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Republic of the Philippines

Department of Education PUBLIC TECHNICAL-VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOLS

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Unit of Competency: FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY


Module No.:

Module Title: BASIC ELECTRICITY

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Copyright Department of Education 2008 First Published JUNE 2008 This draft was prepared during the Competency-Based Learning Materials Development Workshop conducted at the Marikina Hotel, Marikina City on February 18-22, 2008 and finalized on May 23-25, 2008 at the Development Academy of the Philippines (DAP), Tagaytay City. This learning instrument was developed by the following personnel: Technology Teacher: Mr. Lyndon L. Catequista Marcelo I. Cabrera Vocational High School San Aquilino, Roxas, Oriental Mindoro Contextual Teacher: Ms. Gina C. delos Santos A.F.G. Bernardino Memorial Trade School Lias, Marilao, Bulacan Facilitators: Dr. Corazon Echano TechVoc Task Force Encoder: Mr. Lemuel C. Valles Administrative Officer II Educational Information Division Fund: Department of Education REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING 1. Azares, Efren F. and Recana, Cirilo B. Practical Electricity III; Adriana Publishing: 1999. 2. Agpaoa, Feleciano. Interior and Exterior Wiring Troubleshooting; National Bookstore: 1991. 3. Fajardo, Max B. and Fajardo, Leo R. Electrical Layouts and Estimates. 2nd Edition. 4. Cardenas, Elpidio J. Fundamental and Elements of Electricity.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

How to Use this Module....................................................................i Introduction.....................................................................................ii Technical Terms.............................................................................iii Learning Outcome 1: Apply relevant electrical theories and principles 1 Learning Experiences/Activities.............................................2 Information Sheet 1.1............................................................3 Self-Check 1.1.......................................................................6 Activity Sheet 1.1..................................................................8 Learning Outcome 2: Identify sources of energy ....................10 Learning Experiences/Activities...........................................11 Information Sheet 2.1..........................................................12 Self-Check 2.1.....................................................................15 Activity Sheet 2.1................................................................17 Learning Outcome 3: Splice and joint electrical conductors ................. 19 Learning Experiences/Activities...........................................20 Information Sheet 3.1..........................................................21 Self-Check 3.1.....................................................................26 Operation Sheet 3.1............................................................27 Operation Sheet 3.2............................................................28 Job Sheet 3.1.......................................................................29 Job Sheet 3.2.......................................................................31 Learning Outcome 4: Connect electrical circuit ..33 Learning Experiences/Activities...........................................34 Information Sheet 4.1..........................................................35

Self-Check 4.1.....................................................................37 Information Sheet 4.2..........................................................38 Self-Check 4.2.....................................................................39 Activity Sheet 4.1................................................................40 Activity Sheet 4.2................................................................42 Learning Outcome 5: Decode resistor value..44 Learning Experiences/Activities...........................................45 Information Sheet 5.1..........................................................46 Self-Check 5.1.....................................................................52 Activity Sheet 5.1................................................................53 Job Sheet 5.1.......................................................................56 Learning Outcome 6: Identify types of capacitors ..57 Learning Experiences/Activities...........................................58 Information Sheet 6.1..........................................................59 Self-Check 6.1.....................................................................63 Activity Sheet 6.1................................................................64 Answer Key 1.1.............................................................................65 Answer Key 2.1.............................................................................66 Answer Key 3.1.............................................................................68 Answer Key 4.1.............................................................................69 Answer Key 4.2.............................................................................70 Answer Key 5.1.............................................................................71 Answer Key 6.1.............................................................................72

HOW TO USE THIS MODULE


Welcome to the Module Basic Electricity. This module contains training materials and activities for you to complete. The unit of competency Fundamentals of Electricity contains the knowledge, skills and attitudes required for a Building Wiring Installation course National Certificate (NC) Level II. You are required to go through a series of learning activities in order to complete each of the learning outcomes of the module. In each learning outcome there are Information Sheets, Job Sheets, Operation Sheets and Activity Sheets. Do these activities on your own and answer the SelfCheck at the end of each learning activity. If you have questions, do not hesitate to ask your teacher for assistance. Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) You may already have some or most of the knowledge and skills covered in this module. If you can demonstrate competence to your teacher in a particular skill, talk to your teacher so you do not have to undergo the same training again. If you have a qualification or Certificate of Competency from previous trainings, show it to him/her. If the skills you acquired are consistent with and relevant to this module, they become part of the evidence. You can present these for RPL. If you are not sure about your competence / skills, discuss this with your teacher. After completing this module ask your teacher to assess your competence. Result of your assessment will be recorded in your competency profile. All the learning activities are designed for you to complete at your own pace. In this module, you will find the activities for you to complete and relevant information sheets for each learning outcome. Each learning outcome may have more than one learning activity. This module is prepared to help you achieve the required competency in receiving and relaying information. This will be the source of information that will enable you to acquire the knowledge and skills in Building Wiring Installation NC II independently at your own pace or with minimum supervision or help from your teacher.

Program/Course: Unit of Competency: Module Title: INTRODUCTION:

BUILDING WIRING INSTALLATION NC II FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTICITY Basic Electricity

This module contains information and suggested learning activities on the fundamental and elements of electricity. It includes instruction and procedure on basic electricity. This module consists of six (6) learning outcomes. Each learning outcome contains learning activities supported by instruction sheets. Before you perform the instruction sheets, read the information sheets and answer the self-check and activities provided to ascertain to yourself and your teacher. He /she will check if you have acquired the knowledge necessary to perform the skill portion of the particular learning outcome. Upon completing this module, report to your teacher for assessment to check your achievement of knowledge and skills requirements of this module. If you pass the assessment, you will be given a certificate of completion. SUMMARY OF LEARNING OUTCOMES: Upon completion of the module, the students shall be able to: LO 1 Apply relevant electrical theories and principles LO 2 Identify sources of electricity LO 3 Splice and joint electrical conductor LO 4 Connect electrical circuit LO 5 Decode resistor value LO 6 Identify types of capacitor ASSESSMENT CRITERIA: Refer to assessment criteria of learning outcomes # 1-4 of this module. PREREQUISITE: None

TECHNICAL TERMS

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Ampere is the standard unit used in measuring the strength of an electric current. Atom is the smallest part in which an element can be divided. Current is the flow or the rate of the flow of electric force in a conductor. Electricity is a form of energy generated by friction, induction or chemical change. Electron has magnetic, chemical and radiant effect. It is also the negatively charged particle of an atom. Joint is process whereby one length of wire is connected or tapped together. Neutron is the particle of an atom which is not electrically charged. Nick is a slight cut on wire. Ohms is the unit of electrical resistance. Power is the product of voltage and current. Proton is the positively charged particle of an atom. Resistance is the opposition to the flow of current. Skinning /Stripping is a process of removing wire insulation. Solder is a fusible metal or alloy used for joining metallic surfaces or margins Splice is termed straight joint; a series connection of a pair of conductor or cables. Taping is the method of insulating conductor joints. Volt is the unit of measure for voltage. Voltage is the electrical pressure that causes the electrons to move through a conductor. Wire stripper is a tool used to cut and remove wire insulation from wire.

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Program/Course: Unit of Competency: Module Title:

BUILDING WIRING INSTALLATION NC II FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTICITY Basic Electricity

Learning Outcome 1: Apply relevant electrical theories and principles Assessment Criteria: 1. The principles and theories of electron are applied when dealing with electrical works. 2. The atomic structure is illustrated. References: 1. Azares, Efren F. and Recana, Cirilo B. Practical Electricity III; Adriana Publishing: 1999. 2. Agpaoa, Feleciano. Interior and Exterior Wiring Troubleshooting; National Bookstore: 1991. 3. Fajardo, Max B. and Fajardo, Leo R. Electrical Layouts and Estimates. 2nd Edition. 4. Cardenas, Elpidio J. Fundamental and Elements of Electricity.

LEARNING EXPERIENCES/ACTIVITIES
Learning Outcome 1: Apply relevant electrical theories and principles Learning Activities Special Instructions

1.

Read Information Sheet 1.1 about the relevant electrical theories and principles.

2.

Perform the Activity Sheet 1.1 on a separate sheet of paper.

3. Answer Self-Check 1.1.

INFORMATION SHEET 1.1


ELECTRON THEORY INTRODUCTION Electricity is a property of the basic particle of matter which, like an atom, consists of proton, electron and neutron. The electron is the negatively charged particle of an atom which is sometimes referred to as the negatively charge of electricity. On the other hand, the proton is the positively charged particle of an atom which is sometimes referred to as the positively charge of electricity that weighs about 1850 times as much as the electron. The neutron is the particle which is not electrically charged and weighs slightly more than proton. Theory: 1. That all matters are made up of molecules 2. That molecules are made up of atoms 3. That the atoms contain neutron, electrons and protons 5. That the neutron is neutral, hence, neither positively nor negatively charged. 6. That the electron of an atom of any substance could be transferred to another atom The electron theory The electron theory states that all matter is made up of electricity. Matter is anything which has weight, occupies space is made up of molecules, of which millions of different kinds. The molecules in turn, are made up of atoms of which are the smallest units of the several elements and of a limited number. All atoms believed to be composed of electrons, which are minute particle of negative electricity normally held in place in each atom by positively charged particles called nucleus. Thus, the electron, which are interlocked in the atoms, are constantly revealing at great speeds in orbits around positive nuclei. In a normal atom, the amount of negative electricity of the electrons is exactly neutralized by an equal amount of opposite or positive electricity of the nucleus. Thus, a normal atom exhibits no external sign of electrification.

Structure of an atom All atoms consist of two basic parts: a body at the center of the atom called the nucleus, orbiting around the nucleus. Atoms may have more than one orbiting electron, but each atom contains only one nucleus.
Electron

Nucleus

The attraction between the nucleus and the electron is called electrostatic force, which holds the electron in an orbit. Bodies that attract each other in this special electrostatic way are described as charged object. The electron carries the negative charge (-), while the nucleus carries the positive charge (+).

Electron

Electron force holds the electron orbit. Nucleus

Electron

The positive charge of the nucleus is due to the particles called protons, which are found inside the nucleus and have a positive charge equal to the electrons negative charge.

Nucleus

Proton

The structure of neutrons in the atoms showing the position of its proton, electron, nucleus and neutron is shown below.

First Law of Electrostatics The protons and electrons attract each other inside the atom. It has been known that by nature, unlike charges (like the positive protons and negative electrons) attract each other while like charges repel each other, meaning electrons and protons repel each others protons.

Like charges repel each other

Unlike charges attract each other

SELF-CHECK 1.1
I. Directions: Read the following sentences carefully. Write the letter of your answer on a separate sheet. 1. 2. The same electrical charge ___________ each other. A. attracts B. repel C. destroy It is neither positively nor negatively charge. A. electron in motion B. electrostatic force C. neutron D. atom It is the equal number of electron and proton in an atom. A. positive B. negative C. neutral D. none of the above The electron ________________. A. neutron theory B. atom states that all matter is made of

D. neutralize

3.

4.

C. electron

D. molecules D. atom

5.

It is the smallest particle of molecule. A. ion B. proton C. electron

II. Directions: Choose the correct answer in the box below. Write your answer on a separate sheet of paper. 1. 2. 3. 4. What is the nature of matter? How will you prove that electricity is a matter? What is molecule made up? What is the neutral particle of an atom?

neutron atom has weight

molecule occupies space

III. Directions: Read each question carefully. Choose the letter of the correct answer in the box below. Write your answer on a separate answer sheet. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is found at the center body of an atom? What do you call the attraction between the nucleus and the electron? What do you call the positively charged particle of an atom? What do you call the negatively charged particle of an atom? What particle of an atom is not electrically charged? Electron neutron proton proton nucleus electrostatic force

ACTIVITY SHEET 1.1


Supplies and Materials Comb Small pieces of paper Dry woolen cloth Ballon Wall Dry fine sand Working Drawing

Procedure 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Bring your comb near the small pieces of paper. What happened? Rub your comb briskly with a dry woolen cloth. Bring the comb towards some tiny pieces of paper. What happened to the tiny pieces of paper? Compare your observation with the second step. Rub the inflated balloon with the woolen cloth. Put the balloon against the wall. Why did the balloon stick on the wall? Do you think the same will happen without rubbing the balloon? Rub the balloon with the woolen cloth again. Hold the balloon over very dry fine sand. What happened to the sand when you brought the balloon near it? What kind of electricity was produced when you rubbed two materials of different kind?

Observation Steps First Step Second Step Third Step Forth step Fifth step Sixth step Seventh step Remarks / Comments

Program/Course: Unit of Competency: Module Title:

BUILDING WIRING INSTALLATION NC II FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY Basic Electricity

Learning Outcome 2: Identify sources of electricity Assessment Criteria: 1. The sources of electricity are identified. 2. The principles and operations of each source are explained. References: 1. Azares, Efren F. and Recana, Cirilo B. Practical Electricity III; Adriana Publishing: 1999. 2. Agpaoa, Feleciano. Interior and Exterior Wiring Troubleshooting; National Bookstore: 1991. 3. Fajardo, Max B. and Fajardo, Leo R. Electrical Layouts and Estimates. 2nd Edition. 4. Cardenas, Elpidio J. Fundamental and Elements of Electricity; National Bookstore: 1989.

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LEARNING EXPERIENCES/ACTIVITIES
Learning Outcome 2: Identify sources of electricity Learning Activities Special Instructions

1.

Read Information Sheet 2.1 about sources of electricity. Answer Self-Check 2.1. Read Information Sheet 2.2 about the types of mechanical power plants. Answer Self-Check 2.2.

2. 3.

4.

5.

Answer Activity Sheet 2.1.

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INFORMATION SHEET 2.1


SOURCES OF ELECTRICITY 1. Friction - is a static electricity which is generated by rubbing two materials.

2. Chemical action - a great deal of the worlds electricity is produced by batteries. These devices generate a different or potential means of chemical action. 3. Heat action - two dissolution metals bonded together in a junction when heated, exhibits a difference of potential. Such bond is called thermocouple. The trip of an iron wire, for example, may be welded to that of a copper wire. When, this junction is heated, the iron wire shows a positive charge and the copper wire has a negative charge. Electricity generated by heat action is called Thermoelectric. - photo cells are semi-conduction devices which convert light electrical energy directly into electrical energy. Either sunlight or artificial illumination may be employed. This action is due to the ability of lights energy to free electrons from the atoms of the semiconductor material. This process is called Photoelectricity. - is a difference of potential appears across the face of certain crystal such as quarts, when they are squeezed or stretched. This is called Prezo-electricity.

4. Light action

5. Pressure

6. Mechanical action all electricity in large useful amount is at present produced by rotating machines working with the use of magnets. These machines, known as generator, are turned by water power, gas engines or steam engines and sometimes by electric motor. There are many different types of mechanical power plants to produce electrical energy. Hydropower is energy obtained from flowing water. Energy in water can be harnessed and used in the foot motive energy or temperature differences. The most common application is the dam. Power produced by the fall of water from a higher to a lower

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level, and extracted by means of waterwheels or hydraulic turbines. Hydropower is a natural resource, available wherever a sufficient volume of steady water flow exists. Nuclear Power is the method in which steam is produced by heating water through a process called nuclear fission. In a nuclear power plant, a reactor contains a core of nuclear fuel, primary enriched uranium. When atoms of uranium fuel are hit by neutrons they fission (split), releasing heat neutrons. Nuclear power is electrical power produced from energy released by controlled fission or fusion of atomic nuclei in a nuclear reaction. Mass is converted into energy, and the amount of released energy greatly exceeds that from chemical processes such as combustion. Solar Power is the power derived from the energy of the sun. A radiant energy produced in the Sun as a result of nuclear fusion reactions. It is transmitted to the earth through space by electromagnetic radiation in quanta of energy called photons, which interact with the earths atmosphere and surface. Wind Power is the kinetic energy of wind, or the extraction of this energy by wind turbines. Windmill machine that converts wind into useful energy. This energy is derived from the force of wind acting on oblique blades or sails that radiate from a shaft. The turning shaft may be connected to machinery used to perform such work as milling grain, pumping water, or generating electricity. When the shaft is connected to a load, such as a pump, the device

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is typically called a windmill. When it is used to generate electricity, it is known as a wind turbine generator. Fossil Fuel Power Plant (FFPP) (also known as steam electric power plant in the US, thermal power plant in Asia, or power station in UK). The most common source of energy is fossil fuel. Fossil fuels include coal, oil, and natural gas. Fossil fuel is formed from the remains of plant and animals which live thousands of years ago. The burning of those fossil fuel provides energy which can be used to generate electricity.
z

Geothermal power comes from heat energy buried beneath the surface of the earth. In some areas of the country, enough heat rises close to the surface of the earth to heat underground water into steam, which can be tapped for use in steam-turbine plants.

Geothermal Power is the energy extracted from the heat generated by natural concentrations of hot water and steam in the earths interior. It can be used in electric power generation and direct heat applications such as space heating and industrial drying processes. Tides is another kind of energy that involves water is tidal energy. Ocean tides can be used to turn turbines to generate electricity. For this to be possible, a dam must be built across the month of a bay. Water then trapped behind the dam at the high tide. At the low tide, the water is allowed to run out through the dam and used to turn electrical generator.

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SELF-CHECK 2.1
I. Directions: Match Column A with Column B. Write your answer on a separate answer sheet. A Friction B two metals bounded together in junction by thermocouple process electricity produced by rotating machine electricity generated by rubbing two materials electricity produced by batteries a process of photo-electricity

1. 3.

a. c. d. f. g. h.

Chemical action 4. Heat action 6. 7. Light action Prezoelectricity 8. Mechanical action 9. Magnet 11. Magnetic induction 13. Thermoelectri city 10. Pressure

an action of squeezing or stretching crystal i. imaginary lines along which the attraction or repulsion of a magnet act k. a body having the property of polarity and of attraction and repulsion found in the nature. m. Potential difference appears across the faces of quartz when squeezed o. electricity generated by heat action.

II. Directions: From the given words below, choose the correct word that would complete the sentence. Write your answer on a separate sheet of paper. fossils fuels nuclear energy geothermal biomass energy 1. 2. 3. 5. 7. tidal energy solar energy

It is the energy that comes from the sun. It is the energy that involves water. It is the energy that comes from the inner core of the earth. It is the result from the splitting or fission of atomic nuclei. It is the energy formed from the remains of plant and animals which live thousands of years ago.

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III. Directions: Choose the letter of the correct answer. Write your answer on your notebook. 1. The following are the sources of energy except: A. sun B. nuclear reaction C. fossil fuel transformer Which is a nonrenewable source of energy? A. fossil fuel B. solar energy C. tidal energy energy D. wind D.

2.

3.

Which is non-conventional source of energy? A. fossil fuel B. gasoline C. solar energy D. hydroelectric power The Makiling-Banahaw Plant in Laguna is an example of _______. A. nuclear power plant B. geothermal plant C. hydroelectric power plant D. fossil fuel- fired plant What source of energy is shown in the picture? A. fossil fuel B. solar energy C. wind energy D. tidal energy

4.

5.

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ACTIVITY SHEET 2.1


On the pictures below, trace and explain the process of the different power plants on how they produce electricity.

Nuclear power

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Hydroelectric power

Geothermal power

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Solar power

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Program/Course: Unit of Competency: Module Title:

BUILDING WIRING INSTALLATION NC II FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTICITY Basic Electricity

Learning Outcome 3: Splice and joint electrical conductors Assessment Criteria: 1. their us 2. 3. Techniques in skinning electrical wire are demonstrated. Methods of splicing and joining electrical wires are performed according to prescribed procedure. 4. Safety procedure in splicing and joining electrical wires is observed. References: 1. Azares, Efren F. and Recana, Cirilo B. Practical Electricity III; Adriana Publishing: 1999. 2. Agpaoa, Feleciano. Interior and Exterior Wiring Troubleshooting; National Bookstore: 1991. 3. Fajardo, Max B. and Fajardo, Leo R. Electrical Layouts and Estimates. 2nd Edition. 4. Cardenas, Elpidio J. Fundamental and Elements of Electricity; National Bookstore: 1989. Different types of splices and joints are identified according to

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LEARNING EXPERIENCES/ACTIVITIES
Learning Outcome 3: Splice and joint electrical conductors Learning Activities 1. Read the attached Information Sheet 3.1 about splices and joints. 2. Answer Self-Check 3.1. 3. Perform Operation Sheet 3.1 on how to remove the insulation. 4. Read the Job Sheet 3.1 on how to remove the insulation. Special Instructions Ask the assistance of teacher if needed.

Provide a separate sheet of paper for your answer sheet. Follow procedure carefully.

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INFORMATION SHEET 3.1


SPLICES AND JOINTS Method of Skinning Electrical Wire Removing the insulation in preparing the insulated conductors for making joints or splices, the insulation must first be removed from each conductor a proper distance depending upon the type of joint or splice to be made. This process is called skinning or stripping. Cleaning the Conductor After removing the insulation, the wires must be thoroughly cleaned to ensure good electric contact between the ends of the wires and so that the solder will adhere properly. The wire may be cleaned by scraping.

Different electrical wires, splices and joints

Different Electrical Wires Splices and Joints Rat tail joints is used to join conductors in outlet boxes or when fixture leads are connected through conductors. The joints are made by skinning about 2 inches, the end of the conductor is to be joined. Then twist the bare conductors about six times.

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Western Union Short- tie splice - To make the splice, the wire are first skinned for about 3 inches at the ends. They are then placed in crossed position about 1 inch from the insulation. Four or five short turns are then wrapped on each side of the longest twist, and the free ends cut off and squeezed down closed to the straight position of the wire so that they will not extend over the surface of the short turns and permit the sharp to cut through the tape with the splice to be wrapped.

Western Union Long Tie Splice- used extensively for outside wiring and is quite similar to the short tie splice. It is also being used for interior wiring. The difference is that a number of long twist are made before wrapping the end turns. This is done so to withstand greater stress of pressure on the wire. The wire for this splice are bared about 4 inches. They are then placed in the form of an X at a point midway between the insulation and the end of the base wire. Five or six long twists are then made and each side those turns are wrapped.

Britannia Splice- It is used in interior wiring where solid wires of No. 6 AWG gauge or larger sizes are to be joined and where large wire connectors or pliers are not at hand. The two wires are based for about 4 inches in a No. 6 wire. About inch of the extreme end of each beat to almost a right angle to the straight portion of the conductor. A wrapping wire is made of No. 18 bare wire copper is then cut to about 6 ft. in length and prepared by cleaning and bending in half. The large conductor is then laid together, one bent end pointing upward and the other downward. The center of the wrapping wire is then brought to the center of the conductor, one half of which is wrapped in one direction and other remaining half in the other as far as the best portion. The free ends are then forced through the grooves from one ends to the other end of the other of the large single conductors. The best ends are then cut off close to the joint.

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Scarfed splice- used only on a large solid wire where there is an objection to the bulkiness of the Western Union or Britannia splice. The wires are bared for about 3 inches, when a No. 6 wire is used. The bared wire is then filed to a wedge shape starting about inch from the insulations. A piece of No. 18 bare copper wire is cut to about 5 ft. in length and prepared by cleaning and bending in haft. The two file sides of the conductors are then laid together and wrapping wire wound around them, as similarly done in Britannia Splice. The wrapping is completed by winding about six and seven turns of the free ends around the unfilled portion of the conductor.

Multiple wrapped cable splice - is used more extensively on small strand wires and cables because these stands are more pliable and may be wound together without much difficulty. Large strands are rigid and require considerable time in making such a splice. To make the splice, the ends of the conductors are skinned at the distance of about 6 inches. The strands are cleaned and spread about apart. Next, the strands are cut about 3 inches from the insulation to right angle with the conductor. The strands of both conductors are then laced together, one group of strands wounds in the opposite direction. Care should be done that all strands in each group are wrapped simultaneously and parallel to one another.

Plain tap or Tee Joints- is used to a great extent joining a tap or other conductor to a through conductor, as for example, a branch or main circuit. To make the joint, skin the tap wire about 2 inches and the main wire about 1 inch. Next, the wires are crossed intersecting about inch from the insulation of the tap wire and the main wire. A hook or sharp bend is then made in the tap and about five or six turns wound around the main wire. The joint is soldered and tape. Care must be taken that the solder flows and sticks through all the crevices and that

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the tape covers all part of the conductors, beginning and ending on the original insulation. Knotted or loop, tap joint- It is very strong joint and will not untwist even enough strain is placed upon it. It is occasionally used in practice, particularly for temporary lighting systems, where time is not taken to solder joints. To make the join using No. 14 AWG wire, the tap wire is skinned about 3 inches and is then placed over the insulation of the tap and main wire. The tap wire is bent and hooked over the main wire and brought forward and bent over itself. Lastly, the remaining portion is wound into four or five short turns around the main wire. Wrapped Tap, Tee Joint It is used on large solid conductors where is difficult to wrap the heavy tap wire around the main wire. When a No. 6 AGW wire is used, both the main wire and the tap wire are skinned about 4 inches. The tap wire is bent into an L shape about inches from the insulation so that it will rest along the side of the main wire. A wrapping wire is then prepared using size No. 18 bare conductors terminating beyond the bent of tap wire and up to the installation of the main conductor. Ordinary Cable Tap or Tee Joint- It is used where large stranded wire or cables are tapped to a through conductor. To make the joint, the main strands should be scraped through with a knife blade or sandpaper. The tap wire of similar wire size cable should be skinned about 6 inches distance and the strands separated or fanned each strands of the tap into the shape. The main cable is placed into this V-shaped space and forced down to within 1 inch from the insulation of the tap conductor. One group of tap wire is then wound around the main conductor, each strands should be placed parallel to the other, and all wrapped at the same time and in one direction. The other group is wound in similar manner but in the opposite direction. Split Cable Tap or Tee Joint- It is used where stranded cables or wire are tapped to a through conductor. This joint is stronger than the ordinary cable tap and will not

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unwrap even though a strain is placed upon it prior soldering. To make this joint, the main wire is skinned a distance of 5 inches No. 14 AWG wire size is used and the strands thoroughly scraped as for the ordinary cable tap. The strands are next divided in half by forcing the screw driver through the center of the bared portion of the main wire. The tap wire is prepared by skinning it about 6 inches, scraping each strand until thoroughly cleaned and fanning out the strands so that they can be pushed around the space in the main wire. A space about 1 inch should be left between the main wire and the insulation of the tap wire. In completing the joint, one group is wound around the main conductor, in one direction, and the second group is wound in the opposite direction.

The Through Fixture Joint- It is used where fixtures are connected to branch wires at an intermediate point. In making this joint, the end of one conductor is skinned about 2 inches and the other about 4 inches. At a point inches away from the insulation of the longer wire, three or four long twists are made similar to the rat-tail joint. The long bared portion of the long wire is bent over parallel with the free ends. Both free ends are then place alongside each other wrapped together around the straight bared portion. Safety procedure in splicing and joining wire Before the splice is made, the insulation is first removed on both ends with the use of an electricians knife or diagonal pliers. An electrician should be very careful in removing wire insulation in order that the wire will not be nicked by the knife or pliers to prevent breaking. However, a specially designed tool to avoid nicks is called automatic wire stripper. The function of the tool is to cut the wire insulation and remove it automatically by inserting the wire corresponding to the size of hole in the wire stripper. After removing the insulation, the end of the wire is twisted firmly. When the joint has been made, the correct practice is to solder it to prevent loose contact and to have a continuous flow of electricity. The splice and joint are then covered properly with an electrical tape in order to prevent short circuit.

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SELF-CHECK 3.1
I. Direction: Label the following splices and joints. Write your answer on a separate answer sheet.

II. Direction: Write the letter of the correct answer o your notebook. 1. 2. It is the method of removing insulation from electrical conductor. A. Pulling B. Grabbing C. Skinning D. Gripping What should be done to an insulator from conductor before splicing or joining the wire? A. Pull B. Remove C. Grab D. Grip What should be the next procedure after removing an insulator from conductor for soldering a wire? A. Clean B. Twist C. Rub D. Scrub

4.

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OPERATION SHEET 3.1


REMOVING THE INSULATION Materials Wire conductor - stranded # 14 or 12 (2m) - solid # 14 or 12 (2m)

Tools and Equipment Side cutting pliers Wire stripper Personal protective equipment - gloves

Procedure 1. 2. 3. a. Prepare the necessary tools, materials and equipment. Wear the appropriate PPE. Removing insulation of wire Procedure: Using a wire stripper: Assuming the proper length of insulation to be removed, place the wire end at the jaw of the wire stripper. b. Grip the handle with minimum pressure. c. Pull the wire or the stripper side ward until such time the wire and the insulator are separated. Using side cutting pliers a. Place the wire to be stripped between the handle grips close behind the gutter/pliers hidge. b. Squeeze the insulator enough to soften it and break down. 4. Perform good housekeeping. Assessment Criteria
Accuracy of Skinning Measurement of insulation to be removed Use of Tools Use of PPE Speed Housekeeping 5 4 3 3 3 2 pts. pts. pts. pts. pts. pts.

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TOTAL

20 pts.

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OPERATION SHEET 3.2


SPLICE AND JOINT THE WIRE Materials Wire conductor - stranded # 14 or 12 (2m) - solid # 14 or 12 (2m)

Tools and Equipment Side cutting pliers Long nose Personal protective equipment - gloves

Procedure 1. 2. 3. Prepare the necessary tools, materials and equipment. Wear appropriate PPE. Skin the electrical wire to be spliced and joined, following the procedure on skinning the electrical wire. (Note: Check the wire if there is a nick. Should be very careful in removing wire insulation in order that the wire will not be nicked by the knife or pliers to prevent breaking) Splice and joint the following; - rat tail joint - western union short tie - wrapped tap joint (Note: Follow the procedure in joining and splicing wire. Refer to information sheet 2) Observe house keeping.

6.

7.

Assessment Criteria
Accuracy of Skinning Measurement of insulation to be removed Use of Tools Use of PPE Speed Housekeeping 5 4 3 3 3 2 pts. pts. pts. pts. pts. pts.

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JOB SHEET 3.1


REMOVING THE INSULATION Materials Wire conductor - stranded # 14 or 12 (2m) - solid # 14 or 12 (2m)

Tools and Equipment Side cutting pliers Wire stripper Personal protective equipment - gloves

Procedures 1. a. b. c. 2. a. b. Using a wire stripper: Assuming the proper length of insulation to be removed, place the wire end at the jaw of the wire stripper. Grip the handle with minimum pressure. Pull the wire or the stripper side ward until such time the wire and the insulator are separated. Using side cutting pliers. Place the wire to be stripped between the handle grips close behind the gutter/plier hidge. Squeeze the insulator enough to soften it and break down. - Check the wire if there is a nick. ( Note: Nick will cause the wire to break easily. 3. - Scrape the wire. 4. Perform good housekeeping. Cleaning the wire.

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Evaluation: The students will be evaluated based on the following: SKINNING No nick of wire Cleaning of wire WORKMANSHIP Execution of using tool Cutting SPEED Before allotted time Within allotted time After allotted time SAFETY

20 pts. 10 10 10 pts. 5 5 10 pts. 5 3 2 5 pts. 3 2 0 5 pts. 2 2 1 0 50 pts.

Use appropriate PPE Use PPE but not appropriate No PPE

USE OF TOOLS Use tool properly all the time Use tools properly most of the time Use tools properly sometime Improper use of tools TOTAL

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JOB SHEET 3.2


SPLICE AND JOINT THE WIRE Materials Wire conductor - stranded # 14 or 12 (2m) - solid # 14 or 12 (2m)

Tools and Equipment Side cutting pliers Long nose Personal protective equipment - gloves

Procedure 1. 2. 3. Prepare the necessary tools, materials and equipment. Wear appropriate PPE. Skin the electrical wire to be spliced and joined, following the procedure on skinning the electrical wire. (Note: Check the wire if there is a nick. Should be very careful in removing wire insulation in order that the wire will not be nicked by the knife or pliers to prevent breaking) Splice and joint the wire. Do 10 types of wire splices and joints. Follow procedure on the information sheet.

4. 5.

Assessment Criteria PROPER SPLICE AND JOINT OF WIRE Procedure follow Firmness of twisted or wound wire WORKMANSHIP
Execution of using tool Cutting

SPEED Before allotted time Within allotted time After allotted time

20 pts 10 . 10 10 pts. 5 5 10 pts. 5 3 2

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SAFETY

5 pts. Use appropriate PPE Use PPE but not appropriate No PPE 3 2 0 5 pts. 2 2 1 0 TOTAL 100%

USE OF TOOLS Use tool properly all the time Use tools properly most of the time Use tools properly sometime Improper use of tools

34

Program/Course: Unit of Competency: Module Title:

BUILDING WIRING INSTALLATION NC II FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY Basic Electricity

Learning Outcome 4: Connect electrical circuit Assessment Criteria: 1. 2. 3. Kinds of electric circuit of circuit are identified. Value of voltage, current and resistance are computed. Series and parallel circuit connection is demonstrated in accordance with standard procedure.

References: 1. Magalindan, Fe S., Ph. D., De Guzman, Dionisia G., Ph. D. de la Rosa, Juanito, and Asprer, Fe F., Technology and Home Economics. 1994

35

LEARNING EXPERIENCES/ACTIVITIES
Learning Outcome 4: Connect electrical circuit Learning Activities 1. Read Information Sheet 4.1 about parts and kinds of circuit. Answer Self-Check 4.1. Try to answer selfcheck without looking at the information sheet. Special Instructions

2.

3.

Read Information Sheet 4. 2 about Ohms Law and Power Law. Answer Self-Check 4.2. Perform Activity Sheet 4.1 on Bulb in Series. Use a separate sheet of paper as your answer sheet. Follow the procedures carefully.

4. 5.

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6.

Perform Activity Sheet 4.2 on Bulb in Parallel.

INFORMATION SHEET 4.1


Parts of a Complete Circuit In order that electricity can be better understood by the student, they should know the different parts or requirements of a complete circuit. First, the electrical circuit should have a source of power where the electric current starts to flow. The power source can be a generator, storage cell one or more cells. Second, a path such as electrical wires are needed in order that electricity from the source can be transmitted. Third, there should be a current- consuming device or appliance that will consume or use electricity. And lastly, a control or switch that will cut off the flow of current, when the appliance will not be in use. All the requirements mentioned are important in order to have complete electrical circuit. The absence of one will not make a complete electric circuit. Electrical path source of power current consuming device

37

Switch Kinds of circuit 1. Series Circuit. In a series circuit, many bulbs are wired one after the other, so that when one of the bulb is busted, all will not light up. The reason is that the current cannot pass through the bulb because of the filament is cut. So there is no continuity for current in order to go back to the power source. In a series connection, electricity flows through each electrical device. You have to observe that the two bulbs connected in series would light more brightly than if there were three bulbs in the circuit. The brightness of the light depends on the amount flowing in each device.

Things to remember in the series circuit: The total resistance in the circuit is the sum of all individual resistances. The current throughout the circuit is the same. The total voltage in the circuit is equal to the sum of the individual voltages.

2. Parallel Circuit- This is the circuit whereby two or more bulbs are wired with each bulb having its own circuit. This means that if one is busted, the other bulb will still light up because current passes separately in each circuit. In a parallel circuit, the electric current flows and only a part of the total current in the circuit goes through each bulb. Each bulb has a circuit of its own with the battery so the electric current flowing through each bulb moves in a different path in the circuit.

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Things to remember in the parallel circuit: The voltage is the same in all the circuits. The total current is the sum of all the current in each circuit. The total resistance is the sum of all resistances in each circuit.

SELF-CHECK 4.1
I. Directions: Match Column A with Column B. Write your answer on a separate answer sheet. A Switch Source of power Conductor Load Series circuit connection Parallel circuit connection B a. current cannot pass through the bulb when the other filament of the bulb is cut c. caused the load to light up d. e. f. h. consumes power electrical path bulb has its own circuit control the circuit

1. 3. 4. 5. 6. 8.

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II. Directions: Tell whether the following ideas is a series or parallel circuit. Write S if the answer is series and P if it is parallel on a separate sheet of paper. 1. 2. 3. 4. The total current is the sum of all the current in each circuit. The current throughout the circuit is the same. The voltage is the same in all the circuits. The total resistance in the circuit is the sum of all individual resistances. 5. The total voltage in the circuit is equal to the sum of the individual voltages.

INFORMATION SHEET 4.2


Ohms Law and Power Law If we are going to study the meaning of electricity deeper, there are three essential elements involved. These are voltage, current and resistance. George Simon Ohm, a German scientist, discovered in 1826 the relations among them. The discovery led to one of the major laws in electricity called Ohms Law. Each of the elements has its own unit of measurement, volt for voltage, ampere for current, ohm for resistance. Volt is named after Alessandro Volta, a physicist whose invention made volt as an electrical pressure needed in allowing one ampere of current pass through resistance of one ohm. Another inventor, named Andre Marie Ampere, a physicist and Mathematician, whose one ampere of current is the rate of flow of charge passing in a wire conductor that is equal to one coulomb per second. Electric power is measured in watts, abbreviated W as a unit. This unit is named after James Watt, a Scotch inventor. It is equal to the product of the voltage

40

multiplied by the current. The total power of a circuit is obtained by multiplying the total current by the voltage. Summary of the Ohms Law and Power Law VOLTAGE CURRENT RESISTANCE POWER Unit of measure Volt Ampere Ohms Watt Symbol E or V I R or W Formula E= I x R I=E/R R=E/R P=ExI

SELF-CHECK 4.2
Direction: Find the missing quantity for each of the circuits below. 1.
5 I=2A V=? I=2A R=? 20V R=5 I=? 10V

2.

3.

41

4.
100V

I=500A

R=?

5.

R=10

I=0.4A V=?

6.

25 I=? 50V

7. An electric heater is rated at 100V and has a hot resistance of 30 ohms. What current will flow through it? 8. An ammeter shows a bulb is using 4 amperes from a 120V source. What is the resistance? 9. An electric appliance with a resistance of 60 ohms must draw 5A to operate correctly. What is the correct voltage to use? 10. How much power is consumed by the machine having a current flow of 6 ampere supplied by a 220 volt line?

ACTIVITY SHEET 4.1


BULB IN SERIES Supplies and Materials Tool Pliers 2 2 1 3 1 pieces 1.5 batteries pieces bulb meter wire pieces socket piece switch

42

Working Drawing

Procedure 1. 2. 3. happens. 4. Trace the flow of the electric current. arranged in a series circuit? How are the bulbs Construct an electrical circuit and connect two bulbs in series. Close the circuit and observe the brightness of the light. Add one more bulb in the set up. Describe the change in the brightness of the bulb. In which setup do the bulbs shine more brightly? Unscrew one of the bulbs and close the circuit. Observe what

Observation Steps First Step Second Step Third Step Forth step Remarks / Comments

43

ACTIVITY SHEET 4.2


BULB IN PARALLEL Supplies and Materials Tool Pliers 2 2 1 3 1 pieces 1.5 batteries pieces bulb meter wire pieces socket piece switch

44

Working Drawing

Procedure 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Connect two sockets with bulbs to a dry cell. brightness of their lights. Observe the

Add one more bulb in the setup. Observe the brightness of their light. Does adding a bulb in the setup affect the brightness of the bulb? Unscrew one bulb in the set up and close the circuit. Unscrew another bulb in the setup. Why does the turning off of one or two bulbs not break the circuit? Trace the path of the electric current flow beginning from the source. How many paths can the electric current take before returning to the source?

Observation Steps First Step Second Step Third Step Forth step Fifth step Remarks / Comments

45

46

Program/Course: Unit of Competency: Module Title:

BUILDING WIRING INSTALLATION NC II FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY Basic Electricity

Learning Outcome 5: Decode resistor value Assessment Criteria: 1. 2. 3. References: 1. Enriquez, Michael Q., Gantalao, Fred T., and Lasala, Rommel M. Simple Electronics, 2004. 2. Velasco, Benjamin S., Electronics Components Testing Simplified, 1994. Different types of resistor are identified. Resistor value is determined according to its color code Importance of resistor tolerance is discussed.

47

LEARNING EXPERIENCES/ACTIVITIES
Learning Outcome 5: Decode resistor value Learning Activities Special Instructions

1.

Read Information Sheet 5.1 about resistor and its color code. Answer Self-Check 5.1. Try to answer selfcheck without looking at the information sheet. Provide a separate sheet of paper as your answer sheet.

2.

3.

Answer Activity Sheet 5.1 on how to decode resistor value.

48

4.

Perform Job Sheet 5.1 on how to decode resistor value.

Follow the procedure carefully.

INFORMATION SHEET 5.1


RESISTOR Resistors are one of the most common electronic components. A resistor is a device that limits, or resists the current. Resistor can be made from many different materials, but the most common is carbon composition. The current limiting ability or resistance can be varied by charging the ratio of carbon to binding agent. Resistance is measured in ohms, represented by the Greek symbol omega ().

49

1. Carbon Composition is made either by hot or cold molding from mixtures of carbon and clay binder. Its resistive value ranges from 10 ohms to mega ohms, in power ranges from 1/8 to 4 watts. It has the ability to withstand higher current surges and ruggedness. This type is also popular. It is made from a mixture of carbon powder and glue-like binder. To increase the resistance, less carbon is added. These resistors show predictable performance, low inductance, and low capacitance. Power ratings range from about 1/4 to 2 W. Resistances range from 1 Ohm to about 100 MOhm, with tolerances around +/- 5 percent. 2. Carbon Film is made from carbon graphite, mixed with powdered insulating material. It has two main characteristics, resistance and power rating. Carbon resistor is available in resistance values from tenths of ohms to hundred of mega ohms.

3. Metal Film is formed by means of vacuum decomposition, a process by which a number of different metal or metal oxide film is deposited on a suitable insulating mandrel or core. Nickel and chromium are deposited on the alumina ceramic core and the unit is then subjected to laser trimming.

50

4. Wire wound highly resistive wire is wrapped around insulating core. The length of the wire determines the resistance of the device. Insulating cores are usually made of cement of ceramic materials or just plain paper or pressed cardboard. This type of resistor provide low resistance, the unit is encased by insulating materials.

Table showing the color band and its numerical value

51

Reading a 4-color band resistor

Reading a 5-color band resistor

Resistor color band Examples of resistor reading: 1. A carbon resistor coded BROWN, GREEN, BLACK, and GOLD has the resistance value of 15 Ohms, and a

tolerance of 5%. 2. Resistance composition resistor using the color code. reading of a carbon

52

3.

D e c o di n g the resistance value of a carbon composition-type resistor using the EIA color code.

4.

D et er m in e

the resistor value of a carbon composition resistor using the EIA color code.

53

5.

Determine the resistance reading of a carbon-type using the EIA color code.

54

SELF-CHECK 5.1
Directions: Identify the following. Write your answer on your paper. 1. It is made from carbon graphite, mixed with powdered insulating material.

3.

It is highly resistive wire wrapped around insulating core. 5. It is made either by hot or cold molding from mixtures of carbon and clay binder. 7. It is formed by means of vacuum decomposition, a process by which a number of different metal or metal oxide film are deposited on a suitable insulating mandrel or core. 8. It is a device

55

that limits, or resists the current.

ACTIVITY SHEET 5.1


DECODE RESISTOR VALUE Fill out and complete the blank columns in the table with the data/information required. Write your answer on a separate sheet of paper.

56

1. 2.

What is the resistance value of a carbon resistor coded YELLOW, VIOLET, YELLOW, NONE as shown below?

Determine the resistance value of a carbon resistor coded ORANGE, WHITE, ORANGE, SILVER as shown below.

3.

Determine the resistance value of a carbon resistor coded GREEN, BLUE, YELLOW, NONE as shown below.

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4.

What is the resistance value of a carbon resistor coded BLUE, GRAY, RED, GOLD as illustrated below?

5.

What is the resistance value of a carbon resistor coded ORANGE, WHITE, YELLOW, NONE as indicated below?

58

JOB SHEET 5.1


DECODE RESISTOR VALUE Materials 10 different resistors

Procedure Read the equivalent of the first, second, third and fourth color band, tolerance and its coded value that correspond on the table.
CODED VALUE (ohms)

RESISTOR No.

FIRST COLOR

SECOND COLOR

THIRD COLOR

FOURTH COLOR

TOLERANCE, %

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Table 1. Decoding a carbon resistor

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Assessment Criteria Score 10 8-9 6-7 1-5 Remarks Excellent Very satisfactory Satisfactory Fair

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Program/Course: Unit of Competency: Module Title:

BUILDING WIRING INSTALLATION NC II FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY Basic Electricity

Learning Outcome 6: Identify types of capacitors Assessment Criteria: 1. 2. References: 1. Enriquez, Michael Q., Gantalao, Fred T., and Lasala, Rommel M. Simple Electronics, 2004. 2. Velasco, Benjamin S., Electronics Components Testing Simplified, 1994. Different types of capacitors are identified. Capacitor value is converted.

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LEARNING EXPERIENCES/ACTIVITIES
Learning Outcome 6: Identify types of capacitor Learning Activities Special Instructions

1.

Read Information Sheet 6.1 about capacitors. Answer Self-Check 6.1. Try to answer selfcheck without looking at the information sheet. Provide a separate sheet of paper for your answer sheet.

2.

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3.

Answer Activity Sheet 6.1.

INFORMATION SHEET 6.1


CAPACITORS INTRODUCTION Capacitor is a device that stores energy in the electric field created between a pair of conductor on which equal but opposite electric charge have been placed. A capacitor is occasionally referred to using the older term condenser. A capacitor has two or more conducting plates segregated from each other by good insulating material called dielectric. Types of capacitor 1. Electrolytic capacitor made of electrolyte, basically conductive salt in solvent. Leaky condition can be

63

checked by connecting the ohmmeter test leads across the capacitor in one polarity.

2.

Ceramic constructed with materials such as titanium acid barium for dielectric. Internally, these capacitors are not constructed as a coil, so they are suited for use in high frequency applications. They are shaped like a disk, available in very small capacitance value and very small size.

Polyester film (mylar) this capacitor uses a thin polyester film as a dielectric. Not as high tolerance polypropylene, but cheap, temperature stable, readily available, widely use. Tolerance is approximately 5% to 10%. It can be quite large depending on capacitor rate voltage, and so many not be suitable for all application. 4. Mica this type is an extremely accurate device with very low leakage currents. It is constructed with alternate layers of metal foil and mica insulation, stacked and encapsulated. These capacitors have small capacitances and are often used in high frequency circuits (eg. : RF circuits). They are very stable under variable voltage and temperature conditions. Tolerances range from +/-0.25 to +/-5 percent. Capacitances range from 1 pf to 0.01 uF, with maximum voltage ratings from 100 V to 2.5 kV. This capacitor uses a thin polyester film as a dielectric

3.

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CAPACITOR READING

65

Examples:

66

1.

3,200 picofarad 5%

= 0.0032 microfarad 5%

2.

380 picofarad 10%

= 0.00038 microfarad 10%

3.

460,000 picofarad

= 0.46 microfarad

4.

2,000 picofarad

= 2,000K

5.

22,000 picofarad

= 0.022 microfarad

SELF-CHECK 6.1
Directions: Identify the following. Write your answer on your paper.

67

1. 2.

What type of capacitor is not constructed as coil, suited for use in high frequency applications?

What type of capacitor is an extremely accurate device with very low leakage currents? 3. What device can store energy in the electric field? 4. What type of capacitor is made of electrolyte? 5. What type of capacitor uses a thin polyester film as a dielectric?

ACTIVITY SHEET 6.1


Direction: Give the equivalent value of the capacitor.

68

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

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ANSWER KEY 1.1


I. Directions: Read the following sentences carefully. Write the letter of your answer on a separate sheet. 1. 2. A. B. C. D. 3. The same electrical charge B each other. A. attracts B. repel C. destroy It is neither positively nor negatively charged. electron in motion electrostatic force neutron atom

D. neutralize D.

It is the equal number of electron and proton in an atom. . A. positive B. negative C. neutral The electron theory states that all matter is made of C . A. neutron B. atom C. electron D. molecules A. ion It is the smallest particle of molecule. D . B. proton C. electron D. atom

4. 5.

II. Directions: Choose the correct answer in the box below. Write your answer on a separate sheet of paper. 1. 2. 3. 4. What is the nature of matter? HAS WEIGHT How will you prove that electricity is a matter? OCCUPIES SPACE What is molecule made up? ATOM What is the neutral particle of an atom? NEUTRON

III. Directions: Read each question carefully. Choose the letter of the correct answer in the box below. Write your answer on a separate answer sheet. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is found at the center body of an atom? NUCLEUS What do you call the attraction between the nucleus and the electron? ELECTROSTATIC FORCE What is the positively charged particle of an atom? PROTON What is the negatively charged particle of an atom? ELECTRON What particle of an atom which is not electrically charged? NEUTRON

70

ANSWER KEY 2.1


I. Directions: Match Column A with Column B. Write your answer on a separate answer sheet. A Friction B two metals bounded together in junction by thermocouple process electricity produced by rotating machine electricity generated by rubbing two materials electricity produced by batteries a process of photo-electricity

c d j e f b h g a i

1. 3.

a. c. d. f. g. h.

Chemical action 4. Heat action 6. 7. Light action Prezoelectricity 8. Mechanical action 9. Magnet 11. Magnetic induction 13. Thermoelectric ity 10. Pressure

an action of squeezing or stretching crystal i. imaginary lines along which the attraction or repulsion of a magnet act k. a body having the property of polarity and of attraction and repulsion found in the nature. m. Potential difference appears across the faces of quartz when squeezed o. electricity generated by heat action.

II. Directions: From the given words below, choose the correct word that would complete the sentence. Write your answer on a separate sheet of paper. fossils fuels nuclear energy Solar energy Tidal energy Geothermal Nuclear energy Fossil fuels geothermal biomass energy 1. 2. 3. 5. 7. tidal energy solar energy

It is the energy that comes from the sun. It is the energy that involves water. It is the energy that comes from the inner core of the earth. It is the result from the splitting or fission of atomic nuclei. It is the energy formed from the remains of plant and animals which live thousands of years ago.

71

III. Directions: Choose the letter of the correct answer. Write your answer on your notebook. D 1. The following are the sources of energy except: A. sun B. nuclear reaction C. fossil fuel transformer Which is a nonrenewable source of energy? A. fossil fuel B. solar energy C. tidal energy energy D. wind D.

2.

3.

Which is non-conventional source of energy? A. fossil fuel B. gasoline C. solar energy D. hydroelectric power The Makiling-Banahaw Plant in Laguna is an example of _______. A. nuclear power plant B. geothermal plant C. hydroelectric power plant D. fossil fuel- fired plant What source of energy is shown in the picture? A. fossil fuel B. solar energy C. wind energy D. tidal energy

4.

5.

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ANSWER KEY 3.1


I. Direction: Label the following splices and joints. Write your answer on a separate answer sheet.

PLAIN TAP OR TEE

BRITANNIA

KNOTTED OR LOOP

RAT TAIL

WRAPPED TAP

II. Direction: Write the letter of the correct answer o your notebook. C D 1. 2. It is the method of removing insulation from electrical conductor. A. Pulling B. Grabbing C. Skinning D. Gripping What should be done to an insulator from conductor before splicing or joining the wire? A. Pull B. Remove C. Grab D. Grip What should be the next procedure after removing an insulator from conductor for soldering a wire? A. Clean B. Twist C. Rub D. Scrub

4.

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ANSWER KEY 4.1


I. Directions: Match Column A with Column B. Write your answer on a separate answer sheet. A Switch Source of power Conductor Load Series circuit connection Parallel circuit connection B a. current cannot pass through the bulb when the other filament of the bulb is cut c. caused the load to light up d. e. f. h. consumes power electrical path bulb has its own circuit control the circuit

1.

b 3. d 4. c 5. a 6. e 8.

II. Directions: Tell whether the following ideas is a series or parallel circuit. Write S if the answer is series and P if it is parallel on a separate sheet of paper. P S P S S 1. 2. 3. 4. The total current is the sum of all the current in each circuit. The current throughout the circuit is the same. The voltage is the same in all the circuits. The total resistance in the circuit is the sum of all individual resistances. 5. The total voltage in the circuit is equal to the sum of the individual voltages.

74

ANSWER KEY 4.2


Directions: Find the missing quantity for each of these circuits. 1.
5 I=2A V=10 I=2A R=10 20V R=5 I=2 10V I=500A 100V

2.

3.

4.

R=.2

5.

R=10

I=0.4A V=4.4

6.

25 I=2 50V

7. An electric heater is rated at 100V and has a hot resistance of 30 ohms. What current will flow through it? 3.3 A

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8. An ammeter shows a bulb is using 4 amperes from a 120V source. What is the resistance? 30 9. An electric appliance with a resistance of 60 ohms must draw 5A to operate correctly. What is the correct voltage to use? 300 V 10. How much power is consumed by the machine having a current flow of 6 ampere supplied by a 220 volt line? 1,320 W

ANSWER KEY 5.1


Directions: Identify the following. Write your answer on your paper. CARBON FILM 1. It is made from carbon graphite, mixed with powdered insulating material.

WIRE WOUND CARBON COMPOSITION METAL FILM

3.

RESISTOR

It is highly resistive wire wrapped around insulating core. 5. It is made either by hot or cold molding from mixtures of carbon and clay binder. 7. It is formed by means of vacuum decomposition, a process by which of a number of different metal or metal oxide film are deposited on a suitable insulating mandrel or core. 1. It is a device that limits, or resists the current.

76

ANSWER KEY 6.1


Directions: Identify the following. Write your answer on your paper. CERAMIC MICA CAPACITOR ELECTROLYTIC POLYESTER FILM 1. 2. What capacitor is not constructed as coil, suited for used in high frequency applications?

What type of capacitor that is an extremely accurate device with very low leakage currents? 3. What device that stores energy in the electric field? 4. What capacitor is made of electrolyte? 5. What capacitor uses a thin polyester film as a dielectric?

77