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Channel Hydraulic Action Abrasion Attrition Solution Load Traction Saltation Suspension Long profile Waterfall Gorge Meander

Oxbow lake Floodplain Levees Precipitation Interception

The part of the river valley occupied by the water itself The power of the water hitting the banks of a river Load carried by the river hitting the bed and banks Load carried by the river hitting each other and becoming smaller, smoother and rounder. The dissolving of certain minerals in the water. e.g. limestone. This is a form of transport too. Material carried by a river The rolling of boulders along the river bed The bouncing of small stones and sand along the river bed Small material carried within a river. The course of a river from the source to the mouth The sudden and often vertical, drop of a river. A narrow and steep sided valley A bend in the river A dried up meander that has been cut off from the river. They are generally horse shoe shaped. The flat area next to the river generally in the lower course. Raised river banks. They can be formed naturally or artificially and can be used as flood defences Any source of water that falls from the sky Water being prevented from reaching the ground by trees or grass

Surface storage Infiltration Soil moisture Percolation Groundwater Transpiration Evaporation Surface runoff Throughflow Groundwater flow Water table Discharge Drainage basin Flood / storm hydrograph Impermeable Permeable Deforestation Urbanisation

Water held on the ground. e.g. in puddles Water sinking into the ground from the surface Water held in the soil layer Water seeping deeper into the ground Water stored in the rock below the surface. Water given to the atmosphere by vegetation Water lost from the ground. Water turning from liquid to vapour Water flowing on top of the ground Water flowing through the soil layer Water flowing through lower rock layers The upper level of saturated rock The volume (amount) of water passing a particular point at a certain time An area of land that is drained by a river and its tributaries A line graph drawn to show the change in discharge after a period of rainfall Rock that does not allow water to soak into it Rock that does allow water to soak into it Cutting down trees The increase in the proportion of people living in cities leading to their growth

Floods Hard engineering Soft engineering Straightening meanders Floodplain zoning Water stress Areas of deficit Areas of surplus

When a river channel cannot carry an increased capacity of water and breaks its banks The use of technology to control rivers This involves working within nature to control and prevent flooding This is an artificial method of controlling flooding by allowing water to flow quicker from an area. Controlling what is built on a floodplain to lower the risk of damage during a flood This occurs when the amount of water available does not meet that required. Locations where the amount of rainfall does not provide enough water on a permanent basis Areas that have more water than is needed.