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Title: Kinetics: the rate of chemical reaction

Objectives: 1. To study the kinetics of chemical reaction. 2. To study the effects of reactant concentration and temperature on the rate of chemical reactions. Results: Part [ / [ ]/ [ ]/ 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 Time / s 81.75 39.72 25.56 17.48 79.22 35.47 29.53 17.00 Rate of formation / 0.000611 0.00252 0.00587 0.0114 0.000316 0.00141 0.00254 0.00588

0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20

Part C: Temperature, T / K 288 299 308 318 Time, t /s 20.72 16.31 13.62 8.97 1/T 0.003472 0.003344 0.003247 0.003145 Log t 1.32 1.21 1.13 0.95

What is the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction? The higher the temperature, the shorted the time taken for the mixture to react complete, thus, the faster the rate of reaction.

The effect of concentration: Rate of I2 formation= d[I2] / dt = [S2O32-] / 2t Rate = k[ I2]x[S2O32-]y Based on the graph plotted, the rate of formation iodine against the [S2O82-] and [I-]. The graph show straight line so the value rate order, x and y is one (first order) Rate = k [I2][S2O32-] k = Rate / [I2][S2O32-] k1= 0.000611moldm-3s-1 / (0.20X0.05) moldm-3 = 0.0611 s-1 k2= 0.00252 moldm-3s-1 / (0.20X0.10) moldm-3 = 0.126 s-1 k3= 0.00587 moldm-3s-1 / (0.20X0.15) moldm-3 = 0.196 s-1 k4= 0.0114moldm-3s-1 / (0.20X0.20) moldm-3 = 0.285 s-1 k5= 0.000316 moldm-3s-1 / (0.025X0.20) moldm-3 = 0.0632 s-1 k6= 0.00141moldm-3s-1 / (0.050X0.20) moldm-3 = 0.141 s-1 k7= 0.00254 moldm-3s-1 / (0.075X0.20) moldm-3 = 0.169 s-1 k8= 0.00588 moldm-3s-1 / (0.100X0.20) moldm-3 = 0.294 s-1 Average k constant = 1.3353 s-1 / 8= 0.1669 s-1 The effect of temperature: The temperature affects the rate of the reaction since the rate of reaction increase as the temperature increase. t= Slope = (1.28-1.00) / (0.00339K-1-0.00319K-1) = 1400 K Slope = Ea / (2.303R) Ea = (2.303R) X slope of graph = ( 2.303 )( 8.314JK-1mol-1 )( 1400 K ) = 26806 Jmol-1

Calculation and questions: a. Is reaction (2) fast or slow with respect to reaction (1)? Explain your reasoning or record any test you do to help reach your conclusion. Reaction (2) will be slower with respect to reaction (1) because a higher concentration of reactants leads to more effective collisions per unit time, which leads to an increasing reaction rate (except for zero order reactions). b. Does reaction (1) or (2) control the time required for the blue colour to appear? Yes. c. Calculate the rate of formation of in temperature and plot this rate i) against [ ] at constant [ ] ii) against [ ] at constant [ ] The graph plotted in graph paper. d. What are the shapes of these plots? Straight line e. What is the significance of this? The [ ] at constant [ ] and [ ] at constant [ formation of in . f. ] increase with rate of for each experiment at room

Write the rate equation for reaction (1) and calculate the rate constant, k. d[ ] / dt = k Average k constant = 1.3353 s-1 / 8 = 0.1669 s-1

g. Calculate the energy of activation of the reaction. t=

Slope = (1.28-1.00) / (0.00339K-1-0.00319K-1) = 1400 K Slope = Ea / (2.303R) Ea = (2.303R) X slope of graph = ( 2.303 )( 8.314JK-1mol-1 )( 1400 K ) = 26806 Jmol-1

Discussion: Chemical kinetics is the study and discussion of chemical reactions with respect to reaction rates, effect of various variables, re-arrangement of atoms, formation of intermediates etc. There are many topics to be discussed, and each of these topics is a tool for the study of chemical reactions. By the way, the study of motion is called kinetics, from Greek kinesis, meaning movement. Molecules or atoms of reactants must collide with each other in chemical reactions. The molecules must have sufficient energy (discussed in terms of activation energy) to initiate the reaction. In some cases, the orientation of the molecules during the collision must also be considered. In this experiment, there are two factors that affecting the rate of reaction, first will be concentration of reactants, another one will be temperature. Concentration of Reactants A higher concentration of reactants leads to more effective collisions per unit time, which leads to an increasing reaction rate (except for zero order reactions). Similarly, a higher concentration of products tends to be associated with a lower reaction rate. Use the partial pressure of reactants in a gaseous state as a measure of their concentration. Temperature Usually, an increase in temperature is accompanied by an increase in the reaction rate. Temperature is a measure of the kinetic energy of a system, so higher temperature implies higher average kinetic energy of molecules and more collisions per unit time. A general rule of thumb for most (not all) chemical reactions is that the rate at which the reaction proceeds will approximately double for each 10C increase in temperature. Once the temperature reaches a certain point, some of the chemical species may be altered (e.g., denaturing of proteins) and the chemical reaction will slow or stop.

Conclusion: A higher concentration of reactants leads to more effective collisions per unit time. The higher the temperature, the shorted the time taken for the mixture to react complete, thus, the faster the rate of reaction.

References: 1. Chemical kinetics, Available from: < http://www.science.uwaterloo.ca/~cchieh/cact/c123/chmkntcs.html >. [ 12.03.2013 ] 2. Annie , M, Factors that Affect the Chemical Reaction Rate, Available from: < http://chemistry.about.com/od/stoichiometry/a/reactionrate.html >. [ 12.03.2013 ]