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1 One-dimensional Motions Objectives Equipment List 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Sensor-CASSY CASSY Lab Timer box Track Trolley for track Slotted mass hanger Slotted weights Holding magnet Combi-light barriers Combi-spoked wheel Cord, 10 m Multicore cable, 6-pole Pair of cables, 1 m, red and blue PC with Windows 95/98/NTor higher version To investigate the motion of a given body with constant velocity through s-t, v-t and a-t graphs. To investigate the uniform accelerated motion through s-t, v-t and a-t graphs. To determine the difference between the average velocity and instantaneous velocity; the difference between the average and instantaneous acceleration. To evaluate the velocity on s-t graph To evaluate the acceleration on v-t graph To derive some constant acceleration formulas form a-t and v-t graphs

The combi-spoked wheel serves simultaneously as the deflection pulley and the signal generator. Here, the combi-light barrier, which is connected to input E of the timer box at input A of Sensor-CASSY, holds the spoked wheel. Each spoke interrupts the light barrier, so that a signal is sent to Sensor-CASSY for every centimeter. The holding magnet receives its voltage supply from voltage output S of Sensor-CASSY. Sensor-CASSY deenergizes this output simultaneously with the start of time measurement. Procedure 1: For constant velocity motion To achieve a constant velocity between two positions in midst of travel, compensate the friction by inclining the track slightly.

Before each measurement the trolley must be accelerated to a constant, reproducible velocity. To this end, it is accelerated from a fixed position by a drive weight, which is trapped at the end of a defined acceleration path (e.g. comes to rest on a supporting surface). The trolley continues to roll with a constant velocity. Procedure 2: For constant accelerated motion To achieve good measuring results, compensate the friction by inclining the track slightly. Accelerate the trolley over the spoked wheel using a constant mass. voltage so that it just holds the trolley. Principle Motion describes a change of position over a specified time interval. The study of an objects motion, along with the related concept of force and energy, form the field of mechanics. Mechanics can be studied from the perspective of how an object moves, (kinematics) or from why objects move and the role of force in creating motion. (dynamics). One-dimensional motion refers to motion along a single axis, like straight up or down. To describe any motion requires a comparison to a fixed reference point. This fixed point is referred to as a reference point and the coordinate system around that point is the "frame of reference." Usually motion is relative to the stationary earth. Objects on the highway moving at 70 mph are doing 70 relative to the stationary ground they are moving along. You choose the frame of reference to describe the motion you observe. Inside a bus that is going 55 mph you can toss a tennis ball up and down. To you the ball has no horizontal velocity. To an observer on the side of the road that ball is moving up and down but also horizontally at 55 mph. When measuring motion we must distinguish between distance and displacement. Distance is the total range of motion that occurs while displacement is the change in position. If we walk a 100m circle the distance is 100m but the displacement is zero. Displacement has a magnitude and a direction associated with it. If an object moves 100m north of its original location, the direction is needed to adequately describe that motion. The most obvious aspect of an object motion is its rate of motion; the velocity is the time rate of change of an objects position. If necessary, adjust holding-magnet

v =

dx dt

Velocity and speed are used interchangeably but technically speed is scalar and velocity is a vector. To calculate occurs, or if the position function is known, the velocity can be computed by taking the derivative of the position function.

velocity at a specific "instant" or instantaneous velocity. Instantaneous velocity: When delta t approaches zero, the displacement during this time interval divided by that change in time. Instantaneous velocity indicates how fast an object moves at each instant of time and the direction of that motion. In changing velocity, the object must be acted upon by a constant net force. The object is said to be uniformly accelerated if it will move in the direction of the net force with a velocity that varies at constant rate.

Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity where velocity is the rate of change of position. Since velocity is vector quantity acceleration involves a change of direction as well as a change in the magnitude of that velocity. Acceleration then can occur when an object changes direction and maintains the same speed. The average acceleration of a body as it moves from one point to another is defined as the ration of change in velocity to the elapsed time.

a=

dv dt

The instantaneous acceleration of a body, that is, its acceleration at some one instant of time or at some one velocity divided by this increment of t yields the acceleration at that specific instant.

Procedure: Carrying-out the Experiment 1. You may want to modify the automatic measuring stop parameter in Settings SA1 (current setting 70 edges for 0.7 m). 2. You may need to adjust the maximum measuring time in the Measuring Parameters dialog (current setting: 2 s). 3. Hold the magnet in place with the holding magnet. 4. A1) 5. Start the measurement with F9 (trolley starts to move). 6. The measurement stops automatically after the predefined number of edges. 7. For procedure 1, remove the other table rows from the table and leave only those rows that have measured values, which are almost equal. These data points describe now the motion of a trolley with constant velocity. 8. For procedure 2, no alteration is made in the table. Guide for Analysis 1. For every trial, fit a function that mathematically describes your experimental data. You can do this by right- clicking the interface and choosing the fit function option. 2. Take note of the numerical values of the parameters (e.g. The value of A or B) 3. For the velocity vs time graph, determine also the area under the graph.

1. Sketch the position vs. time (s-t) and velocity vs. time (v-t) graphs of the object moving with constant velocity. Label the x and y-axis and describe each graph briefly. A. Position vs time

2. Using your data in the position vs time graph (s-t) Calculate the average velocity of the object. You can do this by determining the total distance traveled by the cart divided by the total time interval.

3. Fit a linear function to the position vs time graph (s-t). Determine the value of the slope and y intercept. Parameter Slope y-intercept Value Unit

4. Compare your computed average velocity (from item 2) with the slope (from item 3). Calculate the percent difference between the two. Show calculation. Quantity Average Velocity Slope Value Percent Difference

Is the slope equal to the average velocity? Explain your answer. 5. Compare the instantaneous velocities obtained from v-t graph with the average velocity.

Constant acceleration motion 1. Sketch the position vs. time (s-t), velocity vs. time (v-t) and acceleration vs time (a-t) graphs of the object moving with constant acceleration. Label the x and y-axis and describe each graph briefly. A. Position vs time

2. Obtain the position function of the object. You can derive this by fitting a function that correctly describes the data.

4. Calculate the area under the curve of the velocity vs time graph (v-t). What does this area represent?

5. Using the table of v-t graph, calculate the difference between two velocities covered by the trolley (you may choose minimum and maximum velocities) and the corresponding total time elapsed. Compute the average acceleration.

6. Using your v-t graph, fit a linear function and determine the slope and y-intercept of the graph. Parameter Slope y-intercept Value Unit

7. Compare your computed average acceleration (from item 5) with the slope (from item 6). Calculate the percent difference between the two. Show calculation. Quantity Average acceleration Slope Value Percent Difference

8. In summary, how can you describe the motion under constant acceleration? 9. What can be derived from the area under the curve of a-t graph? 10. Determine the area under the curve of v-t graph. Compare the result with the total distance that the trolley covered in s-t graph.

11. What can be derived from the area under the curve of v-t graph?

Problem Solving: Solve the following problems neatly and completely. Show your complete solution on the space provided. You have one week to solve all the problems and you can use any references and resources (e.g. Textbook, Internet) that you think can help you solve the problems. Use additional sheets of paper if needed. 1. The graph of the velocity v of a point as a function of time is a straight line. When t = 2 s, v = 4 ft/s, and when t = 4 s, v = -10 ft/s. a. Determine the acceleration of the point by calculating the slope of the straight line. b. Obtain the equation for v as a function of time and use it to determine the acceleration of the point

2. A ferry boat moves with constant velocity v0 = 8m/s for 60 s. It then shuts off its engines and coasts. Its coasting

v 0t 1 velocity is given by v = 2 , where t1 = 60 s. What is the displacement of the boat from t = 0, to t . (The solution t

to this problem can be found in a popular physics textbook. You can find a copy at the library).

3. A bullet travelling at 350 m/s strikes a concrete slab and penetrates a distance of 12 cm before stopping. a. Estimate the average acceleration of the bullet (assume it to be constant). b. How long did it take for the bullet to stop?

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