Hell & High Water

July 1, 1863

Battle at McPherson’s Woods
he Battle at McPherson’s Woods began by chance at 8 a.m. on July 1, 1863, outside Gettysburg. Confederates attacked Union troops west of the town near Edward McPherson’s barn. Union cavalry confronted Confederate infantry in a battle that quickly spread north and south al along alo long the e ridgeline as additional troops arrived from both sides. Arriving in early afternoon was the 151st Pa. Infantry led by Lt. George . Col. G eorge McFarland. The regiment included 21 officers with a total of 467 men including many Berks Countians. Upon Upo pon n arrival, the unit immediately was sent to the front line with orders to remain in reserve. Through heavy enemy fi fire re ea and d hours ou s of o fighting g t g in a an ope open field, e d, the t e unit u t was as detached detac ed from o the regiment and ordered to remain at battle. securing g . It succesfully y defended the position, p g the Union’s retreat back process. to town. McFarland lost 337 men in the proce ess. History remembers the 151st Pa. as suffering the second-highest t Battle Gettysburg. casualties per regiment at the Battl le of G e ty et ysb sbur bur urg rg.
CHA MBE RSBU RG RD.
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1

At 3 pm. the 151st Infantry moves back to the Lutheran Seminary and is held in reserve. Gen. Solomon Meredith’s Iron Brigade is fighing Confederate Gen. Johnston Pettigrew’s 26th North Carolina regiment.

Lutheran Theological Seminary 1863

N. HAY ST.

Schmucker house

SEMINARY RIDGE

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Gettysburg National Military Park

Railroad oad bed

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Gettysburg
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At 3:15, Lt. Col. George McFarland moves the 151st toward the exposed flank of the 142nd Pa. and 19th Indiana. Simultaneously, the Union forces to the left and right of the 151st’s path retreat.

Thompson house

2
151 PA

15

ST EIN W EH RA VE Plu . mR un

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151 PA

Also at 3:15 p.m. the 47th and 52nd North Carolina attack Maj. Gen. John Reynolds’ Artillery between the 142nd Pa. and 80th N.Y. and 121st Pa.
. D RD FIEL FAIR

COURTESY OF LIBRARY OF CONGRESS

MILLERSTOWN RD. Eisenhower National Historic Site

WH EAT FIEL D RD The . Peach Orchard
Devil’s Den

At 3:30, the 151st reaches the edge of the woods and is met by heavy fire.
149 PA
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2013

151 PA 143 PA
Corn

142 PA

80 NY 121 PA

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Warfield Ridge

Litt L ittle e Little Roun ound Round Top p g Big und Round p Top

134

4

At 3:45, McFarland orders the I51st to fall back to avoid being surrounded by the 47th N.C.
Grain

19 IN 26 NC 150 PA
McPherson’s farm

Exposed flank

Grain

11 NC
READING EAGLE: JEREMY DREY

South Calvalry Field

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47 NC
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Gen. Robert E. Lee
1807-1870 Commander of the Confederacy at Gettysburg Educated: United States Military Academy. Military Career: Veteran of the Mexican War, superintendent of the United States Military Academy, military adviser to Confederate States of America President Jefferson Davis Commander: Army of Northern Virginia. Born in Stratford Hall, Va., Lee graduated second in his class from West Point in 1829. Two years later he would marry Mary Anna Randolph Custis, a descendant of Martha Washington. He served 17 years in the Corps of Engineers, then served in the Mexican War. He received the rank of colonel with three awards for gallantry. For three years he acted as superintendent of West Point, where he educated many men who would serve under and oppose him in the coming years. In 1855 he joined the cavalry. In 1861 President Abraham Lincoln offered him the command of the federal forces. He declined and resigned on April 17 when Virginia seceded. He accepted a position as general in the newly formed Confederate Army, and his first military engagement took place on Sept. 11, 1861. Lee’s first attempt at invading the North led to the Battle of Antietam. His second culminated in the Battle of Gettysburg. Incurring heavy casulties over a three-day battle, Lee was forced to retreat under the cover of night on July 4, 1863.

52 NC
Toll house Harman farm

5

The 151st paid a heavy price with a 72 percent casualty rate, but caused significant damage to the 26th North Carolina Regiment. Of the 840 Confederate men, Pettigrew reported 549 casulties, equalling 65 percent.

55 VA 47 VA 40 VA

22 VA

26 NC

Union Confederate

The average Union soldier er r
Union soldiers outnumbered Confederate soliders liders 3 to 1. An official total of 2,778,304 Union soldiers oldiers fought during Civil War. While there are few records of Southern soldiers, the Northern forces orces had many statistics of their enlistees. Age 26 years old at time of enlistment ment Weight 135 pounds unds Eye color Blue row own n Hair color Brown Ethnic origin German or Irish rm mer Occupation Farmer
Sources: CivilWar.org, National Civil War Museum, Library of Congress, Gettysburg National Park, Historical Society of Berks County, Maps of Gettysburg: An Atlas of the Gettysburg Campaign by Bradley Gottfried, Lutheran Theological Seminary

Berks members of the 151st Pa. Infantry Additional 151st members
Capt. James W. Weida, commander, Co. K, Longswamp Township; wounded July 1, 1863 Sgt. Adam Heilman, color bearer, Co. K, Reading; wounded July 1, 1863 Sgt. Alexander Seiders, Co. K, Reading; killed July 1, 1863 1st Lt. Aaron S. Seaman, commander Co. E, killed July 1, 1863 2nd Lt. Thomas L. Moyer, Co. E, wounded July 1, 1863. Pvt. William S. Strause, Co. H, Strausstown; wounded July 1, 1863 Pvt. William T. Strause, Co. H., Strausstown; killed July 1, 1863; buried at Gettysburg National Cemetery Pvt. Adam G. Strause, Co. G., Strausstown; wounded July 1, 1863 1st Sgt. George Heilig, Co. H, Bern Twp.

Founded Foun nded in 1826, the semina seminary is the oldest operational operatio Lutheran seminary in the Lu t U.S. U.S S. The cupola served as an n observation deck for 7 TN Union, then ConfederUn Confed 14 TN ate offi officers first o cers on the fi was day. y. The building w 1 TN Corn then the en converted into in a hospital for 13 AL soldiers both so oldiers on bo sides, a and operated o erated for op two months tw mont following the foll low o ing t battle. batt

Gen. George Meade
1815-1872 Commander of the Union at Gettysburg Educated: United States Military Academy. Military Career: Veteran of the Mexican War, Commanded extensively in Virginia and Maryland. Commander: Army of the Potomac. Born in Cadiz, Spain, Meade’s family immigrated to the U.S. due to the Napoleonic Wars. He attended the U.S. Military Academy at West Point in 1831 and graduated 19th in his class in 1835. He briefly served in the Seminole War before retiring. Meade then worked as a civil engineer until he was reinstated as a second lieutenant in the Corps of Topographical Engineers. He retired again in 1857 until the start of the Civil War. Meade was wounded in the Seven Days Battles and after recovering led a brigade at the Second Battle of Bull Run. Following additional battles in Antietam, Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, Meade replaced Army Cmdr. Joseph Hooker, who had resigned. Meade took command of the Army of the Potomac three days before the Battle of Gettysburg and achieved a major victory for Union forces, driving the Confederacy back into Virginia. Despite the victory, President Abraham Lincoln criticized Meade for not destroying the Army of Northern Viginina in its weakened state.

Michael Link ■ Musician, Co. K ■ Reading ■ Blacksmith ■ Blinded in both eyes by a bullet and laid on the battlefield for two days

Valentine Painter ■ Pvt., Co. G ■ Robesonia ■ Iron worker ■ Survived battle on July 1 but was wounded on July 3

William Fisher ■ Pvt., Co. K ■ Following the battle, Fisher joined the 1st Pa. Cavalry

Albert Yost ■ 1st Lt. ■ Bern Twp. ■ Fate unknown

L.W. Rentchler ■ Pvt., Co. E ■ Fate unknown

cloudy l d with ith a light warm breeze at 2 p.m.

75°

July 1, 1, 1863 1863

Weather W eather
The Rev. Dr. D Michael Jacobs, a math and d science scie s professor Pennsylvania prof fes esso sor r at P ennsylvan en College (now Gettysburg College), recorded the temperature and types of clouds three times a day during the three-day battle.

Civil War timeline
Jefferson Jefferso Davis appo is appointed president preside of the Confederate States Confed of America Ame Abraham Lincoln is elected president South Carolina secedes from the Union
NOV. DEC.

The Battle of Gettysburg

Battle of Spotsylvania, Va.

July-September
■ Battle of Monocacy, Md. ■ Attack on the Defenses

of Washington, D.C.
■ Battle of Peachtree Creek, Ga. ■ The Battle of Atlanta. ■ The Battle of the Crater at Petersburg, Va. . ■ Battle of Mobile Bay, Ala. ■ Battle of Jonesborough, Ga. ■ Fall of Atlanta. ■ Third Battle of Winchester, Va.

Six Southern secede states seced from the Union Un The Confederate Confe States of A America are formed

Jefferson Davis is inaugurated inau president. as Confederate preside Abraham raham Lincoln is inaugurated Surrender of Fort Donelson, Tenn. First clash of Union and Battle Battle of Surrender of Confederate of Ball's Fort Henry, forces occurs near Wilson's Philippi in W. Va. Creek, Mo. Bluff, Va. Tenn.
APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT. OCT. NOV. DEC. JAN. FEB.

The Battle of Antietam, Md. The Batt Battle of Brandy Station, Va. Siege of Vicksburg, Miss., begins. Battle of Stones River, Tenn.
OCT. NOV. DEC.

Battle of Pea Ridge, Ark.

The Battle of Seven Pines near Richmond, Va. Battle of Memphis, Tenn. The Seven Days Battles before Richmond.
JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT.

First battle of ironclad ships, Hampton Roads, Va.
MAR. APR. MAY

The Battle of Chancellorsville, Va.
JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE E

President Lincoln is assassinated P by b actor John Wilkes Booth. The Battle of oe Station Vicksburg, Miss., Bristoe Battle of Y Yellow ello ow i Fi First t successful f l surrenders to the Campaign. Lincoln is Nashville, Tenn. Tavern, Va. submarine attack Union Army The final battle of re-elected The Battle of the Civil War takes The Battle of Battle of Cold Five Forks, Va. The Battle place at Palmito Chattanooga, Tenn. Second Assault Harbor, Va. of Cedar Battle of the Ranch, Texas. on Battery Attack on Creek, Va. The Civil War officially ends Battle of Brice's Wilderness, Va. Wagner, S.C. Siege of Knoxville, Fort Stedman, Va. Crossroads, Miss. Tenn.
JULY AUG. SEPT. OCT. NOV. DEC. JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT. OCT. NOV. DEC. JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT. OCT.

JAN.

FEB.

MAR.

1860

Southern forces fire upon Fort Sumter, S.C. The Civil War formally begins

1861
Lincoln calls for 75,000 volunteers The Battle of Bull Run, Va.

Fort Hatteras, Battle of Mill First Battle of N.C., falls to Springs, Ky. Union naval The Battle Winchester, Va. forces of Shiloh, Va.

1862
Second Battle of Bull Run The Battle of Fredericksburg, Va. The Emancipation Proclamation goes into effect.

1863
Second Battle of Winchester, Va. The Battle of Chickamauga, Ga. Soldiers' National Cemetery is dedicated at Gettysburg. Lincoln delivers the Gettysburg Address.

1864
Battle of Battle of Kenne-Battle of Lincoln issues his Resaca, Ga. saw Mountain, Franklin, Tenn. Proclamation of Ga. Amnesty and Reconstruction ■ Battle of Sabine Crossroads, La. ■ Battle of Pleasant Hill, La. ■ Capture of Fort Pillow, Tenn.

1865
Lincoln is The Battle inaugurated for of Sailor's Surrender at his second term Creek, Va. Appomattox, Va. Jefferson Davis is captured near Irwinville, Ga.

© 2013 Reading Eagle Company
READING EAGLE: CRAIG SCHAFFER, CSCHAFFER@READINGEAGLE.COM

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