# 7/17/12

Mechanical Behavior & Material Properties

Engineering Science 10 Strength of Materials: Why Things Bend and Break?

Institute of Civil Engineering College of Engineering University of the Philippines-Diliman

Stress-Strain
How are the values and plots determined?

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7/17/12

Stress-Strain
Measuring stress and strain.

An extensometer is used to measure the elongation of the specimen.

Stress-Strain
Measuring stress and strain.

Universal Testing Machine (UTM)

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True stress-strain diagram – uses the actual dimensions of a material at the instant the load is applied 3 .7/17/12 Stress-Strain Stress-strain diagram for steel (ductile): Stress-Strain 2 TYPES of stress-strain diagrams: 1. 2. Conventional stress-strain diagram – uses the original dimensions of a material.

material will deform permanently (also known as plastic deformation). the material may still respond elastically until it reaches the elastic limit. Stress-Strain Four ways in which steel behaves: 2.the stress that causes yielding is called the yield stress or yield point.The upper stress limit to this linear relationship is called the proportional limit.Upon a slight increase from elastic limit. Yielding: . . .the specimen continues to deform without any increase in load.If the stress slightly exceeds the proportional limit. .Stress is proportional to strain.7/17/12 Stress-Strain Four ways in which steel behaves: 1.Upon removal of load. . It means: Give way 4 . Elastic behavior: . . material returns to its original shape.

The specimen breaks at the fracture stress.This phenomenon is called strain hardening or work hardening. the cross-sectional area begins to decrease in a localized region of the specimen.7/17/12 Stress-Strain Four ways in which steel behaves: 3. .Reduction in the area decreases the loadcarrying capacity. Stress-Strain Four ways in which steel behaves: 4. Strain Hardening: . load is increased until it reaches the maximum stress referred to as the ultimate stress or ultimate strength. necking fracture 5 . .After yielding.At the ultimate stress. Necking: .

6 .7/17/12 Properties from the stress-strain diagram Concept of stress The concept of stress and strain was formalized by Thomas Young (1779 – 1829) Ø Young published the definition of the modulus of elasticity in 1807.

) The Modulus of Elasticity (or Young s Modulus) Young s Modulus Normal σ (E) = Normal ε σ= Eε E is the slope of the plot in the elastic region Properties Young s Moduli of some materials: Young s modulus (N/m2) Engineering materials Steel Concrete Rubber Biological materials Bone Cartilage Tendon 200 GPa 20 GPa 7 MPa 17 GPa 190 MPa 13 MPa 7 .7/17/12 Properties 1.

Amount of energy a material can take before experiencing permanent deformation. 8 .) The Modulus of Rigidity or Shear Modulus Shear Modulus (G) = Shear τ Shear γ τ = Gγ G is the slope of the plot in the elastic region Properties 3.) Modulus of resilience (ur) : .7/17/12 Properties 2.It is the area under the stress-strain diagram where stress is proportional to strain. .

Amount of energy a material can take before it fractures/ breaks. Properties 5.Represents the entire area under the stress-strain diagram. .7/17/12 Properties 4.) Poisson s Ratio (ν): The ratio between the lateral strain and longitudinal strain ν =− ε lat ε long 9 .) Modulus of toughness (ut): .

steel. Ductile .g. chalk Note: Materials can be classified as ductile or brittle thru experiments (tensile test).Materials that can be subjected to large strains before it ruptures.g.Materials that exhibit little or no yielding before failure. 10 . e. brass 2.7/17/12 Material Classification Materials Materials can be grouped into: 1. . concrete. Brittle . e.Exhibit large deformations before failing.

7/17/12 Materials Ductile vs Brittle materials: Failures 11 .

4.7/17/12 Failure Failure . Brittle – failure is specified by fracture. Failures Ductile – failure is usually specified by the initiation of yielding. 2. Elastic failure – excessive elastic deformation. Fracture failure – complete separation of the material. Creep failure – excessive plastic deformation over a long period of time under constant stress. 12 . Slip failure – excessive plastic deformation due to slip (plastic deformation that is independent of the time) 3.as the state or condition in which a member or structure no longer function Types: as intended. 1.

13 . Natural fibers and soil creep extensively (why clothes get baggy and house foundations settle).7/17/12 Slip Gliding of one plane of atoms to another. Creep For many materials. and that stress is maintained. if you apply a stress to deform the material. the deformation increases over time rather than hold constant.

7/17/12 Fracture Ductile fracture Brittle fracture Fracture Ductile fracture: initial necking crack cavity cavity formation coalescence propagation (in shear) 14 .

7/17/12 Fracture Brittle fracture: . .Surface tend to be flatter and perpendicular to the stress (as experiments show).Brittle fracture takes place with little prior deformation. Factor of safety 15 .

) Uncertainty of analyses.) Importance of member to structure s integrity. 16 .) Risk to life and property.) Uncertainty of loadings. 3. 4. *Note: FS does not take into account unscrupulous practices of contractors and engineers. The remaining strength is kept reserved for safe performance. 6.) Types of failure.7/17/12 Factor of safety Factor of Safety – only a fraction of the strength of the material is used.) Uncertainty in material properties. Factor of safety (FS) Factor of safety considerations: 1. 2. 5. – Sometimes called as the factor of ignorance.

Low weight is important.5-2. 1. load and stress. Factor of safety F.0-5.g. Factor of safety must always be greater than 1.S . (e. (e. Steel) For less tried materials or for brittle materials under average conditions of environment. loads and stresses that can be determined using qualified design procedures.7/17/12 Factor of safety Designing for strength: Factor of safety is: σ ws = σ ult F .g.25-1.g.0 3. Aircrafts) Known materials with certification under reasonably constant environmental conditions. Also.g. Soil) 1. Where σws is the working stress while σult is the ultimate stress.S. Loads known with high certainty.5 Application Mat’l and operating conditions known in detail.0-3.0 17 . for very unpredictable material behavior (e.0 2. (e. Concrete) For untried materials used under average conditions of environment. Material testing provided. load and stress.

Crystal state – alterations of the crystal structure of the metal increase strength. 18 .7/17/12 Strength of a metal Strength of a metal Two primary forms of increasing metal strength: 1. Alloying – mixture of one metal to another metal or a non-metal. Adding the 24kt Gold to the molten Fine Silver 2.

but is also less ductile.8%) and carbon (0.Adding certain elements in trace amounts to a metal to significantly change its strength.9-99. 19 . Strength of a metal Steel – alloy of iron (97.2-2. they don t significantly alter the modulus (stiffness) or density.Since the alloying elements are present only in trace amounts. . preventing dislocations in the iron atom crystal lattice from sliding past one another.1%) by weight. Carbon in steel – acts as hardening agent.7/17/12 Strength of a metal Metal alloys: . Steel with increased carbon content can be made harder and stronger than iron.

Strength of a metal Quenching: . 20 .Crystal state of steel can be altered by heat treatment or cold working.extremely strong but brittle.7/17/12 Strength of a metal Altering crystal state: . .Heat to a very high temperature (~1400 oF) and cool rather suddenly in water.

. . Annealing: .Adds ductility at the expense of decreased strength.7/17/12 Strength of a metal Tempering: .Resets the alloy to low strength. 21 .Reheat to moderate temperature and cool slowly. ductile state.Reheat alloy above critical temperature and allow to cool slowly.