PPP protokol | Computer Architecture | Computer Standards

PPP - Point to Point Protocol – RFC1661

• Contents
1. Overview of PPP 2. SLIP - Serial Line IP 3. PPP protocol features 4. PPP Protocol Stack 5. PPP framing 6. LCP and NCP 7. Typical PPP session 8. PPP authentication

indigoo.com

PPP

© Peter R. Egli 2013

1 Rev. 2.50

2. 2.3. Overview of PPP indigoo.4.4.com+password Link (layer 2) establishment and option negotiation ‚I want compression‘ ok PAP CHAP EAP LCP LCP HDLC HH Payload HT HH Payload HT HH Payload HT HDLC Framing (message boundary) Phy Physical bit transport © Peter R.  PPP is a collection of protocols.Point to Point Protocol – RFC1661 1.50 Phy . Client (initiator) Server (responder) IP IP IP IP IP IP: 1.3.com  Layer2 protocols run on lines (serial.3. each of these protocols provides a specific function.2.4 and DNS: 2.5 NCP Exchange of IP packets IP Assignment of IP address.5 PAP CHAP EAP Authentication of user ‚Tell me who you are‘ I am user@domain. dial-up) that do not provide a framing (raw „bit pipes“).PPP .3. Egli 2013 2 Rev.4 DNS: 2. DNS server NCP Your IP: 1.

2.  PPP was devised in order to overcome the deficiencies of SLIP. 3. SLIP does not provide authentication. SLIP (Serial Line IP.PPP .  SLIP has some deficiencies: 1. SLIP does not provide dynamic IP address assignment.Point to Point Protocol – RFC1661 2.com  SLIP was used as framing protocol over serial lines before the advent of PPP.  SLIP framing: Frame delimiter: The byte 0xC0 serves as frame delimiter. Egli 2013 3 Rev.  0xDB in payload becomes 0xDB 0xDD in SLIP frame. 0xDC is used as escape sequence for 0xC0 in payload:  0xC0 in payload becomes 0xDB 0xDC in SLIP frame. 2. SLIP only supports IP (no other layer 3 protocols). Transparency: 0xDB. © Peter R. SLIP does not have error detection mechanism (left to TCP to detect and recover from errors on the transmission line). RFC1055) versus PPP indigoo.50 . 4.

4.  PPP allows to dynamically assign an IP address (NCP). PPP (RFC1661 et. Network control protocol (NCP): Each network protocol. Compression provides more throughput. PAP. 7.50 . thus a means for finding the start of packets is required. Encryption protocols (ECP. 6. © Peter R. 2. Egli 2013 4 Rev. Link control protocol (LCP): LCP is used for establishing a data link including options for the operation. DES.) for privacy. 2. Framing method (frame/packet delineation): Serial lines provide bit transport.g. usually client) and the responder (R. Serial lines are usually comparably slow. Compression control (CCP). EAP): Client (and optional server) authentication make sure the right communication partners talk to each other. IP. has its own NCP for establishing and configuring the network-layer operation.) protocol features indigoo. Authentication protocols (CHAP. usually server). 5. Bandwidth control (BACP): „Bonding“ of multiple channels (Multilink PPP-MLPPP) to provide more bandwidth.Point to Point Protocol – RFC1661 3. AES etc.al.  PPP affords error detection (checksum).  PPP provides authentication (PAP / CHAP)  PPP is a symmetric protocol: the 2 parties in a PPP session are the initiator (I. e.PPP . 3.com  PPP is not a single protocol but a protocol suite and consists of: 1.

EAP Extensible Authentication Protocol: Protocol supporting a range of authentication algorithms/protocols LCP Link Control Protocol: Negotiation and control of link parameters on both ends (MRU Max.Point to Point Protocol – RFC1661 4. CHAP CHallenge Authentication Protocol: Description see below.com BAP/BACP LQR / LQM LCP CCP Compression Control Protocol: Negotiation and control of compression HDLC-like framing on both ends of link.50 . ECP Encryption Control Protocol: Configuring and enabling of encryption on both ends of the link. Receive Unit. header compression. default gateway and DNS server from responder to initiator). PPP protocol stack CCP IPCP ECP PAP / CHAP / EAP BCP indigoo. but instead of routing initializes bridging). 2. Egli 2013 5 Rev. LQR Link Quality Report: Monitoring of link quality. BCP Bridging Control Protocol: Establishment of bridging modules on both ends of point-to-point link (similar to IPCP. PAP Password Authentication Protocol: Description see below. © Peter R. BAP/BACP Bandwidth Allocation (Control) Protocol: BAP/BACP can be used to add/remove individual links in a multi-link bundle (MultiLink PPP).PPP . encapsulation). IPCP IP Control Protocol (is a NCP Network Control Protocol): Establishment of IP on both ends of point-to-point link (mainly assignment of IP address.

Point to Point Protocol – RFC1661 5.  The checksum is either a 2 byte CRC16 (default) or 4 byte CRC32 (frame > 4kB).  The protocol field identifies the Layer 3 protocol contained in the payload (values see IANA assigned numbers).50 .  The field address is fixed = 11111111b which means that all stations are to accept the frame.  The payload is variable length (default 1500 bytes). 1 Flag=0x7E 1 Address 11111111 1 Control 00000011 1 or 2 Protocol variable Payload 2 or 4 Checksum indigoo.  Control = 00000011b which means that the frame is unnumbered (PPP does provide error detection. 2. PPP framing  PPP framing is a variant of HDLC (High Level Data Link Control).com 1 Flag=0x7E  PPP framing is character oriented (frame always integral number of bytes (byte stuffing). but no error correction. © Peter R. Egli 2013 6 Rev.PPP . reliable transmission with PPP is set forth in RFC1663).

Point to Point Protocol – RFC1661 6. 2.com  Bring down the link gracefully when no longer in use. MRU (maximum receive unit).PPP .  Dynamic assignment of DNS primary and secondary server. B. Header compression / address field compression. LCP (Link Control Protocol):  Used for establishing the link. Egli 2013 7 Rev.  The host must set a default route to the PPP interface since there is no default gateway IP address (the link is point-to-point with no IP address = unnumbered).50 . NCP (Network Control Protocol):  Dynamic assignment of IP address.  Allows to negotiate link options: Authentication protocol to be used. © Peter R.  Periodically test the link (LCP Echo request / reply). indigoo. LCP and NCP A.

com LCP PPP LCP Configuration Request LCP PPP LCP Configuration Request LCP PPP LCP Configuration Ack LCP PPP LCP Configuration Reject LCP PPP LCP Configuration Request LCP PPP LCP Configuration Ack LCP PPP LCP Identification LCP PPP LCP Identification CHAP PPP CHAP Challenge CHAP PPP CHAP Response CHAP PPP CHAP Success CCP PPP CCP Configuration Request IPCP PPP IPCP Configuration Request IPCP PPP IPCP Configuration Request IPCP PPP IPCP Configuration Ack IPCP PPP IPCP Configuration Request IPCP PPP IPCP Configuration Nak IPCP PPP IPCP Configuration Request IPCP PPP IPCP Configuration Ack LCP LCP LCP LCP PPP PPP PPP PPP LCP LCP LCP LCP Echo Request Echo Reply Echo Request Termination Ack C: Client  server traffic S: Server  client traffic © Peter R.PPP . PPP data R: 20 1.341129 20:53:45:4e:44:17 20:52:45:43:56:17 20:53:45:4e:44:17 20:52:45:43:56:17 20:53:45:4e:44:17 20:52:45:43:56:17 20:53:45:4e:44:17 20:53:45:4e:44:17 20:52:45:43:56:17 20:53:45:4e:44:17 20:52:45:43:56:17 20:53:45:4e:44:17 20:53:45:4e:44:17 20:52:45:43:56:17 20:53:45:4e:44:17 20:53:45:4e:44:17 20:52:45:43:56:17 20:53:45:4e:44:17 20:52:45:43:56:17 20:52:45:43:56:17 20:53:45:4e:44:17 20:52:45:43:56:17 20:52:45:43:56:17 -> -> -> -> -> -> -> -> -> -> -> -> -> -> -> -> -> -> -> -> -> -> -> 20:53:45:4e:44:17 20:52:45:43:56:17 20:53:45:4e:44:17 20:52:45:43:56:17 20:53:45:4e:44:17 20:52:45:43:56:17 20:53:45:4e:44:17 20:53:45:4e:44:17 20:52:45:43:56:17 20:53:45:4e:44:17 20:52:45:43:56:17 20:53:45:4e:44:17 20:53:45:4e:44:17 20:52:45:43:56:17 20:53:45:4e:44:17 20:53:45:4e:44:17 20:52:45:43:56:17 20:53:45:4e:44:17 20:52:45:43:56:17 20:52:45:43:56:17 20:53:45:4e:44:17 20:52:45:43:56:17 20:52:45:43:56:17 PPP PPP PPP PPP PPP PPP PPP PPP PPP PPP PPP PPP PPP PPP PPP PPP PPP PPP PPP PPP PPP PPP PPP indigoo.068683 I: 10 0.Point to Point Protocol – RFC1661 7. R: Responder I: 1 0.50 .720670 I: 13 0.000000 R: 2 0.156618 I: 21 1. Typical PPP session I: Initiator.275972 R: 22 11.063986 I: 7 0.984960 ..960196 R: 19 0.031299 R: 6 0.932285 I: 16 0.030818 I: 5 0. 2.933597 R: 17 0.064776 I: 8 0.029362 R: 4 0.722227 R: 14 0.156947 R: 25 13.718392 I: 12 0.066026 R: 9 0. Egli 2013 8 Rev.069147 R: 11 0.028594 I: 3 0.959508 I: 18 0..885780 I: 15 0.

* Thus PAP is considered insecure. * CHAP trace see PPP trace above. thus CHAP is asymmetric. 5. 2. 3. Peer computes a hash (MD5) value on identifier (username). PPP authentication indigoo. Authenticator sends challenge (random value to foil replay attacks) to peer. Egli 2013 . Authenticator computes random value (=challenge) 2. Authenticator performs the same calculation and checks if the result is ok. 9 Rev.PPP .  PAP RFC1661 Password Authentication Protocol: * PAP simply sends a username and password (cleartext) to the remote computer.50 © Peter R. * CHAP procedure: 1.Point to Point Protocol – RFC1661 8. secret (password) and challenge.com  PAP and CHAP are used for Authentication with PPP (is the one I am talking to the one he pretends to be?).  CHAP RFC1994 Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol: * With CHAP an authenticator (usually server) authenticates a peer (usually client). 4. Peer sends hash value to authenticator. * PAP is symmetric and does not allow asymmetric settings with an authenticator and a peer (authenticator authenticates peer).

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