10 Modern Philosophers and their Contribution to Education Two and a half millenniums ago, Plato stated that knowledge

is justified true belief, an influential notion that shaped educational theories across time. Since then, modern thinkers had never stopped seeking knowledge about the human psychology, development, and education. Here, are the ten greatest. John Locke and the Tabula Rasa Locke (1632-1704), an English philosopher and physician, proposed that the mind was a blank slate or tabula rasa. This states that men are born without innate ideas, and that knowledge comes from experience and perception, as opposed to predetermined good and evil nature, as believed by other thinkers. On his treatise “Some Thoughts Concerning Education”, he emphasized that the knowledge taught during younger years are more influential than those during maturity because they will be the foundations of the human mind. Due to this process of associations of ideas, he stressed out that punishments are unhealthy and educators should teach by examples rather than rules. This theory on education puts him on a clash with another widely accepted philosophy, backed by another brilliant mind Immanuel Kant and Idealism They never lived at the same time, but history always put Locke and Kant on a dust up. A famed German thinker, Kant (1724–1804) was anadvocate of public education and of learning by doing, a process we call training. As he reasons that these are two vastly different things. He postulated “Above all things, obedience is an essential feature in the character of a child…”. As opposed to Locke, he surmises that children should always obey and learn the virtue of duty, because children’s inclination to earn or do something is something unreliable. And transgressions should always be dealt with punishment, thus enforcing obedience. Also, he theorized that man, naturally, has a radical evil in their nature. And learning and duty can erase this. Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Emile Plato said that each individual is born with skills appropriate to different castes, or functions of society. ThoughRousseau (1712-1778), a Genevan intellect and writer, paid respects to the ancient philosopher, he rejected this thinking. He believed that there was one developmental procedure common to man; it was a built-in, natural process which the main behavioral manifestation is curiosity. On his book, Emile, Rousseau outlines the process of an ideal education through a hypothetical boy of the titular name, from twelve years of age to the time he marries a woman. Critics said this work of his foreshadowed most modern system of education we have now. Mortimer J. Adler and the Educational Perrenialism Adler (1902- 2001) was an American philosopher and educator, and a proponent of Educational Perennialism. He believed that one should teach the things that one deems to be of perpetual importance. He proposed that one should teach principles, not facts, since details of facts change constantly. And since people are humans, one should teach them about humans also, not about machines, or theories. He argues that one should validate the reasoning with the primary

the recipients of care must respond in a way that authenticates their caring has been received. classicist. Because of this. He believed that the value of any truth was utterly dependent upon its use to the person who held it. and philosopher. on the basis of its history. and that it has two sides. and academic Allan David Bloom (1930-1992) is notable for his criticism of contemporary American higher education in his bestselling 1987 book. The Closing of the American Mind. he created Genetic epistemology with its own approaches and questions. and the sense. Piaget concluded he could test epistemological questions by studying the development of thought and action in children. ascribed to the philosophy of pragmatism. they should respond to the students’ different needs and interests. and the sociological. It aims to explain knowledge. was recognized for his epistemologicalstudies with children. psychologist and educational reformer. which forms the basis of the child’s instincts. Allan Bloom and The Closing of the American Mind American philosopher. Jean Piaget and the Genetic Epistemology Piaget (1896-1980). He held that education is a “participation of the individual in the social consciousness of the race”. on which the instinct will be used to form the basis of what is around him. the psychological origins of the notions and operations upon which it is based. and particularly. He stresses how “higher education has failed democracy and impoverished the souls of today’s students. John Dewey and the Progressivism Dewey (1859-1952). and demonstrates the reasoning in deed. a Swiss developmental psychologist and philosopher. He maintained that the world is like a mosaic of different experiences that can only be interpreted through what he calls as “Radical empiricism”. to do something right when others address us. its sociogenesis.descriptions of popular experiments. was a proponent of Educational Progressivism. In that way. As teachers respond to the needs of students. This provides students with a human side to the scientific discipline. an American philosopher. an American psychologist and philosopher. He postulated that one cannot learn without motivation. As the mind of the observer and the act of observing will simply just affect the outcome of the observation. and the establishment of Genetic epistemology. William James and Pragmatism William James (1842-1910).” For him. Noddings (1929-Present) is best known in her work Ethics of Care . educationalist. they may design a differentiated curriculum because as teachers work closely with students. The same goes for education. We do so because either we love and respect those that address us or we have significant regard for them. The Ethic s of Care establishes the obligation. This means that no observation is completely objective. this failure of contemporary liberal education lead to impotent social and sexual habits of today’s students and that commercial . Nel Noddings and the Ethics of Care A notable American feminist. the psychological. This response should not be based on a one time virtuous decision but an ongoing interest in the student’s welfare.

. where teachers offer practical activities and a healthy environment. but her marriage issues with the chief god are few of the best highlights that shape Greek Mythology. 2. which is primarily arts-based. also casted her son out of heaven. she mingled in affairs dominated by men (and won). Being the Olympian prima donna. Aphrodite. Visit his own blog Nevermore Nonsense to read more of his posts. joined the War of the Giants (threw an island to one of them). Top 10 Greek Goddesses: The Beautiful and the Wicked The following article is a guest post from Ryan De Guzman. And Secondary. Pallas Athena The Beautiful The Goddess of Wisdom. and practical skills. If there is one group that runs the Greek Mythology universe. and always castigating Zeus’ mistresses. Elementary. she is the most atrocious of goddess. and practical idealism. the chief god. His philosophy highlights a balanced development of cognitive. They are intellectually complex. she is of almost unequaled appeal. and Justice. Hera The Beautiful The Queen of the Gods. Early childhood. reasoning. The Wicked Athena was born from the head of Zeus. and patron of the Greek Heroes. 1. and with the Goddess of Beauty herself. He divides education into three developmental stages. and founder ofAnthroposophy. and most of the time. both wife and sister to Zeus. She is the Goddess of Women and Marriage. which seeks to develop the judgment. fully grown and armor-clad. She constantly posed as a villain for Hercules. physically splendid. She locked horns withPoseidon for the dominion of Athens (which she obviously nailed). She might be a patron of matrimony. a fellow writer and colleague. the philosophic quest for truth. but here are the ten that lead the pact with their elegance and villainy. and turned one mortal into a spider out of hubris. or the civilized pursuits of honor and glory. centered on the teacher’s creative jurisdiction. There are quite a lot of them. The Parthenon was constructed in her honor. The Wicked Historically. artistic. She even once competed toe to toe with the alluring Athena. it would be the goddesses. Given that. Rudolf Steiner and the Anthroposophy Rudolf Joseph Lorenz Steiner (1 861-1925) was an Austrian philosopher and social reformer. War. morally volatile.pursuits had become more highly regarded than love.

The Birth of Venus. she decided to be a heart breaker and just swore to be a virgin. She was born out of the sea foam in a shell. and Gigantes. Despite her beauty. monsters that constantly pestered the Greek universe. she oversaw the sacred fire in Olympus. Demeter The Beautiful The least volatile among the Olympians. thus marking the start of civilization. . Aphrodite The Beautiful She herself is an epitome of Beauty. She is twin-sister to Apollo. Uranus (the Sky). except that despite many suitors (the gods Poseidon and Apollo included). and turned one of her cohorts. Artemis The Beautiful Goddess of Hunting. The Wicked She punished the hunter Actaeon by turning him into a stag then releasing the hounds on him.3. murdered her hunting companion Orion. and of course. eldest sister to Zeus. also Goddess of Love. The Wicked Kind. who later descended the Olympians. and every hearth on Earth is her altar. but a Goddess and a mother nonetheless. Wilderness. 6. 5. Callisto. Artemis’ myth is brimming with retribution. Gaia The Beautiful The Goddess and Personification of the Earth. 4. and the gentlest among the goddesses. and Procreation. Given quite a boyish personality. as famously detailed by Sandro Botticelli in the painting. and the Titans. inducing the autumn season. The Wicked Nothing so terrible about her. 7. and the mother of Eros (Cupid). Persephone. the agonizing of the mortal Psyche(for loving her son). She is theGoddess of Harvest and Agriculture. The Wicked She also gave birth to the Cyclopes. a lot of unpleasant things came out. Her grief for the loss of her daughter.Erinyes. the destruction of Hippolytos. and the Moon. like… The Wicked …inadvertently starting the Trojan War. into a bear. she was one of the first beings in the Cosmos. Pleasure. causes vegetation to wither and fall. She taught mankind farming and crop cultivation. Hestia The Beautiful Goddess of Hearth Fire and Domestic Life. Though she had no throne. Her offsprings includedPontus (the Sea).

10. but she retained hers. Persephone The Beautiful The Goddess of Springtime and Vegetation. You might ask why. . thus her famous name (and in turn. 9. During the Titan War. most gods had their wings already shed. Rhea The Beautiful Daughter of Gaia and Uranus and the Mother of the Olympians. Nike The Beautiful The Winged Goddess of Victory. thus igniting the Titan War.8. ending the Spring season. Thus. Technically a Titaness. dooming her to return to the dark realm every third of the year. The Wicked She tricked her husband. by hiding their son Zeus in from him. that famous shoe brand). God of the Underworld. The Wicked Nike never acquired a cult or myth of her own. she is also theQueen of the Underworld. Ironically. She assumed the role of the divinecharioteer for the gods. Zeus brought her to his aid for the dominion of Olympus. though by Classical Times. she is the daughter of Zeus and Demeter. but revered as the Goddess of Female fertility and Motherhood. This is because… The Wicked …Hades. so that he can have his vengeance when he grows up. abducted her at some point. Cronus.