. 9. (i. all previous artis disassembled into usableelements which in turn can be amalgamated into an infinite but which the of combinations a cinemeaningless variety dazzling tendency mamanifests ofsound. others filmic but not cinematic. 57.. messages they peculiar matter what ideaone has of this or of itsabsence. Normaof actual of an aesthetics the efficiency question from which marks theprecarious derived an idealofmediated tively totality status of aesthetic of works of autonomous Adorno's notion art. Thecinematic is buta part ofthefilmic.16. specific spot: conceptualization however and limited in medium. time.underlines backtotheWagnerian theclaimtoveracity Gesamtkunstwerk ofeachelement an affirmative ensures and. among qualification technique. Metz.Languageand Cinema." Adorno dialogue withBenjamin less ritualistic also with manner. Certain arefilmic andcinematic.The only of negation view.Introduction toAdorno 189 Themechanisms inthecinema. We shallcall cinematic certain specificity filmic facts which aresupposed toplay a part) a part oneintends tomake inoneor (orwhich play theother ofthecodesspecific tothecinema. closesoff within as thepossibility ofdifference andbeyond techniques given wellas the of effect. perfect stance towards thewholesystem.is aesthetic art to film to all as consumer-oriented principle imperative the that ofeffect. herlisting of"sound" Revisited. andno cinema). Thefictive traces of and which Adorno music homogeneityword. thus instantly system dispensing in mediation the work Adorno's the structure of individual which. the Kracauer.a text ofAdorno's toConmposing contribution Films Waldman doesnot mention light forthe inheressay.Referring a more to thecritical overChaplin." Industry' Critique.Paris: allthe traits infilms which Mouton. pre-conditioned In "Transparencies resumes his imaginary on Film. trans. 1 Jul 2013 11:49:21 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .As longas film is cannot inworks in a lacuna Adorno's under that there remains subsumed simply category. Adorno's howhe tries to overcome the maybe forpurposes essayillustrates This content downloaded from 200. particular with the universal which characterizes allproducts culture The ofthe industry.bytheir synchronization.a distinction artistic achievement translated herein Christian of a film Metz'sterms as 'cinematic' theessay. DonnaJeanUmiker-Sebeok (The Hague. image . and referent of image validates thedetailin itself and deceptive identity links it to thecultural with its as a whole. appear ofthe whether areorarenot tothis means ofexpression. theshortcomings inAdorno's notion offilm needs in however. 47: "We shall callfilrnic.Adorno's and 'filmic.16. in a less involved. technique butlacka counterpart ofdependent art. same with anearlier Atthe heseems tobeconversing self. recasts andtechnology" but atic. and. Suchan analysis be butit may conclusive. author ofthe the delineated above.
31-33. 1 Jul 2013 11:49:21 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .p. p. overwhelming implementation anundertone ofeffects cannot conceal ofcondescension who for "those .: 1967).p. indetail. standards Another instance ofself-revision inAdorno's remarks maybe perceived on reception." Nei' German Critique. as has been" ofan elitism outoften smacks similar tobrands ofcultural pointed enough. standard which art autonomous has to abreast of rigorous by keepabsolutely itstechnical in the of the cinema for which case technical development: ." against sociological reception consideration ofa discrepancy between thesocietally structure programmed offilmic/cinematic infavor ofa more dialectical between the semiotic dichotomy relationship two.13 on Mon.16. he noneHowever Adorno mayremain skeptical theless cinematic the status of aesthetic at least material grants technique in thecontext of non-commercial he the modifies Moreover. representational process. greatest nature of thephotographic in order to therefore. from ofthelatter: thephotographic ofthe various proceed aspects rendering the role of the as conventions such flashback and camera. "Thesen zur Kunstsoziologie. (Winter 1977). reprints "Transparencies Suhrkamp."' onFilm. an aesthetics offilm semblance havetoemphasize would itsinherent with modes ofexperisubjective affinity enceas wellas toacknowledge the inboth roleofintentionality representation andconstruction. Peter UweHohendahl.190 Hansen Miriam strives towards of thefilmic it as a conception reasoning yetrecognizes from the of cinematic His reflections actually inseparable question technique. eyesarewretched 11.Germanedition.0" ParivaAesthetica OhmeLeitbild.The indictment oftherelentless ofconsumers' needs manufacturing anattitude blends into ofcontempt for those whoallow their tobe needs easily thus andthecritique ofthe cinema's appropriated. are so absorbed and of themovie by theworld gestures.Cf.: School Reader (n. 2. no's well-known reservations is his studies. likely achieve artistic of itsown.(Frankfurt/M. The thesis of totalmanipulation and delusion. 10 Aesthetics. 148. montage. One of p. above). counterbalance theirreducible ofobjectivity." What is evenmore inlight ofAdor"Transparencies astonishing.a poverty andcommodity brilliance fetishim havebecome of synonymous a self-conscious abstinence from be more to means.byitsimages.16. may perfection. the same volume This content downloaded from 200. block The to a artistic use of the stumbling truly superimposition. film-making.that words areunable to supply what wouldreally makeita world they 0 Such undertones of elitismare refreshingly absentfrom (Kosmos). . theuglier moments of thisattitude aside theissueof racism in Adorno's (leaving implicit on jazz) can be found in "The Fetish-Character in Musicand theRegression of writings 10. "Introduction toReception no. conservatism from and Horkheimer which Adorno themto dissociate try selves. 127 (translation medium- as Adorno maintainsin oppositionto Kracauer- lies in the anddebased cultural tothe samecomplex ofsymptoms as do those faces of songs goodsbelongs which one no longer knows whether thefilm has alienated them from has or reality reality alienated them from the as they wrench formless mouth with ina film. object. 287: "'The assentto hit Listening." smile. 94-102.p." The Essential Frankfurt that on Film". revised). Dialectic ofEnlightenment. teeth opena great shining voracious while thetired andlostabove.
even in the bleakest vision of Culture thishistorical Industry. "Ideological Apparatus. 13.16.refraining (derKritische) empirical proponent thought intenwith themanipulative theprocess ofreception shortcircuits analyses. conclude on Culture "Das Schema der Massenkultur. Thedialectics inbourgeois art. 1 Jul 2013 11:49:21 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .13 on Mon."as it secretly andunadmittedly from changing viewofthespectator Adorno a more Moreover. Cf." on itsown. attempt who theconsciousness ofthose of reification andalienation from processes The arethemselves of these mechanisms the of such object processes. .alsocf." Camera (Winter 1974/75)." theculture contains antidote the industry of the is thestatus of reception Whatis at stakein anycritical analysis ideorecent French theorists have the as As argued. inScreen. Quarterly. Metz. only spectator hypocritical he accusesthemof actively Rather of masochistic position dependency. to its own lie. ofconsumertion Notthat Adorno surrenders tothe ofthe apologists product. differentiating in earlier While Adorno's theunofficial theattraction. context. appeal dynamic presents and ofbehavior intheproduct official models between itself. pp. analysis film in DialecticofEnlightenment. ofEnlightenment." (n.. Dialectic German edition."The Imaginary (1977). spectator from ofcritical who.the Signifier. in the allowsAdorno to retain a trace of hope. 161-64. Questions byHeath. This content downloaded from 200. ofthe theculture intransforming thereified consciousness industry assisting consciousness that foritsownpurposes." Film no. that "human tothe forces ofproduction as they conform technological beings. oneswhich provide is condemned libidinal thecommercial ofrepressed energies writings tapping on a as merebait. 5.'3 ina similar the cinema's of Adorno describe andHorkheimer.16/2 discusChristian trans. fixates the latter ina whose bowtothe oriented art. European tatiously necking of "theideology that for thepossibility as support grandfatherly perception. 28/2 and"The Apparatus. are transformed are imposed on them fall to be and thus which allow themselves objects willingly manipulated behind the actualpotential forces.a tantalizing of desublimated desire.Introduction toAdorno 191 andtheactual He distances himself the ofthework from response. Obscura. audience bypreventing desires." they chapter Industry. vein."Yet in thevery of theseproductive 12. of as continuities ofcertain tendencies things. unlike that of semiotic-psychoanalytic other them in a historical situates them. pp." summarized "On Suture. 139ff.12 "Transparencies of rein the a Film" emphasizes subversive layering ambiguous potential as one more context havefigured Whatin another might sponsepatterns. into which in thenameof progress.boysandgirls osteninstance andpseudo-individuality ofstandardization in Adorno's now cities the streets of on serves. among establishing theory. is to a function of the cinematic apparatus produce "subject-effect. 1 (1976). strategies to efface re-enchantment an and as individualization illusionism. as itwere. ofCinema above)." andcritized sionon"suture.Jean Effects oftheBasicCinematographic LouisBaudry. perspective.grounded and Horkheimer from the resistance of an albeitcontingent In a draft omitted subjectivity. major spectator subject.16." logical ina hallucinatory ofperceptual coherence toenvelop thespectator identity.
"'4 beings .(see letter 18. of the For Adorno. Schriften.pp. is positively with emphasized. especially which involves thecomposer thebeginning from ofa project. monolithic on reception on in "Transparencies assumptions thespectators a higher of in Film. 3 (Frankfurt/M.'5 a the a of false to against hegemony collectivity clearly response Benja. massculture hastorenew still constitute thelimit its subjects. repetitiveness lies the hope thattheir successbe limited: "Because human beings. 98 p. forthe p. tionary working repr.as ofreification. This content downloaded from 200. The Essential Frankfurt School Reader. collectivity. 6. 1 Jul 2013 11:49:21 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . inevitably. inComposing Films edition. p. Listening": music. effort of holdoverthem the be that human trace that is the of may futile. manufactured itmayappear.'7 act in and of both the structure of the work itself only remaining negativity in theconstitution ofitssubject. Adorno. 216) whenhe eism" - cautions "the actualconsciousness of actualworkers" with Benjamin against identifying andaskshim consciousness tofundamentally reconsider the ofrevoluproletarian relationship intellectuals tothe ofMarch inAesthetics and class. 15. is notgenerated but the internal i. productive logic and of the out however historically emptied ideologically category subject. 17. his earlier. When three decades revises Adorno. rests with of the forces. ofa potential cannot be totally controlled. theadherence to thecategory as forHorkheimer." aspects Abandoning stance thecinema as a massmedia.192 Hansen Miriam Adorno andHorkheimer ofreification. Thecooperative offilm of "freeplanning" nature thenecessity production.4. vol. (n."'6 representing mode as wellas the collective ofreception of inproducnecessity cooperation the seems topreclude aesthetic ofindividual intention as the realization tion. 299. above)." he notonlygrants degree contingency terms of their as subjects. technology.bythe within antithesis thesystem.13 on Mon.e.: 1981). repetition only hope repetition Thepoint ofinversion. above). 1936. oftheprocesses argue. Suhrkamp. 16." would not have Benjamin disagreed. p. Adorno mobilizes theclassicalMarxist-Leninist actually argument against "spontanas AndrewAratopointsout(EssentialFrankffirt School Reader. 299-335. Benjamin's positive emphasis intheir ofmass culture another bone ofcontention debates ofthe sions became of individuality as summarizes hisdefense of theconcept Adorno 1930s.as forBenjamin . powers liquidating individuality are capableof consciously butagainst them onlyindividuals pastsaving. 101. derived from the its form as one determines subject problematically bourgeois onthe dimencollective individual. thehopeless in an endlessseriesof repetitions. 14. Adorno can evenconceive of a against "liberated" film which would haveto"extricate itsa priori from collectivity themechanisms ofunconscious andenlist andirrational influence" it"in the service ofemancipatory intentions.German and 133(omitted from translation). status the intrinsic buthe also acknowledges ofthecinema as a formal theaesthetic andthe "in which collectivity quality the of medium his defensive sociological converge. Gesammnelte 331. reference toEisenstein.inhisessay"On the min inMusicandthe Fetish-Character of Regression "In are an collective too.16. 124-25. later.16.pp. Politics (n. of The withits inherently the aims cinema.
as a playoflight elusiveness ofthemedium itself: only present .'too. inthemaking he literally andcriticizing offilm.16. YoungGerman film themoribund West andthe is clearly German 1966. refers which to as the"Oberhauseners.characterizes than a viewer. They transparent herefora continuous of theideasarranged most tions. culture. of"transparencies. by decreeof theFederalSecretary oftheKuraunrestrictive 1965. lobbyists political censorship. Thecauseinthis unfurled banner. ofDialecticofEnlightenment orto Adorno's work on modem prise deThe choiceof theessay'srather title.scattered Adorno's throughout reading to the earlier The visualconfiguration of thetitle finally points writings." a succession serves Thetrope someattention. whosename is certainly not. had been founded. rather someone more himself becomes the author arrangement. strive to render absent." Adorno Cinema. a banner. thesamesignificance on Film" will hardly as the assert "Transparencies enteron Culture in relation to thephilosophical-historical Industry chapter music. ambiguous "Filmtransparente.thoughnot unrelated unconnected of this aperpus. niquesconstantly isthat ofa inthe Theother German word meaning "Transparent" implied case is that of atpolitical demonstrations. andshadow." oftranslutheformat of theessayas a seriesof centimages or slides. involved actively positions the donot himself sideofthe Adorno's observations onthe audience.notoriginals: . The person whom Adorno It usually takes twopeopletocarry seemsto be lending hissupport forthecause is Alexander Kluge. alsoconnoting self-evident. 1 Jul 2013 11:49:21 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . enemy of inwhich sawtheproduction on Film" was written.13 on Mon. Negative Dialectics and AestheticTheory.the industry.they arepresented status ofgreat as something 'shining through.thespectator invisible. year "Transparencies feature directors suchas Volker first films Schldndorff (Der byindependent was made von Gestern). This miraculous anderKluge (Abschied output Filmwhich inpart theKuratorium Deutscher from bygrants Junger possible in of theInterior. of their interests inthe ofthe bill.EdgarReitz(Mahlzeiten). and successful film-makers introduced a system which favored previously toencourage toa screening non-commercial likely subjected process projects were activeas commercial Intheinterim year. presume .Vlado Kristl This content downloaded from 200. general writings tendency do notnecessarily Inrelation tothemajor they convey earthshaking insights.Adorno's lypromoting wording publication intervention behalf as an on this essayinDie Zeitwasundoubtedly perceived of theindependent film-makers. As a projectionist (Der Brief)and Alexjunge T5rless). projectsof the later Adorno.' in-sights are'reflecevencommonplace.16.Therelatively subsidizing February practice Bill of 1967 theFilmSubsidies torium was notto reign forlongthough.as isolated canbe found asides.Kluge's theessay although his influence maybe absentfrom formed aesthetics and politicsof filmwere themselves by his significantly .theapparameans ofsignification thecinema owesitslifetothematerial him/herselfwhich itstechthespectators' tusbehind back.Introduction toAdorno 193 Remarkable as these when considered the may speculations against appear onmass andfilm ofAdorno's inparticular.
" "empty spacesbetween the it is in of these that the own flow. (1966).'"20 image Beyond hyperbolic simplicity quotation. had no United Grabmal States todirect Das Indische Lang particuwith laruse for theproduction style Kluge. 10/9 as earlyas that with EnnoPatalasand Frieda 21. Kluge. 69-70(Dec. writing entitled in 1962. Grafe in Filnkritik. German . 48.Eisler ofmontage tohisconcept but resort ievonAlexander andAdorno Nevskv explicitly track.the (butonlyto a certain degree) incounteracting theobtrusive shots (Leerstellen).. Itmay detour. HeideSchlUipmann. Kluge:Crossings Critical undLiteratur.16." Filmn Colloquium ture. toKluge'sgroundfor an aesthetics film as that caused todrop hisdefenses Adorno inginCritical against Theory. writings film which owedmuch to hisfriendship with without not might Kluge they havebeenwritten. level of consciousness. fundamental mistrust of to Adorno's of thevisualimmediacy Klugerefers film he andHorkheimer which haddiagnosed as oneofthe culture industry's most effective mechanisms. Despite critique pervasive fortheFilms.Adorno's According "I love the the that to to meis the movies. p. p. ForKluge'srelationship toAdorno as wellas Kluge'sstrategies ofa "literarization" of thecinema. (YesterKluge'sfirst for his activities were the element As own day Girl). endorses that ideological Klugehimself position when he stresses thefunction ofthecuts. In interviews no. only apothegm: go thing bothers the the of the on screen.1982).2' imagination Kluge andEisler a Adorno radical of Juxtais years forty practice montage.inparticular inhiscooperation with Prokofas realized Eisenstein's ofsynaesthesia notions . TheThirteenth Amherst onGerman LiteraTheory. Composing ed.published Lebensidufe ofAnita vonGestern G. Kluge's practices film.13 on Mon. andas recent p. paradigm literary his a of that of to become modernism. Adorno. 17.'"22 which theaffirmative Onlythrough montage negates 18. 73. 1979-80). significant particular literary aspect havebeenthis orrather the of ofcinema. of whichthestory (CurriculaVitae)." in Adorno/Eisler's words. posing heterogeneous translating antithetical character into "raises them to the inherently montage expression. andimage of sound extend itto theantithetical more relationship radically 20 Klaus Eder/Alexander (Munich: Hanser. 19.16. inspired feature Abschied film.194 Miriam Hansen " Through with Adorno.."'9 film attitude towards was basedon the to Kluge. mediating literary in was the in so of discourse."and takesoverthe function oftheory. 73. 1981). as theoneinPflasterstrand. ago ofthe the elements cinematic their material. 1 Jul 2013 11:49:21 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .whohadreturned degree in Berlin. letter to author.Literature. November 28. referentiality image ruptures spectator's can insert The answer as for obvious for itself.p.whogothisdoctoral friendship from the inLaw was introduced to Fritz Lang. concept appropriation a traditional inaddition art form offilm. "If Klugewasinfluenced then inturn later on Adorno's byAdorno.490. (Bern:Francke forthcoming Verlag. UhnerDramnaturgien: This content downloaded from 200. Reibungsverluste Kluge. 1981. hespent sitting imposed upon LangbyArtur in thecafeteria These werethebeginning of a collection stories.-Jan. a massmedia andconsider of an alternative cinematic the possibility practice. ofhisownconcept in support KlugecitesAdorno's apothegm of their 22.see present author's "Alexander between Film. of montage.norwas Klugegreatly impressed ofhistime Brauner most & Co.
"(Engl.: Suhrkamp. See excerpts from 3/4(1980). keit). montage. Benjamin. as Adorno sug.regardless of thecinema'stechnological origests.he cautions Aesthetic theaesagainst posthumously published Theory2 thetic of "shock" (in theBenjaminian senseofthe oftheprinciple viability andalso problematizes theroleof subjectivity in thejuxtaposition of term) seems tobe elements. Asthetische Theorie 1970). Filmwirtschaft This content downloaded from 200.notunlike poetry.1968).as in his reservations.25 putting 23." trans.: naturalism to which of thetechnology 1951). resuming . Harry earlier version.a study (Frankfurt/M. Thissomewhat unexpected much misused the mimetic of Adorno's recuperate impulse film. Offentlichkeit than toHabermas's Strukturwandel derOffentlichkeit which the itborrows enment (1962)from title term.: Suhrkamp.shouldbe defined the movement with which succeed eachother gins by involuntary images before theinner ofargument turn serves to eye. Thelatter ofthe unmediated argument part intentionally ofmontage tends anad hominem ofKlugewhose toocclude concept critique theparticipation initsvery refusal toposit meanoftheconstructing subject directions of modernist certain ing.p. 1 Jul 2013 11:49:21 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Illuminationen 1977). 90. Reproduction.13 on Mon.andin Wide Angle. rhetoric.142) 25. Adorno's of"thetechnological medium aspect linking excellence" with the of of nature (demNaturschiinen) par concept beauty seems toechoBenjamin's ironic vision offilm inthe land as "theblueflower of technology. Offentlichkeit FlorianHopf/Alexander inderBRD undinEuropa: Gitterdlimmnerung in Kluge. Kluge'swritings of an oppositional in OskarNegt/Alexander or counter is developed concept publicsphere ischer andinfact dedicated toAdorno 1972). see:Michael ForKluge'sconcept ofthe cinema as anoppositional Dost/ public sphere moreintimately relatedin scope.about the"radical naturalism" film which couldopposetoa superficial familiar also but reminiscent of realism.'"24 film the structural between and the For Kluge. lends film itself allsurface anantithesis would andthus to dissolve coherence ofmeaning present realism. trope only responded link a between of and spectator" provides Kluge's concept montage his of the cinema as an program oppositional publicsphere (Gegen6ffentlichwho categorically refrained from theoretical For Adorno. (Frankfurt/M. Filmwould into theassociative ofimages. 'impersonal' Another trace ofAdorno's with dialogue Klugecanbe seeninthe attempt to base an aesthetics of filmon its structural withthestream of affinity in thehuman associations mind. In "Transparencies . and impactto a worklikeDialectic ofEnlightundErfahrung: Zur Organisationsanalyse vonbiirgerlicher undproletarKluge. Zohn(New York:Schocken German Books. projection ofa "radical naturalism" stream ofassociations seeMinima Moralia(Berlin. blend stream itsform anyfamiliar deriving from thepure.transl.: Suhrkamp.16.Introduction toAdorno 195 ofassociative thechains automatism can appealoftheimageandinterrupts film become a medium ofcognition. 24. and screen technological projector on an industrial the film in of "the the ofthe head scale. pleafor notmadewithout on Film" .ForAdorno's (Frankfurt/M. Adorno's is however.p.26-33.-revised-p. 157. 233 (translation revised). The rawmaterial of film. 231-34. immanent construction ofsuchimages.pp.p.16. Adorno. 266: "The radical Suhrkamp.inMinima remarks Moralia. affinity stream of associations establishes a utopian of cinema in people's tradition minds to which inventions likecamera. basedonthe Frankfurt/M.The below. "The Work intheAgeofMechanical ofArt Illuminations. Benjamin's assertion that theartistic function offilm is tomake visible the"equipment-free ofreality".
practice a constellation of filmto written akinto thatof writing. of each in and resemble the flow other their movement against thereby very in a later our fixed its discrete little under which is writing similarly signs." As Adorno andHorkheimer assert methodological dialectics in a reveals makesit readable preface. ambiguous The in omitted from the exact same the draft observation may suggest. when wascontending for hadfeared). from but ).26 associational modeofexperience has implications inepistemological terms rather ofpractical than terms applicability. fetishism: for Adorno "Leitmotiv" instance.andtosomedegree . every imageas writing. eyes inthe "in Adorno refers tothe ofmontage as arranging things essay. Dialektikcder in translation. Versuch iberWagner (Frankfurt/M.lcirung. above]. 20. inAdorno as a script. 24. The p. 65ff. Suhrkamp. as an allegorization thestageof which has reached of expressive gesture reification in commercial film music. p. are set off The imagesof the interior Adorno observes. identity.present (Munich: Hanser. Strauss chancellorship. appears on of the Culture but is cited as a further instance (1942) chapter Industry cinema's dream ofthemummificainherent totalitarian bias. to Gernmany in thisissue of New GerLman contribution in Autumn. they agitated projects. spelling all the insidious in that its author remains is more monopoly capitalism invisible a herd"' towriting. 1 Jul 2013 11:49:21 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . suggestions rejected as Adorno the in1980. 332-35. 1973). 47f. 41." which massculture serves as the"priestly hieroglyphics" This kind of to its in into speaks writing. Klugealso talks in 1962 as tothe andothers hadfounded ofthe UlmInstitute Kluge (which practices relationship aboutthe informed thefirst whowas regularly foryoung Adorno. 28.196 Miriam Hansen of filmaesthetics in an discourse intopolitical thegrounding practice. yet Strauss Schl6ndorff andtwoother film-makers collaborated on a film about certainly (though thefederal notplayedby Edel). 40-42. that didnot were as unrealistic atthe time cometopower (andStrauss year.13 on Mon. .27 Thetransition ("no shepherd image which for in thetechniques DialecticofEnlightenment culminates of mass theabsorption thelawsofcommodity characterizes ofall artunder culture.p.16. that is more of signs.pp. monologue.). language. .21 complete Yetonly as figurations world ofwriting canelements ofthephenomenal intheir be "deciphered."'"As critical than "a mere language system thought on Kluge's author's Raten Alsocf. which a fewmonths before was released elections andthus an oppositional a public for an attempt tocreate political presented sphere discourse.Adorno's refusal toletpragmatic 26.especially essay pp. 14. Critique. inthe sense of andHorkheimer's functions indictment. This content downloaded from 200. Kluge. analyzes Wagner's accordingly.16.: 1974)." The analogy is more remarks than the neutral tone ofthese however.with Both these were tomake a film about Franz Strauss Alfred Josef Edelas the protagonist. film-makers): academy that Institute's in 1968tosuggest. 27. last partof sentenceomitted Aufk.pp.above). ina rather calledonemorning manner. dialectical is obviously indebted toBenjamin's of"writing" inAdorno's ambiguity philosophy 29. In the"rulers' tion oftheworld. patrons images congealed allegories. Klugeparaphrases defends a mode ofpraxis theserious work oftheory which is initself concerns interfere with political about ambivalent Adorno's (Ulmer Dranaturgien [n. "Das Schema dcrMassenkultur" (n. Its secret code that of out orders of false Vor-schrift. The Candidate.
above]. On thefunction in Adorno's see SusanBuck-Morss.above). 1 Jul 2013 11:49:21 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 6."("Dic Kunst und condition ties. this provide negativity spirit.p.neglects inthe conversion scenes theelements ofalterity already implicit of the die-hard of and critic Culture Adorno Horkheimer's writings Industry. concept of allegory. New York:The FreePress." bycontrast. in "Transparencies on Film. 36. slightly This content downloaded from 200.Waldman tone subtler (n.16.as ifthat contradicted rebellion itremains andexpands itsownaesthetics very art.ona self-conscious levelofconstruction potential the In essential to a different kind of cinema. Situating film inthecontext in thetraditional Adorno ofmodernism arts.could which oneday. 11.In his film treatment of as massculture. which a literal on thespectator. Walter Benjamin. again requires inparticucanbe seenas crossing with no's speculations Kluge'sendeavors. their grotesque of sound film with of the the less stream-lined repeated contrasting products the era.no. . . culture").3' Onlythen cease to be a script. isprevented from outbyits which the cinema commercial really acting dieKinste. Following inHuysscn's to "Culture therather introduction use ofthat pertinent phrase evidence with a single of Reconsidered" combined (n. larhisconcept ofmontage as an interference ofdiscourses which to attempts a more the of active on the provoke spectator.p.isthe Leitbild [n.ch.and.its emphasis beginnings with the circus and the their for roadshow. on the illegitimate and anarchic of thecinema.16. preference marginal affinity genres likethe andthefunnies orevensomevarieties ofthemusical. this itshould tothe level means lessthan that of aspire nothing view all modself-conscious which in Adorno's construction by truly ernartassumes thefunction of dialectical wouldfilm theory.1979).ina .evoking the narrative of death-bed convention on Baudelaire andParis. . 8. writings "Adorno andMassCulture. Jump p. Sucha contradiction. of "constellations" methodology The OriginofNegativeDialectics: Theodor W. the tone seems condemnatory unequivocal.30 connotation Adorno's judgedpositively having negative tofilm as a form reference ofwriting cannot be classified either way.p. 60.Thomas American on Adorno andmassculture.and theFranl/flrt Institute (1977. Andrae.all these a silent from main to the thesis subversive point swervings .) 32.fromThe Origin of the Germant Tragic Drama to the comprehensive beforehis death. fragments 30. participation part The dynamics of influence between Adorno a more and Klugesuggest of film mass Adorno's on and culture than the complex writings re-reading distinction can between and The formula late early handy "shortly grasp."Ohne vital ofalltruly modern art. almost when hegrants a paradigmatic revolt Art to conclusion as specific Benjaminian against the to aesthetics offilm: "Whilebyitsimmanent tries torid itself ofanyresemblance logicfilm . and imposes reading .bythis art. Industry Adorno's 'retraction' ofthe total commercialization andmanipulation of (ofhis"theory alleged has madeitswayinto cf. 1. Adorno.theformula. advised inconstellations to reconstruct an associational modeofexperience akin towriting. offilm as writing is thenotion in film is the an alternative If an aesthetics of context of reframed practice.20 (May1979). above). 10.which become dcriture a critical Here Adordeciphering. at an arrives 31." onFilm Cut.13 on Mon."32 . 191.Introduction toAdorno 197 in "constellations" in which certain arranges maybe phenomena qualities a while inothers.
inan English . German version expressing . 33." inDie neueLinke "Anmerkungen nachI Adorno. intheir friend is acknowledged foreword.198 Miriam Hansen . its emphasison This content downloaded from 200. a of another and forms Brecht.13 on Mon.at least. It adds thatAdorno. prompted younger respected might in a different and arrange them Adorno to reconsider thosevery positions short-lived ofreconsiderconstellation. For a helpfulexceptionto thattendency see Philip Rosen. for discourse (andtheinterweaving example.16.in translation thebookwas first forties. LUckthat there existsno original One might text. assuming authorship he the endofhislife indicates that Filmstowards Composing forthe perhaps more than evergranted as notonlynecessary buteven suchtransformation . Benjamin. ment) characterize the theattempt toconceive ofa functional as a whole: enterprise transformation ofthe with materials andinopposiinstitution ofcinema given toactual Adorno's of tion socialandpolitical conditions. re-writing that of ofAdorno's ofitwith. and theeditorial to vol. more and ofAdorno's than academic Marxism writings pragmatic re-reading FilmTheory in thiscountry haveattempted so far. pp. 1969. Theory practices strongona more andembarking lysuggests following Kluge'sexample imaginative. withregardto Adorno's editionof the text. 15 of Adorno'sGesaimmelte postscript more or less supportsthis version. 34. early published into 1947under Adorno didnot wish tobedrawn alonebecause Eisler'sname at thetime. thatis. 1 Jul 2013 11:49:21 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .in theefforts and intentions under of already wayand needing support Foranycontinuation of film-makers after Oberhausen. Schoeller(Munich: Kindler. though zu TheodorW. literary have whom he as a creative friend artist. merely Hanns Eislerinthe critic ofmassculture. modernism) by person.incooperation with Alexander continue the andtheory offilm music study bias of Composing for theFilms Kluge. W. gives a and plays down the criticism of stronger politicalemphasisto certainaestheticobservations. tropes. 1949) straightens out some of Adorno's mannerisms. Themost notable result ofthis period a study that of the ation wasthe in Films." Yale French Studies.33 with Written together composer . German independent inmass Critical this committed toalternative culture. Eisler's edition(Berlin: HenschelVerlag. Adorno gives his versionof the book's publicationhistory in the 1969 preface(now includedin theEnglishreprint). The Brechtian .F.in privatecorresponSchriften dence --claimed to have written at leastninetenths ofthebook.whose attributed interruption. 157-82. andcollaborator authors joint bythe with Brecht (an understateLeavingasideAdorno's relationship precarious theBrechtian biasappears to as wellas thequestion of authorship34. Eisenstein and Prokofiev. 141-57.eventhe more irredeemable onescertain Klugeappropriated positions his own as wellas certain and for ofAdorno's work.16. This claimcan be substantiated by stylistic analysis. theMcCarthyist Eisler'sbrother Gerhart attacks wagedagainst a in 1949. gesture quotation.ed. 60 (1980).Adorno authorized itsEastGerman after Twenty years publication his hopeto reconstituted witha newpreface. agreewithHartmut to be privileged notacceptthereductive bentofhis polemicalcharges: by interpretation. 1969). AdornosZusammenarbeit mitHannsEisler. "Adorno and Film Music: TheoreticalNotes on Composingforthe Films. images examples The and active them in his own film re-writing practice theorizing.is generally to Eisler. beliesanysterotypical as a merely theoretical viewofAdorno elitist. for Composing re-publication.